Science.gov

Sample records for spill response time

  1. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) temporary interim rule will suspend oil spill response time...

  2. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... discharge of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, which was thereafter declared a ``Spill of...

  3. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  4. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  5. A dynamical systems perspective for a real-time response to a marine oil spill.

    PubMed

    García-Garrido, V J; Ramos, A; Mancho, A M; Coca, J; Wiggins, S

    2016-11-15

    This paper discusses the combined use of tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques and shows how they are effective instruments which may greatly contribute to the decision making protocols of the emergency services for the real-time management of oil spills. This work presents the successful interplay of these techniques for a recent situation, the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship that took place in Spain, close to the Canary Islands, in April 2015.

  6. Decision support framework for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Octavio, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the state of oil spill response planning and an interpretation of the administrative, procedural and political climate surrounding response in general and in the Venezuelan case in particular reveals critical areas where things go wrong, affecting speed and appropriateness of response. Generic issues faced by any region preparing contingency plans are identified and techniques for resolving them and the appropriate institutional setting are suggested. The first reported design of an integrated interactive graphic microcomputer based decision Support System for operational oil spill response is presented. The integrated DSS with its status display and log entries provides a formal mechanism for recording activities, and their justifications at the time of occurrence so that activities and their consequences can be reviewed to improve procedures and priorities. There is an identifiable dearth of realistic training exercises meant to hone decision making skills under the pressures of an ongoing major spill event. The design of an operational oil spill response training system based directly on the framework of an interactive, graphics oriented Decision Support System for operational response to oil spills is presented. This training framework not only develops skills needed by new spill response coordinators in devising and carrying out action plans, it also identified flaws or gaps in managerial or institutional arrangements before the response system is tested by an actual spill. The underlying concepts of both the DSS and the training exercise are general and can be readily applied to any region concerned with organizing oil spill response.

  7. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures.

  8. Oil spill response scenarios for remote arctic environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Grosskopf, W.G.; Cox, J.C.; Schultz, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Special problems occur during oil spill cleanup in remote inland areas in cold climates. In Alaska these problems result from the harsh climate, the unusual terrain features, and the special problems of spills along swift rivers. The analysis begins with a description of the environmental conditions that occur in Alaska that affect oil spill behavior and oil spill cleanup. The study then describes four spill scenarios in remote areas giving engineering details of the mechanics of the spill movement and the cleanup effort. One scenario covers a winter blowout of a well on the north slope tundra. The next involves a Trans-Alaska Pipeline spill. The fourth scenario involves a fuel tank truck spill into a sensitive sport fishing stream. The study describes the impact of these spills on the environment. Further, it provides a numerical evaluation of the effectiveness of the spill response effort and the cost effectiveness of three incremental levels of spill response for the cleanup effort.

  9. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  10. A high-level synthesis of oil spill response equipment and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Vergetis, Emmanouil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N; Triantafyllou, George

    2004-02-27

    This paper presents an operational synthesis of major oil spill response methods (mechanical, chemical, etc.) and the corresponding oil response equipment for sea context (booms, skimmers, etc.). We focus on important features of oil spill response, in order to formulate a decision-based database, capable of supporting the development of a complete oil spill response operation. Moreover, we classify these findings and introduce simple formatting and standards to supply predictive tools for oil spill models. The actual goal of this paper is to come up with a decision-driven process, which can provide for a realistic choice of oil spill response equipment in the design of the primary oil response phase. This is intended to lead to a prompt, logical, and well-prepared oil spill response operation satisfying time and cost criteria and protecting the marine environment.

  11. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage.

  12. Alaska's response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, D.D.; Kendziorek, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The primary lesson of the Exxon Valdez spill is that oil spill prevention and response technologies need substantial, sustained research and development. There must be adequate amounts of equipment in place in time to properly respond to an oil spill. Management systems need to be improved so they effectively use these technologies. The combination of inadequate technology, insufficient amounts of response equipment, and ineffective management of the available resources produced serious problems in the initial response. Exxon eventually deployed large amounts of equipment and personnel. By the time the long-term shoreline treatment phase began, Exxon had also improved the management of its operations. However, at that point, much of the damage had already occurred. The extent of injury to natural resource is now being assessed through scientific studies. Based on the results of these studies, the final step in the response will be restoration projects which are now in the planning stage. In light of the experience with the Exxon Valdez spill, state and federal laws have been strengthened to provide better prevention measures, response planning, and in-region cleanup capacity. As with most pollution problems, prevention - through both management and technology - should be the first line of defense.

  13. Oil spill fishery impact assessment model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry

    1985-01-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to assess the sensitivity of probable impact on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the impact on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. Impacts on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected cases. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest impact with cod being the most heavily impacted followed by haddock and herring. In all cases, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton impacted by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.

  14. Mutual Interest: Engaging Vietnam on Oil Spill Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling builds trust and improves their response capability. The Commission concluded that the...Surface recovery skimmers were 26 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and...Sea. Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. Report to

  15. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  16. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again.

  17. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  18. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  19. 78 FR 47723 - Information Collection: Forms for Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Forms for Oil Spill Financial Responsibility..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016 through 1023 and BOEM... collection renewal of requirements for BOEM's Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) regulations under...

  20. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  1. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  2. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  3. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.

  4. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  5. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  6. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  7. PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

  8. Introduction to coastal habitats and biological resources for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.; Hoff, R.; Michel, J.; Scholz, D.; Shigenaka, G.

    1992-04-01

    The report discusses the physical, geological, and biological considerations relevant to oil behavior and oil spill response and cleanup. The intent is to contribute to an informed and effective oil spill response in coastal waters.

  9. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  10. Oil spill response capabilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Westermeyer, W.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The Exxon Valdez incident has been a catalyst for the US to reexamine its technology and policies for fighting oil spills. Many organizations are now at work on the problems highlighted by this sill, including federal and state agencies and the oil industry. It is hoped that the attention generated by the Exxon Valdez will result in fewer spills and a greatly improved capability to fight the ones that will still occur. Cleaning up a discharge of millions of gallons of oil at sea under even moderate environmental conditions is an extraordinary problem. Current national capabilities to respond effectively to such an accident are marginal at best. Response technologies must and will improve, but in addition and perhaps more importantly, many improvements can be made in the way the country has organized itself to fight major spills. Nonetheless, prevention is still the best medicine.

  11. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR part 253, ``Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for... CFR 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: MMS-1016, MMS-1017,...

  12. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  13. 30 CFR 254.1 - Who must submit a spill-response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.1 Who must submit a spill-response plan? (a) If you are the owner or operator of an oil handling... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must submit a spill-response plan?...

  14. 77 FR 38729 - Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 126 RIN 1625-AB82 Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response... Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, for oil spill response vessels, which are properly... operators of offshore supply vessels that may result in an increase in oil spill response capacity...

  15. 30 CFR 254.1 - Who must submit a spill-response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.1 Who must submit a spill-response plan? (a) If you are the owner or operator of an oil handling... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must submit a spill-response plan?...

  16. 78 FR 25472 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. DATES: Submit written... CFR Part 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016, 1017,...

  17. 30 CFR 254.1 - Who must submit a spill-response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.1 Who must submit a spill-response plan? (a) If you are the owner or operator of an oil handling... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who must submit a spill-response plan?...

  18. 30 CFR 254.1 - Who must submit a spill-response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.1 Who must submit a spill-response plan? (a) If you are the owner or operator of an... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who must submit a spill-response plan?...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  4. Oil spills in the Caribbean: a matter of time

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Hurricanes increase the risk of oil spills in the Caribbean region, a situation which the United Nations and affected islands recognize as requiring cooperative efforts to prevent and control. As shipping activity increases in the Caribbean, the threat is intensified by the small size and poverty of the area's islands, which depend heavily on tourist and fishing industries. The annual 250 million tons of crude oil shipped to or through the Caribbean can be expected to average 21 spills of 1000 tons within 50 miles of land and pose serious ecological and economic threats. A contingency plan based on cooperation and shared resources to deal with spills would not be expensive because the liability laws and compensation rights are clearly defined. The technologies available to combat oil spills range from biological agents to sweeping equipment. Response can be prompt, but the political and economic aspects are more delicate. A regional plan formulated by the islands and countries involved still needs to have formal intergovernmental agreements signed. (DCK)

  5. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged <18 years were present in about one third of the spills, with approximately one in seven incidents resulting in symptoms consistent with acute mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  6. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  7. 30 CFR 254.1 - Who must submit a spill-response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must submit a spill-response plan? 254.1 Section 254.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL... spill-response plan? (a) If you are the owner or operator of an oil handling, storage, or...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exercises, the spill management team, and the qualified individual. 1.3The material in this appendix D is... facility personnel to the spill management team. 2.2.5Familiarity with the operational capabilities of the... used to manage the response actions. 2.2.9Responsibilities and duties of the spill management...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  10. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  11. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  12. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  13. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  15. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  16. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sections of the plan dealing with exercises, the spill management team, and the qualified individual. 1... and facility personnel to the spill management team. 2.2.7Familiarity with the operational... the spill management team members in accordance with designated job responsibilities....

  18. Microbial responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: from coastal wetlands to the deep sea.

    PubMed

    King, G M; Kostka, J E; Hazen, T C; Sobecky, P A

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well.

  19. Microbial Responses to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: From Coastal Wetlands to the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well.

  20. Oil and Hazardous Materials Spill Response Technology Development, Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    intermediate fuel oil and marine diesel from the dry bulk carrier SELENDANG AYU. (U.S. Coat Guard Pollution Incidents In and Around U.S. Waters A...similar analysis of prevention efforts should be carried out in the future. 17. Key Words oil , hazardous material, oil spill, pollution ...the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 introduced major changes in tanker design and significantly increased the liability for spillers. At the same time

  1. The management in response to marine oil spill from ships in China: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangao; Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Wan, Jun; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-07-15

    Historical trends about marine ship-source oil spill incidents from 1990 to 2010 in China were analyzed, and it provided an overview of the status quo of China's management in response to marine oil spill from ships. The Chinese government has issued a series of laws on marine environmental protection since 1982, and promulgated many regulations to prevent and tackle ship-source oil spill. At present, the oil spill emergency response system established in China has five levels: the national level, sea level, provincial level, port level, and ship level. China has demonstrated its ability to control and remove small-scale oil spill from ships in port area and near-shore coastal waters, and also paid attention to related research and development projects. Although China has made significant progress in managing shipping oil spill, challenges still exist, including strengthening oil spill emergency cooperation, enhancing China's response capability, and improving relevant research and development projects.

  2. Oil Spill Response Improvement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2010-07-22

    07/26/2010 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 483. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  4. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  5. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  6. Fuel injection control based on spill port opening timing correction

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, M.; Miyaki, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kobashi, M.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a fuel injection control system for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump including: a pump chamber; a low pressure chamber; plunger means reciprocating in synchronism with rotation of the engine for introducing fuel into the pump chamber, and for feeding the fuel under pressure from the pump chamber to a cylinder of the engine, detector means for detecting a reference position of the plunger, and for generating a detection signal indicative of the reference position, and a spill port coupled to the pump chamber and in communication with the low pressure chamber, (b) solenoid valve means for opening and closing the spill port; (c) first circuit means including first and second adjusting resistors, the first circuit means being replaceably disposed on the fuel injection pump; (d) first control means for calculating a fuel injection time period according to operating conditions of the engine; (e) second control means including second circuit means comprising first and second fixed resistors, the first fixed resistor being connected to the first adjusting resistor so as to produce a first voltage signal corresponding to a ratio of a resistance value of the first adjusting resistor to a resistance value of the first fixed resistor.

  7. Method for ranking biological habitats in oil spill response planning and impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.K.; Benkert, K.A.; Keller, C.; White, R.

    1984-08-01

    The report describes a method that enables oil spill response planners to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills by determining protection priorites for biological habitats. The objective of the method is to allow persons responding to an oil spill to quickly identify areas that should be protected first, second, and on to the extent that personnel and equipment are available. The first part of the report describes the rationale and general components of the method. The last part presents an application of the method to the Louisana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) spill response planning area. 28 references, 9 tables.

  8. 76 FR 77128 - Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 126 RIN 1625-AB82 Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response... International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, for Oil Spill Response Vessels (OSRVs), which... owners and operators of offshore supply vessels (OSVs) that may result in an increase in oil...

  9. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, as well as the revised... review by OMB. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 1010-0106. Title: 30 CFR 553, Oil...

  10. Planning for the human dimensions of oil spills and spill response.

    PubMed

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  11. Oil Spill Response Technology Initiation Decision Report to the Pollution Abatement Ashore Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    A high-frequency microwave system such as the commercial OSIS system may also provide real -time spill location data out to 2 miles. 26 Tracking ...considered for locating and track the spill. A real -time visual display from the air would be a huge advancement in situational awareness for the ICS...incident management software, etc. 3. Improved locating and tracking spills. The need ranked third was for better tools to locate (areal extent and

  12. Nowcast model for hazardous material spill prevention and response, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wilmot, Wayne L.; Galt, Jerry A.

    1997-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) installed the Physical Oceanographic Real-time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay, California, to provide real-time observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions to, among other purposes, guide hazardous material spill prevention and response. Integrated with nowcast modeling techniques and dissemination of real-time data and the nowcasting results through the Internet on the World Wide Web, emerging technologies used in PORTS for real-time data collection forms a nowcast modeling system. Users can download tides and tidal current distribution in San Francisco Bay for their specific applications and/or for further analysis.

  13. 30 CFR 254.50 - Spill response plans for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill response plans for facilities located...

  14. 30 CFR 254.50 - Spill response plans for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spill response plans for facilities located...

  15. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  16. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  17. 30 CFR 254.50 - Spill response plans for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spill response plans for facilities located...

  18. 30 CFR 254.50 - Spill response plans for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters Seaward... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spill response plans for facilities located...

  19. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  20. 30 CFR 254.50 - Spill response plans for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spill response plans for facilities located...

  1. Vacuum extraction based response equipment for recovery of fresh fuel spills from soil.

    PubMed

    Halmemies, Sakari; Gröndahl, Siri; Arffman, Mika; Nenonen, Keijo; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2003-02-28

    Accidental overturns of fuel tankers can have, depending on soil types, severe consequences. This applies, particularly in areas of shallow soils where the groundwater is located 2-4m below the ground surface. By rapid, vacuum extraction based recovery emergency services, which would normally be the first to arrive on the scene, could minimize consequences of fresh fuel spills and even prevent groundwater contamination, the primary purpose of emergency response. Powerful vacuum extraction-based response (PER), equipment has been developed to recover freshly spilt volatile fuels from the soil, primary by emergency services, but also by other trained responders. The main components of mobile PER-equipment are perforated extraction pipes, a recovery vacuum tank, a vacuum pump and an incinerator. The PER-equipment has been tested in summer and sub-zero winter conditions, and in both cases 50-80% of fresh gasoline spilled into sandy soil was recovered during the first 2h of operation. Gasoline was recovered in both liquid and vapor form, and hydrocarbon vapors were destroyed by controlled incineration at a safe distance from the spill. Recovery of less volatile diesel oil is not so effective from the sandy soil, but about 30% of it could be pumped from a fresh pool directly after a seepage time of 15 min.

  2. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  3. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  4. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  5. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  6. Oil spill prevention and response: How to comply with OPA and OSPRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.

    1995-12-31

    When there is a man-made catastrophic event that adversely affects environment or the health and safety of the public, the government steps in to make and enforce laws to help prevent the reoccurrence of such events. This is the case with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) which was signed into law by President Bush in August of 1990. According to the EPA, the federal government received 42,000 notifications of oil discharges during the years of 1988 through 1990. In 1989, 38 spills exceeded 100,000 gallons including the infamous Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska`s Prince William Sound. The Federal government has not been alone in its interest with oil spill prevention and response. Many states have also enacted laws with the intent of protecting the environment from damage due to oil spills. The state of Texas enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 which compliments and expands on OPA. The most significant requirement of both of these laws is that of the Facility Response Plan (FRP). Both Federal and State agencies encourage the development of one plan for spill response and prevention. The use of one plan makes sense because this eliminates the opportunity for discrepancies land simplifies response during an actual spill. The purpose of this paper is to aid the petroleum industry in determining whether it is required to have a FRP, and if it is, how to develop a plan that will comply with both OPA and OSPRA.

  7. EPA News Advisory: ASIG Sand Island Hawaii Fuel Spill Response Update 2/12/15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/12/15) HONOLULU - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) continue response operations to recover spilled jet fuel at the Airport Service Group International (ASIG) facility on Sand Island Access

  8. EPA News Advisory: ASIG Sand Island Hawaii Fuel Spill Response Update 2/9/15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/09/15) HONOLULU - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) continue response operations to recover spilled jet fuel at the Airport Service Group International (ASIG) facility on Sand Island Access

  9. EPA News Advisory: ASIG Sand Island Hawaii Fuel Spill Response Update 2/2/15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/02/15) HONOLULU - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) continue response operations to recover spilled jet fuel at the Airport Service Group International (ASIG) facility on Sand Island

  10. EPA News Advisory: ASIG Sand Island Hawaii Fuel Spill Response Update 2/6/15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/06/15) HONOLULU - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) continue response operations to recover spilled jet fuel at the Airport Service Group International (ASIG) facility on Sand Island Access

  11. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill...

  12. Microbial Community Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, M. C.; Valentine, D. L.; Joye, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon on April 22nd, 2010 led to one of the largest oil spills in history. The massive amounts of oil and natural gas leaking into the Gulf of Mexico led to development of distinct microbial communities dominated by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. To track this microbial response, we sampled hydrocarbon-laden surface water and deep plumes (1100-1200 m), as well as samples lacking hydrocarbon exposure. In samples collected in May /June 2010, deepwater plume 16S rRNA clone libraries were dominated by three groups of Gammaproteobacteria: unclassified members of the order Oceanospirillales, close relatives of the genus Colwellia, and relatives of the genus Cycloclasticus. These groups accounted for 90-100% of sequences in nine clone libraries and 50% of sequences in a tenth; this tenth sample was ~1 km from the wellhead and showed no detectable oxygen drawdown. In samples collected from above or below the plume, these three groups accounted for no more than 25% of clones. Surface samples were dominated by organisms most closely related to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Ongoing cultivation and stable isotope probing experiments to identify and characterize the bacteria consuming specific hydrocarbon compounds will further our understanding of the microbial ecology of surface and deepwater hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms.

  13. Using ordination and clustering techniques to assess multimetric fish health response following a coal ash spill.

    PubMed

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Brandt, Craig C

    2014-08-01

    The effect of coal ash exposure on fish health in freshwater communities is largely unknown. Given the large number of possible pathways of effects (e.g., toxicological effect of exposure to multiple metals, physical effects from ash exposure, and food web effects), measurement of only a few health metrics is not likely to give a complete picture. The authors measured a suite of 20 health metrics from 1100+ fish collected from 5 sites (3 affected and 2 reference) near a coal ash spill in east Tennessee over a 4.5-yr period. The metrics represented a wide range of physiological and energetic responses and were evaluated simultaneously using 2 multivariate techniques. Results from both hierarchical clustering and canonical discriminant analyses suggested that for most species × season combinations, the suite of fish health indicators varied more among years than between spill and reference sites within a year. In a few cases, spill sites from early years in the investigation stood alone or clustered together separate from reference sites and later year spill sites. Outlier groups of fish with relatively unique health profiles were most often from spill sites, suggesting that some response to the ash exposure may have occurred. Results from the 2 multivariate methods suggest that any change in the health status of fish at the spill sites was small and appears to have diminished since the first 2 to 3 yr after the spill.

  14. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  15. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  16. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  17. A high-resolution operational forecast system for oil spill response in Belfast Lough.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Ana J; Castanedo, Sonia; Núñez, Paula; Mellor, Adam; Clements, Annika; Pérez, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Mar; Chiri, Helios; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a high-resolution operational forecast system for providing support to oil spill response in Belfast Lough. The system comprises an operational oceanographic module coupled to an oil spill forecast module that is integrated in a user-friendly web application. The oceanographic module is based on Delft3D model which uses daily boundary conditions and meteorological forcing obtained from COPERNICUS and from the UK Meteorological Office. Downscaled currents and meteorological forecasts are used to provide short-term oil spill fate and trajectory predictions at local scales. Both components of the system are calibrated and validated with observational data, including ADCP data, sea level, temperature and salinity measurements and drifting buoys released in the study area. The transport model is calibrated using a novel methodology to obtain the model coefficients that optimize the numerical simulations. The results obtained show the good performance of the system and its capability for oil spill forecast.

  18. Three-Tier Approach to Chemical Spill Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Hazard health risk inside the toxic corridor and no significant risk Analysis , Emergency Planning for remely Hazardous beyond the corridor. Because of the...X ACGIH shottmern ewposu knit (STEL) (1900) 5 ppm (15 min) OSHASTEL I ppm (1 smln) UDMH (Unym"melrcu mh ) IDU.HII2 IDLH 5006 Ppm X - EPALO.C. 5ppm... analysis , however, this three-tier approach to exposure hazard data that are available but not "officially" managing hazardous chemical spills

  19. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, C.G. ); Thorman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities.

  20. Video systems for real-time oil-spill detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.; Woolever, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Three airborne television systems are being developed to evaluate techniques for oil-spill surveillance. These include a conventional TV camera, two cameras operating in a subtractive mode, and a field-sequential camera. False-color enhancement and wavelength and polarization filtering are also employed. The first of a series of flight tests indicates that an appropriately filtered conventional TV camera is a relatively inexpensive method of improving contrast between oil and water. False-color enhancement improves the contrast, but the problem caused by sun glint now limits the application to overcast days. Future effort will be aimed toward a one-camera system. Solving the sun-glint problem and developing the field-sequential camera into an operable system offers potential for color 'flagging' oil on water.

  1. California's American Trader oil spill: Effective interagency and public-private collaboration in environmental disaster response

    SciTech Connect

    Gellert, G.A. ); Daugherty, S.J.; Rabiee, L.; Mazur, M.; Merryman, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The American Trader tanker oil spill off Huntington Beach, California, in 1990 triggered a large interagency and public-private response to minimize the ecological and economic impact of nearly 400,000 gallons of spilled crude oil. This paper examines the interagency collaboration of public and private organizations during this crisis. Data are presented from interviews with key participants from various agencies, as well as from an innovative quantitative health-based risk assessment that allowed rapid reopenings of 15 miles of affected beaches. Features that contributed to effective management of the emergency response are considered along with recommendations for improvements in the future.

  2. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... response plan under 49 CFR part 194. In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico... Pipeline Systems. Subject: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  3. Is the way an oil spill response is reported in the media important for the final perception of the clean-up?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E

    2016-03-15

    This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the final perception of the overall oil spill response. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill response, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of response with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife response can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception.

  4. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing.

  5. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  6. Ecological considerations for the use of dispersants in oil spill response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt-Siva, J.; Albers, P.H.; Fucik, K.W.; Maynard, N.G.; Allen, Tom E.

    1984-01-01

    A multidisciplinary task force with membership from government agencies, academia, and industry is developing ecologically based guidelines for dispersant use in marine and estuarine environments. The guidelines are organized by habitat type (e.g., coral reefs, rocky shores, bird habitats) and consider dispersant use to protect the habitats from impact, to mitigate impacts, and to clean the habitats after a spill. Each guideline contains a description of the habitat type covered, recommendations for dispersant use, and a background section reviewing the relevant literature. The goal is to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills. Aesthetic, socioeconomic, and political factors are not considered, although it is recognized that these are important concerns during spill response. Use of dispersants is considered along with other appropriate countermeasures and compared with the “no cleanup” alternative.

  7. 77 FR 60715 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), requires that a...--Implementation of Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of October 18, 1972, as Amended, and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Regulations at 30 CFR 254 establish requirements for spill- response...

  8. The IXTOC I oil spill: the Federal Scientific Response. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    On 3 June 1979, a Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory well, IXTOC I, blew out in the Bay of Campeche, about 80 km northwest of Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico. The spill, not brought under control until 27 March 1980, became the largest oil spill in history. The following summary described the numerous operation support activities and scientific studies performed under the purview of the Federal Scientific Support Coordinator. The primary purpose of the physical, chemical, and biological activities described herein was to provide the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) with timely information concerning the location, toxicity, and potential ecological impact of the oil on the Texas coastline.

  9. Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

    1992-06-01

    The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

  10. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  11. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  14. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  15. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  16. Tasman Spirit Oil Spill in Pakistan – Research Response and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Lutfi, Shahid; Tipre, Meghan; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents lessons learned from an investigation of the acute human health effects of the “Tasman Spirit' oil spill from a perspective of conducting rapid response investigations in developing countries. Methods We reviewed various steps in our investigation, other studies on oil spills in Pakistan and around the world, and reflected upon our discussions and interactions with various stakeholders. Results The paper highlights the importance of applying a public health, legal, and ethical framework for conducting rapid response investigations, developing a pre-established funding mechanism, and addressing study design issues, exposure and outcome measurements, political issues, community engagement, and communication of results. Conclusion There is need to develop ethical and legal framework and funding mechanism for conducting rapid response research in developing countries. A repository of study protocols, validated tools, and laboratory methods for exposure and outcome assessment would be greatly beneficial. PMID:22473418

  17. An improved RST approach for timely alert and Near Real Time monitoring of oil spill disasters by using AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, C. S. L.; Casciello, D.; Coviello, I.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2011-05-01

    Information acquired and provided in Near Real Time is fundamental in contributing to reduce the impact of different sea pollution sources on the maritime environment. Optical data acquired by sensors aboard meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution as well as to their delivery policy, can be profitably used for a Near Real Time sea monitoring, provided that accurate and reliable methodologies for analysis and investigation are designed, implemented and fully assessed. In this paper, the results achieved by the application of an improved version of RST (Robust Satellite Technique) to oil spill detection and monitoring will be shown. In particular, thermal infrared data acquired by the NOAA-AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) have been analyzed and a new RST-based change detection index applied to the case of the oil spills that occurred off the Kuwait and Saudi Arabian coasts in January 1991 and during the Lebanon War in July 2006. The results obtained, even in comparison with those achieved by other AVHRR-based techniques, confirm the unique performance of the proposed approach in automatically detecting the presence of oil spill with a high level of reliability and sensitivity. Moreover, the potential of the extension of the proposed technique to sensors onboard geostationary satellites will be discussed within the context of oil spill monitoring systems, integrating products generated by high temporal (optical) and high spatial (radar) resolution satellite systems.

  18. Enhancing the management response to oil spills in the Tuscany Archipelago through operational modelling.

    PubMed

    Janeiro, João; Zacharioudaki, Anna; Sarhadi, Ehsan; Neves, Augusto; Martins, Flávio

    2014-08-30

    A new approach towards the management of oil pollution accidents in marine sensitive areas is presented in this work. A set of nested models in a downscaling philosophy was implemented, externally forced by existing regional operational products. The 3D hydrodynamics, turbulence and the oil transport/weathering models are all linked in the same system, sharing the same code, exchanging information in real time and improving its ability to correctly reproduce the spill. A wind-generated wave model is also implemented using the same downscaling philosophy. Observations from several sources validated the numerical components of the system. The results obtained highlight the good performance of the system and its ability to be applied for oil spill forecasts in the region. The success of the methodology described in this paper was underline during the Costa Concordia accident, where a high resolution domain was rapidly created and deployed inside the system covering the accident site.

  19. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of oil spill detected by ocean lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-long; Chen, Yong-hua; Li, Jie; Jiang, Jingbo; Ni, Zuotao; Liu, Zhi-shen

    2016-10-01

    Based on time-resolved fluorescence of oils, an oceanographic fluorescence Lidar was designed to identify oil pollutions. A third harmonic (at 355nm) of Nd:YAG laser is used as the excitation source, and the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of oil fluorescence at wavelength from 380 nm to 580 nm are measured by an intensified CCD (ICCD). In the experiments, time-resolved fluorescence spectra of 20 oil samples, including crude oils, fuel oils, lubricating oil, diesel oils and gasoline, are analyzed to discuss fluorescence spectral characteristics of samples for oil classification. The spectral characteristics of oil fluorescence obtained by ICCD with delay time of 2 ns, 4 ns, and 6 ns were studied by using the principal component analysis (PCA) method. Moreover, an efficient method is used to improve the recognition rate of the oil spill types, through enlarging spectral differences of oil fluorescence at different delay times. Experimental analysis shows that the optimization method can discriminate between crude oil and fuel oil, and a more accurate classification of oils is obtained by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. As the result, comparing to traditional fluorescence spectroscopy, a higher recognition rate of oil spill types is achieved by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy which is also a feasibility technology for Ocean Lidar.

  20. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  1. Investigation of Self-Help Oil-Spill Response Techniques and Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    results of the research performed on bioremediation do not conclusively indicate what the proper application ratio for the bioprod- ucts should be...AD-A260 881 Report No. CG-D-21-92 1, jjr II . I’ !,lI, INVESTIGATION OF SELF-HELP OIL-SPILL RESPONSE TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT Walter I. Enderlin John...Springfield, Virginia 22161 JAN 2 2 1993 -" E Prepared for: . U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center 1082 Shennecossett Road Groton

  2. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Rice, Stanley D; Short, Jeffrey W; Esler, Daniel; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda E; Irons, David B

    2003-12-19

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts.

  3. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety and Health Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ...

  4. Fuel injection pump having a compact spill-port timing control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-03-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump. This pump consists of a compression chamber adapted to be coupled to a source of fuel; fuel injection nozzles; a rotary plunger rotatably driven by an internal combustion engine, the plunger including means for defining a common passageway connected at one end to the compression chamber, the plunger further including means for defining angularly spaced apart spill ports branching off the common passageway to an outside surface thereof and a fuel delivery port branching off the common passageway, the fuel delivery port being selectively movable into and out of alignment with each one of the nozzles by rotation of the plunger; a magnetized rotary ring including means for defining a spill groove extending along the inner wall thereof, the ring being mounted on the plunger and rotatable, with respect to the plunger, between at least a first angular position, the ring consists of a cylindrical structure having differently magnetized equally divided arcuate sections, the groove being formed on the inner wall of the cylindrical structure and substantially axially extending from one end of the structure; spring means for biasing the ring toward one of the first and second angular positions; a stationary core surrounding the ring; and a coil wound on the core for generating a rotative thrust on the ring for selectively moving the ring between the first and second angular positions in response to a control signal.

  5. National Spill Test Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sheesley, David [Western Research Institute

    Western Research Institute established, and ACRC continues to maintain, the National Spill Technology database to provide support to the Liquified Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (now called the National HAZMAT Spill Center) as directed by Congress in Section 118(n) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The Albany County Research Corporation (ACRC) was established to make publicly funded data developed from research projects available to benefit public safety. The founders since 1987 have been investigating the behavior of toxic chemicals that are deliberately or accidentally spilled, educating emergency response organizations, and maintaining funding to conduct the research at the DOEÆs HAZMAT Spill Center (HSC) located on the Nevada Test Site. ACRC also supports DOE in collaborative research and development efforts mandated by Congress in the Clean Air Act Amendments. The data files are results of spill tests conducted at various times by the Silicones Environmental Health and Safety Council (SEHSC) and DOE, ANSUL, Dow Chemical, the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and DOE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), OSHA, and DOT; DuPont, and the Western Research Institute (WRI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and EPA. Each test data page contains one executable file for each test in the test series as well as a file named DOC.EXE that contains information documenting the test series. These executable files are actually self-extracting zip files that, when executed, create one or more comma separated value (CSV) text files containing the actual test data or other test information.

  6. Response of common murres to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska marine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Anderson, Paul; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of the 1989 TV Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds were dramatic and well documented. Seabird populations at sea in the spill zone were immediately depressed, and more than 30,000 dead, oiled seabirds were recovered from beaches within months of the spill. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds were killed by oil, of which 74% were murres. Based on comparisons of prespill (1970s) and postspill (1989-1994) data, long-term effects on murres attributed to oil pollution included population declines, reduced breeding success, and delayed breeding phenology. Populations remained depressed, but breeding success phenology gradually returned to normal levels by 1993. An alternative hypothesis to explain these long-term effects is that murres were responding to natural events in their marine environment. Flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) was at an all-time low in 1989, and this may have reduced and delayed biological productivity in the ACC. On a broader time scale, marked changes in marine fish communities have occurred during the past 20 years. Coincident with cyclical fluctuations in seawater temperatures, the abundance of small forage species (e.g., humpy shrimp, capelin, and Pacific sandfish) declined precipitously in the late 1970s while populations of large predatory fish (e.g., walleye pollock, Pacific cod, and flatfish) increased dramatically. Correspondingly, seabird diets shifted from mostly capelin in the 1970s to mostly Pacific sand land and juvenile pollock in the late 1980s. Furthermore, a variety of seabirds and marine mammals both inside and outside of the oil spill zone exhibited signs of food stress (population declines, reduced productivity, die-offs) throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. We conclude that available data are inadequate to distinguish between long-term effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murres and a natural response of murres to long-term changes in their marine environment.

  7. Biochemical responses of Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of acute environmental pollution caused by the Don Pedro oil spill (Eivissa Island, Spain).

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Box, Antonio; Tejada, Silvia; Blanco, Andreu; Caixach, Josep; Deudero, Salud

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, the potential use of several antioxidant and detoxification biomarkers in the digestive gland of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for biomonitoring the marine pollution induced by the Don Pedro oil spill has been investigated. Two locations from the East to South-East of Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera islands were selected, one extensively affected by the oil spill and the other one not affected and considered as the control area. Mussels were sampled one, two and six months after the Don Pedro accident. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were significantly increased in the soft tissues of mussels in the affected area one month after the disaster, returning to normal values after six months. Markers of oxidative damage in lipids--malondialdehyde, and in proteins--carbonyl derivates, and antioxidant enzyme--catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, activities significantly increased as result of the spill oil after one month, returning to basal values at two month sampling time. Glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG), as a marker of the redox status, was reduced after one and two months indicating a more oxidized situation. Markers of detoxification--glutathione-S-transferase and cytochrome P4501A activities and metallothionein gene expression--were significantly increased by the oil spill one month after the accident, returning to the basal values at two month sampling time. In conclusion, the Don Pedro accident induced a transient situation of PAHs pollution resulting in enhanced antioxidant and detoxification defense systems in the wild mussel M. galloprovincialis returning to normal levels six months from the spill. The selected biomarkers are a useful tool for biomonitoring the response to acute exposure to pollutants in marine mussels.

  8. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  9. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  10. Public perceptions of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: personal experiences, information sources, and social context.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Ulrich, Jessica D; Hamilton, Lawrence C

    2012-12-30

    The 2010 British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted long-standing questions about energy exploration and its social and environmental implications. Sociologists studying environmental disasters have documented the social impacts resulting from these events and dissatisfaction with government and industry responses. In this paper, we use data from a survey conducted during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to examine how Louisiana and Florida residents' social backgrounds, experiences with the spill, and trust in information sources predict their perceptions of governmental and BP response efforts. We find that direct personal impacts and compensation strongly influence the evaluations of responding organizations. Age and place of residence also predict such assessments. Finally, levels of confidence in television news and BP as sources of information appear to shape Gulf Coast residents' opinions about the work of organizations responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

  11. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Natural gas and temperature structured a microbial community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L

    2012-12-11

    Microbial communities present in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In deep water plumes, these communities were initially dominated by members of Oceanospirillales, Colwellia, and Cycloclasticus. None of these groups were abundant in surface oil slick samples, and Colwellia was much more abundant in oil-degrading enrichment cultures incubated at 4 °C than at room temperature, suggesting that the colder temperatures at plume depth favored the development of these communities. These groups decreased in abundance after the well was capped in July, but the addition of hydrocarbons in laboratory incubations of deep waters from the Gulf of Mexico stimulated Colwellia's growth. Colwellia was the primary organism that incorporated (13)C from ethane and propane in stable isotope probing experiments, and given its abundance in environmental samples at the time that ethane and propane oxidation rates were high, it is likely that Colwellia was active in ethane and propane oxidation in situ. Colwellia also incorporated (13)C benzene, and Colwellia's abundance in crude oil enrichments without natural gas suggests that it has the ability to consume a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds or their degradation products. However, the fact that ethane and propane alone were capable of stimulating the growth of Colwellia, and to a lesser extent, Oceanospirillales, suggests that high natural gas content of this spill may have provided an advantage to these organisms.

  13. Natural gas and temperature structured a microbial community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Molly C.; Valentine, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities present in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In deep water plumes, these communities were initially dominated by members of Oceanospirillales, Colwellia, and Cycloclasticus. None of these groups were abundant in surface oil slick samples, and Colwellia was much more abundant in oil-degrading enrichment cultures incubated at 4 °C than at room temperature, suggesting that the colder temperatures at plume depth favored the development of these communities. These groups decreased in abundance after the well was capped in July, but the addition of hydrocarbons in laboratory incubations of deep waters from the Gulf of Mexico stimulated Colwellia's growth. Colwellia was the primary organism that incorporated 13C from ethane and propane in stable isotope probing experiments, and given its abundance in environmental samples at the time that ethane and propane oxidation rates were high, it is likely that Colwellia was active in ethane and propane oxidation in situ. Colwellia also incorporated 13C benzene, and Colwellia's abundance in crude oil enrichments without natural gas suggests that it has the ability to consume a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds or their degradation products. However, the fact that ethane and propane alone were capable of stimulating the growth of Colwellia, and to a lesser extent, Oceanospirillales, suggests that high natural gas content of this spill may have provided an advantage to these organisms. PMID:21969552

  14. Significance of Cytochrome P450 System Responses and Levels of Bile Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds in Marine Wildlife Following Oil Spills

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Richard F.; Anderson, Jack W.

    2005-07-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  15. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Anderson, Jack W

    2005-07-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  16. U.S. Coast Guard Equipment Deployment Requirements for Hazardous Chemical Spill Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    differ in the percentage of corrosives reported. Aside from flammable liquids the largest category of the chemicals (in Table 3-3) reported spilled to...22 2033 29 0.42 94.08 Cresol 23 2165 21 0.30 94.39 Napthalene 24 2013 20 0.29 94.67 Ammonia 25 2082 20 0.29 94.96 Phosphoric Acid 26 1096 19 0.27...SPILLED CHEMICALS REPORTED TO PIRS AND MTB, BY CHEMICAL GROUP PIRS MTB 1 spills I spills Flammable Liquids 0,867 85 13,970 58 Corrosives 340 4 8,181

  17. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  18. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  19. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  20. Ecological Disaster and Rhetorical Response: Exxon's Communications in the Wake of the Valdez Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Examines Exxon's communication efforts in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster. Identifies communication practices that damaged the corporation's credibility, antagonized the public, and contributed to the public perception of its corporate arrogance. Notes that the Valdez spill makes a good case for classroom study. (PRA)

  1. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  2. Metagenome, metatranscriptome and single-cell sequencing reveal microbial response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S G; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fortney, Julian L; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  3. Metagenome, metatranscriptome and single-cell sequencing reveal microbial response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S G; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fortney, Julian L; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea. PMID:22717885

  4. Science supporting Gulf of Mexico oil-spill response, mitigation, and restoration activities-Assessment, monitoring, mapping, and coordination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack; Tihansky, Ann; Cimitile, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigates physical processes related to coastal and marine environments and societal implications related to natural hazards, resource sustainability, and environmental change. Immediately after the Deepwater Horizon event, the USGS began responding to data requests, directing response personnel, and providing coastal and shelf geophysical data to coastal-resource managers. The USGS provided oil-spill responders with up-to-date coastal bathymetry, geologic data, and maps characterizing vulnerability and levels of risk from potential spill impacts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Baseline conditions prior to any spill impacts were documented through programs that included shoreline sampling and sediment coring from east Texas to the east coast of Florida and aerial photography of many environmentally sensitive Gulf coastal areas. The USGS responded to numerous verbal and written data requests from Federal, State, and local partners and academic institutions with USGS scientific staff participating in the Coast Guard Unified Commands (UC) and Operational Science Advisory Teams (OSAT). The USGS conducted technical review of reports and plans for many response activities. Oil-spill responders, managers, and personnel on the ground, including partners such as the National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Chandeleur Islands Refuge, and State agencies, continue to rely on USGS products.

  5. Long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community from oil-spill impact: vegetation response and mitigating effects of marsh surface elevation.

    PubMed

    Hester, M W; Mendelssohn, I A

    2000-04-01

    Oil spills can have significant, short-term, negative impacts on coastal marshes, but the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented, particularly in brackish marshes. The goals of this investigation were to: (1) document the long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community impacted by a 1985 oil spill; (2) separate the effect of the oil spill on marsh deterioration from ambient rates of marsh deterioration; and (3) assess the relative importance of residual oil in the sediment and decreased marsh surface elevation in the failure of certain areas to recover. A total of 68 permanent plots previously established in 1985 were re-surveyed for plant and soil recovery in the fall of 1989. Although substantial (and near total) vegetative recovery was evident by significant increases in live and total vegetative cover, many of the plots that were initially heavily impacted by oil still displayed elevated levels of total saturated hydrocarbons in the soil. August 1990 measurements of plant photosynthetic response and edaphic variables revealed no significant differences between control plots and plots heavily impacted by oil that displayed vegetative regrowth. Rates of wetland land loss in the oiled marsh during an 8-year period that bracketed the time of the spill were within the historical range measured for this site and similar to the land loss rates of adjacent reference marshes. Results from a manipulative field transplant experiment indicated that the long-term failure of certain small areas to revegetate was primarily due to a decrease of marsh surface elevation (increased flooding stress), not a residual oil effect.

  6. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  8. The Federal Oil Spill Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing (FOSTERRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.; Leifer, I.; Lindsay, F. E.; Murray, J. J.; Ramirez, E. M.; Salemi, A.; Streett, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, for which remote sensing plays a critical role in detection and monitoring of oil spills. The FOSTERRS interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. FOSTERRS enables cooperation between agencies with core environmental remote sensing assets and capabilities and academic and industry experts to act as an oil spill remote sensing information clearinghouse. The US government and its collaborators have a broad variety of aircraft and satellite sensors, imagery interrogation techniques and other technology that can provide indispensable remote sensing information to agencies, emergency responders and the public during an oil spill. Specifically, FOSTERRS will work to ensure that (1) suitable aircraft and satellite imagery and radar observations are quickly made available in a manner that can be integrated into oil spill detection and mitigation efforts, (2) existing imagery interrogation techniques are in the hands of those who will provide the 24 x 7 operational support and (3) efforts are made to develop new technology where the existing techniques do not provide oil spills responders with important information they need. The FOSTERRS mission goal places it in an ideal place for identification of critical technological needs, and identifying bottlenecks in technology acceptance. The core FOSTERRS team incorporates representation for operations and science for agencies with relevant instrumental and platform assets (NASA, NOAA, USGS, NRL). FOSTERRS membership will open to a wide range of end-user agencies and planned observer status from industry and academic experts, and eventually international partners. Through these collaborations, FOSTERRS facilitates interagency

  9. Spill Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article describes OSHA procedures for handling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. The Laboratory Standard requires a Chemical Hygiene Plan to address all aspects of working with hazardous chemicals. This includes dealing with chemical spills. Chemical spill kits or "spill crash carts" need to be available in case…

  10. Transcriptional response of bathypelagic marine bacterioplankton to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Adam R; Sharma, Shalabh; Tringe, Susannah G; Martin, Jeffrey; Joye, Samantha B; Moran, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout released a massive amount of oil and gas into the deep ocean between April and July 2010, stimulating microbial blooms of petroleum-degrading bacteria. To understand the metabolic response of marine microorganisms, we sequenced ≈ 66 million community transcripts that revealed the identity of metabolically active microbes and their roles in petroleum consumption. Reads were assigned to reference genes from ≈ 2700 bacterial and archaeal taxa, but most assignments (39%) were to just six genomes representing predominantly methane- and petroleum-degrading Gammaproteobacteria. Specific pathways for the degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds and methane emerged from the metatranscriptomes, with some transcripts assigned to methane monooxygenases representing highly divergent homologs that may degrade either methane or short alkanes. The microbial community in the plume was less taxonomically and functionally diverse than the unexposed community below the plume; this was due primarily to decreased species evenness resulting from Gammaproteobacteria blooms. Surprisingly, a number of taxa (related to SAR11, Nitrosopumilus and Bacteroides, among others) contributed equal numbers of transcripts per liter in both the unexposed and plume samples, suggesting that some groups were unaffected by the petroleum inputs and blooms of degrader taxa, and may be important for re-establishing the pre-spill microbial community structure.

  11. Probabilistic spill occurrence simulation for chemical spills management.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weihua; Li, James; Joksimovic, Darko; Yuan, Arnold; Banting, Doug

    2013-11-15

    Inland chemical spills pose a great threat to water quality in worldwide area. A sophisticated probabilistic spill-event model that characterizes temporal and spatial randomness and quantifies statistical uncertainty due to limited spill data is a major component in spill management and associated decision making. This paper presents a MATLAB-based Monte Carlo simulation (MMCS) model for simulating the probabilistic quantifiable occurrences of inland chemical spills by time, magnitude, and location based on North America Industry Classification System codes. The model's aleatory and epistemic uncertainties were quantified through integrated bootstrap resampling technique. Benzene spills in the St. Clair River area of concern were used as a case to demonstrate the model by simulating spill occurrences, occurrence time, and mass expected for a 10-year period. Uncertainty analysis indicates that simulated spill characteristics can be described by lognormal distributions with positive skewness. The simulated spill time series will enable a quantitative risk analysis for water quality impairments due to the spills. The MMCS model can also help governments to evaluate their priority list of spilled chemicals.

  12. Mandating responsible flagging practices as a strategy for reducing the risk of coastal oil spills.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dana D; Hotte, Ngaio; Sumaila, U Rashid

    2014-04-15

    As human civilization is becoming more aware of the negative impact our actions can inflict upon the natural world, the intensification of fossil fuel extraction and industrial development is being met with increasing opposition. In Western Canada, proposals that would increase the volume of petroleum transported by pipelines and by tankers through the coastal waters of British Columbia have engaged the province in debate. To ease public concern on the risk of a coastal oil spill, there are additional commitments that involved parties could make. There is evidence to show that the practice of registering vessels under foreign flags of states that have exhibited failure in compliance with international obligations is more common amongst petroleum tankers that have been involved in large-scale oil spills. To prove that they are committed to reducing the risk of oil spills, businesses need to stop registering their vessels under flags of foreign, non-compliant states.

  13. Responses of benthic foraminifera to the 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea, PR China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan Li; Li, Tie Gang; Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Wen Lin; Song, Wen Peng; Li, Ji Ye; Li, Cheng Chun

    2015-07-15

    The 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea was the largest spill event in China. Nine sediment cores were taken near the spill site and environmental factors including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs), oils, sulfides, organic carbon were measured 6 months later. Benthic foraminifera were separated into >150 μm (large) and 63-150 μm (small) size fractions for 2-cm depth interval of each sediment core. Statistical analyses suggested that the species composition of living foraminifera was impacted by oils, PAHs and sulfides. Large foraminifera were more sensitive to the oils than the small. Abnormal specimens were positively correlated with oils or PAHs. Small forms, however, tended to have high reproduction and mortality. Pollution-resistant and opportunistic taxa were identified to calculate a Foraminiferal Index of Environmental Impacts (FIEI). The FIEI increased from low to high oil-polluted station and from deep layer to surface sediment reflects the impact of oil pollution in this area.

  14. A high-resolution real-time forecasting system for predicting the fate of oil spills in the Strait of Bonifacio (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Cucco, A; Sinerchia, M; Ribotti, A; Olita, A; Fazioli, L; Perilli, A; Sorgente, B; Borghini, M; Schroeder, K; Sorgente, R

    2012-06-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio is a long and narrow area between Corsica and Sardinia. To manage environmental emergencies related to the spill of oil from vessels, an innovative forecasting system was developed. This tool is capable of operationally predicting the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the coastal area of the Bonifacio Strait, either from an instantaneous or continuous spill and either in forward or backward mode. Experimental datasets, including ADCP water current measurements and the trajectories of drifter buoys released in the area, were used to evaluate the accuracy of this system. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data revealed that both the water circulation and the surface transport processes are accurately reproduced by the model. The overall accuracy of the system in reproducing the transport of an oil spill at sea was estimated for both forward and backward prediction mode and in relation to different forecasting time lags.

  15. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions.

  16. Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiau, Wen-Yen

    2005-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system.

  17. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts.

  18. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  19. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  20. Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  1. Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

  2. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  3. Evaluation of synthetic aperture radar for oil-spill response. Final report, June 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.; Mastin, G.A.; Axline, R.M.; Bradley, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a detailed evaluation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a potential technology improvement over the Coast Guard's existing side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) for oil-spill surveillance applications. The U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (RD Center), Environmental Safety Branch, sponsored a joint experiment including the U.S. Coast Guard, Sandia National Laboratories, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Hazardous Materials Division. Radar imaging missions were flown on six days over the coastal waters off Santa Barbara, CA, where there are constant natural seeps of oil. Both the Coast Guard SLAR and the Sandia National Laboratories SAR were employed to acquire simultaneous images of oil slicks and other natural sea surface features that impact oil-spill interpretation. Surface truth and other environmental data were also recorded during the experiment. The experiment data were processed at Sandia National Laboratories and delivered to the RD Center on a PC-based computer workstation for analysis by experiment participants. Synthetic aperture radar, Side looking airborne radar, Oil slicks.

  4. Elemental Mercury Spills

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Sources of elemental mercury (Hg0) include old natural gas regulators, manometers, sphygmomanometers, thermometers, and thermostats. Causes of Hg0 spills include improper storage, container breakage, children playing with Hg0, the breakage of devices containing Hg0, and ritualistic use of Hg0. Inhalation is the primary exposure route for Hg0. Mercury released into the environment can enter lakes and streams, where bacteria convert it into methylmercury, which bioaccumulates in fish. Chronic exposure to Hg0 vapors can damage the kidneys and neurologic system. Short-term exposure to high levels of Hg0 vapors may cause lung damage, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure or heart rate, skin rashes, and eye irritation, among other effects. Minimizing Hg0 dispersal is important after an Hg0 spill. Tracking by shoes or apparel or vacuuming can spread Hg0, increasing airborne concentrations and cleanup costs. The Illinois Department of Public Health’s response to an Hg0 spill depends on the size of the spill. Airborne concentrations after large spills are mapped with a mercury vapor analyzer (MVA). The cleanup begins with the spill site and any hot spots that were identified with the MVA. Hard surfaces can usually be cleaned, but contaminated porous items must be discarded. Leaving marginally contaminated items outdoors for a month or more during warm weather may dissipate the Hg0. After a cleanup, clearance sampling is conducted to determine if further cleanup is needed. The best way to prevent Hg0 spills is reduce its use. PMID:16451846

  5. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  6. Subtleties of human exposure and response to chemical mixtures from spills.

    PubMed

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, chemical spills degrade drinking water quality and threaten human health through ingestion and inhalation. Spills are often mixtures of chemicals; thus, understanding the interaction of chemical and biological properties of the major and minor components is critical to assessing human exposure. The crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spill provides an opportunity to assess such subtleties. This research determined the relative amounts, volatilization, and biological odor properties of minor components cis- and trans-methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) isomers and major components cis- and trans-4-MCHM, then compared properties and human exposure differences among them. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and chromatography revealed that the minor MMCHC isomers were about 1% of the major MCHM isomers. At typical showering temperature of 40 °C, Henry's law constants were 1.50 × 10(-2) and 2.23 × 10(-2) for cis- and trans-MMCHC, respectively, which is 20-50 fold higher than for 4-MCHM isomers. The odor thresholds were 1.83 and 0.02 ppb-v air for cis- and trans-MMCHC, which were both described as predominantly sweet. These data are compared to the higher 120 ppb-v air and 0.06 ppb-v odor thresholds for cis- and trans-4-MCHM, for which the trans-isomer had a dominant licorice descriptor. Application of a shower model demonstrated that while MMCHC isomers are only about 1% of the MCHM isomers, during showering, the MMCHC isomers are 13.8% by volume (16.3% by mass) because of their higher volatility. Trans-4-MCHM contributed about 82% of the odor because of higher volatility and lower odor threshold, trans-MMCHC, which represents 0.3% of the mass, contributed 18% of the odor. This study, with its unique human sensory component to assess exposure, reaffirmed that hazard assessment must not be based solely on relative concentration, but also consider the chemical fate, transport, and biological properties to determine the actual levels of

  7. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  8. Dispersant use as a response to oil spills: toxicological effects on fish cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel; Imbert, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial technique used to respond to oil spills in nearshore areas. In order to assess the toxicity of this technique, this study evaluated the cardiac toxicological effects on juvenile golden grey mullets Liza aurata exposed for 48 h to either dispersant alone, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water-soluble fraction of oil or a control condition. Following exposure, the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline were assessed in order to evaluate a potential impairment on the cardiac performance. The results revealed an impairment of the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline for all the contaminants (single dispersant, dispersed and undispersed oil, water-soluble fraction of oil). This suggests that: (1) cardiac performance is a valuable parameter to study the physiopathological effects of dispersed oil; (2) dispersant application is likely to impair cardiac performance.

  9. Uncertainty quantification and reliability assessment in operational oil spill forecast modeling system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xianlong; Hodges, Ben R; Feng, Dongyu; Liu, Qixiao

    2017-03-15

    As oil transport increasing in the Texas bays, greater risks of ship collisions will become a challenge, yielding oil spill accidents as a consequence. To minimize the ecological damage and optimize rapid response, emergency managers need to be informed with how fast and where oil will spread as soon as possible after a spill. The state-of-the-art operational oil spill forecast modeling system improves the oil spill response into a new stage. However uncertainty due to predicted data inputs often elicits compromise on the reliability of the forecast result, leading to misdirection in contingency planning. Thus understanding the forecast uncertainty and reliability become significant. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is implemented to provide parameters to generate forecast probability maps. The oil spill forecast uncertainty is thus quantified by comparing the forecast probability map and the associated hindcast simulation. A HyosPy-based simple statistic model is developed to assess the reliability of an oil spill forecast in term of belief degree. The technologies developed in this study create a prototype for uncertainty and reliability analysis in numerical oil spill forecast modeling system, providing emergency managers to improve the capability of real time operational oil spill response and impact assessment.

  10. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Flux and Temperature on the Northern British Columbia Coast in support of Marine Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, D. R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fortin, V.; Durnford, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Canada has the longest coastline of any country (>120,000 miles). Canadian response to potential oil spills along its coast is being improved under a high-level federal government strategy, falling under the rubric of the World Class Tanker Safety System (WCTSS). The first component of this strategy focuses on the Kitimat area and its marine approaches on the northern British Columbia (BC) coast. This initiative reflects concerns around both existing ship traffic, and potential increases in tanker traffic associated with the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline. The project includes joint development, between multiple federal departments, of an operational modeling system to predict currents in the coastal ocean. One of Environment Canada's (EC) contributions is the development and implementation of a short-term forecast model of river flows with corresponding stream temperatures. These quantities influence currents in the coastal ocean, which in turn affect oil spill fate and transport. Our platform is based on the Surface Prediction System (SPS), which is essentially a driver for a land surface scheme (LSS) linked to a hydrological routing model, and is related to the earlier MESH platform. LSS's under consideration for use in this mountain rainforest environment are the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), and the Soil and Vegetation Simulator (SVS), which is an evolution of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) model. Runoff and drainage outputs are then routed through the stream network by WATROUTE. The River Basin Model (RBM), a physically-based stream temperature simulator, is also being integrated into SPS to additionally enable water temperature forecasting. The freshwater modelling system will be directly driven by EC's numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.Preliminary results from this ambitious modeling program are presented, along with recommendations for improvements to physical process representation in the various models employed.

  11. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Hallagan, John J; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations of Cu, Hg, Se and Zn in 2011, but greater concentrations only of Se in 2012, in comparison to reference colonies. The concentrations of elements were below levels of significant toxicological concern in both years. In 2011, we found no relationship between exposure to elements associated with the spill and basal or stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in nestlings. In 2012, we found that Se exposure was not associated with cell-mediated immunity based on the response to phytohaemagglutinin injection. However, the bactericidal capacity of nestling plasma had a positive but weak association with blood Se concentrations, and this association was stronger at the spill site. Our results indicate that exposure to these low concentrations of elements had few effects on nestling endocrine and immune physiology. The long-term health consequences of low-level exposure to elements and of exposure to greater element concentrations in avian species require additional study.

  12. Biomarker responses in pelagic and benthic fish over 1 year following the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Taean, Korea).

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Kim, Nam Sook; Addison, Richard F; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-08-01

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill incident (7th December, 2007) in the west coast of Korea, contamination of biliary PAH metabolite and hepatic biomarkers in a pelagic and a benthic fish was monitored for 1 year. Concentrations of 16 PAHs and alkylated PAHs in fish muscle were highest (22.0 ng/g d.w. for 16 PAHs and 284 ng/g d.w. for alkylated PAHs) at 5 days after the spill and then decreased rapidly to background levels at 11 months after the spill. Fish from the oiled site had elevated biliary PAH metabolite concentrations immediately after the spill; these declined steadily in both species, but were still above reference site concentrations 2 months after the spill. Oiled-site fish showed hepatic CYP 1A induction whose trend closely followed those of biliary PAH metabolite concentrations, implying continuous exposure to PAHs. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was not related to oil exposure.

  13. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  14. Transcriptomic evaluation of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, deployed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Evidence of an active hydrocarbon response pathway.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Matthew J; Walton, William C; Payton, Samantha L; Powers, John M; Findlay, Robert H; O'Shields, Britton; Diggins, Kirsten; Pinkerton, Mark; Porter, Danielle; Crane, Daniel M; Tapley, Jeffrey; Cunningham, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Estuarine organisms were impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill which released ∼5 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico in the spring and summer of 2010. Crassostrea virginica, the American oyster, is a keystone species in these coastal estuaries and is routinely used for environmental monitoring purposes. However, very little is known about their cellular and molecular responses to hydrocarbon exposure. In response to the spill, a monitoring program was initiated by deploying hatchery-reared oysters at three sites along the Alabama and Mississippi coast (Grand Bay, MS, Fort Morgan, AL, and Orange Beach, AL). Oysters were deployed for 2-month periods at five different time points from May 2010 to May 2011. Gill and digestive gland tissues were harvested for gene expression analysis and determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. To facilitate identification of stress response genes that may be involved in the hydrocarbon response, a nearly complete transcriptome was assembled using Roche 454 and Illumina high-throughput sequencing from RNA samples obtained from the gill and digestive gland tissues of deployed oysters. This effort resulted in the assembly and annotation of 27,227 transcripts comprised of a large assortment of stress response genes, including members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, Phase I and II biotransformation enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. From this assembly several potential biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure were chosen for expression profiling, including the AHR, two cytochrome P450 1A genes (CYP1A-like 1 and CYP1A-like 2), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), glutathione S-transferase theta (GST theta) and multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3). Higher expression levels of GST theta and MRP3 were observed in gill tissues from all three sites during the summer to early fall 2010 deployments. Linear regression analysis indicated a

  15. Tidal heights and currents for US ports (SHIO): A program for Hazmat oil spill response (MacIntosh) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This easy-to-use program provides tidal heights and currents for U.S. ports. Although SHIO was developed for HAZMAT oil spill response use, anyone interested in quickly determining these values on a particular date and place will find the program of interest. The interface and outputs were designed to be compatible with other HAZMAT response tools. The data are from the National Ocean Service of NOAA and the calculated results reasonably match the NOS tide tables. The tide times are within 5 minutes of the published times and the tide heights are within 0.1 feet for heights or 0.1 knots for currents. Of course river runoff, weather, changes in shoreline configuration, and depth will cause the predicted tides to vary from the actual heights and currents. The data comes from the Coast and Estuarine Oceanography Branch of the National Ocean Service Division of NOAA. This includes all the reference station data for U.S. stations and foreign station offset data.

  16. Fuel injection pump with spill control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, having a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plungers have outward fuel intake strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. Bumping plunger timing means relatively angularly adjusts the cam ring and rotor adjusting the pumping plunger timing. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The improvement described here wherein the spill valve means comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor connected to the charge pump and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore. The spill control mechanism comprises first means for rotating each rotary spill valve member in unison with the rotor and in synchronism with the reciprocable movement of the pumping plungers for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The pumping plunger timing means and the first means provide for separate relative angular adjustment of the cam ring and rotor and relative angular adjustment of the rotary spill valve member of at least the one rotary spill valve and the rotor.

  17. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U; Scott, Nicole M; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Bælum, Jacob; Kimbrel, Jeffrey; Bouskill, Nicholas J; Prestat, Emmanuel; Borglin, Sharon; Joyner, Dominique C; Fortney, Julian L; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Stringfellow, William T; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Hazen, Terry C; Knight, Rob; Gilbert, Jack A; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of ∼4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities in surface sediments collected at 64 sites by targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of 14 of these samples and mineralization experiments using 14C-labeled model substrates. The 16S rRNA gene data indicated that the most heavily oil-impacted sediments were enriched in an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium and a Colwellia species, both of which were highly similar to sequences in the DWH deep-sea hydrocarbon plume. The primary drivers in structuring the microbial community were nitrogen and hydrocarbons. Annotation of unassembled metagenomic data revealed the most abundant hydrocarbon degradation pathway encoded genes involved in degrading aliphatic and simple aromatics via butane monooxygenase. The activity of key hydrocarbon degradation pathways by sediment microbes was confirmed by determining the mineralization of 14C-labeled model substrates in the following order: propylene glycol, dodecane, toluene and phenanthrene. Further, analysis of metagenomic sequence data revealed an increase in abundance of genes involved in denitrification pathways in samples that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s benchmarks for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with those that did not. Importantly, these data demonstrate that the indigenous sediment microbiota contributed an important ecosystem service for remediation of oil in the Gulf. However, PAHs were more recalcitrant to degradation, and their persistence could have deleterious impacts on the sediment ecosystem. PMID:24451203

  18. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Scott, Nicole M; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Bælum, Jacob; Kimbrel, Jeffrey; Bouskill, Nicholas J; Prestat, Emmanuel; Borglin, Sharon; Joyner, Dominique C; Fortney, Julian L; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Stringfellow, William T; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Hazen, Terry C; Knight, Rob; Gilbert, Jack A; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of ∼4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities in surface sediments collected at 64 sites by targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of 14 of these samples and mineralization experiments using (14)C-labeled model substrates. The 16S rRNA gene data indicated that the most heavily oil-impacted sediments were enriched in an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium and a Colwellia species, both of which were highly similar to sequences in the DWH deep-sea hydrocarbon plume. The primary drivers in structuring the microbial community were nitrogen and hydrocarbons. Annotation of unassembled metagenomic data revealed the most abundant hydrocarbon degradation pathway encoded genes involved in degrading aliphatic and simple aromatics via butane monooxygenase. The activity of key hydrocarbon degradation pathways by sediment microbes was confirmed by determining the mineralization of (14)C-labeled model substrates in the following order: propylene glycol, dodecane, toluene and phenanthrene. Further, analysis of metagenomic sequence data revealed an increase in abundance of genes involved in denitrification pathways in samples that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s benchmarks for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with those that did not. Importantly, these data demonstrate that the indigenous sediment microbiota contributed an important ecosystem service for remediation of oil in the Gulf. However, PAHs were more recalcitrant to degradation, and their persistence could have deleterious impacts on the sediment ecosystem.

  19. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    PubMed

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills.

  1. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  2. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Modelling of oil spills in confined maritime basins: The case for early response in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Panagiotakis, Costas; Radhakrishnan, Hari

    2015-11-01

    Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. Based on these results, we support the use of chemical dispersants in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. As a corollary, we show shoreline susceptibility to vary depending on: a) differences in coastline morphology and exposure to wave action, b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools, and c) the presence of tourist and protected environmental areas. Mitigation work should take into account the relatively high susceptibility of parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  4. 40 CFR 112.22 - Temporary Suspension of Response Planning Level Requirements to Support Deepwater Horizon Spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION...— (1) Any facility described in § 112.20 of this part, who has contracted with any oil spill...

  5. Oil spill response exercise in the port of New York and New Jersey on April 14, 1994. Evaluation report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-23

    USCG Captain of the Port New York, the first USCG District Commander, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy, Barber International, Moran Services Corp., and SMCO Service Inc. conducted a Preparedness for Response Evaluation Program (PREP) oil spill exercise in the Port of New York/New Jersey on April 14, 1994. Its design and execution involved the use of the Unified Command concept, a national Oil Spill Removal Organization, two States, and two Responsible Parties. The government and industry plans exercised in this event seemed to be effective and to meet all current regulatory requirements, and no fatal flaws became evident. This evaluation report identifies exercise objectives, provides a performance assessment of those objectives which were tested, identifies opportunities for exercise improvement, and offers recommendations to improve the PREP process.

  6. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  7. Modeling reservoir density underflow and interflow from a chemical spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, R.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Wang, P.-F.

    1996-01-01

    An integral simulation model has been developed for understanding and simulating the process of a density current and the transport of spilled chemicals in a stratified reservoir. The model is capable of describing flow behavior and mixing mechanisms in different flow regimes (plunging flow, underflow, and interflow). It computes flow rate, velocity, flow thickness, mixing parameterized by entrainment and dilution, depths of plunging, separation and intrusion, and time of travel. The model was applied to the Shasta Reservoir in northern California during the July 1991 Sacramento River chemical spill. The simulations were used to assist in the emergency response, confirm remediation measures, and guide data collection. Spill data that were available after the emergency response are used to conduct a postaudit of the model results. Predicted flow parameters are presented and compared with observed interflow intrusion depth, travel time, and measured concentrations of spilled chemicals. In the reservoir, temperature difference between incoming river flow and ambient lake water played a dominant role during the processes of flow plunging, separation, and intrusion. With the integral approach, the gross flow behavior can be adequately described and information useful in the analysis of contaminated flow in a reservoir after a spill is provided.

  8. Economic impacts of the S. S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill.

  9. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michelle L.; Hopkins, William A.; Hallagan, John J.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations of Cu, Hg, Se and Zn in 2011, but greater concentrations only of Se in 2012, in comparison to reference colonies. The concentrations of elements were below levels of significant toxicological concern in both years. In 2011, we found no relationship between exposure to elements associated with the spill and basal or stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in nestlings. In 2012, we found that Se exposure was not associated with cell-mediated immunity based on the response to phytohaemagglutinin injection. However, the bactericidal capacity of nestling plasma had a positive but weak association with blood Se concentrations, and this association was stronger at the spill site. Our results indicate that exposure to these low concentrations of elements had few effects on nestling endocrine and immune physiology. The long-term health consequences of low-level exposure to elements and of exposure to greater element concentrations in avian species require additional study. PMID:27293639

  10. The economy of oil spills: direct and indirect costs as a function of spill size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2009-11-15

    As a rational basis for addressing both ecological and economic consequences of oil spills, a combination of simulating and estimating methods is proposed in this paper. An integration of the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with economic assessment method leads to realistic oil spill scenarios including their biological and economic impacts and the effort taken for combat as well as to an estimate for the total oil spill costs. In order to derive a simple function of total costs depending on few spill characteristics such as size, a number of hypothetical scenarios are simulated and evaluated for the German North Sea area. Results reveal that response costs of per unit oil spilled as well as integrated costs of oil released are simply characterized as two particular power-law functions of spill size. Such relationships can be straightforward transferred into decision making for efficient prevention and combat strategy in the study area.

  11. Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zoric, J P

    1989-02-01

    Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

  12. Oxidative stress responses of gulf killifish exposed to hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Potential implications for aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi M; Newton, Joseph C; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Calvin

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain under investigation following the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fundulus grandis, an established indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, was investigated because this species shares genes and biochemical pathways with higher trophic-level fish and plays an important role in the gulf food chain. Oxidative stress responses including hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and serum antioxidant capacity were evaluated in fish exposed to PAHs. Fish were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil (7.0  ± 0.10 mg/L C6-C28) after which solutions were diluted below the level of detection over 8 h using 15 ppt aerated artificial seawater. Before euthanasia, fish remained in aquaria for 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h. Three replicate experiments were conducted at each time point using unexposed fish as experimental controls. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in CYP1A induction were observed in exposed versus control fish at 24 h. Expression of CYP1A increased by 25%, 66%, and 23% in exposed fish at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. Significant increases were observed in antioxidant capacity of nonenzymatic antioxidants in exposed versus control fish at each time point. Given the activity of CYP1A, radicals formed during PAH detoxification likely resulted in increased oxidant load requiring elevated antioxidant defenses. Research is needed to determine the duration of oxidative stress responses considering the potential for lipid oxidation in exposed fish or species feeding on exposed fish.

  13. Monitoring and combating chemcial spills on the lower Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Koffskey, W.

    1996-11-01

    The lower Mississippi River is one of the most traversed rivers in the world and is the location of numerous petrochemical and industrial complexes. Due to the high volume of river traffic and the continuous effluent discharges of the industrial facilities, chemical spills occur at frequent intervals. Because of the time constraints for the detection of and response to chemical spills resulting from the compact design of Jefferson Parish`s upflow sludge blanket clarifiers, normal esthetic detection of these spills was not always effective in preventing the spill from entering the distribution system resulting in drinking water which was esthetically unacceptable. To resolve this dilemma, a two-fold approach was required which consisted of a continually maintained protective barrier and continuous monitoring. The protective barrier was created by continuously feeding 2 Mg/L of powderded activated carbon (PAC) at the head of each plant which allowed active PAC to be concentrated in the upflow sludge blanket clarifiers to levels of 100 - 200 mg/L. In order to provide continuous monitoring, an online organic spill monitor was required which (1) continuously measured the level of esthetically detectable organic substances in the influent raw water process, and (2) had a detection limit which was well below the esthetic detection limit of most organic compounds. While several commercially available on-line monitors were evaluated, none were found to be effective. An evaluation of the types of chemicals causing esthetic problems during spill events indicated that most of these compounds were conjugated and purgeable. Subsequently, our Water Quality Laboratory developed a spill monitor which met the above criteria employing a gas chromatography photoionization detector with a detection limit of less than 1 ug/L for most conjugated purgeable organic substances.

  14. Indirect assessment of economic damages from the Prestige oil spill: consequences for liability and risk prevention.

    PubMed

    Garza, María Dolores; Prada, Albino; Varela, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Xosé Vázquez

    2009-03-01

    The social losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed the compensation granted under the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation) system, with losses estimated at 15 times more than the applicable limit of compensations. This is far above the level of costs for which those responsible for hydrocarbons spills are liable. The highest market losses correspond to sectors of extraction, elaboration and commercialisation of seafood. However, damages to non-commercial natural resources could constitute an outstanding group of losses for which further primary data are needed: these losses would only be compensable under the current system by means of a refund for cleaning and restoration costs. Results show that, in Europe, the responsibility for oil spills in maritime transport is limited and unclear. The consequence of this is net social losses from recurrent oil spills and internationally accepted incentives for risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons.

  15. Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.

    1984-11-01

    A Field Guide for Oil Spill Behavior was developed to provide the On-Scene Coordinator with the spill-behavior information needed to assess whether timely and adequate containment and removal actions are taken. The field guide describes arctic ice conditions, the physical properties of oil as it weathers, oil spill behavior in cold water and ice conditions, and spill retention potential for the Alaskan shore line. The guide then uses six spill scenarios to show the user how to apply spill behavior information to solve real-world problems.

  16. Lack of physiological responses to hydrocarbon accumulation by Mytilus trossulus after 3-4 years chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R E; Brodersen, C; Carls, M G; Babcock, M; Rice, S D

    1999-01-01

    Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1992 and 1993 from beaches in Prince William Sound that had been oiled by the Exxon Valdez spill of March, 1989. At some of the oiled beaches, mussels were collected from beds overlying oiled sediments, and from bedrock adjacent to these beds. Mussels were also collected from beaches within the Sound that had not been impacted by the spill. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, and glycogen content), were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 0 to 6 micrograms g-1, and were significantly greater in mussels from oiled beds than those from reference beds. No significant differences were noted in byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, or glycogen content between oiled sample sites and reference sites. The lack of physiological response was surprising because mussels in this study were chronically exposed to PAH for 3-4 years, and none of the physiological responses measured appeared to be affected by that exposure. The lack of a physiological response suggests that chronically exposed mussels may develop a physiological tolerance to PAH, but we recognize that these measures may not have been sensitive enough to discriminate response from background noise.

  17. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  18. Phytoplankton and the Macondo oil spill: A comparison of the 2010 phytoplankton assemblage to baseline conditions on the Louisiana shelf.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M L; Morrison, W; Rabalais, N N; Turner, R E; Tyre, K N

    2015-12-01

    The Macondo oil spill was likely the largest oil spill to ever occur in United States territorial waters. We report herein our findings comparing the available baseline phytoplankton data from coastal waters west of the Mississippi River, and samples collected monthly from the same sampling stations, during and after the oil spill (May-October, 2010). Our results indicate that overall, the phytoplankton abundance was 85% lower in 2010 versus the baseline, and that the species composition of the phytoplankton community moved towards diatoms and cyanobacteria and away from ciliates and phytoflagellates. The results of this study reaffirm the view that phytoplankton responses will vary by the seasonal timing of the oil spill and the specific composition of the spilled oil. The trophic impacts of the purported lower abundance of phytoplankton in 2010 coupled with the observed assemblage shift remain unknown.

  19. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program.

  20. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and

  1. Electrobioremediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Aulenta, Federico; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Franzetti, Andrea; Arends, Jan B A; Sherry, Angela; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-05-01

    Annually, thousands of oil spills occur across the globe. As a result, petroleum substances and petrochemical compounds are widespread contaminants causing concern due to their toxicity and recalcitrance. Many remediation strategies have been developed using both physicochemical and biological approaches. Biological strategies are most benign, aiming to enhance microbial metabolic activities by supplying limiting inorganic nutrients, electron acceptors or donors, thus stimulating oxidation or reduction of contaminants. A key issue is controlling the supply of electron donors/acceptors. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged, in which an electrical current serves as either electron donor or acceptor for oil spill bioremediation. BES are highly controllable and can possibly also serve as biosensors for real time monitoring of the degradation process. Despite being promising, multiple aspects need to be considered to make BES suitable for field applications including system design, electrode materials, operational parameters, mode of action and radius of influence. The microbiological processes, involved in bioelectrochemical contaminant degradation, are currently not fully understood, particularly in relation to electron transfer mechanisms. Especially in sulfate rich environments, the sulfur cycle appears pivotal during hydrocarbon oxidation. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the research on bioelectrochemical remediation of oil spills and of the key parameters involved in the process.

  2. Automatic Calculation of Oil Slick Area from Multiple SAR Acquisitions for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoğlu, B.; Özkan, C.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band), Envisat ASAR (C-band) and Alos-PALSAR (L-band) sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days) allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  3. A New Approach of Oil Spill Detection Using Time-Resolved LIF Combined with Parallel Factors Analysis for Laser Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Deqing; Luan, Xiaoning; Guo, Jinjia; Cui, Tingwei; An, Jubai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-01-01

    In hope of developing a method for oil spill detection in laser remote sensing, a series of refined and crude oil samples were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence in conjunction with parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC). The time resolved emission spectra of those investigated samples were taken by a laser remote sensing system on a laboratory basis with a detection distance of 5 m. Based on the intensity-normalized spectra, both refined and crude oil samples were well classified without overlapping, by the approach of PARAFAC with four parallel factors. Principle component analysis (PCA) has also been operated as a comparison. It turned out that PCA operated well in classification of broad oil type categories, but with severe overlapping among the crude oil samples from different oil wells. Apart from the high correct identification rate, PARAFAC has also real-time capabilities, which is an obvious advantage especially in field applications. The obtained results suggested that the approach of time-resolved fluorescence combined with PARAFAC would be potentially applicable in oil spill field detection and identification. PMID:27563899

  4. A New Approach of Oil Spill Detection Using Time-Resolved LIF Combined with Parallel Factors Analysis for Laser Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deqing; Luan, Xiaoning; Guo, Jinjia; Cui, Tingwei; An, Jubai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-08-23

    In hope of developing a method for oil spill detection in laser remote sensing, a series of refined and crude oil samples were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence in conjunction with parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC). The time resolved emission spectra of those investigated samples were taken by a laser remote sensing system on a laboratory basis with a detection distance of 5 m. Based on the intensity-normalized spectra, both refined and crude oil samples were well classified without overlapping, by the approach of PARAFAC with four parallel factors. Principle component analysis (PCA) has also been operated as a comparison. It turned out that PCA operated well in classification of broad oil type categories, but with severe overlapping among the crude oil samples from different oil wells. Apart from the high correct identification rate, PARAFAC has also real-time capabilities, which is an obvious advantage especially in field applications. The obtained results suggested that the approach of time-resolved fluorescence combined with PARAFAC would be potentially applicable in oil spill field detection and identification.

  5. Risk assessment of oil spills along the Mediterranean coast: A sensitivity analysis of the choice of hazard quantification.

    PubMed

    Al Shami, A; Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Bruschi, D; Garcia, D Astiaso; El-Fadel, M

    2017-01-01

    Oil pollution in the Mediterranean represents a serious threat to the coastal environment. Quantifying the risks associated with a potential spill is often based on results generated from oil spill models. In this study, MEDSLIK-II, an EU funded and endorsed oil spill model, is used to assess potential oil spill scenarios at four pilot areas located along the northern, eastern, and southern Mediterranean shoreline, providing a wide range of spill conditions and coastal geomorphological characteristics. Oil spill risk assessment at the four pilot areas was quantified as a function of three oil pollution metrics that include the susceptibility of oiling per beach segment, the average volume of oiling expected in the event of beaching, and the average oil beaching time. The results show that while the three pollution metrics tend to agree in their hazard characterization when the shoreline morphology is simple, considerable differences in the quantification of the associated hazard is possible under complex coastal morphologies. These differences proved to greatly alter the evaluation of environmental risks. An integrative hazard index is proposed that encompasses the three simulated pollution metrics. The index promises to shed light on oil spill hazards that can be universally applied across the Mediterranean basin by integrating it with the unified oil spill risk assessment tool developed by the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean (REMPEC).

  6. Social conflict and the formation of emergent groups in a technological disaster: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and the response of residents in the area of Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    To date there has been a paucity of research on the formation of emergent groups in the wake of technological disasters. A majority of researchers have contended that whereas natural disasters engender social cohesion and stimulate the formation of emergent groups, technological disasters have the tendency to constrain such formation because of the social conflict which follows in the wake of a technological disaster. This thesis challenges that assumption and examines both the nature of the social conflict and the formation of emergent groups that occurred in the aftermath of this country's largest environmental disaster: the Exxon Valdez oil spill. An anthropological perspective is employed. The investigator examines the formation of such groups in the area of Homer, Alaska. The differential response to the disaster and the ensuing social conflict is examined by a combination of participant-observation methods, formal and informal, in-depth interviews, and archival records. This investigation reveals that although there was considerable social conflict, there was also sufficient social cohesion to promote the formation of emergent group responses to the oil spill and the cleanup that followed. Moreover, it finds that the resultant conflict and the formation of such groups was attributable in part to a widely reported sense of a loss of control' and considerable uncertainty about many of the facts' surrounding the spill. This included uncertainty about who was ultimately in control of the cleanup and which clean-up technologies and remediation efforts were most urgent and useful. This thesis concludes that, contrary to the expectations of most social scientists, emergent groups can form in the wake of a technological disaster. Moreover, given the sense of urgency and the common perception of disaster victims that authorities are both unable and unwilling to respond to disasters, the formation of such groups is inevitable.

  7. Oil Spill Risk Analysis Model and Its Application to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Johnson, W. R.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) model plays an essential role in analyzing oil spill risks in the U.S. continental shelf for the U.S. federal government. The OSRA model is driven by analyzed sea surface winds and model-generated ocean surface currents. Instead of focusing on individual oil spill events, the OSRA model examines oil spill risks over long periods of time, ranging from 5 years to decades. The OSRA model calculates thousands of hypothetical oil spill trajectories over U.S. continental shelf and tabulates the frequencies with which the simulated oil spills contact the geographic boundaries of designated natural resources within a specified number of days after the simulated spill events. As a result of a three-year effort, the model was completely updated and improved to meet the new challenges in the oil spill risk analyses. The updated OSRA model is more efficient in terms of computational time, is capable of producing results that are consistent with our previous analyses, and is more user-friendly by incorporating GIS tools. The combination of code parallelization, code optimization, and I/O optimization has greatly improved the computational efficiency. Applying the model to the Gulf of Mexico using 15 years of ocean currents and winds, we find that the newly improved OSRA model can provide important information on the behavior of oil spills more accurately and efficiently. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is unique and unprecedented in the Gulf of Mexico. Approximated 4.9 million barrels of oil were spilled into the U.S. water. The statistical patterns and results from the OSRA model are being compared with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Findings from this study will help in assessing the oil spill risks in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Adult chinook salmon passage at Little Goose Dam in relation to spill operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepson, M.A.; Caudill , C.C.; Clabough, T.S.; Peery, C.A.; Beeman, J.W.; Fielding, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spill patterns at Little Goose Dam in 2007 were modified in anticipation of a spillway weir installation intended to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. However, in spill pattern was associated with reduced daily counts of adult salmon passing the dam. Consequently, the behaviors and upstream passage times of radio-tagged adult spring–summer Chinook salmon were evaluated in response to three spillway discharge patterns at Little Goose Dam during 2008. Simultaneously, tailrace conditions were characterized by monitoring the downstream paths of GPS-equipped drogues. Two of the spill treatments (i.e., Bulk and Alternate) were variations of patterns thought to mimic those produced if a spillway weir was installed. The third treatment (Uniform) was characterized by spilling similar volumes of water through most spillbays.

  9. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  10. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  14. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  15. Question of uncertainty : Transitioning from hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty is highlighted in the case of the oil spill. Hurricane is considered a known factor that people are used to and know how to handle. This uncertainty is primarily attributed to the magnitude of the spill. As the largest spill in the U.S., the long-term effects of the spill are difficult to assess. Uncertainty, however, has more to do with the novelty of the disaster and the accompanying regulatory change than the specific characteristics of this spill such as the size and longevity of the spill. The unfamiliarity with the Oil Pollution Act results in a lack of knowledge and uncertainty about local and state responses to the spill. The unpreparedness and unfamiliarity of this spill accompanied by different regulations underlie people's sense of uncertainty. This paper examines coastal Louisiana's shift from frequent hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, particularly focusing on the effects of changed regulations from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act. It documents how the federal, state, and local governments adjust, and discusses the shifting emphasis to the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. One assumption is that people's established ways of behavior are commonly shaped by their previous experience of disasters, but this can paradoxically hinder their timely adaptation to new or different, high- impact environmental change. This leads to testing the hypothesis whether greater vulnerabilities result from adaptations to previous and well-known disasters. Results: The structural differences in regulations dictate the way governments and communities respond and adapt to the oil spill. The new set of regulations during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill unlike the ones during hurricanes served as barriers to adaptation. Governments at federal, state, and local levels had difficulties adjusting to new rules and changed authorities, and they, in turn, generated uncertainty and

  16. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. 28 CFR 542.18 - Response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Response time. 542.18 Section 542.18... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.18 Response time. If accepted, a Request or Appeal is... later than the third calendar day after filing. If the time period for response to a Request or...

  18. 28 CFR 542.18 - Response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Response time. 542.18 Section 542.18... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.18 Response time. If accepted, a Request or Appeal is... later than the third calendar day after filing. If the time period for response to a Request or...

  19. 28 CFR 542.18 - Response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Response time. 542.18 Section 542.18... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.18 Response time. If accepted, a Request or Appeal is... later than the third calendar day after filing. If the time period for response to a Request or...

  20. 28 CFR 542.18 - Response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Response time. 542.18 Section 542.18... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.18 Response time. If accepted, a Request or Appeal is... later than the third calendar day after filing. If the time period for response to a Request or...

  1. Large Oil Spill Classification Using SAR Images Based on Spatial Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schvartzman, I.; Havivi, S.; Maman, S.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010). The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data.

  2. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  3. Synergistic use of an oil drift model and remote sensing observations for oil spill monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Padova, Diana; Mossa, Michele; Adamo, Maria; De Carolis, Giacomo; Pasquariello, Guido

    2017-02-01

    In case of oil spills due to disasters, one of the environmental concerns is the oil trajectories and spatial distribution. To meet these new challenges, spill response plans need to be upgraded. An important component of such a plan would be models able to simulate the behaviour of oil in terms of trajectories and spatial distribution, if accidentally released, in deep water. All these models need to be calibrated with independent observations. The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate that significant support to oil slick monitoring can be obtained by the synergistic use of oil drift models and remote sensing observations. Based on transport properties and weathering processes, oil drift models can indeed predict the fate of spilled oil under the action of water current velocity and wind in terms of oil position, concentration and thickness distribution. The oil spill event that occurred on 31 May 2003 in the Baltic Sea offshore the Swedish and Danish coasts is considered a case study with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. The High-Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) is used for atmospheric forcing. The results of the numerical modelling of current speed and water surface elevation data are validated by measurements carried out in Kalmarsund, Simrishamn and Kungsholmsfort stations over a period of 18 days and 17 h. The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model. Near-infrared (NIR) satellite images were compared with numerical simulations. The simulation was able to predict both the oil spill trajectories of the observed slick and thickness distribution. Therefore, this work shows how oil drift modelling and remotely sensed data can provide the right synergy to reproduce the timing and transport of the oil and to get reliable estimates of thicknesses of spilled oil to prepare an emergency plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in case of oil spills due

  4. Oil spill detection using hyperspectral infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Tang, Wei; Tang, Xin; Yue, Song; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2016-11-01

    Oil spill pollution is a severe environmental problem that persists in the marine environment and in inland water systems around the world. Remote sensing is an important part of oil spill response. The hyperspectral images can not only provide the space information but also the spectral information. Pixels of interests generally incorporate information from disparate component that requires quantitative decomposition of these pixels to extract desired information. Oil spill detection can be implemented by applying hyperspectral camera which can collect the hyperspectral data of the oil. By extracting desired spectral signature from hundreds of band information, one can detect and identify oil spill area in vast geographical regions. There are now numerous hyperspectral image processing algorithms developed for target detection. In this paper, we investigate several most widely used target detection algorithm for the identification of surface oil spills in ocean environment. In the experiments, we applied a hyperspectral camera to collect the real life oil spill. The experimental results shows the feasibility of oil spill detection using hyperspectral imaging and the performance of hyperspectral image processing algorithms were also validated.

  5. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  6. On understanding and predicting groundwater response time.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Marios

    2012-01-01

    An aquifer system, when perturbed, has a tendency to evolve to a new equilibrium, a process that can take from just a few seconds to possibly millions of years. The time scale on which a system adjusts to a new equilibrium is often referred to as "response time" or "lag time." Because groundwater response time affects the physical and economic viability of various management options in a basin, natural resource managers are increasingly interested in incorporating it into policy. However, the processes of how groundwater responds to land-use change are not well understood, making it difficult to predict the timing of groundwater response to such change. The difficulty in estimating groundwater response time is further compounded because the data needed to quantify this process are not usually readily available. This article synthesizes disparate pieces of information on aquifer response times into a relatively brief but hopefully comprehensive review that the community of water professionals can use to better assess the impact of aquifer response time in future groundwater management investigations. A brief exposition on dimensional/scaling analysis is presented first, followed by an overview of aquifer response time for simplified aquifer systems. The aquifer response time is considered first from a water-quantity viewpoint and later expanded to incorporate groundwater age and water-quality aspects. Monitoring programs today, as well as water policies and regulations, should address this issue of aquifer response time so that more realistic management expectations can be reached.

  7. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  8. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  9. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  10. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  11. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  12. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  13. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE... oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if...

  14. Assessments and improvements in methods for monitoring seafood safety in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; DeJager, Lowri; Begley, Timothy

    2013-04-10

    As a result of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sensory testing protocols were established for reopening closed seafood harvest areas. In order to improve this method and quantitatively assess petrochemical taint, a new method using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and a 5975T transportable GC/MS was developed. This method can analyze 40 samples per instrument per day and could be an alternative to the human sensory panel. In seafood samples collected from supermarkets in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico, all compounds related to petrochemical taint were below the method detection limit (MDL) (0.14-2.6 ng/g). Additionally, to address consumer concerns regarding the presence of n-alkanes and iso-alkanes in seafood, these compounds were investigated in samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations in Gulf of Mexico finfish ranged from 0.066 to 1.2 mg/kg, which is within the same background range of iso- and n-alkanes measured in seafood samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area (0.0072-1.6 μg/g). These automated methods provide a transportable option to obtain rapid results for compounds indicative of petroleum taint and iso- and n-alkanes in case of a future disaster.

  15. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  16. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  17. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  18. Exxon Valdez Spill Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1989, the oil tanker struck Bligh Reef and spilled over 11 million gallons of crude oil. The spill was the largest in U.S. history and tested the abilities of local, national, and industrial organizations to prepare for and respond to such a disaster.

  19. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  20. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  1. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    PubMed

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur.

  2. Tracking responses to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill using trace elements in molluscan shells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Goodwin, D.

    2010-12-01

    Documenting the effects of modern stressors on coastal benthic marine communities requires a combination of baseline historical data and modern dynamic data. E.g., landfall of hydrocarbons from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig and well explosion in the Gulf of Mexico is impacting coastal areas long affected by natural seepage, as well as petroleum exploration and development. In Louisiana, exploration in coastal areas that began in the 1920s expanded greatly with the development of the first mobile drilling barge in 1933. In total nearly 50,000 wells have been drilled in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1930s. Given this historical context, we are assessing pathways and rates at which crude oil components from the 2010 spill are incorporated into northern Gulf of Mexico coastal food webs. Sclerochronological techniques are being used to unlock the high-resolution physical and chemical records preserved within mollusc shells. We are analyzing historical specimens collected from the late 19th through late 20th centuries, baseline specimens collected in May 2010 in Louisiana and Alabama before visible hydrocarbons were present, and specimens collected in August 2010 after hydrocarbons made landfall. We are examining changes in life history traits (growth rate, recruitment, mortality, reproduction) of the commercial oyster Crassostrea virginica, and other common, co-occurring molluscs that are primary and secondary consumers in Gulf of Mexico coastal food webs. The taxa include the marsh-dwelling gastropod Littoraria irrorata and mussel Geukensia demissa, and open-water species including the bivalves Ischadium recurvum and Tellina alternata. These consumers range from epifaunal, sessile, filter feeders; to infaunal, mobile, deposit feeders; to epifaunal, mobile, omnivorous grazers. In this way, multiple potential pathways into coastal food webs are being monitored. Because environmental perturbations of many scales are recorded by the accretionary growth of mollusc shells

  3. Silicon Timing Response to Particles and Light

    SciTech Connect

    Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is observed growing interest to fast timing detectors in high energy physics, related, for example, with collider luminosity increase (LHC) [1]. The options of CMS [2] calorimeter upgrade based on silicon detectors renewed interest to the timing study of this type of detectors. The article is devoted to study of silicon timing response to particles and light.

  4. Genomic and physiological footprint of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident marsh fishes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Dubansky, Benjamin; Bodinier, Charlotte; Garcia, Tzintzuni I; Miles, Scott; Pilley, Chet; Raghunathan, Vandana; Roach, Jennifer L; Walker, Nan; Walter, Ronald B; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-12-11

    The biological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are unknown, especially for resident organisms. Here, we report results from a field study tracking the effects of contaminating oil across space and time in resident killifish during the first 4 mo of the spill event. Remote sensing and analytical chemistry identified exposures, which were linked to effects in fish characterized by genome expression and associated gill immunohistochemistry, despite very low concentrations of hydrocarbons remaining in water and tissues. Divergence in genome expression coincides with contaminating oil and is consistent with genome responses that are predictive of exposure to hydrocarbon-like chemicals and indicative of physiological and reproductive impairment. Oil-contaminated waters are also associated with aberrant protein expression in gill tissues of larval and adult fish. These data suggest that heavily weathered crude oil from the spill imparts significant biological impacts in sensitive Louisiana marshes, some of which remain for over 2 mo following initial exposures.

  5. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Garagnani, Michele; Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias). All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question), shutting it down (creating a neutral question), or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question). For CRT questions, the differences in response times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower), evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and response times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used them as controls in regression analysis. PMID:27713710

  6. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  7. Ecological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Bogota, Columbia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in US History, with nearly 800 million liters spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities, protected species, over 1600 km o...

  8. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  9. Response time for multilayered platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Response time constants for several multilayered temperature transducers were determined numerically by using Martin Marietta's MITAS software package which is available at NASA Langley Research Center. Present results were found in close agreement with the solutions reported in the literature, thus, the capability of MITAS was justified. On the basis of experiences gained, the MITAS is recommended for use in predicting the response time constants of sensors by an in-situ technique.

  10. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  11. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  14. Towards an operational system for oil-spill forecast over Spanish waters: initial developments and implementation test.

    PubMed

    Sotillo, M G; Fanjul, E Alvarez; Castanedo, S; Abascal, A J; Menendez, J; Emelianov, M; Olivella, R; García-Ladona, E; Ruiz-Villarreal, M; Conde, J; Gómez, M; Conde, P; Gutierrez, A D; Medina, R

    2008-04-01

    The ESEOO Project, launched after the Prestige crisis, has boosted operational oceanography capacities in Spain, creating new operational oceanographic services and increasing synergies between these new operational tools and already existing systems. In consequence, the present preparedness to face an oil-spill crisis is enhanced, significantly improving the operational response regarding ocean, meteorological and oil-spill monitoring and forecasting. A key aspect of this progress has been the agreement between the scientific community and the Spanish Search and Rescue Institution (SASEMAR), significantly favoured within the ESEOO framework. Important achievements of this collaboration are: (1) the design of protocols that at the crisis time provide operational state-of-the-art information, derived from both forecasting and observing systems; (2) the establishment, in case of oil-spill crisis, of a new specialized unit, named USyP, to monitor and forecast the marine oceanographic situation, providing the required met-ocean and oil-spill information for the crisis managers. The oil-spill crisis scenario simulated during the international search and rescue Exercise "Gijón-2006", organized by SASEMAR, represented an excellent opportunity to test the capabilities and the effectiveness of this USyP unit, as well as the protocols established to analyze and transfer information. The results presented in this work illustrate the effectiveness of the operational approach, and constitute an encouraging and improved base to face oil-spill crisis.

  15. After the Prestige oil spill modifications in NO production and other parameters related to the immune response were detected in hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-12-30

    In marine mollusks, many physiologic functions are regulated seasonally depending on such factors as the reproductive cycle or the presence of food. The synthesis of nitric oxide by hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis is among the multiple physiologic actions in the immune response, and it is also affected by season. The maximal basal production of NO by hemocytes of M. galloprovincialis was detected in summer, whereas the minimum values were detected in winter. In winter, the presence of IL-2 induced an increase in NO production that was not detected in summer. Three months after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), basal NO production by the hemocytes of mussels in the Galician coast showed a progressive decrease and stopping, both in summer and in winter. The characteristic increase of NO synthesis induced by IL-2 in winter also disappeared all through 2003 and 2004. The two different nitric oxide synthases previously identified by immunoblotting between 1999 and 2002 were undetectable in both 2003 and 2004. When comparing the data obtained during 2003 and 2004 to those obtained in previous years, an increase in the proportion of SH cells was detected. Also, these cells showed a higher sensitivity to apoptosis- and necrosis-inducing agents than in earlier years.

  16. Geochemical and isotopic time series of oil deposited in Barataria Bay and on Grand Isle, Louisiana, after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Schimmelmann, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present time-series of bulk hydrocarbon geochemical and compound specific isotopic data of oiled and tarry sediment deposits from Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Samples were taken between 46 days and 694 days after the Macondo well blowout, and analyzed for bulk hydrocarbon stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios, n-alkane and other organic molecular characteristics, ramped pyrolysis stable carbon ratios and radiocarbon content, and compound specific isotope analysis. Bulk and compound specific stable hydrogen isotopes point to slight 2H-enrichment attributable to water washing during transport to Grand Isle and Barataria Bay, followed by more subtle changes after deposition that depended in part on the wave energy available locally. Characterization of the n-alkane distributions through time identified subtle shifts in the dominant n-alkanes from water washing and terrestrial degradation. The loss of high molecular weight n-alkanes and an increase in the unresolved complex mixture after day 337 is consistent with a shift from slight to moderate biodegradation. More significant variations were observed in elemental H:C ratios, whereas bulk stable carbon isotope values showed small increases through time. Ramped pyrolysis analyses illustrated relatively volatile and reactive petroleum-derived components were present during the first year following the spill, but they ultimately became less apparent during later sampling. Isotope results from different ramped pyrolysis components are discussed. Compound specific isotope analysis indicate that a combination of variables (e.g., tidal water washing and biodegradation) may impact degradation during the first 200 days. This period was followed by a mixing of Macondo and non-Macondo hydrocarbons in the environment. In sum, our analyses show the complementary roles of abiotic and biotic factors in degradation of the Deepwater Horizon oil that was deposited in different environments of coastal Louisiana.

  17. Oil Spills Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  18. Enabling science support for better decision-making when responding to chemical spills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weidhass, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Andrea M.; DeYonker, Nathan J.; Dupont, R. Ryan; Foreman, William T.; Gallagher, Daniel; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Whelton, Andrew J.; Alexander, William

    2016-01-01

    Chemical spills and accidents contaminate the environment and disrupt societies and economies around the globe. In the United States there were approximately 172,000 chemical spills that affected US waterbodies from 2004 to 2014. More than 8000 of these spills involved non–petroleum-related chemicals. Traditional emergency responses or incident command structures (ICSs) that respond to chemical spills require coordinated efforts by predominantly government personnel from multiple disciplines, including disaster management, public health, and environmental protection. However, the requirements of emergency response teams for science support might not be met within the traditional ICS. We describe the US ICS as an example of emergency-response approaches to chemical spills and provide examples in which external scientific support from research personnel benefitted the ICS emergency response, focusing primarily on nonpetroleum chemical spills. We then propose immediate, near-term, and long-term activities to support the response to chemical spills, focusing on nonpetroleum chemical spills. Further, we call for science support for spill prevention and near-term spill-incident response and identify longer-term research needs. The development of a formal mechanism for external science support of ICS from governmental and nongovernmental scientists would benefit rapid responders, advance incident- and crisis-response science, and aid society in coping with and recovering from chemical spills.

  19. Enabling Science Support for Better Decision-Making when Responding to Chemical Spills.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Andrea M; DeYonker, Nathan J; Ryan Dupont, R; Foreman, William T; Gallagher, Daniel; Gallagher, Jennifer E G; Whelton, Andrew J; Alexander, William A

    2016-09-01

    Chemical spills and accidents contaminate the environment and disrupt societies and economies around the globe. In the United States there were approximately 172,000 chemical spills that affected US waterbodies from 2004 to 2014. More than 8000 of these spills involved non-petroleum-related chemicals. Traditional emergency responses or incident command structures (ICSs) that respond to chemical spills require coordinated efforts by predominantly government personnel from multiple disciplines, including disaster management, public health, and environmental protection. However, the requirements of emergency response teams for science support might not be met within the traditional ICS. We describe the US ICS as an example of emergency-response approaches to chemical spills and provide examples in which external scientific support from research personnel benefitted the ICS emergency response, focusing primarily on nonpetroleum chemical spills. We then propose immediate, near-term, and long-term activities to support the response to chemical spills, focusing on nonpetroleum chemical spills. Further, we call for science support for spill prevention and near-term spill-incident response and identify longer-term research needs. The development of a formal mechanism for external science support of ICS from governmental and nongovernmental scientists would benefit rapid responders, advance incident- and crisis-response science, and aid society in coping with and recovering from chemical spills.

  20. Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigmile, Peter F.; Peruggia, Mario; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2010-01-01

    Human response time (RT) data are widely used in experimental psychology to evaluate theories of mental processing. Typically, the data constitute the times taken by a subject to react to a succession of stimuli under varying experimental conditions. Because of the sequential nature of the experiments there are trends (due to learning, fatigue,…

  1. Numerical simulation study on drift and diffusion of Dalian Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guosong; Xu, Shanshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Song

    2017-01-01

    Marine oil spill has long-term harmful impact on both marine ecosystem and economics. Recently as the increase in China’s rapid economic growth, the demand for energy is increasing, leading to the high risk of marine oil spill pollution. So it is essential that we improve emergency response capacity in marine oil spill pollution and develop oil spill prediction and early warning in China. In this study, based on Lagrange tracking approach, we have developed an oil spill model. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and hydrodynamic model, the oil spill model was applied to predict the drift and diffusion processes of Dalian oil spill. The predicted results are well agreed with the analyzed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image, and provided effective oil spill behaviour prediction to Shandong Maritime Safety Administration.

  2. FUEL CONSERVATION BY THE APPLICATION OF SPILL PREVENTION AND FAILSAFE ENGINEERING (A GUIDELINE MANUAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7;289,163 gallons of oil were accident~y discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a n~vigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Fe~eral workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the documen~ is offered as a spill prevention guide. The'manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or traqe association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  3. Mid-Term Probabilistic Forecast of Oil Spill Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanedo, S.; Abascal, A. J.; Cardenas, M.; Medina, R.; Guanche, Y.; Mendez, F. J.; Camus, P.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the threat posed by oil spills to the coastal environment. This is reflected in the promulgation of various national and international standards among which are those that require companies whose activities involves oil spill risk, to have oil pollution emergency plans or similar arrangements for responding promptly and effectively to oil pollution incidents. Operational oceanography systems (OOS) that provide decision makers with oil spill trajectory forecasting, have demonstrated their usefulness in recent accidents (Castanedo et al., 2006). In recent years, many national and regional OOS have been setup focusing on short-term oil spill forecast (up to 5 days). However, recent accidental marine oil spills (Prestige in Spain, Deep Horizon in Gulf of Mexico) have revealed the importance of having larger prediction horizons (up to 15 days) in regional-scale areas. In this work, we have developed a methodology to provide probabilistic oil spill forecast based on numerical modelling and statistical methods. The main components of this approach are: (1) Use of high resolution long-term (1948-2009) historical hourly data bases of wind, wind-induced currents and astronomical tide currents obtained using state-of-the-art numerical models; (2) classification of representative wind field patterns (n=100) using clustering techniques based on PCA and K-means algorithms (Camus et al., 2011); (3) determination of the cluster occurrence probability and the stochastic matrix (matrix of transition of probability or Markov matrix), p_ij, (probability of moving from a cluster "i" to a cluster "j" in one time step); (4) Initial state for mid-term simulations is obtained from available wind forecast using nearest-neighbors analog method; (5) 15-days Stochastic Markov Chain simulations (m=1000) are launched; (6) Corresponding oil spill trajectories are carried out by TESEO Lagrangian transport model (Abascal et al., 2009); (7) probability maps are

  4. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  5. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  6. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  7. A Ballistic Model of Choice Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott; Heathcote, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Almost all models of response time (RT) use a stochastic accumulation process. To account for the benchmark RT phenomena, researchers have found it necessary to include between-trial variability in the starting point and/or the rate of accumulation, both in linear (R. Ratcliff & J. N. Rouder, 1998) and nonlinear (M. Usher & J. L. McClelland, 2001)…

  8. RESPONSE TIMES IN DECISION-MAKING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAGLE, EVERETT F.; AND OTHERS

    THE HUMAN OPERATOR AFFECTS TOTAL PERFORMANCE OF SEMI-AUTOMATED SYSTEMS, BUT LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT HIS SOURCES OF ERROR, PARTICULARLY WITH RESPECT TO RESPONSE TIME. UNDER CONTROLLED LABORATORY CONDITIONS, 37 FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORE GIRLS ATTENDING JUNIOR COLLEGE WERE ASKED TO GUESS A SERIES OF RANDOM NUMBERS GENERATED BY AN ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM…

  9. Investigation of response time testing requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, V.I. ); Mayo, C.W. ); Weiss, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the Response Time Testing (RTT) Program was to determine if requirements for RTT could be eliminated for specific pressure and differential pressure transmitters and switches. This program was initiated when experience and historical data from a significant number of nuclear power plants indicated that, while RTT is both resource and exposure intensive, an insignificant number of pressure sensor failures have been detected through this type of testing. Assessment of plant response time data and performance of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on sensor hardware were the mechanisms used by the program to determine the redundancy of RTT in conjunction with other required periodic testing (e.g., calibrations, channel checks, surveillance tests). In general, the FMEA results indicated RTT is redundant to other periodic tests. Results of the program identified only two response time failure modes and two manufacturing/handling defects that may not concurrently affect sensor output. The two failure modes affect a limited number of sensor models. Appropriate testing has been identified in cases where response time degradation may not be coincident with significant sensor output change. 14 refs., 19 figs., 39 tabs.

  10. Walking with coffee: why does it spill?

    PubMed

    Mayer, H C; Krechetnikov, R

    2012-04-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. While often we spill the drink, this familiar phenomenon has never been explored systematically. Here we report on the results of an experimental study of the conditions under which coffee spills for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels in the cup. These observations are analyzed from the dynamical systems and fluid mechanics viewpoints as well as with the help of a model developed here. Particularities of the common cup sizes, the coffee properties, and the biomechanics of walking proved to be responsible for the spilling phenomenon. The studied problem represents an example of the interplay between the complex motion of a cup, due to the biomechanics of a walking individual, and the low-viscosity-liquid dynamics in it.

  11. Walking with coffee: Why does it spill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, H. C.; Krechetnikov, R.

    2012-04-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. While often we spill the drink, this familiar phenomenon has never been explored systematically. Here we report on the results of an experimental study of the conditions under which coffee spills for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels in the cup. These observations are analyzed from the dynamical systems and fluid mechanics viewpoints as well as with the help of a model developed here. Particularities of the common cup sizes, the coffee properties, and the biomechanics of walking proved to be responsible for the spilling phenomenon. The studied problem represents an example of the interplay between the complex motion of a cup, due to the biomechanics of a walking individual, and the low-viscosity-liquid dynamics in it.

  12. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities... Regional Supervisor a description of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate...

  13. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate a substantial threat of such...

  14. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters Seaward... of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate a substantial threat of such...

  15. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate a substantial threat of such...

  16. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters... of the steps you are taking to prevent spills of oil or mitigate a substantial threat of such...

  17. Response of benthic macrofauna to an oil pollution: Lessons from the “Prestige” oil spill on the rocky shore of Guéthary (south of the Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castège, Iker; Milon, Emilie; Pautrizel, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    The benthic community on the rocky foreshore of Guéthary (France) has been monitored since 2002. The standardized and quantitative monitoring method counts 20 geographically referenced quadrats spread on three littoral zones: upper mediolittoral, lower mediolittoral and infralittoral zones. The setting up of this monitoring occurred when the “Prestige” sunk close to the Finistere Cape in Galicia (Spain). The oil slick following the shipwreck impacted the Guéthary foreshore in early 2003. After the “Prestige” oil spill, the taxonomic richness decreased in the studied area with a loss of 16 species - from 57 in 2002 (before the shipwreck) to 41 species in 2004. Two or 3 years later, taxonomic richness increased to a level observed prior to the oil spill. Along the years, temporal variations in community structure of benthic macrofauna are revealed by detailed analysis. Some polluo-sensitive species disappeared after 2002 and have not reappeared yet (e.g.: Hymeniacidon perlevis). Some others reappeared two or three years after the spill or even later (e.g.: Amphipholis squamata, Botryllus schlosseri, Calliostoma zizyphinum, Echinus esculentus, etc.). Noteworthy changes were found in 2004 driven by the sudden increase in abundance of grazers. The following years, these abundances went back to a stable level. The benthic community seemed to recover almost 5 years later, although a new composition of macrofauna populations was observed. In overall aspect, the complexity of the benthic ecosystem response to oil spills confirms the need of regularly updated baselines to assess the impact of pollutions and more generally to maintain marine biodiversity.

  18. Patterns of Response Times and Response Choices to Science Questions: The Influence of Relative Processing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics…

  19. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  20. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  1. 40 CFR 265.196 - Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... release and, based upon that inspection: (1) Prevent further migration of the leak or spill to soils or surface water; and (2) Remove, and properly dispose of, any visible contamination of the soil or surface...; (ii) Characteristics of the surrounding soil (soil composition, geology, hydrogeology, climate);...

  2. 40 CFR 265.196 - Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems. A tank system or secondary... hazardous waste into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release. (b) Removal of waste from tank system or secondary containment system. (1) If...

  3. 40 CFR 264.196 - Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems. A tank system or secondary containment... into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release. (b) Removal of waste from tank system or secondary containment system. (1) If the...

  4. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  5. Deepwater Horizon – BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information and materials on EPA’s enforcement response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, including settlements with some of the defendants, as well as links to other related websites for additional information.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Edward W.; August, Charles

    1985-01-01

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, E.W.; August, C.

    1983-08-11

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  8. Binocular summation and peripheral visual response time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, K.; Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Six males were administered a peripheral visual response time test to the onset of brief small stimuli imaged in 10-deg arc separation intervals across the dark adapted horizontal retinal meridian under both binocular and monocular viewing conditions. This was done in an attempt to verify the existence of peripheral binocular summation using a response time measure. The results indicated that from 50-deg arc right to 50-deg arc left of the line of sight binocular summation is a reasonable explanation for the significantly faster binocular data. The stimulus position by viewing eye interaction was also significant. A discussion of these and other analyses is presented along with a review of related literature.

  9. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 'plunge method' recommended by ASTM has been used to determine the time constant of 100-ohm platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) considered for use in the National Transonic Facility. It is shown that the response time of ventilated PRT can be correlated with the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient in a given field. Universal correlations are established for the 100- and 1000-ohm PRT with uncertainties of 20 and 30 percent, respectively. The correlations are found to be consistent with the uncertainty involved in heat transfer correlations available in the literature and are recommended for use in flowing liquids and gases.

  10. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Leave no (spilled) stone unturned.

    PubMed

    Wilton, P B; Andy, O J; Peters, J J; Thomas, C F; Patel, V S; Scott-Conner, C E

    1993-01-01

    Stones are sometimes spilled at the time of cholecystectomy. Retrieval may be difficult, especially during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Little is known about the natural history of missed stones which are left behind in the peritoneal cavity. We present a case in which a patient developed an intraabdominal abscess around such a stone. The abscess recurred after drainage and removal of the stone was needed for resolution. This case suggests that care should be taken to avoid stone spillage, and that stones which are spilled into the abdomen should be retrieved.

  11. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  12. Unconventional Oil and Gas Spills: Risks, Mitigation Priorities, and State Reporting Requirements.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Konschnik, Katherine E; Wiseman, Hannah; Fargione, Joseph; Maloney, Kelly O; Kiesecker, Joseph; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James E

    2017-03-07

    Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2-16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m(3) in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m(3) in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m(3). Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool ( http://snappartnership.net/groups/hydraulic-fracturing/webapp/spills.html ) to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.

  13. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  14. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  15. A Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping approach for offshore oil spill vulnerability index classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing; Li, Zelin; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hongjing; Jing, Liang; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping (MC-TSAM) model was developed to classify a given site into distinguished zones representing different levels of offshore Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (OSVI). It consisted of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) module, an ART Mapping module, and a centroid determination module. Monte Carlo simulation was integrated with the TSAM approach to address uncertainties that widely exist in site conditions. The applicability of the proposed model was validated by classifying a large coastal area, which was surrounded by potential oil spill sources, based on 12 features. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the classification process was affected by multiple features instead of one single feature. The classification results also provided the least or desired number of zones which can sufficiently represent the levels of offshore OSVI in an area under uncertainty and complexity, saving time and budget in spill monitoring and response.

  16. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  17. Pollution risk assessment of oil spill accidents in Garorim Bay of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2015-11-15

    This study presents a model to assess the oil spill risk in Garorim Bay in Korea, where large-scale oil spill accidents frequently occur. The oil spill risk assessment is carried out by using two factors: 1) The impact probability of the oil spill, and 2) the first impact time of the oil that has been spilt. The risk assessment is conducted for environmentally sensitive areas, such as the coastline and aquaculture farms in the Garorim Bay area. Finally, Garorim Bay is divided into six subareas, and the risks of each subarea are compared with one another to identify the subarea that is most vulnerable to an oil spill accident. These results represent an objective and comprehensive oil spill risk level for a specific region. The prediction of the oil spill spread is based on real-time sea conditions and can be improved by integrating our results, especially when sea conditions are rapidly changing.

  18. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  19. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To calculate the...

  1. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  2. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  3. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  4. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the δ(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply.

  5. A mixture hierarchical model for response times and response accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Xu, Gongjun

    2015-11-01

    In real testing, examinees may manifest different types of test-taking behaviours. In this paper we focus on two types that appear to be among the more frequently occurring behaviours – solution behaviour and rapid guessing behaviour. Rapid guessing usually happens in high-stakes tests when there is insufficient time, and in low-stakes tests when there is lack of effort. These two qualitatively different test-taking behaviours, if ignored, will lead to violation of the local independence assumption and, as a result, yield biased item/person parameter estimation. We propose a mixture hierarchical model to account for differences among item responses and response time patterns arising from these two behaviours. The model is also able to identify the specific behaviour an examinee engages in when answering an item. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm is proposed for model calibration. A simulation study shows that the new model yields more accurate item and person parameter estimates than a non-mixture model when the data indeed come from two types of behaviour. The model also fits real, high-stakes test data better than a non-mixture model, and therefore the new model can better identify the underlying test-taking behaviour an examinee engages in on a certain item.

  6. The detection and prediction for oil spill on the sea based on the infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Detection for oil pollution is an important part of the marine environment protection in maritime security. In order to realize all-weather, rapid and accurate oil spill area detection, infrared images of oil spill on the sea is processed on account of infrared thermal imaging's visual capacity in darkness and frog. The detection for oil spill is realized and the location as well as the area of oil spill is calculated. The prediction integrated model of oil spill spreading is established and the prediction simulation for oil spill area is realized by changing the oil varieties, environmental factors and time, etc. The results show that this simulation is accurate, fast, intuitive and simple. It has certain significance for realizing the early warning of oil spill area detection automatically, intelligently and quickly.

  7. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  8. A Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    are called ice is easily deformed. As movement cracks, leads or polynyas depending decreases in the shorefast Ice, so 1-9 I does rafting, but In an...Ocean Resources Engineering, January 1980. 11. Peterson, Hanne K., Fate and Effect of Bunker C Oil Spilled by the USNS Potomac In Melville Bay, Greenland...with using any conventional it is likely to be streaming out spill response methods. As a result, Into polynyas and leads. This probably even so much as

  9. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  10. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  11. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  12. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  13. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning.

  14. Large-scale oil spill simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method, validation on the Lebanon oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Aljaž; Panjan, Jože; Žagar, Dušan

    2014-07-15

    This paper tests the adequacy of using the lattice Boltzmann method in large-scale oil spill modelling, such as the Lebanon oil spill. Several numerical experiments were performed in order to select the most appropriate lattice and to decide between the single- and two-relaxation time models. Large-scale oil spills require simulations with short computational times. In order to speed up the computation and preserve adequate accuracy of the model, five different flux limiting interpolation techniques were compared and evaluated. The model was validated on the Lebanon oil spill with regard to the oil-slick position and concentrations in the sea, and the beaching area on the coast. Good agreement with satellite images of the slick and field data on beaching was achieved. The main advantages of the applied method are the capability of simulating very low oil concentrations and computational times that are by an order of magnitude shorter compared to similar models.

  15. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  16. ARAC dispersion modeling of the July 26, 1993 oleum tank car spill in Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Vogt, P.J.; Schalk, W.W. III; Pobanz, B.M.

    1994-02-03

    This report presents the results from the real-time response on the day of the spill followed by a re-assessment of the spill. Worst-case source terms and readily available meteorological data (met data) were used for the real-time response. ARAC employs a three-dimensional, diagnostic, finite-difference dispersion modeling system for estimating the consequences from accidental atmospheric releases. MATHEW (Mass-Adjusted Three- Dimensional Wind field), a Eulerian wind field code, and ADPIC (Atmospheric Diffusion by Particle-In-Cell), a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian dispersion model, from the core of the system. For a particular incident a model grid is selected to encompass the area of concern and is generated using underlying terrain from on-line data. Meteorological data from multiple surface and upper air stations are automatically acquired in real time primarily from local airports and formatted to initialize the wind field model. Dispersion parameters are determined from meteorological data and the source term from available information. The system is designed to simulate releases from single or multiple radioactive releases, such as ventings, spills, fires, or explosions. Solid and liquid aerosols and neutrally-buoyant gases are modeled. Particle size distributions are input for each aerosol source and modeled using gravitational settling and wet and dry deposition, if applicable. The system can be readily applied to neutrally-bouyant, nonradioactive chemical releases which do not undergo significant physical or chemical conversion processes.

  17. A Flexible Latent Trait Model for Response Times in Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time…

  18. Characterization of surface oil thickness distribution patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill with aerial and satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Hess, Mark; Muskat, Judd; Nedwed, Tim J; McCall, Jenifer; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-09-15

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of oil thickness patterns within an on-water spill is of obvious importance for immediate spill response activities as well as for subsequent evaluation of the spill impacts. For long-lasting continuous spills like the 2010 3-month Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in the Gulf of Mexico, it is also important to identify changes in the dominant oil features through time. This study utilized very high resolution (≤5m) aerial and satellite imagery acquired during the DWH spill to evaluate the shape, size and thickness of surface oil features that dominated the DWH slick. Results indicate that outside of the immediate spill source region, oil distributions did not encompass a broad, varied range of thicknesses. Instead, the oil separated into four primary, distinct characterizations: 1) invisible surface films detectable only with Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging because of the decreased surface backscatter, 2) thicker sheen & rainbow areas (<0.005mm), 3) large regional areas of relatively thin, "metallic appearance" films (0.005-0.08mm), and 4) strands of thick, emulsified oil (>1mm) that were consistently hundreds of meters long but most commonly only 10-50m wide. Where present within the slick footprint, each of the three distinct visible oil thickness classes maintained its shape characteristics both spatially (at different distances from the source and in different portions of the slick), and temporally (from mid-May through July 2010). The region over the source site tended to contain a more continuous range of oil thicknesses, however, our results indicate that the continuous injection of subsurface dispersants starting in late May significantly altered (lowered) that range. In addition to characterizing the oil thickness distribution patterns through the timeline of one of the world's largest oil spills, this paper also details the extension of using high resolution aerial imagery to calibrate medium resolution satellite data

  19. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  20. Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on bald eagles. Bird study number 4. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Schempf, P.F.; Bernatowicz, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    We estimated that about 8000 bald eagles (Halieetus leucocephalus) inhabited the area affected by the spill at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conducted a 3-year study to determine effects of the spill on the bald eagle population and reproduction and survival of adults and fledglings. The greatest injuries to bald eagles occurred in 1989 and were manifested by direct mortality of bald eagles throughout the spill area and significantly reduced reproduction in PWS. We could not discern negative effects on the population or reproduction of eagles after 1989.

  1. Exceptions to the rules of oil-spill behavior: Case studies of major oil spills of the past twenty years

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of major oil spills over the past 20 yr have allowed an evolution of our understanding of how to respond to and remediate the environmental impacts from such spills. There have been a number of spills for which follow-up research has provided major turning points that allowed the development of certain rules of oil-spill behavior. For example, the spill of over 100,000 tons of crude oil by the tanker Urquiola on the coast of Spain in May 1976 demonstrated the importance of hydrodynamic energy level in natural cleanup processes. Research on the spill of over 200,000 tons of crude oil along the coast of France by the tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 allowed a better understanding of the long-term effects of spilled oil on exposed tidal flats and salt marshes. The oil spilled by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989 impacted many miles of gravel beaches, which were treated by a number of methods, including some innovative berm-relocation techniques. A thorough understanding of the coastal geomorphology and processes of the spill site was essential for the development of meaningful contingency and response plans. Research on the impacts of intertidal habitats of the coast of Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War spill of 1991 indicates that some previously held concepts on oil behavior and fate on shorelines must be revised. One of the best established rules of oil-spill behavior was that the depth of oil penetration on sand beaches and tidal flats increases with increasing sediment grain size. However, no such correlation was found on the Saudi Arabian coast, primarily due to the presence of secondary porosity (e.g., bubble sand, extensive burrows, and gypsum crystals). The oil penetrated to depths of tens of centimeters, even in fine sand, which has significantly slowed natural removal processes and weathering rates. These sediments remained heavily oiled with incipient asphalt pavements forming two years after the spill.

  2. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Decline in condition of gorgonian octocorals on mesophotic reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico: before and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnoyer, Peter J.; Wickes, Leslie N.; Silva, Mauricio; Dubick, J. D.; Balthis, Len; Salgado, Enrique; MacDonald, Ian R.

    2016-03-01

    Hard-bottom `mesophotic' reefs along the `40-fathom' (73 m) shelf edge in the northern Gulf of Mexico were investigated for potential effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill from the Macondo well in April 2010. Alabama Alps Reef, Roughtongue Reef, and Yellowtail Reef were near the well, situated 60-88 m below floating oil discharged during the DWH spill for several weeks and subject to dispersant applications. In contrast, Coral Trees Reef and Madison Swanson South Reef were far from the DWH spill site and below the slick for less than a week or not at all, respectively. The reefs were surveyed by ROV in 2010, 2011, and 2014 and compared to similar surveys conducted one and two decades earlier. Large gorgonian octocorals were present at all sites in moderate abundance including Swiftia exserta, Hypnogorgia pendula, Thesea spp., and Placogorgia spp. The gorgonians were assessed for health and condition in a before-after-control-impact (BACI) research design using still images captured from ROV video transects. Injury was modeled as a categorical response to proximity and time using logistic regression. Condition of gorgonians at sites near Macondo well declined significantly post-spill. Before the spill, injury was observed for 4-9 % of large gorgonians. After the spill, injury was observed in 38-50 % of large gorgonians. Odds of injury for sites near Macondo were 10.8 times higher post-spill, but unchanged at far sites. The majority of marked injured colonies in 2011 declined further in condition by 2014. Marked healthy colonies generally remained healthy. Background stresses to corals, including fishing activity, fishing debris, and coral predation, were noted during surveys, but do not appear to account for the decline in condition at study sites near Macondo well.

  4. 30 CFR 254.5 - General response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.5 General response plan requirements. (a) The response plan must provide for response to an oil spill from... spill and remove any spills of oil. (d) In addition to the requirements listed in this part, you...

  5. 30 CFR 254.5 - General response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.5 General response plan requirements. (a) The response plan must provide for response to an oil spill from... spill and remove any spills of oil. (d) In addition to the requirements listed in this part, you...

  6. 30 CFR 254.5 - General response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE General § 254.5 General response plan requirements. (a) The response plan must provide for response to an oil spill from... spill and remove any spills of oil. (d) In addition to the requirements listed in this part, you...

  7. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  8. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  9. An application of a vulnerability index to oil spill modeling in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBelle, R.P.; Rainey, Gail; Lanfear, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was made of the relative impact to the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico from proposed Federal Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas leasing activity. An oil spill trajectory model was coupled with a land segment vulnerability characterization to predict the risks to the shoreline. Such a technique allows spatial and temporal variability in oil spill sensitivity to be represented and combined with the likelihood of oil spill contact to specific coastal segments in the study area. Predicted relative impact was greatest along the coastlines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Useful information is provided for environmental impact analysis, as well as oil spill response planning.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  11. Oil Spill Map for Indian Sea Region based on Bhuvan- Geographic Information System using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya kumar, L. J.; Kishore, J. K.; Kesava Rao, P.; Annadurai, M.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Hanumantha Rao, K.; Sasamal, S. K.; Arulraj, M.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Satyanarayana, S. N.; Shenoy, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    Oil spills in the ocean are a serious marine disaster that needs regular monitoring for environmental risk assessment and mitigation. Recent use of Polarimetric SAR imagery in near real time oil spill detection systems is associated with attempts towards automatic and unambiguous oil spill detection based on decomposition methods. Such systems integrate remote sensing technology, geo information, communication system, hardware and software systems to provide key information for analysis and decision making. Geographic information systems (GIS) like BHUVAN can significantly contribute to oil spill management based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. India has long coast line from Gujarat to Bengal and hundreds of ports. The increase in shipping also increases the risk of oil spills in our maritime zone. The availability of RISAT-1 SAR images enhances the scope to monitor oil spills and develop GIS on Bhuvan which can be accessed by all the users, such as ships, coast guard, environmentalists etc., The GIS enables realization of oil spill maps based on integration of the geographical, remote sensing, oil & gas production/infrastructure data and slick signatures detected by SAR. SAR and GIS technologies can significantly improve the realization of oil spill footprint distribution maps. Preliminary assessment shows that the Bhuvan promises to be an ideal solution to understand spatial, temporal occurrence of oil spills in the marine atlas of India. The oil spill maps on Bhuvan based GIS facility will help the ONGC and Coast Guard organization.

  12. Impacts of Macondo oil from Deepwater Horizon spill on the growth response of the common reed Phragmites australis: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Judy, Chad R; Graham, Sean A; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2014-02-15

    We investigated impacts of Macondo MC252 oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on the common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., a dominant species of the Mississippi River Delta. In greenhouse experiments, we simulated the most common DWH oiling scenarios by applying weathered and emulsified Macondo oil to aboveground shoots at varying degrees of coverage (0-100%) or directly to marsh soil at different dosages (0-16 Lm(-)(2)). P. australis exhibited strong resistance to negative impacts when oil was applied to shoots alone, while reductions in above- and belowground plant growth were apparent when oil was applied to the soil or with repeated shoot-oiling. Although soil-oiling compromised plant function, mortality of P. australis did not occur. Our results demonstrate that P. australis has a high tolerance to weathered and emulsified Macondo oil, and that mode of exposure (aboveground versus belowground) was a primary determinant of impact severity.

  13. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  14. Analyzing Response Times in Tests with Rank Correlation Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice to log-transform response times before analyzing them with standard factor analytical methods. However, sometimes the log-transformation is not capable of linearizing the relation between the response times and the latent traits. Therefore, a more general approach to response time analysis is proposed in the current…

  15. Study of the response time of MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xinchun; Guo, Pengfei; Ou, Jinping

    2009-07-01

    Response time is an important parameter which determines the applied fields and practical vibration reduction effects of magnetorheological (MR) dampers. However, up to now, only a few papers discuss the test and analysis of response times. In this paper, the response time of a large-scale MR damper at different velocities and currents was firstly tested. Then, the transient magnetic field excited by the time-variant excitation current was simulated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the variation of the shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluids in the gap between the cylinder and the piston, the response time of the MR damper was investigated. Influences of eddy current and excitation current response time on the damper's response were also explored. Results show that by utilizing finite elements method, the calculated average effective shear yield strength can be used to predict the response time of a MR damper. Electromagnetic response is the predominant factor influencing the response time of a MR damper, and reducing eddy currents is the key to accelerate the response of a MR damper. Moreover, influence of eddy currents is much larger under stepping down excitation currents than stepping up currents, and with a same magnitude of step, no matter when the current increases or decreases, the smaller the initial current, the greater the eddy current affects a damper's response and the longer the response time of damping force is. A fast response excitation current may induce large eddy currents which reduce the response of the damper instead.

  16. A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-28

    Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.

  17. Time- and Oil-Dependent Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses to Deepwater Horizon Oil in Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Embryos and Larvae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel; Hazard, E Starr; Courtney, Sean M; Diamante, Graciel; Freitas, Juliane; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-07-19

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill contaminated the spawning habitats for numerous commercially and ecologically important fishes. Exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill has been shown to cause cardiac toxicity during early developmental stages across fishes. To better understand the molecular events and explore new pathways responsible for toxicity, RNA sequencing was performed in conjunction with physiological and morphological assessments to analyze the time-course (24, 48, and 96 h post fertilization (hpf)) of transcriptional and developmental responses in embryos/larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to WAF of weathered (slick) and source DWH oils. Slick oil exposure induced more pronounced changes in gene expression over time than source oil exposure. Predominant transcriptomic responses included alteration of EIF2 signaling, steroid biosynthesis, ribosome biogenesis and activation of the cytochrome P450 pathway. At 96 hpf, slick oil exposure resulted in significant perturbations in eye development and peripheral nervous system, suggesting novel targets in addition to the heart may be involved in the developmental toxicity of DHW oil. Comparisons of changes of cardiac genes with phenotypic responses were consistent with reduced heart rate and increased pericardial edema in larvae exposed to slick oil but not source oil.

  18. Dispersion of Response Times Reveals Cognitive Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.; Turvey, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Trial-to-trial variation in word-pronunciation times exhibits 1/f scaling. One explanation is that human performances are consequent on multiplicative interactions among interdependent processes-interaction dominant dynamics. This article describes simulated distributions of pronunciation times in a further test for multiplicative interactions and…

  19. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  20. Do emergency medical system response times matter for health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2013-07-01

    The introduction of technology aimed at reducing the response times of emergency medical services has been one of the principal innovations in crisis care over the last several decades. These substantial investments have typically been justified by an assumed link between shorter response times and improved health outcomes. However, current medical research does not generally show a relationship between response time and mortality. In this study, we explain the discrepancy between conventional wisdom and mortality; existing medical research fails to account for the endogeneity of incident severity and response times. Analyzing detailed call-level information from the state of Utah's Bureau of Emergency Medical Services, we measure the impact of response time on mortality and hospital utilization using the distance of the incident from the nearest EMS agency headquarters as an instrument for response time. We find that response times significantly affect mortality and the likelihood of being admitted to the hospital, but not procedures or utilization within the hospital.

  1. Spill-to-spill and daily proton energy consistency with a new accelerator control system.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Ghebremedhin, A

    2008-05-01

    The Loma Linda University proton accelerator has had several upgrades installed including synchrotron dipole power supplies and a system for monitoring the beam energy. The consistency of the energy from spill-to-spill has been tested by measuring the depth ionization at the distal edge as a function of time. These measurements were made with a minimally equipped beamline to reduce interference from confounding factors. The consistency of the energy over several months was measured in a treatment room beamline using an ionization chamber based daily quality assurance device. The results showed that the energy of protons delivered from the accelerator (in terms of water equivalent range) was consistent from spill-to-spill to better than +/-0.03 mm at 70, 155, and 250 MeV and that the energy check performed each day in the treatment room over a several month period was within +/-0.11 mm (+/-0.06 MeV) at 149 MeV. These results are within the tolerances required for the energy stacking technique.

  2. Dispersion of Response Times Reveals Cognitive Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.; Turvey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Trial to trial variation in word pronunciation times exhibits 1/f scaling. One explanation is that human performances are consequent on multiplicative interactions among interdependent processes – interaction dominant dynamics. This article describes simulated distributions of pronunciation times in a further test for multiplicative interactions and interdependence. Individual participant distributions of ≈1100 word pronunciation times are successfully mimicked for each participant in combinations of lognormal and power law behavior. Successful hazard function simulations generalize these results to establish interaction dominant dynamics, in contrast with component dominant dynamics, as a likely mechanism for cognitive activity. PMID:19348544

  3. Response modalities and time-sharing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment performed to investigate the role of resource competition and asymmetric transfer in dual-task performance is described. It is shown that there is an advantage to mixed manual/speech response modality configurations that cannot be accounted for by asymmetric transfer. The present results support the multiple resources approach to the application of speech technology. Once speech recognition achieves an acceptable level of operational reliability, speech controls can be used to reduce resource competition and improve performance in multitask environments.

  4. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  5. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  6. Application of an oil spill fates model to environmental management on Georges Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.L.; Spaulding, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A general discussion of the construction of an oil spill fates model and its application in environmental management for risk assessment, spill forecasting and impact assessment decision making is presented. An overview of the ASA-URI oil spill fates model which includes drifting, spreading, evaporation, dispersion, and subsurface transport is given, taking particular note of the requirements for environmental data defining the current and wind fields in the study area. A series of simulations of oil spills using three crude oils (Statfjord Norway, Venezuelan, and Nigerian) over four seasons and two spill locations within the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area are performed and discussed in detail. Two representative spill events are modelled: a 68 million gallon well blowout of thirty days duration, and 20 million gallon tanker spill of five days duration. Oil types are defined by seven fractional partitions and specific gravity. Model output consists of the temporal and spatial distribution of surface spillets and subsurface concentrations as well as a time dependent mass balance of the oil in key environmental areas; sea surface, atmosphere, and water column. The simulations suggest that the time of spill inception is the most critical parameter in determining the spatial distributions of spilled oil, while oil type is the most important parameter in defining the partitioning of oil mass in the environment.

  7. A Study of Bayesian Estimation and Comparison of Response Time Models in Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Hongwook

    2010-01-01

    Response time has been regarded as an important source for investigating the relationship between human performance and response speed. It is important to examine the relationship between response time and item characteristics, especially in the perspective of the relationship between response time and various factors that affect examinee's…

  8. A Lognormal Model for Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    A lognormal model for the response times of a person on a set of test items is investigated. The model has a parameter structure analogous to the two-parameter logistic response models in item response theory, with a parameter for the speed of each person as well as parameters for the time intensity and discriminating power of each item. It is…

  9. Tanker spills: Prevention by design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The study, prompted by the March 1989 grounding of the EXXON VALDEZ in Prince William Sound, Alaska, focused on how alternative tank vessel (tanker and barge) designs might influence the safety of personnel, property, and the environment, and at what cost. In selecting designs to be considered, the committee included certain operational options that might minimize the oil spilled in an accident. The study did not consider means of averting accidents, altering the form of cargo, or responding to oil spills.

  10. The Influence of Selected Liquid and Soil Properties on the Propagation of Spills over Flat Permeable Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jason M.; Simmons, Carver S.

    2005-02-15

    In an effort to determine spill characteristics, information about a spill's spatial distribution with time is being studied. For permeable surfaces, spill phenomenology is controlled by liquid and soil properties, the most relevant of which are presented in this report. The pertinent liquid and soil properties were tabulated for ten liquids and four soils. The liquids represented an array of organic compounds, some of which are or are soon to be documented in the liquid spectra library by the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The soils were chosen based on ongoing surface spectra work and to represent a range of relevant soil properties. The effect of the liquid and soil properties on spill phenomenology were explored using a spill model that couples overland flow described by gravity currents with the Green-Ampt infiltration model. From the simulations, liquid viscosity was found to be a controlling liquid property in determining the amount of time a spill remains on the surface, with the surface vanish time decreasing as viscosity decreased. This was attributed to decreasing viscosity increasing both the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and allowing for the spill to more quickly spread out onto an unsaturated soil surface. Soil permeability also controlled vanish times with the vanish times increasing as permeability decreased, corresponding to finer textured materials. Maximum spill area was found to be largely controlled by liquid viscosity on coarse, highly permeable soils. On the less permeable soils maximum spill area began to be controlled by the steady-area spill height due to the restricting of infiltration to the extent that the spill is then able to reach its steady-area spill height. Simulations performed with and without the inclusion of capillarity in the Green-Ampt infiltration model displayed the importance of capillarity in describing infiltration rate in fine textured soils. In coarse textured

  11. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  12. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  13. Organizing to cope with hazardous-material spills

    SciTech Connect

    Rychman, D.W.; Ryckman, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A method is given for handling hazardous-material spills that threaten drinking-water supplies. The method is applied to three case histories involving a phenol/alcohol/solvents spill, a gasoline spill, and a weekend oil spill.

  14. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  15. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  16. Using Numerical Models in the Development of Software Tools for Risk Management of Accidents with Oil and Inert Spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P. C.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Galvão, P.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    substances, helping in the management of the crisis, in the distribution of response resources, or prioritizing specific areas. They can also be used for detection of pollution sources. However, the resources involved, and the scientific and technological levels needed in the manipulation of numerical models, had both limited the interoperability between operational models, monitoring tools and decision-support software tools. The increasing predictive capacity of metocean conditions and fate and behaviour of pollutants spilt at sea or costal zones, and the presence of monitoring tools like vessel traffic control systems, can both provide a safer support for decision-making in emergency or planning issues associated to pollution risk management, especially if used in an integrated way. Following this approach, and taking advantage of an integrated framework developed in ARCOPOL (www.arcopol.eu) and EASYCO (www.project-easy.info) projects, three innovative model-supported software tools were developed and applied in the Atlantic Area, and / or the Portuguese Coast. Two of these tools are used for spill model simulations - a web-based interface (EASYCO web bidirectional tool) and an advanced desktop application (MOHID Desktop Spill Simulator) - both of them allowing end user to have control over the model simulations. Parameters such as date and time of the event, location and oil spill volume are provided the users; these interactive tools also integrate best available metocean forecasts (waves, meteorological, hydrodynamics) from different institutions in the Atlantic Area. Metocean data are continuously gathered from remote THREDDS data servers (using OPENDAP) or ftp sites, and then automatically interpolated and pre-processed to be available for the simulators. These simulation tools developed can also import initial data and export results from/to remote servers, using OGC WFS services. Simulations are provided to end user in a matter of seconds, and thus, can be very

  17. Time-dependent onshore tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, Alex; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    While bulk measures of the onshore impact of a tsunami, including the maximum run-up elevation and inundation distance, are important for hazard planning, the temporal evolution of the onshore flow dynamics likely controls the extent of the onshore destruction and the erosion and deposition of sediment that occurs. However, the time-varying dynamics of actual tsunamis are even more difficult to measure in situ than the bulk parameters. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is used to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slope, and bottom roughness have on the temporal evolution of the onshore flow. Model results indicate that the onshore flow dynamics vary significantly over the parameter space examined. For example, the flow dynamics over steep, smooth morphologies tend to be temporally symmetric, with similar magnitude velocities generated during the run-up and run-down phases of inundation. Conversely, on shallow, rough onshore topographies the flow dynamics tend to be temporally skewed toward the run-down phase of inundation, with the magnitude of the flow velocities during run-up and run-down being significantly different. Furthermore, for near-breaking tsunami waves inundating over steep topography, the flow velocity tends to accelerate almost instantaneously to a maximum and then decrease monotonically. Conversely, when very long waves inundate over shallow topography, the flow accelerates more slowly and can remain steady for a period of time before beginning to decelerate. These results indicate that a single set of assumptions concerning the onshore flow dynamics cannot be applied to all tsunamis, and site specific analyses may be required.

  18. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  19. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  20. Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W. ); Faro, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 showed elevated levels of blood haptoglobins, and interleukin-6 ir, as well as elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase in summer 1991. Stepwise logistic regression, using a subset of these and other blood proteins and enzyme activities as potential independent variables, correctly classified 86.4% of 22 otters as inhabiting oiled or nonoiled areas. River otters abandoned latrine sites (an index to their abundance) over three times more often in oiled than in nonoiled areas, suggesting there may have been a delayed response in river otter populations to exposure to crude oil. This is the first clear model for the long-term effects of an oil spill on blood parameters of a free-ranging mammal using a nonlethal methodology. These effects occurred two years after the spill and following a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  1. Fast Time Response Electromagnetic Disruption Mitigation Concept

    DOE PAGES

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; ...

    2015-09-28

    An important and urgent issue for ITER is predicting and controlling disruptions. Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks have the potential to disrupt. Methods to rapidly quench the discharge after an impending disruption is detected are essential to protect the vessel and internal components. The warning time for the onset of some disruptions in tokamaks could be <10 ms, which poses stringent requirements on the disruption mitigation system for reactor systems. In this proposed method, a cylindrical boron nitride projectile containing a radiative payload composed of boron, boron nitride, or beryllium particulate matter and weighing similar to 15 g is accelerated tomore » velocities on the order of 1 to 2 km/s in <2 ms in a linear rail gun accelerator. A partially fragmented capsule is then injected into the tokamak discharge in the 3- to 6-ms timescale, where the radiative payload is dispersed. The device referred to as an electromagnetic particle injector has the potential to meet the short warning timescales for which a reactor disruption mitigation system must be built. The system is fully electromagnetic, with no mechanical moving parts, which ensures high reliability after a period of long standby.« less

  2. Fast Time Response Electromagnetic Disruption Mitigation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; Menard, J.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Ono, M.; Baylor, Larry R.; Lay, W. S.

    2015-09-28

    An important and urgent issue for ITER is predicting and controlling disruptions. Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks have the potential to disrupt. Methods to rapidly quench the discharge after an impending disruption is detected are essential to protect the vessel and internal components. The warning time for the onset of some disruptions in tokamaks could be <10 ms, which poses stringent requirements on the disruption mitigation system for reactor systems. In this proposed method, a cylindrical boron nitride projectile containing a radiative payload composed of boron, boron nitride, or beryllium particulate matter and weighing similar to 15 g is accelerated to velocities on the order of 1 to 2 km/s in <2 ms in a linear rail gun accelerator. A partially fragmented capsule is then injected into the tokamak discharge in the 3- to 6-ms timescale, where the radiative payload is dispersed. The device referred to as an electromagnetic particle injector has the potential to meet the short warning timescales for which a reactor disruption mitigation system must be built. The system is fully electromagnetic, with no mechanical moving parts, which ensures high reliability after a period of long standby.

  3. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  4. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea.

  5. Untangling the web of spill and release reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Bost, R.C.; White, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    Regulations pertaining to spills or releases of a hazardous or potentially dangerous substance into the environment are found in seven different federal congressional acts and in state-specific legislation: the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Clean Air Act (CAA). To navigate the tangled web of bureaucracy, this article provides a basic guide for reporting spills and releases to the proper authorities.

  6. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  7. Climate, Energy, Water, Land and the Spill-Over Effect (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Backus, G.; Bier, A.; Brune, N.; Brown, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Developing nations incur a greater risk to climate stress than the developed world due to poorly managed natural resources, unreliable infrastructure and brittle governing/economic institutions. When fragile states are stressed these vulnerabilities are often manifest in a 'domino effect' of reduced natural resource production-leading to economic hardship-followed by desperate emigration, social unrest, and humanitarian crises. The impact is not limited to a single nation or region but 'spills over' to adjoining areas with even broader impact on global markets and security. Toward this problem we are developing a model of climate aggravated spill-over that couples social, economic, infrastructure and resource dynamics and constraints. The model integrates system dynamics and agent based simulation to identify regions vulnerable to the spill-over effect and to explore potential mitigating and/or adaptive measures. At the heart of the analysis is human migration which is modeled by combining aspects of the Protection Motivation Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior within the mechanistic framework of Fick's first law of diffusion. Agents in the current model are distinguished at the country level by country of residence, country of origin, gender, education/skill, age, and rural/urban roots. The model of the environment in which the agents operate endogenously simulates economy, labor, population, disease, violence, energy, water, and food sectors. Various climate scenarios distinguished by differences in temperature, precipitation and extreme events, are simulated over a 50 year time horizon. Results allow exploration of the nexus between climate change, resource provisioning, especially energy, water and land, and the resultant adaptive response of the impacted population. Current modeling efforts are focused on the developing nations of West Africa. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly

  8. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  9. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as “chemical herder” is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air–sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice. PMID:26601197

  10. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. GREEN BEAST™ OIL SPILL & ODOR REMEDIATOR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent used in oil spill cleanups works best applied at high pressure, for treating hydrocarbons on beaches, rocks, and hard surfaces. Preferably applied over 3 consecutive days on heavy spills.

  12. Tracking the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Hu, Chuanmin; Zheng, Lianyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be known about the oil and the dispersants beneath the surface, including their trajectories and effects on marine life. A system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth, was needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance. Such a system was implemented immediately after the spill by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities [e.g., Weisberg et al., 2009]. Analyzing this system's various strengths and weaknesses can help further improve similar systems designed for other emergency responses.

  13. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  14. Application of a battery of biomarkers in mussel digestive gland to assess long-term effects of the Prestige oil spill in Galicia and the Bay of Biscay: lysosomal responses.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Larraitz; Izagirre, Urtzi; Cajaraville, Miren P; Marigómez, Ionan

    2011-04-01

    In order to assess the long-term lysosomal responses to the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were collected in 22 localities from Galicia and the Bay of Biscay (North Iberian peninsula) in July, and September 2003, April, July, and October 2004-2005 and April 2006. Lysosomal membrane stability (labilisation period, LP) and lysosomal structural changes (lysosomal volume density, Vv(L) and lysosomal surface-to-volume ratio, S/V(L)) were measured as general stress biomarkers. The most remarkable long-term effects after the POS were drastic changes in lysosomal size (lysosomal enlargement) and membrane stability (extremely low LP values) up to April-04. Later on, a recovery trend was envisaged all along the studied area after July-04, albeit membrane stability continued to be below 20 min throughout the studied period up to April-06, which indicates a "distress-to-moderate-stress" condition. Lysosomal Response Index (LRI) revealed that environmental stress was more marked in Galicia than in the Bay of Biscay, mainly in the first sampling year, although a "moderate-to-high-stress" condition persisted until July-05. Overall, although lysosomal size returned to reference values, membrane stability was not fully recovered indicating a stress situation throughout the studied period.

  15. 40 CFR 1066.245 - Response time verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Response time verification. 1066.245 Section 1066.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.245 Response time verification....

  16. 40 CFR 1066.245 - Response time verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Response time verification. 1066.245 Section 1066.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.245 Response time verification....

  17. Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

  18. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  19. 10 CFR 1303.107 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 1303.107 Section 1303.107 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.107 Timing of responses to requests. (a) General. The Board shall normally respond to requests in the order of...

  20. 10 CFR 1303.107 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 1303.107 Section 1303.107 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.107 Timing of responses to requests. (a) General. The Board shall normally respond to requests in the order of...

  1. Linking Response-Time Parameters onto a Common Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Although response times on test items are recorded on a natural scale, the scale for some of the parameters in the lognormal response-time model (van der Linden, 2006) is not fixed. As a result, when the model is used to periodically calibrate new items in a testing program, the parameter are not automatically mapped onto a common scale. Several…

  2. Oil spills, 1971-75, Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danenberger, Elmer P.

    1976-01-01

    Oil spillage connected with federally supervised drilling and production activities has been a matter of wide public concern. In its supervision of mineral-resource development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the U.S. Geological Survey is responsible for the day-to-day inspection and monitoring of OCS oil and gas operations. During these activities, the U.S. Geological Survey records and investigates hydrocarbon discharges resulting from such operations. Beginning in 1971, all spills have been recorded, and a computer file has been maintained on all spills of 1 barrel or more. The total Gulf of Mexico OCS oil spillage recorded during January 1, 1971-December 31, 1975, amounted to 51,421 barrels. Production during that period amounted to 35,219 barrels per barrel spilled. In all, 5,857 spills were recorded, but 85.5 percent of the total spill volume was contributed by just 5 incidents. The environmental effect of these incidents apparently was minimal and of short duration. No spills of more than 50 barrels resulted from drilling operations during the period. The only spillage resulting from blowouts was caused by nondrilling incidents, including completion, production, and workover. The amount of oil discharged from spills of less than 50 barrels decreased by more than half between 1971 and 1975. The improvement reflects changes in the operating philosophy of the offshore industry, tightening of U.S. Geological Survey operating orders, and substantial increases in the inspection force. Most production-platform spills involve failures in the sump system, the separator system, or other hydrocarbon-handling equipment; improved sump-system designs and better high-low-level controls have reduced both the number and the volume of spills. Pipeline and pump spills also declined significantly, although the decline appears less attributable to revisions in OCS operating requirements. No operator consistently contributed a disproportionate amount of spillage. Most of

  3. Passenger comfort response times as a function of aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinalducci, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between a passenger's response time of changes in level of comfort experienced as a function of aircraft motion was examined. The aircraft used in this investigation was capable of providing a wide range of vertical and transverse accelerations by means of direct lift flap control surfaces and side force generator surfaces in addition to normal control surfaces. Response times to changes in comfort were recorded along with the passenger's rating of comfort on a five point scale. In addition, a number of aircraft motion variables including vertical and transverse accelerations were also recorded. Results indicate some relationship between human comfort response times to reaction time data.

  4. Spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Papasavas, Pavlos K; Caushaj, Philip F; Gagné, Daniel J

    2002-10-01

    Spilled gallstones have emerged as a new issue in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We treated a 77-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subsequently, a right flank abscess developed. During the cholecystectomy, the gallbladder was perforated and stones were spilled. After a failed attempt to drain the abscess percutaneously, the patient required open drainage, which revealed retained gallstones in the right flank. The abscess resolved, although the patient continued to have intermittent drainage without evidence of sepsis. Review of the literature revealed 127 cases of spilled gallstones, of which 44.1% presented with intraperitoneal abscess, 18.1% with abdominal wall abscess, 11.8% with thoracic abscess, 10.2% with retroperitoneal abscess, and the rest with various clinical pictures. In case of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, every effort should be made to locate and retrieve the stones.

  5. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  6. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; Rose, K.; Graham, J.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.

  7. Study of oil spill rates in four US coastal regions. Final report May 79-Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, J.F.

    1980-06-01

    A Comparison of the rates of incidence of oil spills over 10,000 gallons in the years 1974 through 1977 was made for four regions in the United States that carry heavy oil traffic: Greater New York - New Jersey, Delaware Bay, the Louisiana Coast, and the Northern Texas Coast. The spill data for the study were drawn from the Pollution Incident Reporting System (PIRS), the records of the National Response Center (NRC), and the Vessel Casualty Reporting System (VCS). Oil movement data were obtained from the Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States. The spill rates calculated for the four regions showed no significant differences. However, a significantly higher spill rate was noted for the Hudson River subdivision of the New York - New Jersey region. An examination of the spill reports showed that most of the spills were associated with poor weather conditions (viz., ice, fog). A partial study was also made of spills in the Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio Rivers. It was found that the spill rates in the Ohio River were significantly higher than in the Mississippi or Illinois Rivers or in the coastal regions.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  9. Computer Response Time Measurements of Mood, Fatigue and Symptom Scale Items: Implications for Scale Response Time Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryman, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with U.S. Marine Corps enlisted personnel to measure response time to computer-administered questionnaire items, and to evaluate how measurement of response time might be useful in various research areas. Topics addressed include mood states; the occurrence of straight lining; and experimental effects of sleep loss and…

  10. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  11. Update of Implementation of Recommendations from the NRT Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As this report indicates, many of the specific recommendations have been addressed and the nation’s oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response strategies have been vastly improved. However, additional action is necessary.

  12. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  13. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  14. Improving Item Response Theory Model Calibration by Considering Response Times in Psychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed-distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response…

  15. An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

  16. Neural Basis of Adaptive Response Time Adjustment during Saccade Countermanding

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Pierre; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Boucher, Leanne; Paré, Martin; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Humans and macaque monkeys adjust their response time adaptively in stop signal (countermanding) tasks, responding slower after stop-signal trials than after control trials with no stop signal. We investigated the neural mechanism underlying this adaptive response time adjustment in macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding task. Earlier research showed that movements are initiated when the random accumulation of presaccadic movement-related activity reaches a fixed threshold. We found that a systematic delay in response time after stop signal trials was accomplished not through a change of threshold, baseline, or accumulation rate, but instead through a change in the time when activity first began to accumulate. The neurons underlying movement initiation have been identified with mathematical accumulator models of response time performance. Therefore, this new result provides surprising new insights into the neural instantiation of stochastic accumulator models and the mechanisms through which executive control can be exerted. PMID:21880921

  17. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  18. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed.

  19. Oil spill cleanup from sea water by carbon nanotube sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ke; Shang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng-Zhan; Li, Zhen; Li, Xin-Ming; Wei, Jin-Quan; Wang, Kun-Lin; Wu, De-Hai; Cao, An-Yuan; Zhu, Hong-Wei

    2013-06-01

    Oil spills in the sea have caused many serious environmental problems worldwide. In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges were used to cleanup oil slicks on sea waters. This method was compared with two traditional representative sorbents, including polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt. The CNT sponges had a larger oil sorption capacity than the other two sorbents. The maximum oil sorption capacity ( Q m) of the CNT sponge was 92.30 g/g, which was 12 to 13.5 times larger than the Q m of the other two sorbents (the Q m of the polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt were 7.45 and 6.74 g/g, respectively). In addition, unlike the other two sorbents, the CNT sponge was superhydrophobic and did not adsorb any water during oil spill cleanup. CNT sponges are potentially very useful for cleaning up oil spills from sea water.

  20. Thermal emittance and response time of a cesium antimonide photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan; Bartnik, Adam; Dunham, Bruce; Karkare, Siddharth; Merluzzi, Richard; Nichols, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and response time of a Cs3Sb photocathode are presented. The emittance is obtained with a solenoid scan technique using a high voltage dc photoemission gun. Photoemission response time is evaluated using a RF deflecting cavity synchronized to a picosecond laser pulse train. We find that Cs3Sb has both small mean transverse energy, 160 ± 10 meV at 532 nm laser wavelength, and a prompt response time (below the resolution of our measurement) making it a suitable material for high brightness electron photoinjectors.

  1. Diminished Response of Arctic Plants to Warming over Time

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Kelseyann S.; Hollister, Robert D.; Oberbauer, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if the response of arctic plants to warming is consistent across species, locations and time. This study examined the impact of experimental warming and natural temperature variation on plants at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska beginning in 1994. We considered observations of plant performance collected from 1994–2000 “short-term” and those from 2007–2012 “long-term”. The plant traits reported are the number of inflorescences, inflorescence height, leaf length, and day of flower emergence. These traits can inform us about larger scale processes such as plant reproductive effort, plant growth, and plant phenology, and therefore provide valuable insight into community dynamics, carbon uptake, and trophic interactions. We categorized traits of all species monitored at each site into temperature response types. We then compared response types across traits, plant growth forms, sites, and over time to analyze the consistency of plant response to warming. Graminoids were the most responsive to warming and showed a positive response to temperature, while shrubs were generally the least responsive. Almost half (49%) of response types (across all traits, species, and sites combined) changed from short-term to long-term. The percent of plants responsive to warming decreased from 57% (short-term) to 46% (long-term). These results indicate that the response of plants to warming varies over time and has diminished overall in recent years. PMID:25767881

  2. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  3. Risk of large oil spills: a statistical analysis in the aftermath of Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Eckle, Petrissa; Burgherr, Peter; Michaux, Edouard

    2012-12-04

    The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill so far. In this paper we evaluate the risk of such very severe oil spills based on global historical data from our Energy-Related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD) and investigate if an accident of this size could have been "expected". We also compare the risk of oil spills from such accidents in exploration and production to accidental spills from other activities in the oil chain (tanker ship transport, pipelines, storage/refinery) and analyze the two components of risk, frequency and severity (quantity of oil spilled) separately. This detailed analysis reveals the differences in the structure of the risk between different spill sources, differences in trends over time and it allows in particular assessing the risk of very severe events such as the Deepwater Horizon spill. Such top down risk assessment can serve as an important input to decision making by complementing bottom up engineering risk assessment and can be combined with impact assessment in environmental risk analysis.

  4. 45 CFR 1171.7 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1171.7 Timing of responses to requests. (a) In general. The NEH customarily... requester must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct to the requester's best knowledge...

  5. 18 CFR 1301.5 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROCEDURES Freedom of Information Act § 1301.5 Timing of responses to requests. (a) In general, TVA... seeks expedited processing must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct to the best of...

  6. 22 CFR 706.30 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISCLOSURE UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Processing of Requests § 706.30 Timing of responses to... expedited processing must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct, explaining in detail...

  7. 36 CFR 1600.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 1600.4 Timing of responses to... true and correct to the best of your knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis...

  8. 36 CFR 1600.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 1600.4 Timing of responses to... true and correct to the best of your knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis...

  9. Information Transfer by Reader Service Cards. A Response Time Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottle, Robert R.; Emery, Betty L.

    1971-01-01

    Some 80 percent of controlled circulation journals provide Reader Service Cards. The responses obtained with those from a sample of ten journals is reported and the data are analyzed in terms of yield, postal and other delays. Response times approximated a normal distribution with an overall mean of 5.8 weeks. (2 references) (Author/NH)

  10. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  11. Grade of Membership Response Time Model for Detecting Guessing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokropek, Artur

    2016-01-01

    A response model that is able to detect guessing behaviors and produce unbiased estimates in low-stake conditions using timing information is proposed. The model is a special case of the grade of membership model in which responses are modeled as partial members of a class that is affected by motivation and a class that responds only according to…

  12. Response time to colored stimuli in the full visual field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Dawson, L. M.; Galvan, T.; Reid, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral visual response time was measured in seven dark adapted subjects to the onset of small (45' arc diam), brief (50 msec), colored (blue, yellow, green, red) and white stimuli imaged at 72 locations within their binocular field of view. The blue, yellow, and green stimuli were matched for brightness at about 2.6 sub log 10 units above their absolute light threshold, and they appeared at an unexpected time and location. These data were obtained to provide response time and no-response data for use in various design disciplines involving instrument panel layout. The results indicated that the retina possesses relatively concentric regions within each of which mean response time can be expected to be of approximately the same duration. These regions are centered near the fovea and extend farther horizontally than vertically. Mean foveal response time was fastest for yellow and slowest for blue. Three and one-half percent of the total 56,410 trials presented resulted in no-responses. Regardless of stimulus color, the lowest percentage of no-responses occurred within 30 deg arc from the fovea and the highest within 40 deg to 80 deg arc below the fovea.

  13. Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer isolator for real-time control implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2016-11-01

    Utilising the unique features of MRE materials for vibration isolators has been intensively studied over the last several years. Real-time control of the MRE isolators holds the key to unlock MRE materials’ unique characteristics, i.e. instantly changeable shear modulus in continuous and reverse fashion. However, one of the critical issues for the applications of real-time control is the response time delay of MRE vibration isolators, which has not yet been fully addressed and studied. This paper identified the inherent response time of the MRE isolator and explored two feasible approaches to minimise the response time delay. Experiments were designed and conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches on minimising time delay on: (i) the transient response of current of a large coil that generates magnetic field and (ii) the transient response of shear force from the MRE isolator. The results show that the proposed approaches are effective and promising. For example, the proposed approach is able to reduce the force response time from 421 ms to 52 ms at rising and from 400 ms to 48 ms falling edges respectively. Such level of short response time of the MRE isolators demonstrates the feasibility of application of real-time control and hence is the essential step on the realisation of real-time control of vibration suppression system based on MRE isolator.

  14. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  15. Review on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) involved in marine spill incidents—an online database.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Isabel; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-21

    In this review, we have collected information on the behavior, fate, weathering, and impact of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) accidentally spilled at sea on the marine biota. The information was compiled on a datasheet and converted into a database that can be accessed by the general public (www.ciimar.up.pt/hns). Systematization of data is important to assist stakeholders involved in HNS spill preparedness and response, facilitating the incorporation of lessons from past incidents in the decision process. The database contains 184 entries of HNS spilled in 119 incidents in marine waters around the world. Data were analyzed in terms of HNS physical behavior in water according to SEBC (Standard European Behavior Classification) codes. The most common products involved in accidental spills in the marine environment were identified and major lessons highlighted. From the analysis, it was determined that most HNS spills were poorly documented and information was mistreated. In most cases, no monitoring programs were implemented following the incident. This conduct has occurred in 24 out of 119 incidents analyzed and has consequently limited the information on fate, behavior, and weathering of HNS spilled that could have been recovered. Major gaps were identified, and priorities and recommendations were drawn as a step toward improving preparedness and response to HNS spills.

  16. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  17. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata criteria and find resulting raw datasets in CSV format.The data query tool allows users to download EPA's air, water and sediment sampling and monitoring data that has been collected in response to the BP oil spill. All sampling and monitoring data that has been collected to date is available for download as raw structured data.The query tools enables CSV file creation to be refined based on the following search criteria: date range (between April 28, 2010 and 9/29/2010); location by zip, city, or county; media (solid waste, weathered oil, air, surface water, liquid waste, tar, sediment, water); substance categories (based on media selection) and substances (based on substance category selection).

  18. Science-based decision-making on the use of dispersants in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to the DWH incident, most (if not all) existing oil spill response knowledgewas based on surface spills and surface applications of dispersant. The behavior ofdispersants subsea was (and still is) less understood, and previous research had notfocused on the duration or quan...

  19. Temperature Responses to Spectral Solar Variability on Decadal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong; Harder, Jerald W.; Pilewskie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Two scenarios of spectral solar forcing, namely Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)-based out-of-phase variations and conventional in-phase variations, are input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and to the GISS modelE. Both scenarios and models give maximum temperature responses in the upper stratosphere, decreasing to the surface. Upper stratospheric peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are approx.0.6 K and approx.0.9 K in RCM and modelE, approx.5 times larger than responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI and UV variations, and resemble HALOE observed 11-year temperature variations. For in-phase forcing, ocean mixed layer response lags surface air response by approx.2 years, and is approx.0.06 K compared to approx.0.14 K for atmosphere. For out-of-phase forcing, lags are similar, but surface responses are significantly smaller. For both scenarios, modelE surface responses are less than 0.1 K in the tropics, and display similar patterns over oceanic regions, but complex responses over land.

  20. Conceptual Question Response Times in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…

  1. 4 CFR 201.7 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 201.7 Section 201.7 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.7 Timing of... letter or an e-mail confirming the requestor's agreement to pay fees under § 201.8 and providing...

  2. An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ezra; Pereira, Joao F; Retana, Gabriel; Baker, Andy; Lopez, John; McCorquodale, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP's 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick's proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks' location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information.

  3. A Conditional Joint Modeling Approach for Locally Dependent Item Responses and Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Xiang-Bin; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The assumption of conditional independence between the responses and the response times (RTs) for a given person is common in RT modeling. However, when the speed of a test taker is not constant, this assumption will be violated. In this article we propose a conditional joint model for item responses and RTs, which incorporates a covariance…

  4. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spillmore » Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.« less

  5. Evos report 1994 spill area site and collection plan. Restoration report 94007-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, J.E.; Reger, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    Local museums in the Prince William Sound and Homer were visited to describe existing museums and assess their suitability for housing archaeological collections generated from Exxon Valdez Oil Spill related activities. Individuals in local communites, Native corporations, and governmental agencies were interviewed to determine what kinds of site protection programs exist in the spill area. At the same time, those groups were polled to see what facility and program needs were seen on the local as well as regional level.

  6. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  7. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  8. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  9. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  10. Effect of fatigue on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact in taekwondo roundhouse kick.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Jader; Franchini, Emerson; da Silva, Vinicius; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2016-09-05

    Reaction time and response time are considered important abilities and can potentially affect combat performance. This study investigated the effect of a specific fatigue protocol on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact. Seven male athletes reported to the laboratory on two different days. During day one, athletes performed a specific progressive taekwondo test, and on day two, a protocol for determining reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact before and after a time to exhaustion test at an intensity level corresponding to the maximal kick frequency obtained during the specific progressive taekwondo test. Muscle activation from rectus femoris and kick impact of the preferred limb were assessed. No differences were observed for response time and performance time. However, kick impact decreased (43 ± 27 to 13 ± 10 g, p < 0.01) while reaction time increased (145 ± 51 to 223 ± 133 ms, p < 0.05). Moderate correlation was observed between kick impact and response time (r = 0.565; p < 0.01), and kick impact and performance time (r = 0.494; p < 0.05). Results indicate that coaches and athletes may use taekwondo training programmes on coordination-based exercises leading to improve response time and to reduce fatigue effects in order to improve technique effectiveness and enhance the possibilities of scoring in a competitive situation.

  11. Finding a fractional model from frequency and time responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valério, Duarte; Sá da Costa, José

    2010-04-01

    An existing method for identifying an integer model from frequency data, developed to be used when synthesising second-generation Crone controllers, is adapted to identify fractional order plants. The modification only allows models with poles but no zeros or zeros but no poles. Two application examples are given, one of them showing how the method can also be used when a time response, rather than a frequency response, is available.

  12. Peripheral visual response time and retinal luminance-area relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to elucidate the stimulus luminance-retinal area relationship that underlies response time (RT) behavior. Mean RT was significantly faster to stimuli imaged beyond about 70 deg of arc from the fovea when their luminance was increased by an amount equal to the foveal stimulus luminance multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the peripheral stimuli and the line of sight. This and additional data are discussed in relation to previous psychophysical data and to possible response mechanisms.

  13. Time domains of the hypoxic ventilatory response in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Porteus, Cosima; Hedrick, Michael S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias; Milsom, William K

    2011-04-01

    Over a decade has passed since Powell et al. (Respir Physiol 112:123-134, 1998) described and defined the time domains of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in adult mammals. These time domains, however, have yet to receive much attention in other vertebrate groups. The initial, acute HVR of fish, amphibians and reptiles serves to minimize the imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. If the hypoxia is sustained, a suite of secondary adjustments occur giving rise to a more long-term balance (acclimatization) that allows the behaviors of normal life. These secondary responses can change over time as a function of the nature of the stimulus (the pattern and intensity of the hypoxic exposure). To add to the complexity of this process, hypoxia can also lead to metabolic suppression (the hypoxic metabolic response) and the magnitude of this is also time dependent. Unlike the original review of Powell et al. (Respir Physiol 112:123-134, 1998) that only considered the HVR in adult animals, we also consider relevant developmental time points where information is available. Finally, in amphibians and reptiles with incompletely divided hearts the magnitude of the ventilatory response will be modulated by hypoxia-induced changes in intra-cardiac shunting that also improve the match between O(2) supply and demand, and these too change in a time-dependent fashion. While the current literature on this topic is reviewed here, it is noted that this area has received little attention. We attempt to redefine time domains in a more 'holistic' fashion that better accommodates research on ectotherms. If we are to distinguish between the genetic, developmental and environmental influences underlying the various ventilatory responses to hypoxia, however, we must design future experiments with time domains in mind.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulation of Response Time for Velocity Modulation Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Koichi; Mizutani, Takashi; Tomizawa, Masaaki

    1992-03-01

    We have studied the response time for velocity modulation transistors (VMTs) using particle Monte Carlo simulation. The intrinsic VMT model with zero gate-source spacing was used to avoid the change in total number of electrons due to the difference in source resistances between the two channels. The results show that the response time for VMTs is about half that for ordinary high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The remaining factor limiting the response time is the electron redistribution in the channel, which is shown to be caused by the difference in velocity-electric field characteristics in the two channels. A “virtual” VMT model with a single channel, where the impurity concentration is changed abruptly at a certain moment, has also been studied to clarify the effect of electron redistribution.

  15. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Review of oil and HNS accidental spills in Europe: identifying major environmental monitoring gaps and drawing priorities.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2012-06-01

    The European Atlantic area has been the scene of a number of extensive shipping incidents with immediate and potential long-term impacts to marine ecosystems. The occurrence of accidental spills at sea requires an effective response that must include a well executed monitoring programme to assess the environmental contamination and damage of the affected marine habitats. Despite a number of conventions and protocols developed by international and national authorities that focused on the preparedness and response to oil and HNS spills, much remains to be done, particularly in relation to the effectiveness of the environmental monitoring programmes implemented after oil and HNS spills. Hence, the present study reviews the status of the environmental monitoring programmes established following the major spill incidents over the last years in European waters, aiming at identifying the key monitoring gaps and drawing priorities for an effective environmental monitoring of accidental spills.

  17. Magnetospheric response and reconfiguration times following IMF By reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenfjord, P.; Østgaard, N.; Strangeway, R.; Haaland, S.; Snekvik, K.; Laundal, K. M.; Reistad, J. P.; Milan, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field at the dayside magnetopause leads to transfer of momentum and energy which changes the magnetospheric configuration, but only after a certain time. In this study we quantify this time, to advance our understanding of the causes for the delayed response of the magnetosphere. We study the response and reconfiguration time of the inner magnetosphere to IMF By reversals. A superposed epoch analysis of magnetic field measurements from four Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite spacecraft at different local times both for negative to positive IMF By reversals and for positive to negative reversals is presented. The magnetospheric response time at geosynchronous orbit to the sudden change of IMF By is less than 15 (˜10) min from the bow shock (magnetopause) arrival time, while the reconfiguration time is less than 46 (˜41) min. These results are consistent with a By component induced on closed magnetic field lines due to the asymmetric loading of flux following asymmetric dayside reconnection when IMF By≠0. Our results also confirm our earlier studies that nightside reconnection is not required for generating a By component on closed field lines.

  18. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  19. Crying Over Spilled Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Weeding of library collections is a professional responsibility that should not be abdicated if deterioration of the quality of collections is to be avoided as also the spread of dangerous and misleading information. Guidelines are presented on how to go about this all-important task.

  20. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  1. SAR Image Texture Analysis of Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Yu

    Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they have serious affect on fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to implement an emergency in case of oil spills, it is necessary to monitor oil spill using remote sensing. Spaceborne SAR is considered a promising method to monitor oil spill, which causes attention from many researchers. However, research in SAR image texture analysis of oil spill is rarely reported. On 7 December 2007, a crane-carrying barge hit the Hong Kong-registered tanker "Hebei Spirit", which released an estimated 10,500 metric tons of crude oil into the sea. The texture features on this oil spill were acquired based on extracted GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) by using SAR as data source. The affected area was extracted successfully after evaluating capabilities of different texture features to monitor the oil spill. The results revealed that the texture is an important feature for oil spill monitoring. Key words: oil spill, texture analysis, SAR

  2. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  3. Harlequin Duck population injury and recovery dynamics following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Samuel A; Esler, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill caused significant injury to wildlife populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were particularly vulnerable to the spill and have been studied extensively since, leading to one of the most thorough considerations of the consequences of a major oil spill ever undertaken. We compiled demographic and survey data collected since the spill to evaluate the timing and extent of mortality using a population model. During the immediate aftermath of the spill, we estimated a 25% decrease in Harlequin Duck numbers in oiled areas. Survival rates remained depressed in oiled areas 6-9 years after the spill and did not equal those from unoiled areas until at least 11-14 years later. Despite a high degree of site fidelity to wintering sites, immigration was important for recovery dynamics, as the relatively large number of birds from habitats outside the spill zone provided a pool of individuals to facilitate numerical increases. On the basis of these model inputs and assumptions about fecundity rates for the species, we projected a timeline to recovery of 24 years under the most-likely combination of variables, with a range of 16 to 32 years for the best-case and worst-case scenarios, respectively. Our results corroborate assertions from other studies that the effects of spilled oil on wildlife can be expressed over much longer time frames than previously assumed and that the cumulative mortality associated with chronic exposure to residual oil may actually exceed acute mortality, which has been the primary concern following most oil spills.

  4. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as ‘old’ and ‘new’ in tests of recognition memory or ‘present’ versus ‘absent’ in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  5. Geohistorical records indicate no impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on oyster body size

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Documentation of the near- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, one of the largest environmental disasters in US history, is still ongoing. We used a novel before-after-control-impact analysis to test the hypothesis that average body size of intertidal populations of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting impacted areas in Louisiana decreased due to increased stress/mortality related to the oil spill. Time-averaged death assemblages of oysters were used to establish a pre-spill baseline of body-size structure for four impacted and four control locations along a 350 km stretch of Louisiana's coastline. Post-spill body sizes were then measured from live oysters at each site in order to evaluate the differences in body size between oiled (i.e. impact) and unoiled (i.e. control) locations before and after the spill. Our results indicate that average body size of oysters remained relatively unchanged after the oil spill. There were also no temporal patterns in temperature, salinity or disease prevalence that could have explained our results. Together, these findings suggest that oysters either recovered rapidly following the immediate impact of the DWH oil spill, or that its impact was not severe enough to influence short-term population dynamics of the oyster beds. PMID:28018663

  6. Geohistorical records indicate no impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on oyster body size.

    PubMed

    Dietl, Gregory P; Durham, Stephen R

    2016-11-01

    Documentation of the near- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, one of the largest environmental disasters in US history, is still ongoing. We used a novel before-after-control-impact analysis to test the hypothesis that average body size of intertidal populations of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting impacted areas in Louisiana decreased due to increased stress/mortality related to the oil spill. Time-averaged death assemblages of oysters were used to establish a pre-spill baseline of body-size structure for four impacted and four control locations along a 350 km stretch of Louisiana's coastline. Post-spill body sizes were then measured from live oysters at each site in order to evaluate the differences in body size between oiled (i.e. impact) and unoiled (i.e. control) locations before and after the spill. Our results indicate that average body size of oysters remained relatively unchanged after the oil spill. There were also no temporal patterns in temperature, salinity or disease prevalence that could have explained our results. Together, these findings suggest that oysters either recovered rapidly following the immediate impact of the DWH oil spill, or that its impact was not severe enough to influence short-term population dynamics of the oyster beds.

  7. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    PubMed

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner.

  8. Modeling VOC emissions and air concentrations from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R. ); Drivas, P.J. )

    1993-03-01

    During the two-week period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evaporated from the surface of the oil spill and were transported and dispersed throughout the region. To estimate the air concentrations of these VOCs, emissions and dispersion modeling was conducted for each hour during the first two weeks of the spill. A multicomponent evaporative emissions model was developed and applied to the oil spill; the model considered the evaporation of 15 specific compounds, including benzene and toluene. Both mass transfer from the surface of the spill and diffusion through the oil layer were considered in the emissions model. Maximum emissions of toluene were calculated to equal about 20,000 kg/hr, or about 5 g/m[sup 2] hr, at a time of eight hours after the initial oil spill. Meteorological data were acquired from sources and used to estimate hourly-averaged wind velocity over the spill. Air concentrations of specific components were calculated using the ATDL area source diffusion model and the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were predicted not to exceed 10 ppmv for any compound. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. A multi-model Python wrapper for operational oil spill transport forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Hodges, B. R.; Negusse, S.; Barker, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic and oil spill modeling system for Python (HyosPy) is presented as an example of a multi-model wrapper that ties together existing models, web access to forecast data and visualization techniques as part of an adaptable operational forecast system. The system is designed to automatically run a continual sequence of hindcast/forecast hydrodynamic models so that multiple predictions of the time-and-space-varying velocity fields are already available when a spill is reported. Once the user provides the estimated spill parameters, the system runs multiple oil spill prediction models using the output from the hydrodynamic models. As new wind and tide data become available, they are downloaded from the web, used as forcing conditions for a new instance of the hydrodynamic model and then applied to a new instance of the oil spill model. The predicted spill trajectories from multiple oil spill models are visualized through Python methods invoking Google MapTM and Google EarthTM functions. HyosPy is designed in modules that allow easy future adaptation to new models, new data sources or new visualization tools.

  10. Time-domain response of the ARIANNA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwick, S. W.; Berg, E. C.; Besson, D. Z.; Duffin, T.; Hanson, J. C.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinfelder, S. A.; Piasecki, M.; Ratzlaff, K.; Reed, C.; Roumi, M.; Stezelberger, T.; Tatar, J.; Walker, J.; Young, R.; Zou, L.

    2015-03-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a high-energy neutrino detector designed to record the Askaryan electric field signature of cosmogenic neutrino interactions in ice. To understand the inherent radio-frequency (RF) neutrino signature, the time-domain response of the ARIANNA RF receiver must be measured. ARIANNA uses Create CLP5130-2N log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs). The associated effective height operator converts incident electric fields to voltage waveforms at the LDPA terminals. The effective height versus time and incident angle was measured, along with the associated response of the ARIANNA RF amplifier. The results are verified by correlating to field measurements in air and ice, using oscilloscopes. Finally, theoretical models for the Askaryan electric field are combined with the detector response to predict the neutrino signature.

  11. 40 CFR 1601.24 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 1601.24 Section 1601.24 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Procedures for Requesting...

  12. 45 CFR 612.5 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.5 Timing of responses to requests. (a) In general. NSF ordinarily... government activity, if made by a person primarily engaged in disseminating information. (2) For example,...

  13. 5 CFR 1820.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 1820.4 Section 1820.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUESTS... expedited processing must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct to the best of that...

  14. 49 CFR 701.7 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.7 Timing of responses to... Freedom of Information Office. (2) A request for records shall be considered to have been received on the..., certified to be true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail...

  15. 5 CFR 1820.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 1820.4 Section 1820.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUESTS... expedited processing must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct to the best of that...

  16. 18 CFR 1301.5 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Timing of responses to requests. 1301.5 Section 1301.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... practicable speed, with another agency having a substantial interest in the determination of the request...

  17. 48 CFR 1505.203 - Publicizing and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Publicizing and response time. 1505.203 Section 1505.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., elect to transmit a synopsis to the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) of a proposed contract action...

  18. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric…

  19. From Zero to Sixty: Calibrating Real-Time Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulis, Theodoro; Ramsay, James O.; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in data recording technology have given researchers new ways of collecting on-line and continuous data for analyzing input-output systems. For example, continuous response digital interfaces are increasingly used in psychophysics. The statistical problem related to these input-output systems reduces to linking time-varying…

  20. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  1. Modeling Information Accumulation in Psychological Tests Using Item Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a latent trait model is proposed for the response times in psychological tests. The latent trait model is based on the linear transformation model and subsumes popular models from survival analysis, like the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. Core of the model is the assumption that an unspecified monotone…

  2. Processing Time Shifts Affects the Execution of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Andrea J.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether time shifts in text comprehension are represented spatially. Participants read sentences involving past or future events and made sensibility judgment responses in one of two ways: (1) moving toward or away from their body and (2) pressing the toward or away buttons without moving. Previous work suggests that spatial…

  3. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  4. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn) pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO) Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons (IPns) can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code) during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing) to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing) expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and pre-motor spike timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IPns may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality) than to their generation and/or initiation.

  5. Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.

  6. Time-lapse and slow-motion tracking of temperature changes: response time of a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-03-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure in a simple yet rigorous way the response time of an alcohol thermometer and show its critical dependence on the properties of the surrounding environment giving insight into instrument characteristics, heat transfer and thermal equilibrium concepts.

  7. 30 CFR 254.23 - What information must I include in the “Emergency response action plan” section?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Plans for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.23 What information... for spill notification. The plan must provide for the use of the oil spill reporting forms included...

  8. Controlled image design: The measurement of time-frequency responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Eng, C.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the measurement of acoustic events in a three-dimensional measurement domain. An outline of the general theoretical background is followed by a description of the special requirements for the measurement of short-term acoustic responses in rooms. The results of measurements on an experimental synthesis of a single room reflection are also presented. It is shown that the measurement and presentation of the result in terms of amplitude/time, amplitude/frequency, and three-dimensional time/frequency/amplitude responses accurately portray the true situation, within the theoretical limitations of the Fourier transform. It is shown that the achievable time and frequency resolutions are probably just adequate for the measurement of those effects thought to be important for the perception of the stereophonic illusion.

  9. Dose-time-response modeling using negative binomial distribution.

    PubMed

    Roy, Munmun; Choudhury, Kanak; Islam, M M; Matin, M A

    2013-01-01

    People exposed to certain diseases are required to be treated with a safe and effective dose level of a drug. In epidemiological studies to find out an effective dose level, different dose levels are applied to the exposed and a certain number of cures is observed. Negative binomial distribution is considered to fit overdispersed Poisson count data. This study investigates the time effect on the response at different time points as well as at different dose levels. The point estimation and confidence bands for ED(100p)(t) and LT(100p)(d) are formulated in closed form for the proposed dose-time-response model with the negative binomial distribution. Numerical illustrations are carried out in order to check the performance level of the proposed model.

  10. The Time Course Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Response Execution and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Jennifer; Graydon, Jan; McMorris, Terry; Davranche, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the time course effect of a moderate steady-state exercise session on response execution and response inhibition using a stop-task paradigm. Ten participants performed a stop-signal task whilst cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity (40% of maximal aerobic power), immediately following exercise and…

  11. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  12. Modeling underwater transport of oil spilled from deepwater area in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; An, Wei; You, Yunxiang; Lei, Fanghui; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model was developed to simulate the underwater transport of oil from a deepwater spill. This model comprises two submodels: a plume dynamics model and an advection-diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by the initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil, while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by the ambient current and turbulence. The model validity was verified through comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data from several laboratory flume experiments and a field experiment. To demonstrate the capability of the model further, it was applied to the simulation of a hypothetical oil spill occurring at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea. The results of the simulation would be useful for contingency planning with regard to the emergency response to an underwater oil spill.

  13. Tissue analysis of the oyster Crassostrea virginica after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, D.; Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Chung, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident (DWH) of April 20th, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) released crude oil into the ocean column for 4 months. An estimated 685,000 tons of crude oil was released, making DWH spill the largest accidental spill in maritime history. The immediate impacts of the spill were evident, including oil slicks, fouled beaches and fouled, often dead wildlife. Longer-term impacts are less understood, and reliance on studies of past spills, e.g. Exxon Valdez, may not be applicable given the substantially greater magnitude of DWH (Valdez spilled 37,000 tons) and different environmental settings (predominantly rocky shorelines vs. saltmarsh-dominated coastlines). Many molluscan species exhibit responses to oil spills or other hydrocarbon contamination. Bivalved molluscs are commonly used as bioindicator organisms in part because they concentrate both metals and organic contaminants in their soft tissues. We used the American oyster Crassostrea virginica to measure exposure to and impact of the spill as the abnormal transformation of soft-tissues, or metaplasia. Metaplasia is the reversible transformation of one cell type into another. Molluscan metaplasia has been associated with exposure to petroleum contamination. While oyster epithelium is normally stratified columnar and ciliated, experimental exposures often result in metaplasia of gill, digestive and renal tissues. The occurrence and frequency of metaplasia may also be an indication of the longevity of a spill's impact. For example, individuals of the mussel Mytilus trossulus in Prince William Sound continued to exhibit metaplasia of the digestive gland more than 5 years after the Exxon Valdez spill, with an occurrence directly related to concentrations of PAHs in the animals. We focused on the hypothesis that DWH spill exposure resulted in metaplasia of gill and digestive epithelial tissues, both during and after the spill. Those transformations are eventually reversible, although on an unknown

  14. Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, Savannah; Schaefer, Jacob; Peterson, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length) were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River), as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012)--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon) showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites) could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.

  15. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Savannah; Schaefer, Jacob; Peterson, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length) were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River), as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012)-one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon) showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites) could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors. PMID:25714356

  16. The M/V Cosco Busan spill: source identification and short-term fate.

    PubMed

    Lemkau, Karin L; Peacock, Emily E; Nelson, Robert K; Ventura, G Todd; Kovecses, Jennifer L; Reddy, Christopher M

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy fuel oils (HFOs) in the environment is critical for sound decisions regarding its usage and spill cleanup. To study weathering of HFOs, we examined the M/V Cosco Busan spill (November 2007; San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). In this baseline report, we identified which ruptured tank (port tank 3 or 4) was the source of the spilled oil and characterized changes in the oil composition across location and time. Samples from three impacted shorelines, collected within 80 days of the spill, were analyzed using one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC and GC × GC, respectively). Weathering varied across sites, but compounds with GC retention times less than n-C(16) were generally lost by evaporation and dissolution. Changes in n-C(18)/phytane and benz[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios indicated some biodegradation and photodegradation, respectively.

  17. A survey of alterations in microbial community diversity in marine sediments in response to oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisle, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial community genomic DNA was extracted from sediment samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast. These samples had a high probability of being impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling site. The hypothesis for this project was that presence of M-1 oil in coastal sediments would significantly alter the diversity within the microbial communities associated with the impacted sediments. To determine if community-level changes did or did not occur following exposure to M-1 oil, microbial community-diversity fingerprints were generated and compared. Specific sequences within the community's genomic DNA were first amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer set that provides possible resolution to the species level. A second nested PCR that was performed on the primary PCR products using a primer set on which a GC-clamp was attached to one of the primers. These nested PCR products were separated using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) that resolves the nested PCR products based on sequence dissimilarities (or similarities), forming a genomic fingerprint of the microbial diversity within the respective samples. Sediment samples with similar fingerprints were grouped and compared to oil-fingerprint data from Rosenbauer and others (2010). The microbial community fingerprints grouped closely when identifying those sites that had been impacted by M-1 oil (N=12) and/or some mixture of M-1 and other oil (N=4), based upon the oil fingerprints. This report represents some of the first information on naturally occurring microbial communities in sediment from shorelines along the NGOM coast. These communities contain microbes capable of degrading oil and related hydrocarbons, making this information relevant to response and recovery of the NGOM from the DWH incident.

  18. Time dependency of craving and response inhibition during nicotine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Tsaur, Stephen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Evans, Gretchen C.; Ashare, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine withdrawal produces increased craving for cigarettes and deficits in response inhibition, and these withdrawal symptoms are predictive of relapse. Although it is well-established that these symptoms emerge early during abstinence, there is mixed evidence regarding whether they occur simultaneously. Given the importance of the early withdrawal period, this study examined craving and response inhibition at 24h and 72h abstinence. Methods Twenty-one non-treatment seeking adult smokers were evaluated at baseline, 24h, and 72h abstinence for craving (Questionnaire on Smoking Urges – Brief) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task, Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task). Generalized linear regression models were used for primary outcomes, and Pearson correlations for examining the association between craving and response inhibition. Results Factor 2 craving (anticipated relief of negative affect) increased from baseline to 24h abstinent (p=0.004), which subsided by 72h (p=0.08). Deficits in response inhibition measured by the Stop Signal Task were observed at 72h (p=0.046), but not 24h (p=0.318). No correlation was found between response inhibition and craving at any time point (p-values>0.19), except between the Stroop Task and factor 1 craving at baseline (p=0.025). Conclusions Factor 2 craving peaked at 24h, whereas deficits in response inhibition did not emerge until 72h, indicating that need to target craving and cognitive function during early abstinence may not occur simultaneously. Further characterizing the time course of withdrawal symptoms may guide development of targeted treatments for smoking cessation. PMID:26052265

  19. Change and recovery of coastal mesozooplankton community structure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carassou, L.; Hernandez, F. J.; Graham, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mesozooplankton community structure to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using data from a long-term plankton survey off the coast of Alabama (USA). Environmental conditions observed in the study area during the oil spill (2010) were compared to historical observations (2005-2009), to support the contention that variations observed in zooplankton assemblage structure may be attributed to the oil spill, as opposed to natural climatic or environmental variations. Zooplankton assemblage structure observed during the oil spill period (May-August) in 2010 was then compared to historical observations from the same period (2005-2009). Significant variations were detected in assemblage structure in May and June 2010, but these changes were no longer significant by July 2010. The density of ostracods, cladocerans and echinoderm larvae were responsible for most of the differences observed, but patterns differed depending on taxa and months. Many taxa had higher densities during the oil spill year, including calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, bivalve larvae and cladocerans, among others. Although this result is somewhat surprising, it is possible that increased microbial activity related to the infusion of oil carbon may have stimulated secondary production through microbial-zooplankton trophic linkages. Overall, results suggest that, although changes in zooplankton community composition were observed during the oil spill, variations were weak and recovery was rapid.

  20. Ecological impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilometers of shoreline. Multiple species of pelagic, tidal, and estuarine organisms; sea turtles; marine mammals; and birds were affected, and over 20 million hectares of the Gulf of Mexico were closed to fishing. Several large-scale field efforts were performed, including assessments of shoreline and wildlife oiling and of coastal waters and sediments. The assessment of injuries, damages, and restoration options for the DWH spill is ongoing. Although petroleum and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon component of oils are known to affect the immune systems of aquatic organisms and wildlife, immunotoxicity is not typically assessed during oil spills and has not been a focus of the DHW assessment. The effects of oil spill contaminants on immune responses are variable and often exposure dependent, but immunotoxic effects seem likely from the DHW spill based on the reported effects of a variety of oils on both aquatic and wildlife species.

  1. Ampoule failure sensor time response testing: Experiments 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Watring, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    The response time of an ampoule failure sensor exposed to a liquid or vapor gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and the corresponding breach time of the containing cartridge is investigated. The experiments were conducted in niobium-hafnium (WC-103) cartridges with an exterior silicide coating. These cartridges were built to flight specifications that were used in NASA's Crystal Growth Furnace during the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission. The ampoule failure sensor is a chemical fuse made from a metal with which the semiconductor material reacts more rapidly than it does with the containing cartridge. In these experiments a platinum metal was used for the manufacture of the sensors. This technical report discusses the response time of two different sensor designs. The first design utilizes a helical wrapped wire and the second uses a single bare wire element. Experimental results indicate that both sensors are adequate in sensing the presence of molten or vapor GaAs with the latter having a 2-minute longer response time. In both experiments, the containing cartridge was breached within 185 minutes after ampoule rupture.

  2. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U0 = Ug - Uth, where Ug is the gate voltage and Uth is the threshold voltage, such that μU0/L < vs, where L is the channel length and vs is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L2/(μU0), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.

  3. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-05-07

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U{sub 0} = U{sub g} − U{sub th}, where U{sub g} is the gate voltage and U{sub th} is the threshold voltage, such that μU{sub 0}/L < v{sub s}, where L is the channel length and v{sub s} is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L{sup 2}/(μU{sub 0}), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.

  4. Development of an underwater multispectral fluorescence based oil spill sensor system for the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.M.; Lieberman, S.H.

    1997-06-01

    This poster describes the development of an underwater optical fluorescence sensor system to detect the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment. The system is designed for long term continuous underwater operation and will be used primarily to provide real time notification of the occurrence of a petroleum leak or spill at marine facilities. The sensor utilizes broadband UV excitation from a pulsed xenon lamp to generate fluorescence emission in contaminated sea water. It can detect floating product (surface sheen) from below the surface as well as detect dissolved phase PAHs in the water column. Multispectral emission information is used to distinguish between several possible petroleum classes and also to eliminate false positive interference from non-petroleum based fluorophores such as chlorophyll, cleaning detergents, and sea dye. Real time qualitative identification yields an important advantage in terms of rapidly resolving questions of spill origin or in determining an appropriate response. The design uses the optical energy of the UV excitation source to prevent biofouling on the surface of the optical window thereby greatly extending the usable field lifetime of the {open_quotes}deploy and forget{close_quotes} instrument.

  5. PUBLISHING SPILL IMPACT MAPS OVER THE WEB

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the implementaiton of a web-based map publishing technology within a USEPA GIS laboratory. A sophisticated spill travel prediction model for the Ohio River has been installed within the GIS laboratory, and is used by personnel from the NRMRL. The spill simul...

  6. 30 CFR 254.21 - How must I format my response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Plans for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.21 How must I format my response...

  7. 30 CFR 254.21 - How must I format my response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Plans for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.21 How must I format my response...

  8. 30 CFR 254.21 - How must I format my response plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Plans for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.21 How must I format my response...

  9. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    geochemical evidence of Macondo-1 oil in post-landfall sediments and tarballs. For trace and major elements in water, analytical reporting levels for several elements were high and variable. No human-health benchmarks were exceeded, although these were available for only two elements. Aquatic-life benchmarks for trace elements were exceeded in 47 percent of water samples overall. The elements responsible for the most exceedances in post-landfall samples were boron, copper, and manganese. Benchmark exceedances in water could be substantially underestimated because some samples had reporting levels higher than the applicable benchmarks (such as cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) and some elements (such as boron and vanadium) were analyzed in samples from only one sampling period. For trace elements in whole sediment, empirical upper screening-value benchmarks were exceeded in 57 percent of post-landfall samples and 40 percent of pre-landfall samples, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of samples exceeding benchmarks between paired pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Benchmark exceedance frequencies could be conservatively high because they are based on measurements of total trace-element concentrations in sediment. In the less than 63-micrometer sediment fraction, one or more trace or major elements were anthropogenically enriched relative to national baseline values for U.S. streams for all sediment samples except one. Sixteen percent of sediment samples exceeded upper screening-value benchmarks for, and were enriched in, one or more of the following elements: barium, vanadium, aluminum, manganese, arsenic, chromium, and cobalt. These samples were evenly divided between the sampling periods. Aquatic-life benchmarks were frequently exceeded along the Gulf of Mexico coast by trace elements in both water and sediment and by PAHs in sediment. For the most part, however, significant differences between pre-landfall and post-landfall samples were limited to

  10. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is theangular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds; b) the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic transfer function; and c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response transfer functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.5% at each HFI frequency band. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn limit near sidelobes (within 5°) to about 0.1% of the total solid angle. Time response residuals remain as long tails in the scanning beams, but contribute less than 0.1% of the total solid angle. The bias and uncertainty in the beam products are estimated using ensembles of simulated planet observations that include the impact of instrumental noise and known systematic effects. The correlation structure of these ensembles is well-described by five error eigenmodes that are sub-dominant to sample variance and instrumental noise in the harmonic domain. A suite of consistency tests provide confidence that the error model represents a sufficient description of the data. The total error in the effective beam window functions is below 1% at 100 GHz up to multipole ℓ ~ 1500, and below 0.5% at 143 and 217 GHz up to

  11. Fire resistant oil spill barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.

    1986-08-12

    A fire-resistant, portable, barrier for the containment of marine oil spill, is described which consists of: (A) a continuous length of a fire-resistant fabric comprising interwoven yarns of heat-resistant material, coated with a liquid-impermeable film; the fabric being impermeable to a hydrocarbon petroleum oil; (B) buoyant bodies attached to the fabric in a quantity and at positions sufficient to buoy the length of fabric on a body of water; and (C) means for stabilizing the length of fabric when buoyed upon the body of water.

  12. Spill Prevention and Countermeasures Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Day Period Day Period BOO (mg/I) 30 45 Total Suspended Solids (mg/1) 30 45 Fecal Cotiform (number/100 ml) 2000 4000 Total Residual Chlorine (mg/i...CONTENTS FAILURE (GAL) FLOW FLOW CONTAINMENT Dichloro. Ruptured 8,000 Depend- None Fully con- tank ent on tained size of the rup- Cure Dichloro Spill or...mounted on a 𔃾A foot diameter concrt -te slab on grr . The capacity of this tank is 200,000 gallons. It contains fip’ nil winich sunolies the incinerator

  13. An advance forecasting system for ship originated oil spills in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, G.; Lardner, R.; De Dominicis, M.; Coppini, G.; Pinardi, N.

    2012-04-01

    One of the permanent risks from an oil spill incident in the Mediterranean is associated with the heavy traffic in maritime transport, as well nowadays with the coastal and offshore installations related to the oil and gas industry. Such dense activity imposes on the coastal countries the need for preparing an operational response to major oil spill incidents. In the recent past, several policies related to oil spill response have been adopted internationally. At the regional level the Barcelona convention, recognizing pollution from oil spills as one of the major threats to the marine environment of the Mediterranean, initiated the preparedness for responding to major oil spill incidents, through various national and sub-regional contingency plans. At the European level the Member States was obliged to implement the EU Directive 2005/35, aimed at identifying the polluter and bringing them to prosecution. The response to an oil spill incident employs various measures and equipment. However, the success of such response depends greatly on the prediction of the movement and weathering of the oil spills. Such predictions may obtained through the operational application of advanced numerical oil spill models integrated with met-ocean forecasting data. A well established operational system for oil spill predictions in the Mediterranean is the MEDSLIK three dimensional model that predicts the transport, diffusion and spreading of oil spill and incorporates the fate processes of evaporation, emulsification, viscosity changes, dispersion into the water column and coastal impact and adhesion. MEDSLIK is integrated with the MyOCEAN regional and several downscaled ocean forecasting systems in the Mediterranean, contributing to the development of the GMES marine services. Moreover, MEDSLIK has been coupled with EMSA-CSN and ESA ASAR imageries, for short forward and backward predictions, to assist the response agencies in the implementation of the EU Directive 2005/35. From

  14. Time-delayed model of immune response in plants.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, G; Kyrychko, Y N; Blyuss, K B

    2016-01-21

    In the studies of plant infections, the plant immune response is known to play an essential role. In this paper we derive and analyse a new mathematical model of plant immune response with particular account for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Besides biologically accurate representation of the PTGS dynamics, the model explicitly includes two time delays to represent the maturation time of the growing plant tissue and the non-instantaneous nature of the PTGS. Through analytical and numerical analysis of stability of the steady states of the model we identify parameter regions associated with recovery and resistant phenotypes, as well as possible chronic infections. Dynamics of the system in these regimes is illustrated by numerical simulations of the model.

  15. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  16. Physical response of light-time gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Michael J.; Finn, Lee Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and—correspondingly—unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft Doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing array detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge-invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature separates into two independent gauge-invariant quantities: a "background" curvature contribution and a "wave" curvature contribution. In this limit the gravitational wave contribution to the detector response reduces to an integral of the gravitational wave contribution of the curvature along the unperturbed photon path between components of the detector. The description presented here provides an unambiguous physical description of what a gravitational wave detector measures and how it operates, a simple means of computing corrections to a detectors response owing to general detector motion, a straightforward way of connecting the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection, and a basis for a general and fully relativistic pulsar timing formula.

  17. Collecting Response Times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This article investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method. PMID:23670340

  18. Traffic model by braking capability and response time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Jeenu; Kim, Youngho; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2015-06-01

    We propose a microscopic traffic model where the update velocity is determined by the deceleration capacity and response time. It is found that there is a class of collisions that cannot be distinguished by simply comparing the stop positions. The model generates the safe, comfortable, and efficient traffic flow in numerical simulations with a reasonable values of the parameters, and this is analytically supported. Our approach provides a new perspective in modeling traffic-flow safety and worrying situations like lane changing.

  19. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  20. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S. A.; Duncan, M. E.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a graduate student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas, to survey the damage. The purpose of these surveys was to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup.