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Sample records for spina bifida longitudinal

  1. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect (a disorder involving incomplete development of the brain, ... spinal fluid) protrude from a spinal opening; closed neural tube defects, which consist of a group of defects in ...

  2. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sensation. In addition to abnormal sensation and paralysis, another neurological complication associated with spina bifida is Chiari II malformation—a condition common in children with myelomeningocele—in which the brain stem and the cerebellum (hindbrain) protrude downward into ...

  3. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have learning problems, but most have normal intelligence. Most kids with spina bifida have some problems with their bowels and bladder. The nerves that send and receive messages from the brain can't do their job, so it's hard ...

  4. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/spina-bifida.aspx National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and ...

  5. Spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Copp, Andrew J; Adzick, N Scott; Chitty, Lyn S; Fletcher, Jack M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Spina bifida is a birth defect in which the vertebral column is open, often with spinal cord involvement. The most clinically significant subtype is myelomeningocele (open spina bifida), which is a condition characterized by failure of the lumbosacral spinal neural tube to close during embryonic development. The exposed neural tissue degenerates in utero, resulting in neurological deficit that varies with the level of the lesion. Occurring in approximately 1 per 1,000 births worldwide, myelomeningocele is one of the most common congenital malformations, but its cause is largely unknown. The genetic component is estimated at 60-70%, but few causative genes have been identified to date, despite much information from mouse models. Non-genetic maternal risk factors include reduced folate intake, anticonvulsant therapy, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Primary prevention by periconceptional supplementation with folic acid has been demonstrated in clinical trials, leading to food fortification programmes in many countries. Prenatal diagnosis is achieved by ultrasonography, enabling women to seek termination of pregnancy. Individuals who survive to birth have their lesions closed surgically, with subsequent management of associated defects, including the Chiari II brain malformation, hydrocephalus, and urological and orthopaedic sequelae. Fetal surgical repair of myelomeningocele has been associated with improved early neurological outcome compared with postnatal operation. Myelomeningocele affects quality of life during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, posing a challenge for individuals, families and society as a whole. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/fK9XNa. PMID:27189655

  6. Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Adzick, N. Scott; Chitty, Lyn S.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Spina bifida is a birth defect in which the vertebral column is open (bifid), often with spinal cord involvement. Clinically most significant is myelomeningocele (MMC; open spina bifida) in which the spinal neural tube fails to close during embryonic development. The exposed neural tissue degenerates in utero, resulting in neurological deficit that varies with level of the lesion. Occurring in around 1 per 1000 births worldwide, MMC is one of the commonest congenital malformations, yet its causation is largely unknown. The genetic component of MMC is estimated at 60-70% but few genes have yet been identified, despite much information from mouse models. Non-genetic risk factors include reduced folate intake, maternal anticonvulsant therapy, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Primary prevention by peri-conceptional folic acid has been demonstrated in clinical trials, leading to food fortification programmes in many countries. Prenatal diagnosis is by ultrasound enabling termination of pregnancy. Individuals who survive to birth have their lesions closed surgically, with subsequent management of associated defects, including the Chiari II malformation, hydrocephalus, and urological and orthopaedic sequelae. Fetal surgical repair of MMC has been associated with improved early neurological outcome compared with postnatal operation. MMC affects quality of life during childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood, posing a challenge for individuals, families and society as a whole. PMID:27189655

  7. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... pronounced SPAHY-nuh BIF-i-duh ) is a neural tube defect that frequently occurs in families. Spina ... meninges) alone, called a meningocele, or with some neural elements, called a meningomyelocele. Or the defect may ...

  8. Spina Bifida Clinic Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minneapolis Spina Bifida Clinic 2001 Blaisdell Ave. Minneapolis, MN 55404 (952) 993-9100 www.parknicollett.com Shriners ... Clinic (pediatric only) 2025 E. River Parkway Minneapolis, MN 55414 (612) 596-6105 www.twincitiesshrinershospital.org Mayo ...

  9. Spina Bifida (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... procedure, a thin tube is placed within the brain to drain extra fluid down to the belly, where ... from their spina bifida. Those with paralysis may eventually need walking aids like leg braces, ...

  10. The Child with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Spain, Bernie

    Intended for parents as well as professionals, the text provides information and practical suggestions on dealing with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Part I (chapters 1 and 2) concentrates on the medical and physical aspects of the condition with discussions covering such areas as spina bifida's development, locomotor problems, and the role of…

  11. Integrating Pupils with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliwell, Miles; Spain, Bernie

    1977-01-01

    A followup survey of parents and teachers of 155 children born with spina bifida, who were mildly handicapped and attended ordinary schools in London, indicated that there were no major problems with the children's placements. (IM)

  12. Spina Bifida: Some Psychological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulthorpe, Derek

    1974-01-01

    Examined were the intellectual ability, social adjustment, social competence, and personality characteristics of 33 children, 8-to 15-years-old with spina bifida (a malformation of the spinal cord). (CL)

  13. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  14. MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT IN SPINA BIFIDA

    PubMed Central

    English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the deficits in visual-spatial processing that are also associated with the disorder. An overview of math and its cognitive correlates in preschoolers, school-age children and adults with SB is presented including the findings from a longitudinal study linking early executive functions in infancy to the development of later preschool and school age math skills. These findings are discussed in relation to socio-historical perspectives on math education and implications for intervention and directions for further research are presented. PMID:19213013

  15. Social Implications of Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, Margaret

    Investigated in Southeast Scotland were the social and practical problems faced by the parents of 86 children (ages 18 months to 38 years) with spina bifida, 74 of whom were classified as myelomeningoceles (a more serious condition involving malformation of the spinal cord). Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather information in the…

  16. Spina Bifida Association of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  17. Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the…

  18. Urologic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,…

  19. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bifida . Q: Do you know what type of technology is available that condenses all of my child's ... is hope for Spina Bifida also as the technology becomes more advanced and widespread. The March of ...

  1. Spina Bifida, Meningomyelocele, and Meningocele.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Spina bifida with or without meningocele or meningomyelocele is encountered infrequently in small animal practice. The English bulldog and Manx cat are breeds predisposed. Although often silent clinically, in those animals with clinical signs, it is important to recognize the signs early and to understand the appropriate imaging modalities employed in establishing a diagnosis. In a select population of affected animals, proposed surgical intervention may be considered to prevent neurologic decline, prevent secondary complications, and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:26725976

  2. Genetics and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... that some babies will have it even when women take the right amount every day. Who is at risk for ... population, there is no way to tell which women will have babies with Spina percent of people with SB have no family history. Many things affect pregnancy, including genes, environment and ...

  3. Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

  4. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  5. Educational Placement of Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Calvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Procedures of school placement for 38 children (ages 5 to 18 years) with spina bifida in 23 school districts in western New York State were studied 5 years after a mandated process was enacted. (Author)

  6. The handwriting of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A M; Carr, J; Hallwell, M D

    1988-12-01

    As part of the Greater London Council (GLC) Spina Bifida Survey the handwriting of 131 11-year-olds with spina bifida and 56 controls was examined. The children copied the sentence "The dog sits in his box" in the course of an extensive battery of intelligence and attainment tests. Writing speed formed one scoring dimension and nine further categories were devised in collaboration with a handwriting consultant. All but one of these ten dimensions consistently discriminated between the spina bifida children and the controls, and between the spina bifida children divided according to such variables as IQ, school type, degree of disability, reading scores and presence or absence of a valve. In every case the differences were in the predicted direction, with the handwriting scores of the brighter, less damaged children, and those attending ordinary schools being higher. These findings are consistent with those obtained by other researchers and reflect an educational disadvantage in that the children with spina bifida had handwriting which was slow, with the letters being poorly formed and the words poorly spaced.

  7. [Spina bifida and "psycho-socioaffective" adjustment].

    PubMed

    de Tychey, C

    1983-01-01

    The author has undertaken a critical review of the publications centered on the psychosocio-affective adaptation of spina-bifida. He considered the construction of personality, the socialization, the relations with family, marital and sexual life and the future professional life. Researches and guidance strategies are suggested.

  8. Neurosurgical Management of Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Robin M.; McLone, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The neurosurgical goal when treating children with spina bifida (predominantly myelomeningocele) is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient's life time. Unfortunately, few long-term outcome studies are available to help direct the neurosurgical care of a child born with myelomeningocele and often treatment relies more…

  9. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

  10. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  11. The Spina Bifida Child in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Beverly; And Others

    Learning characteristics of children with spina bifida (lesions on the spinal cord) are reviewed in the text of a presentation with slides, and the effects of such factors as hospitalization experiences and the presence of hydrocephalus are considered. Characteristics related to intelligence, sensory integration, tactile responsiveness, tactile…

  12. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

  13. Condition Self-Management in Pediatric Spina Bifida: A Longitudinal Investigation of Medical Adherence, Responsibility-Sharing, and Independence Skills

    PubMed Central

    Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Kolbuck, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate rates of medical adherence, responsibility, and independence skills across late childhood and adolescence in youth with spina bifida (SB) and to explore associations among these disease self-management variables. Method 111 youth with SB, their parents, and a health professional participated at two time points. Informants completed questionnaires regarding medical adherence, responsibility-sharing, and child independence skills. Results Youth gained more responsibility and independence skills across time, although adherence rates did not follow a similar trajectory. Increased child medical responsibility was related to poorer adherence, and father-reported independence skills were associated with increased child responsibility. Conclusions This study highlights medical domains that are the most difficult for families to manage (e.g., skin checks). Although youth appear to gain more autonomy across time, ongoing parental involvement in medical care may be necessary to achieve optimal adherence across adolescence. PMID:26002195

  14. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  15. Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Kinback, Nicholas; Bellin, Melissa; Chaikind, Laurie; Buhari, Alhaji; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Zabel, Andy; Donlan, Robert M.; Collins, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adults with spina bifida and identify contributing factors for depressive symptomatology. Research Method/Design Retrospective Cohort Study. Data collection was conducted at a regional adult spina bifida clinic. A total of 190 charts from adult patients with spina bifida were included. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the mobility domain of the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique Short Form (CHART-SF). Results Of the 190 participants, 49 (25.8%) had BDI-II scores (14+) indicative of depressive symptomatology. Sixty-nine (36.3%) of all participants were on antidepressants for the purpose of treating depressive symptoms, and 31 (63.3%) of those with clinical symptoms of depression were on antidepressants. The total number of participants with a history of depressive symptoms may be as high as 45.7% if both participants with BDI-II scores 14+ and those with antidepressant use specifically for the purposes of depression treatment are combined. In this population, lower CHART-SF mobility score, expressing “emotional concerns” as a reason for the visit on an intake sheet, and use of antidepressant medications were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions/Implications Depressive symptomatology appears to be common and undertreated in this cohort of adults with spina bifida, which may warrant screening for emotional concerns in routine clinic appointments. Significant depressive symptoms are associated with fewer hours out of bed and fewer days leaving the house. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of interventions directed towards mobility on depression and in the treatment of depression in this patient population. PMID:26147238

  16. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  17. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  18. Symposium on Spina Bifida (Denver, Colorado, November, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    The objectives of the symposium were to define the problems of the child with spina bifida and to present practical means of management, using a multi-disciplinary team approach. Eight papers defining the problem cover the epidemiology of spina bifida, pathophysiology, musculoskeletal defects, incontinence of bladder and bowel, problems of…

  19. Psychological and Educational Studies with Spina Bifida Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    To measure school achievements in spina bifida children, to relate these measures to certain variables, to obtain information on educational problems, and to study facets of cognition and its changes with age, 77 spina bifida children and 53 amputees (all aged 5 to 15) were tested. Sixty non-disabled children were at times used for controls. The…

  20. Mathematical skills in 3- and 5-year-olds with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-05-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

  1. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePlus

    ... examines blood in several ways to look for neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and other ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) NICHD News and Spotlights Boosting ...

  2. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to brain injury. Chiari II Malformation The brains of most children with open spina bifida are positioned abnormally. The lower part of the brain rests farther down than normal, partially in the ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida ... opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., Chief ...

  4. Ethics, justification and the prevention of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Gagen, Wendy Jane; Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    During the 1970s, prenatal screening technologies were in their infancy, but were being swiftly harnessed to uncover and prevent spina bifida. The historical rise of this screening process and prevention programme is analysed in this paper, and the role of ethical debates in key studies, editorials and letters reported in the Lancet, and other related texts and governmental documents between 1972 and 1983, is considered. The silence that surrounded rigorous ethical debate served to highlight where discussion lay—namely, within the justifications offered for the prevention of spina bifida, and the efficacy and benefits of screening. In other words, the ethical justification for screening and prevention of spina bifida, when the authors are not explicitly interested in ethics, is considered. These justifications held certain notions of disability as costly to society, with an imperative to screen and prevent spina bifida for the good of the society. PMID:17761816

  5. Sexual health in adult men with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Bong, Gary W; Rovner, Eric S

    2007-09-01

    Medical and surgical advances in the treatment of spina bifida (SB) have resulted in increasing numbers of patients reaching adulthood. As such, issues related to sexual maturity are being investigated to offer optimal healthcare to men with spina bifida. This report constitutes a review of the current literature relating to adults with spina bifida and issues of sexuality, erectile dysfunction and fertility. In general, adult males with spina bifida have normal sexual desires and an interest in addressing these issues with healthcare providers. Sexual education and access to intimacy are delayed compared to the general population. 75% of men achieve erections, but maintaining erections is a problem and some may be merely reflexive in nature. The many of these men show marked improvement with sildenafil. In SB erectile dysfunction and infertility are related to the level of neurological lesion with the best performance status in those with sacral lesions and intact reflexes. Men with lesions higher than T10 are at risk for azoospermia. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects in the children of men with spina bifida, but the current incidence with modern folic acid therapy is unknown. As the number of males with spina bifida reaching sexual maturity increases, further investigation into sexuality, sex education, intimacy, and treatments for erectile dysfunction and infertility will be needed.

  6. Factors Associated With Pressure Ulcers in Individuals With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunkyung; Ward, Elisabeth; Dicianno, Brad E.; Clayton, Gerald H.; Sawin, Kathleen J.; Beierwaltes, Patricia; Thibadeau, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe factors associated with pressure ulcers in individuals with spina bifida (SB) enrolled in the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR). Design Unbalanced longitudinal multicenter cohort study. Setting Nineteen SB clinics. Participants Individuals with SB (N=3153) enrolled in 19 clinic sites that participate in the NSBPR. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Pressure ulcer status (yes/no) at the annual visit between 2009 and 2012. Results Of 3153 total participants, 19% (n=603) reported ulcers at their most recent annual clinic visit. Seven factors–level of lesion, wheelchair use, urinary incontinence, shunt presence, above the knee orthopedic surgery, recent surgery, and male sex–were significantly associated with the presence of pressure ulcers. Of these factors, level of lesion, urinary incontinence, recent surgery, and male sex were included in the final logistic regression model. The 3 adjusting variables–SB type, SB clinic, and age group–were significant in all analyses (all P<.001). Conclusions By adjusting for SB type, SB clinic, and age group, we found that 7 factors–level of lesion, wheelchair use, urinary incontinence, shunt presence, above the knee orthopedic surgery, recent surgery, and male sex–were associated with pressure ulcers. Identifying key factors associated with the onset of pressure ulcers can be incorporated into clinical practice in ways that prevent and enhance treatment of pressure ulcers in the population with SB. PMID:25796136

  7. The Adolescent with Spina Bifida: Academic Achievement and Employment Prospects. Research Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 52 adolescents with spina bifida reveals information about their intelligence and attainments at age 16, achievement examinations, the relationship between IQ and academic achievement, and employment at 18 years. Among findings are significantly lower performance among Ss with shunts and intracranial complications. (CL)

  8. Disability and quality of life in spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Cate, Ineke M Pit-ten; Kennedy, Colin; Stevenson, Jim

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the impact of severity and type of condition and family resources on quality of life in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. A national UK sample of children aged between 6 and 13 years with spina bifida (n=62), hydrocephalus (n=354), and spina bifida plus hydrocephalus (n=128) were identified via the register of the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (ASBAH). Parents completed standardized measures of Child Health Related Quality Of Life (CQOL), family needs survey (FNS), and caregiving self-efficacy scale (CSES) as well as questions on children's health and physical ability. Results showed there were no significant differences in the overall quality of life for the three disability conditions. The overall CQOL was over 1 SD lower for those with spina bifida and hydrocephalus than for children with other physical conditions. Sex and age were not related to overall CQOL. Specific aspects of CQOL differentiated the three groups. Children with spina bifida had poorer CQOL scores on self-care, continence, and mobility/activities whilst those with hydrocephalus had poorer scores on school activities, worries, sight, and communication. Severity of condition and family resources, i.e. CSES and FNS, predicted 32% of the variance in CQOL. Associations were also found between overall CQOL and problems discernible at birth as well as epilepsy. Other factors, including those related to shunts, were not significantly related to CQOL. It was concluded that hydrocephalus is just as great a threat to CQOL as spina bifida. Beyond the general effect of condition severity on CQOL, family resources (as measured by the CSES and FNS) represent an additional influence on CQOL.

  9. Occupational therapy intervention guidelines for children and adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Watson, D

    1991-01-01

    Children and adolescents with spina bifida present with a number of characteristics that affect functional performance and developmental skills. The focus of this paper will be to share information about spina bifida and the overall approach to care within the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital Spina Bifida Clinic and, more specifically, the role of the occupational therapist.

  10. Epilepsy in patients with spina bifida in the lumbosacral region.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Fumiaki; Morioka, Takato; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Kawamura, Tadao; Miyagi, Yasushi; Nagata, Shinji; Mihara, Futoshi; Ohshio, Mayu; Sasaki, Tomio

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of epilepsy and spina bifida in the lumbosacral region. We evaluated 75 patients with spina bifida admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital from 1980 to 2004. Patients were classified as having meningocele (MC, 4 cases), myelomeningocele (MMC, 6), myeloschisis (MS, 45), and lumbosacral lipoma (LL, 20). Nine cases had epileptic disorders, and all showed MS. Meticulous neuroradiological investigations revealed cerebral abnormalities such as polymicrogyria or hypogenesis of the corpus callosum in all epileptic cases. Locations of cerebral abnormalities topographically correlated with areas of interictal EEG abnormalities. Although all epileptic cases had ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for hydrocephalus before the onset of epilepsy, interictal EEG abnormalities could not be explained by location of the VP shunt. In all LL patients, neither history of epilepsy nor cerebral abnormalities were noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Epileptogenesis in spina bifida patients seemed to correlate with coexisting cerebral abnormalities in MS patients rather than with the VP shunt. However, not all spina bifida patients associated with cerebral abnormalities had epilepsy, and not all cerebral abnormalities were epileptogenic, suggesting that epilepsy in spina bifida patients was multifactorial.

  11. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  12. [Spina bifida aperta in a sheep lamb].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, N; Hilbe, M; Kircher, P; Bleull, U

    2015-01-01

    The case report describes the symptoms and diagnostic methods of a spina bifida aperta in a new born lamb. The most relevant clinical findings were recumbency immediately after birth with normal consciousness and suckling reflexes, alterations of the skin and coat in the lumbosacral region as well as dysuria. The biochemical and haematological screening of the blood indicated no abnormalities. While the radiological examination of the spine showed no clear evidence of the cause of the clinical sings the ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed an incomplete closure of the vertebral arch between the 4th lumbar and the 3rd sacral vertebrae. Additionally, a hernia with similar density to the spinal cord was present in the same region of the spine. Based on the findings the lamb was euthanized. The pathological examination confirmed the incomplete closure of the vertebral arch and moreover a myelomeningocele has been diagnosed. In the histopathological examination the white and grey matter were separated in the area of the macroscopic visible lesions. Due to non-specific clinical symptoms imagining diagnostics can be crucial to confirm the diagnosis of this rare syndrome.

  13. Reaching for Independence: Counseling Implications for Youth with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Dawn C.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida, a congenital physical disability, is indirectly associated with difficulties in scholastic achievement, social development, and self-determination. Environment can have an impact on psychosocial development and impede functioning academically, socially, and vocationally. Counselors must be aware of the societal atmosphere to identify…

  14. Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…

  15. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  16. Children with Spina Bifida: Why Do They Fail in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisert, Debra C.; Shelburne, Kathryn

    Thirty-eight children with spina bifida, a congenital defect involving the nervous system, were tested for verbal and performance ability and freedom from distractibility on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Achievement on the Wide Range Achievement Test was also measured, and medical and socioeconomic information obtained.…

  17. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

  18. Isolated and ventriculomegaly-associated cases of spina bifida in genetic counseling: focus on fetal pathology.

    PubMed

    Joó, József Gábor; Csaba, Ákos; Szigeti, Zsanett; Rigó, János

    2013-07-01

    Cases of spina bifida alone and in association with ventriculomegaly represent important but different malformations according to clinical characteristics. In our study, we analyzed the data on pregancies terminated because of isolated cases (n=307) and ventriculomegaly-associated cases (n=372) of spina bifida. In spina bifida cases in association with hydrocephalus, positive obstetric history was found approximately 1.5 times more frequently than in the isolated ones. The incidence of positive genetic history was nearly two-fold in the latter cases. In isolated cases of spina bifida, associated malformations were more common than in cases of spina bifida and ventriculomegaly together. The most frequent associated malformations were those of the urogenital system (in cases of spina bifida: 11.1%; in cases of SB+V: 9.14%). The risk of recurrence of SB+V is significantly higher than that of isolated SB (8.9% vs. 2.1%). It can be concluded that positive genetic history is more common in cases of isolated spina bifida. Malformations out of the nervous system are more commonly observed in cases of isolated spina bifida. During the prenatal diagnostics of spina bifida, sonography must focus on malformations of the urogenital system.

  19. Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... telling time and counting change. 8. Decision Making/Problem Solving People with Spina have trouble making decisions, which ... when the child appears to not improve their problem solving or decision- making, contact professionals. This information does ...

  20. Increased incidence of spina bifida occulta in fluorosis prone areas.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gupta, R C; Seth, A K; Chaturvedi, C S

    1995-08-01

    Spina bifida, a congenital deformity of the posterior wall of vertebrae of the spine, is a midline defect of skin, vertebral arches and neural tube, usually in the lumbosacral region. Its incidence is reported to be 0.2 to 0.4 per 1000 live births. Various hypotheses have been put forward as etiological factors for spina bifida including consumption of potato affected by blight and hardness of drinking water but these have not been proven. Two groups of 50 randomly chosen children were established. The study group consisted of children aged 5 to 12 years, weighing 15 to 30 kg, consuming fluoride rich drinking water (4.5 and 8.5 ppm fluoride; WHO permissible limit is 1.5 ppm fluoride), and manifesting either clinical, dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. The control group consisted of age and weight-matched children, consuming less than or equal to 1.5 ppm fluoride in drinking water and not showing any evidence of fluoride toxicity. These children were evaluated for antenatal history, general clinical examination (especially for dimples, tufts of hair, haemangioma on skin throughout the length of spine), other congenital abnormalities, evidence of fluoride toxicity, biochemical estimation for fluoride levels in blood and serum and by skiagrams of the spine to examine for the presence of spina bifida occulta. A total of 22 (44%) of the 50 children in group A, the study group, and 6 (12%) of the 50 children in group B, the control group, revealed spina bifida occulta in the lumbosacral region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7572153

  1. [Assessment of life quality in children with spina bifida].

    PubMed

    Król, Marianna; Sibiński, Marcin; Stefański, Maciej; Synder, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was identification and assessment of factors influencing quality of life in children with spina bifida. There were 33 children in the study (19 girls and 14 boys) in the age from 5 to 20 years. They were divided into 2 groups: first in the age from 5 to 12 years (17 patients) and second in the age from 13 to 20 years (16 patients). The Health-related Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire and questionnaire done by us were used for the study. Younger children had average score of 158 points and older children average 186 points. In the whole group 64% of children assessed they quality of life as good, 30% as very good, 6% as average. None of our patients think that they quality of life is poor or very poor. Presence of visual perception difficulties in younger group and non-ambulation in alder children is related to poorer assessment of quality of life. Alder children that live in a house had better assessment of quality of life than children living in blocks of flats. Vast majority of children with spina bifida have good specialist medical care. Most common concomitant diseases are hydrocephalus and neurogenic urinary bladder.

  2. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section...-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an evaluation to...

  3. Changes in Medical Practice towards the Child with Spina Bifida: Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The improved surgical management of children with spina bifida is among the reasons for a decreased number of severely physically and/or mentally affected children. Such improvements have resulted in more spina bifida children attending British ordinary schools and fewer attending special schools. (Author/DB)

  4. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  5. Impairment of a Motor Skill in Children with Spina Bifida Cystica and Hydrocephalus: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Plewis, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Twenty 7-10 year old children with spina bifida cystica and hydrocephalus and 20 normals matched for age, sex and IQ were compared on a 12-trial target task, first used by Connolly, Brown & Bassett (1968). Findings are discussed in relation to neurological abnormalities in the spina bifida group. (Editor/RK)

  6. Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

  7. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  8. Laparoscopic Mitrofanoff continent catheterisable stoma in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mallikarjun N.; Nerli, Rajendra B.; Patil, Ranjeet A.; Jali, Sujata M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1980, Mitrofanoff described the creation of an appendicovesicostomy for continent urinary diversion. This procedure greatly facilitates clean intermittent catheterisation in patients with neurogenic bladder. The purpose of our study was to determine the clinical efficacy of the laparoscopic Mitrofanoff catheterisable stoma for children and adolescents with spina bifida. Materials and Methods: Review of hospital records revealed that 11 children with spina bifida underwent a laparoscopic Mitrofanoff procedure with at least 1-year of follow-up. A four-port transperitoneal laparoscopic approach was used to create a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. The child was followed-up in the urology clinic at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1-year, and then semiannually after that. Questionnaires were administered to determine, from the children's perspective, the level of satisfaction with catheterisation and the psychosocial implications of catheterisation before and after the creation of the Mitrofanoff continent catheterisable stoma. Results: Of the 11 children, six were female, and five were male. The mean age at presentation to Paediatric urological services was 11 ± 3.22 years. Overall the mean operative time was 144.09 ± 17.00 min. Mean estimated blood loss was 37.36 ± 11.44 cc. None of the cases needed conversion to open. Patient satisfaction with their catheterisation was measured at 2.18 ± 0.98 preoperatively, Post-operatively, this improved to 4.27 ± 0.46. Statistical analysis using paired t-test showed significance with P < 001. Conclusions: Laparoscopic Mitrofanoff catheterisable stoma is feasible in children with spina bifida and is associated with reasonable outcome with early recovery, resumption of normal activities and excellent cosmesis. PMID:26168751

  9. Quality of life for families with spina bifida in Kenya.

    PubMed

    van't Veer, Toos; Meester, Hanneke; Poenaru, Dan; Kogei, Agnes; Augenstein, Kimberly; Bransford, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Spina bifida (SB) affects children worldwide. Studies from developed nations have explored the impact of SB on the quality of life of children and their parents. However, there are no such studies available from developing countries. We have therefore undertaken to document the impact of the disability on the families of affected children in Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to 40 mothers and their children, who were receiving treatment for SB at our institution. The results of this study should indicate where community and governmental resources and educational efforts for the disabled should be directed.

  10. [Infantile spondylolysis with spina bifida occulta in athletes].

    PubMed

    Kälicke, T; Frangen, T M; Seybold, D; Steuer, K; Arens, S

    2004-12-01

    Children with evidenced spondylolysis of the lumbar spine should not practice sport with axial compression strain forces or carry out hyperextensional or rotational movements exercises up to the age of eight to ten years, as this could lead to considerable shearing strain to the still cartilaginous disposition of the vertebral arch and therefore initiate an ossification with resulting incomplete closure of the bony elements of the spine (spina bifida occulta). The associated instability of the dorsal vertebral column may yield spondylolisthesis requiring surgical intervention. Competitive sport should be avoided if possible, or carried out in close collaboration with a coach and a physiotherapist under continuous medical supervision with regular radiological monitoring. PMID:15592984

  11. Sacral fatigue fractures in children with sacral spina bifida occulta

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Shingo; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Abe, Mitsunobu; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present two cases of 9-year-old children with spina bifida occulta (SBO) of the sacrum, who were diagnosed with sacral fatigue fractures. In both patients, MRI showed a linear signal void and high signal in sacral ala on the short tau inversion recovery sequence. Sacral SBO at the same level of the sacral fracture was observed in each patient on computed tomography images. These lesions healed with rest. This is the first literature reporting cases with sacral stress fractures who had SBO at the same level of fracture. PMID:26196371

  12. A Camp-based Intervention Targeting Independence Among Individuals with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    O’Mahar, Kerry; Jandasek, Barbara; Zukerman, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design and evaluate a camp-based intervention, the goal of which was to increase independence among children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida. Methods An intervention targeting independence was embedded within a typical week long camp experience. The intervention consisted of the following: collaborative (i.e., parent and camper) goal identification, group sessions consisting of psycho-education and cognitive tools, and goal monitoring by camp counselors. Camper and parent report of demographic variables, goal attainment, spina bifida knowledge, and independence were gathered. Interventionist report of adherence to the treatment manual was also collected. Results Campers made significant gains in individual goals, management of spina bifida responsibilities, and independence with general spina bifida tasks, with medium effect sizes observed in goal attainment. Conclusions Results indicated that significant progress was made on individually oriented goals from pre- to post-camp. Design issues are discussed. PMID:20026569

  13. The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaer, Catherine M.

    1997-01-01

    This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

  14. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  15. Marital stability following the birth of a child with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Tew, B J; Laurence, K M; Payne, H; Rawnsley, K

    1977-07-01

    The matrimonial stability of 142 families where a child with neural tube malformation (mostly spina bifida) was born between 1964 and 1966, including 56 families with a surviving spina bifida child, was examined in January 1976. The divorce rate for families with a surviving child was found to be nine times higher than that for the local population and three times higher than for families experiencing bereavement of their spina bifida child. Marriages which followed a pre-nuptial conception resulting in a spina bifida child were particularly vulnerable and had a divorce or separation risk of 50 per cent. All the divorced fathers had remarried, but only one of the mothers. It is concluded that a handicapped child adds greatly to the strain on a marriage, especially when this has not been cemented before the arrival of a child. This strain is diminished by the child's early death.

  16. Assessment of Parental Expressed Emotion: Associations with Adolescent Depressive Symptoms Among Youth with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lauren M.; O’Mahar, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A longitudinal multi-method, multi-informant design was utilized to investigate parental expressed emotion (EE) as a predictor of depressive symptoms among adolescents with spina bifida (n = 60) and a matched comparison sample (n = 65). Methods A newly modified self-administered audiotaped interview methodology was used to assess parental warmth and criticism across the middle adolescent developmental period (ages 14–17). Parent- and youth-reports of adolescent depressive symptoms were obtained at each time point. Results Significant cross-sectional associations between parental EE variables and youth depressive symptoms were found for both groups. Significant longitudinal relations between maternal criticism and parent proxy-report of youth depressive symptoms were also found across 2 years for the spina bifida group and across 4 years for both groups. Conclusions This modified measure of parental EE can be used in future pediatric research that focuses on precursors or outcomes of this important parenting construct. PMID:20870752

  17. Work participation among young adults with spina bifida in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, M C; Verhoef, M; van Asbeck, F W A; Post, M W M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data regarding work participation and problems finding employment were collected with questionnaire developed by the authors. Data on disease characteristics were taken from the ASPINE database. Responses of 136 participants were analyzed (77 females, 59 males; mean age 26 years 1 month [SD 3y1mo], range 21-32y). Twenty participants had spina bifida occulta and 116 had spina bifida aperta, 96 of whom also had hydrocephalus. Work participation rate was 62.5%, of which 22.4% was in a sheltered workplace. Significant determinants of having paid work for at least 1 hour a week were: level of education, level of lesion, hydrocephalus, IQ, functional independence, and ambulation. Significant determinants of full-time employment were the same, plus sex and type of spina bifida. In a multivariate backward logistic regression analysis, however, only level of education remained a significant predictor of work participation. Sex, level of education, and self-care independence were significant predictors of full-time employment. This study shows the importance of educational support and self-care independence training for children with spina bifida. PMID:18699861

  18. Results of selective treatment of spina bifida cystica.

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, J; Salfield, S A

    1981-01-01

    The results of selective treatment in 120 infants with open spina bifida, admitted between May 1971 and December 1976, were prospectively studied. Seventy-one infants had adverse criteria at birth and were not treated. They all died, more than 90% of them within 6 months of birth. Seven had meningocele. All were treated and survived without handicap. Forty-two infants with myelomeningocele were actively treated. Thirty-six survive at follow-up after 3 to 9 years. The quality of survival is much better than when selection was not used but 8 children have moderate or severe handicaps. The parents were fully informed and consulted at every decision-making step; they fully supported the principle of selection and the action taken on behalf of their own child. PMID:6458248

  19. Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Chrzan, Rafal; Klijn, Aart J.

    2008-01-01

    Renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Over the past decades, a comprehensive treatment strategy has been applied that results in minimal renal scaring. In addition, the majority of patients can be dry for urine by the time they go to primary school. To obtain such results, it is mandatory to treat detrusor overactivity from birth onward, as upper urinary tract changes predominantly start in the first months of life. This means that new patients with spina bifida should be treated from birth by clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacological suppression of detrusor overactivity. Urinary tract infections, when present, need aggressive treatment, and in many patients, permanent prophylaxis is indicated. Later in life, therapy can be tailored to urodynamic findings. Children with paralyzed pelvic floor and hence urinary incontinence are routinely offered surgery around the age of 5 years to become dry. Rectus abdominis sling suspension of the bladder neck is the first-choice procedure, with good to excellent results in both male and female patients. In children with detrusor hyperactivity, detrusorectomy can be performed as an alternative for ileocystoplasty provided there is adequate bladder capacity. Wheelchair-bound patients can manage their bladder more easily with a continent catheterizable stoma on top of the bladder. This stoma provides them extra privacy and diminishes parental burden. Bowel management is done by retrograde or antegrade enema therapy. Concerning sexuality, special attention is needed to address expectations of adolescent patients. Sensibility of the glans penis can be restored by surgery in the majority of patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0780-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18350321

  20. Rare LRP6 variants identified in spina bifida patients.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunping; Fathe, Kristin; McCartney, Danielle; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6) cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice. We therefore examined LRP6 in 192 unrelated infants from California with the NTD, spina bifida, and found four heterozygous missense SNVs, three of which were predicted to be deleterious, among NTD cases and not in 190 ethnically matched nonmalformed controls. Parents and siblings could not be tested because of the study design. Like Crooked tail and Ringleschwanz mouse variants, the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 protein failed to bind the chaperone protein mesoderm development and impaired Lrp6 subcellular localization to the plasma membrane of MDCK II cells. Only the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 variant downregulated canonical Wnt signaling in a TopFlash luciferase reporter in vitro assay. In contrast, three Lrp6 mutants (p.Ala3Val, p.Tyr544Cys, and p.Arg1574Leu) increased noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in an Ap1-luciferase assay. Thus, LRP6 variants outside of YWTD repeats could potentially predispose embryos to NTDs, whereas Lrp6 modulation of Wnt/PCP signaling would be more essential than its canonical pathway role in neural tube closure.

  1. Continence in patients with spina bifida: long term results.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, P S; Wheeler, R A; Williams, J E

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of urinary diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The remaining 81 responders emptied their bladders by a variety of techniques including normal voiding, straining, expression, clean intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters, or they dribbled urine continuously. Only 31 (38%) of this group were reliably dry. Ninety four of 109 (86%) responders regularly sat on the toilet to evacuate their bowels and most used some aid such as manual evacuation, laxatives, suppositories, or enemas. Fifty five of 104 (53%) responders soiled regularly, 31 (56%) of whom were also wet. Forty seven per cent of dry patients (24/51) were faecally incontinent. Only 25 of 104 (24%) patients responding to all questions were reliably clean and dry. PMID:8129429

  2. Chiropractic Care of Acute Low Back Pain and Incidental Spina Bifida Occulta: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cofano, Gregory P.; Anderson, Benjamin C.; Stumpff, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic care of an adolescent with acute low back pain and incidental finding of spina bifida occulta managed with high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation. Clinical Features A 10-year-old boy was referred for chiropractic care by his pediatrician for the management of low back pain after a fall 3 days prior. Examination and medical records revealed the patient also had spina bifida occulta at the level of L5. Intervention and Outcome High-velocity low-amplitude treatment for lower back pain showed resolution of patient's pain after 6 visits. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion An adolescent patient with lower back pain and incidental finding of spina bifida occulta improved with a course of care that included with high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation therapy. PMID:25435841

  3. Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid of pregnant rats with spina bifida aperta.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liping; Fan, Yang; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Fenghua; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-02-01

    Congenital spina bifida aperta is a common congenital malformation in children and has an incidence of 1‰ to 5‰ in China. However, we currently lack specific biomarkers for screening or prenatal diagnosis and there is no method to entirely cure or prevent such defects. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize differentially expressed proteins in amniotic-fluid samples (AFSs) of embryonic day (E) 17.5 rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta induced by retinoic acid (RA). We identified five proteins differentially expressed in AFSs of spina bifida aperta, including three upregulated proteins (transferrin, alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit [SRPRB] 55 kDa), two downregulated proteins (apolipoprotein A IV [APO A4] and Srprb 77 kDa). Specifically, we found 11 alpha-1 fetoprotein (AFP) fragments that were downregulated and 35 AFP fragments that were upregulated in AFSs from embryos with spina bifida aperta. Of the downregulated AFP fragments, 72.7% (8/11) were confined to the AFP N-terminus (amino acids [aas] 25-440) and 77.1% (27/35) of upregulated AFP fragments were confined to the AFP C-terminus (aas 340-596). We also confirmed APO A4 and AFP by immunoblot analysis. This is the first comparative proteomic study of AFSs from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate proteomic alterations in the AFS of spina bifida aperta, which may provide new insights in neural tube defects and contribute to the prenatal screening.

  4. Preliminary study of novel, timed walking tests for children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Musselman, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Walking assessment is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice; yet, clinicians have few psychometrically sound options for evaluating walking in highly ambulatory children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of two new measures of walking function—the Obstacles and Curb tests—relative to the 10-Meter Walk test and Timed Up and Go test in children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Methods: A total of 16 ambulatory children with spina bifida (n=9) or cerebral palsy (n=7) (9 boys; mean age 7years, 7months; standard deviation 3years, 4months) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children participated. Children completed the walking tests, at both self-selected and fast speeds, twice. To evaluate discriminative validity, scores were compared between typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy groups. Within the spina bifida/cerebral palsy group, inter-test correlations evaluated convergent validity and intraclass correlation coefficients evaluated within-session test–retest reliability. Results: At fast speeds, all tests showed discriminative validity (p<0.006 for typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy comparisons) and convergent validity (rho=0.81–0.90, p⩽0.001, for inter-test correlations). At self-selected speeds, only the Obstacles test discriminated between groups (p=0.001). Moderately strong correlations (rho=0.73–0.78, p⩽0.001) were seen between the 10-Meter Walk test, Curb test, and Timed Up and Go test. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.97, with higher test–retest reliability for tests performed at fast speeds rather than self-selected speeds. Conclusion: The Obstacles and Curb tests are promising measures for assessing walking in this population. Performing tests at fast walking speeds may improve their validity and test–retest reliability for children with spina bifida/cerebral palsy. PMID:27493754

  5. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  6. Altered microRNA expression profiles in a rat model of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Da; Liu, Qiu-liang; Chen, Xin-rang; Yang, He-ying; Fan, Ying-zhong; Wang, Jia-xiang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dynamically regulated during neurodevelopment, yet few reports have examined their role in spina bifida. In this study, we used an established fetal rat model of spina bifida induced by intragastrically administering olive oil-containing all-trans retinoic acid to dams on day 10 of pregnancy. Dams that received intragastric administration of all-trans retinoic acid-free olive oil served as controls. The miRNA expression profile in the amniotic fluid of rats at 20 days of pregnancy was analyzed using an miRNA microarray assay. Compared with that in control fetuses, the expression of miRNA-9, miRNA-124a, and miRNA-138 was significantly decreased (> 2-fold), whereas the expression of miRNA-134 was significantly increased (> 4-fold) in the amniotic fluid of rats with fetuses modeling spina bifida. These results were validated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the microarray data showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs could distinguish fetuses modeling spina bifida from control fetuses. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with many cytological pathways, including a nervous system development signaling pathway. These findings indicate that further studies are warranted examining the role of miRNAs through their regulation of a variety of cell functional pathways in the pathogenesis of spina bifida. Such studies may provide novel targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of spina bifida. PMID:27127493

  7. Quality of life in spina bifida: importance of parental hope

    PubMed Central

    Kirpalani, H.; Parkin, P.; Willan, A.; Fehlings, D.; Rosenbaum, P.; King, D; Van Nie, A. J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Prognosis in spina bifida (SB) is often based only on neurological deficits present at birth. We hypothesised that both parental hope and the neurophysical examination predict quality of life in children and adolescents with SB.
METHODS—A previously validated disease and age specific health related quality of life (HRQL) instrument was posted to families of children (aged 5-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-20 years) with SB. We measured parental hope, determined the child's current physical function, and obtained retrospective data on the neonatal neurophysical examination (NPE). Regression analysis modelled HRQL firstly as a dependent variable on parental hope and NPE ("birth status"); and secondly on parental hope and current physical function ("current function").
RESULTS—Response rates were 71% (137 of 194) for families of children, and 54% (74 of 138) for families of adolescents. NPE data were available for 121 children and 60 adolescents. In children, the birth status model predicted 26% of the variability (R2 hope 21%) compared with 23% of the variability (R2 hope 23%)in the adolescents. The current function model explained 47% of the variability (R2 hope 19%) in children compared with 31% of the variability (R2 hope 24%) in the adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS—In both age groups, parental hope was more strongly associated with the HRQL than neonatal or current physical deficits. A prospective study is required to determine whether a causal relation exists between parental hope and HRQL of children and adolescents with SB.

 PMID:10999858

  8. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  9. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  10. Does lumbosacral spina bifida arise by failure of neural folding or by defective canalisation?

    PubMed Central

    Copp, A J; Brook, F A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether open lumbosacral spina bifida results from an abnormality of neural folding (primary neurulation) or medullary cord canalisation (secondary neurulation). Homozygous curly tail (ct) mouse embryos were studied as a model system for human neural tube defects. The rostral end of the spina bifida was found to lie at the level of somites 27 to 32 in over 90% of affected ct/ct embryos. Indian ink marking experiments using non-mutant embryos showed that the posterior neuropore closes, and primary neurulation is completed, at the level of somites 32 to 34. Since neurulation in mammals progresses in a craniocaudal sequence, without overlap between regions of primary and secondary neurulation, we conclude that spina bifida in ct/ct embryos arises initially as a defect of primary neurulation. The position of posterior neuropore closure in human embryos is estimated to lie at the level of the future second sacral segment indicating that in humans, as in the ct mouse, lumbosacral spina bifida usually arises as a defect of posterior neuropore closure. Cranial NTD affect females predominantly, whereas lower spinal NTD are more common in males, both in humans and ct mice. We offer an explanation for this phenomenon based on (a) differences in the effect of embryonic growth retardation on the likelihood that an embryo will develop either cranial or lower spinal NTD and (b) differences in the rate of growth and development of male and female embryos at the time of neurulation. Images PMID:2709393

  11. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... that appeared in the Federal Register of June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35317). The document announced that Gruma...., Bldg. 32, rm. 3208, Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida...

  12. Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

  13. Risk and Protective Influences in the Lives of Siblings of Youths with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellin, Melissa H.; Kovacs, Pamela J.; Sawin, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of childhood chronic health conditions like spina bifida (SB) is a shared family experience. However, the lived experience of siblings is not well known. One hundred and fifty-five brothers and sisters of a child with SB responded to an open-ended question included in an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire designed to enhance…

  14. Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

  15. The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all…

  16. Arithmetic Processing in Children with Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Wilkinson, Margaret; Khemani, Ekta; Boudesquie, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies compared 98 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM)--a disorder associated with high rates of math disability and spatial deficits--to 94 typically developing children on multidigit subtraction and cognitive addition tasks. Children with SBM were classified into those with reading decoding and math disability, only math…

  17. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  18. Executive functioning and psychological adjustment in children and youth with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natalie C; Ammerman, Robert T; Rausch, Joseph R; Ris, M Douglas; Yeates, Keith O; Oppenheimer, Sonya G; Enrile, Benedicta G

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with spina bifida are at risk for poor neuropsychological functioning and psychological outcomes. The relationship between executive functioning and psychological adjustment is an area worthy of investigation in this population. The current study assessed executive functioning and psychological outcomes in a group of children and adolescents with spina bifida (SBM) (n = 51) and nondisabled controls (n = 45). A mediation model was hypothesized, such that Metacognition, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), mediated the relationship between group status (spina bifida versus nondisabled controls) and psychological outcomes. Results indicated that metacognitive skills fully explained the relationship between group and internalizing and depressive symptoms as reported by mothers. In particular, specific components of the BRIEF Metacognition composite were most responsible for this relationship, including Initiate, Working Memory, and Plan/Organize. The study limitations include its cross-sectional nature that precludes drawing conclusions about causality. The results have implications for treatment interventions for children and adolescents with spina bifida and typically developing individuals.

  19. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

  20. The Arnold-Chiari Malformation and Its Implications for Individuals with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittler, Joel E.

    1986-01-01

    The Arnold-Chiari malformation is present in most infants born with myelomeningocele (a form of spina bifida) and hydrocephalus. The syndrome is responsible for structural abnormalities in the brain, and peripheral nervous system. Etiology, symptoms, impact on central nervous system structures, surgical treatment, and implications for education…

  1. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  2. The Language of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus: Meeting Task Demands and Mastering Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Linguistic performance of 7 children (mean age=68 months) with spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and average intelligence was evaluated. Subjects dealt with the semantic-pragmatic requirements of linguistically posed problems in an age-appropriate manner. Performance declined as task demands increased but no more than performance of nondisabled…

  3. The Management and Education of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Robert J.; Elkins, John

    The report describes the population of children in Australia with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus, notes their needs and characteristics, reviews their school placement and social circumstances, and considers future educational services for them. Initial chapters review the literature on medical, psychoeducational, and social-family aspects of…

  4. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  5. Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

  6. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  7. Health Risk Behaviors in Spina Bifida: The Need for Clinical and Policy Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Brei, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (HRBs) in adults with spina bifida such as poor diet, reduced physical activity, increased television viewing time, and substance abuse often have their genesis in early childhood. They are potentially preventable but if not addressed aggressively may continue to progress across the lifespan. Findings from a population-based…

  8. A family study of spina bifida and anencephalus in Belfast, Northern Ireland (1964 to 1968).

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, N C; Johnston, W P

    1980-01-01

    The parents of 226 of the 360 patients with anencephalus or spinal bifida or both, born in Belfast 1964 to 1968, were visited to document the occurrence of these malformations among other relatives. The proportions of sibs with anencephalus and spina bifida were 10.41% for spina bifida index patients and 6.4% for anencephalus. For patients born after the index patients, the proportions were 12.19% and 6.35%, respectively. The overall incidence of either malformation among sibs was 8.87%. This estimate is higher than the 4 to 5% commonly reported and is probably related to the specific background of the Northern Ireland population, which is known to have the highest incidence of CNS malformations in the United Kingdom. The substantial size of this risk indicates the importance of amniocentesis for monitoring subsequent pregnancies of women who have had one child with a CNS malformation. PMID:6995614

  9. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan.

  10. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  11. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Affected by Promoter Hypermethylation Induces Aberrant Gli2 Expression in Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Li; Chang, Shao-Yan; Shangguan, Shao-Fang; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Li-Hua; Zou, Ji-Zhen; Xiao, Ping; Li, Rui; Bao, Yi-Hua; Qiu, Z-Y; Zhang, Ting

    2016-10-01

    GLI2 is a key mediator of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway and plays an important role in neural tube development during vertebrate embryogenesis; however, the role of gli2 in human folate-related neural tube defects remains unclear. In this study, we compared methylation status and polymorphisms of gli2 between spina bifida patients and a control group to explore the underlying mechanisms related to folate deficiency in spina bifida. No single nucleotide polymorphism was found to be significantly different between the two groups, although gli2 methylation levels were significantly increased in spina bifida samples, accompanied by aberrant GLI2 expression. Moreover, a prominent negative correlation was found between the folate level in brain tissue and the gli2 methylation status (r = -0.41, P = 0.014), and gli2 hypermethylation increased the risk of spina bifida with an odds ratio of 12.45 (95 % confidence interval: 2.71-57.22, P = 0.001). In addition, we established a cell model to illustrate the effect of gli2 expression and the accessibility of chromatin affected by methylation. High gli2 and gli1 mRNA expression was detected in 5-Aza-treated cells, while gli2 hypermethylation resulted in chromatin inaccessibility and a reduced association with nuclear proteins containing transcriptional factors. More meaningful to the pathway, the effect gene of the Shh pathway, gli1, was found to have a reduced level of expression along with a decreased expression of gli2 in our cell model. Aberrant high methylation resulted in the low expression of gli2 in spina bifida, which was affected by the change in chromatin status and the capacity of transcription factor binding. PMID:26446020

  12. Impact of functional severity on self concept in young people with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Minchom, P E; Ellis, N C; Appleton, P L; Lawson, V; Böll, V; Jones, P; Elliott, C E

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between medical and functional severity of disability and levels of self esteem and self concept in 79 young people with spina bifida. Greater feelings of global self worth and of self esteem in physical appearance were associated with greater severity of disability. This was only in part an effect of lower IQ among the most disabled young people. Many of the least disabled had marked impairment of self esteem. Analysis of the impact of individual aspects of disability confirmed the association between increased self esteem in physical appearance and global self worth, and diminished functional ability. Academic self ratings, however, were higher in the less disabled. Hydrocephalus and continence appeared to have minimal effect on self esteem. The relationship between severity of disability in spina bifida and self concept is complex and mediated by a range of factors. It is incorrect to assume that the psychological impact is less in the mildly disabled young person.

  13. Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele and potential compensatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hannay, H. Julia; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry; Blaser, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    After a review of Arthur Benton’s conceptual and methodological contributions to the understanding of normal and pathological development, we discuss agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC), criteria for potential neuroanatomical compensatory mechanisms in CC agenesis, and the results of an examination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the CC in 193 children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM). There were 26 CC regional patterns. Although complete agenesis did not occur, partial agenesis was observed in 102 children and within 15 CC regional patterns. Only 4.1% had a normal CC. Quantitative assessment of the area of the CC in 26 NC children and 68 children with SBM revealed that all subgroups with CC anomalies had smaller areas than did a subgroup with a normal CC. Areas were especially small in rostral/splenial agenesis and splenial agenesis but larger with rostral agenesis. Subgroups with normal/hypoplastic regions or complete hypoplasia also had CC areas that were smaller than normal but larger than the areas for the splenial agenesis groups. The relative rarity of anterior commissure enlargement (3.1%) and longitudinal bundles of Probst (0.1%) suggest that these particular fiber tract anomalies are unlikely candidates for structural compensatory mechanisms. The hippocampal commissure, enlarged in 13%, may be a more promising candidate. Overall, however, the functionality of anomalous fiber tracts and commissures in SBM is yet to be determined. PMID:19052950

  14. Applying a knowledge-to-action framework for primary prevention of spina bifida in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Claude, Kasereka M; Juvenal, Kwibuka L; Hawkes, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Maternal periconceptual folate supplementation reduces the incidence of neural tube defects; however, in settings where population-level food fortification is not available, it is not clear how best to promote this prevention strategy. Guided by a knowledge-to-action methodology, we used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to define the local disease burden, then designed, implemented and evaluated a culturally tailored educational intervention in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where resource limitations and threats to human security contribute to restricted capacity for the prevention and management of congenital malformations. A descriptive case series of 27 patients undergoing surgery for spina bifida demonstrated a short-term mortality of 15% and long-term disability in survivors. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices demonstrated a low level of folate awareness (53%) among women of reproductive age. Focus group discussions revealed exotic aetiologic views, significant gender issues and several barriers to folate use. A culturally tailored radio broadcast and an educational video were designed and produced locally based on qualitative and quantitative findings. Evaluation of the video documented high levels of viewer satisfaction and unequivocal knowledge gain (P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that spina bifida poses a significant burden on affected patients and their families in the African context, but folate is underutilized as a prevention strategy. Patient education through video media results in increased awareness and understanding of spina bifida and folate, a first step in empowering women to reduce the risk of spina bifida in their children in the absence of population-wide food fortification.

  15. Improved Survival Among Children with Spina Bifida in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mikyong; Kucik, James E.; Siffel, Csaba; Lu, Chengxing; Shaw, Gary M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in survival among children with spina bifida by race/ethnicity and possible prognostic factors in 10 regions of the United States. Study design A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 5165 infants with spina bifida born during 1979-2003, identified by 10 birth defects registries in the United States. Survival probabilities and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated for race/ethnicity and other characteristics using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results During the study period, the 1-year survival probability among infants with spina bifida showed improvements for whites (from 88% to 96%), blacks (from 79% to 88%), and Hispanics (from 88% to 93%). The impact of race/ethnicity on survival varied by birth weight, which was the strongest predictor of survival through age 8. There was little racial/ethnic variation in survival among children born of very low birth weight. Among children born of low birth weight, the increased risk of mortality to Hispanics was approximately 4-6 times that of whites. The black-white disparity was greatest among children born of normal birth weight. Congenital heart defects did not affect the risk of mortality among very low birth weight children but increased the risk of mortality 4-fold among children born of normal birth weight. Conclusions The survival of infants born with spina bifida has improved; however, improvements in survival varied by race/ethnicity, and blacks and Hispanics continued to have poorer survival than whites in the most recent birth cohort from 1998-2002. Further studies are warranted to elucidate possible reasons for the observed differences in survival. PMID:22727874

  16. Wound care challenges in children and adults with spina bifida: an open-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Katherine; Harris, Amy B; Amling, June K; Kennelly, Ann M; Phillips, Leslie A; Tosi, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    Skin breakdown is a frequent concern for individuals with spina bifida. We explored wound incidence in patients with spina bifida and how it varies across a person's life span and functional neurologic level. We examined the settings in which skin breakdown most commonly occurred, looking for evidence of chronic, non-healing wounds. We also sought to develop criteria to improve wound monitoring. We identified reported wound episodes in an open-cohort study over a 13-year period, examining the hospital and outpatient clinical records of spina bifida patients at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC). Current age, age at wound presentation, sex, weight, functional neurologic level, wound location, setting in which the wound was acquired, the development of a chronic wound, and presence of a shunt were recorded. Of the 376 patients in our clinical population, 123 (average age: 18.8 years, range: infancy-56 years) developed a total of 375 wounds; the majority of patients who developed one wound went on to develop one or more additional wounds, and 20 patients developed chronic wounds. Our data suggest that age bracket (adolescents), wheelchair use, and bare feet, as well as possibly obesity and reduced executive functioning, are key risk factors for wound development. These findings have led to a focused effort to increase wound education and prevention. In addition we report on our early experience using a wound care specialist to champion this initiative.

  17. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  18. Neurological Outcomes after Human Umbilical Cord Patch for In Utero Spina Bifida Repair in a Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Papanna, Ramesha; Mann, Lovepreet K.; Snowise, Saul; Morales, Yisel; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.; Grill, Raymond; Fletcher, Stephen; Moise, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives  The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that in utero repair of surgically created spina bifida in a sheep model using cryopreserved human umbilical cord (HUC) patch improves neurological outcome. Methods  Spina bifida with myelotomy was surgically created in timed pregnant ewes at gestational day (GD) 75. The fetuses were randomly assigned to unrepaired versus HUC and treated at GD 95 and then delivered at GD 140. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale (TSCIS), bladder control using ultrasound, and the hindbrain herniation. Results  Three lambs without the spina bifida creation served as controls. There were four lambs with spina bifida: two were unrepaired and two underwent HUC repair. The control lambs had normal function. Both unrepaired lambs had nonhealed skin lesions with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, a 0/20 TSCIS score, no bladder control, and the hindbrain herniation. In contrast, both HUC lambs had a completely healed skin defect and survived to day 2 of life, a 3/20 and 4/20 TSCIS score (nociception), partial bladder control, and normal hindbrain anatomy. Conclusions  Cryopreserved HUC patch appears to improve survival and neurological outcome in this severe form of the ovine model of spina bifida. PMID:27621952

  19. Neurological Outcomes after Human Umbilical Cord Patch for In Utero Spina Bifida Repair in a Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Papanna, Ramesha; Mann, Lovepreet K.; Snowise, Saul; Morales, Yisel; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.; Grill, Raymond; Fletcher, Stephen; Moise, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that in utero repair of surgically created spina bifida in a sheep model using cryopreserved human umbilical cord (HUC) patch improves neurological outcome. Methods Spina bifida with myelotomy was surgically created in timed pregnant ewes at gestational day (GD) 75. The fetuses were randomly assigned to unrepaired versus HUC and treated at GD 95 and then delivered at GD 140. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale (TSCIS), bladder control using ultrasound, and the hindbrain herniation. Results Three lambs without the spina bifida creation served as controls. There were four lambs with spina bifida: two were unrepaired and two underwent HUC repair. The control lambs had normal function. Both unrepaired lambs had nonhealed skin lesions with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, a 0/20 TSCIS score, no bladder control, and the hindbrain herniation. In contrast, both HUC lambs had a completely healed skin defect and survived to day 2 of life, a 3/20 and 4/20 TSCIS score (nociception), partial bladder control, and normal hindbrain anatomy. Conclusions Cryopreserved HUC patch appears to improve survival and neurological outcome in this severe form of the ovine model of spina bifida. PMID:27621952

  20. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling★

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yinghuan; Bao, Yongxin; Li, Chenghao; Jiao, Fubin; Xin, Hongjie; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway. PMID:25337099

  1. Link between the CSF shunt and achievement in adults with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G.; Oakeshott, P.; Kerry, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A few enterprising adults with shunt treated spina bifida live independently in the community, have a job in competitive employment, and drive to work in their own car. By contrast others with similar disability but lacking their motivation remain dependent on care and supervision. The aim of this study was to identify events in the history of their shunt which may have influenced their subsequent achievement.
METHODS—Between June 1963 and January 1971 117 babies born in East Anglia with open spina bifida had their backs closed regardless of the severity of their condition. When reviewed in 1997 every case was ascertained. Sixty had died and the 57 survivors had a mean age of 30. These were assigned to two groups: achievers and non-achievers, according to their attainments in independence, employment, and use of a car.
RESULTS—Of the 57 survivors nine had no shunt and eight of these were achievers. All were of normal intelligence (IQ⩾80) and only one was severely disabled. Of the 48 with shunts only 20 were achievers (OR 11.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-96.8). Lack of achievement in these 48 was associated with revisions of the shunt, particularly when revisions were performed after the age of 2. Sixteen patients had never required a revision and 11 (69%) were achievers; 10 had had revisions only during infancy and five (50%) were achievers; 22 had had revisions after their second birthday and only four (18%) were achievers (p<0.001). Elective revisions were not performed in this cohort and in 75% of patients revisions had been preceded by clear symptoms of raised intracranial pressure.
CONCLUSION—Revisions of the shunt, particularly after the age of 2, are associated with poor long term achievement in adults with spina bifida.

 PMID:10519863

  2. Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

  3. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  4. Disorders of Sex Development: Lessons to be Learned from Studies of Spina Bifida and Craniofacial Conditions.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, G N; Aspinall, C L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss research methods and clinical management strategies employed with other conditions (i. e., spina bifida and craniofacial conditions) and how these methods and strategies could be applied to youth with disorders of sex development (DSD). The review focuses specifically on the potential overlap between DSD and these other conditions across the following 3 areas: (1) developmentally-oriented theories that underlie the research base for chronic physical conditions; (2) research designs and methodological features that have proved fruitful in these areas; and (3) the potential applicability to DSD of clinical management practices for youth with craniofacial conditions.

  5. Age-related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L

    2003-12-01

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.

  6. Assistive Technology Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kurt L.; Dudgeon, Brian; Kuehn, Carrie; Walker, William

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the use of assistive technology among a population of individuals with spina bifida. Methods. We performed a descriptive analysis of individuals aged 13 to 27 years diagnosed with myelomeningocele (n=348) using data obtained from an existing database at Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. We summarized disease characteristics, utilization of assistive technology, community and self-care independence, and other variables. Results. Eighty-four percent of the respondents lived with at least 1 of their natural parents. Fifty-seven percent used wheelchairs, 35% used braces, and 23% used walking aids. Independent self-care was a common skill, but 72% reported limited participation in structured activities. Half were aged 18 years or older; of those, only 50% had completed high school and 71% were unemployed. Those aged younger than 18 years were all still in school (100%). Conclusions. Adolescents and young adults with spina bifida rely on assistive technology and specialized care routines to maintain their health. Assistive technology use for mobility is common; little is known about secondary complications associated with use of these technologies or the use of assistive technology to address learning disabilities and other societal barriers. Underutilization of assistive technology could delay successful transitions to independent living and community participation. PMID:17194874

  7. Accessibility of mHealth Self-Care Apps for Individuals with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Yu, Daihua X; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E; Pramana, Gede

    2015-01-01

    As the smartphone becomes ubiquitous, mobile health is becoming a viable technology to empower individuals to engage in preventive self-care. An innovative mobile health system called iMHere (Internet Mobile Health and Rehabilitation) has been developed at the University of Pittsburgh to support self-care and adherence to self-care regimens for individuals with spina bifida and other complex conditions who are vulnerable to secondary complications. The goal of this study was to explore the accessibility of iMHere apps for individuals with spina bifida. Six participants were asked to perform tasks in a lab environment. Though all of the participants were satisfied with the iMHere apps and would use them again in the future, their needs and preferences to access and use iMHere apps differed. Personalization that provides the ability for a participant to modify the appearance of content, such as the size of the icons and the color of text, could be an ideal solution to address potential issues and barriers to accessibility. The importance of personalization--and potential strategies--for accessibility are discussed. PMID:26755902

  8. Curly tail: a 50 year history of the mouse spina bifida model

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Henny W.M.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews 50 years of progress towards understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTD) in the curly tail (ct) mutant mouse. More than 45 papers have been published on various aspects of curly tail with the result that it is now the best understood mouse model of NTD pathogenesis. The failure of closure of the spinal neural tube, which leads to spina bifida in this mouse, has been traced back to a tissue-specific defect of cell proliferation in the tail bud of the E9.5 embryo. This cell proliferation defect results in a growth imbalance in the caudal region that generates ventral curvature of the body axis. Neurulation movements are opposed, leading to delayed neuropore closure and spina bifida, or tail defects. It is interesting to reflect that these advances have been achieved in the absence of information on the nature of the ct gene product, which remains unidentified. In addition to the principal ct gene, which maps to distal Chromosome 4, the curly tail phenotype is influenced by several modifier genes and by environmental factors. NTD in curly tail are resistant to folic acid, but can be prevented by myo-inositol. These and other features of NTD in this system bear striking similarities to the situation in humans, making curly tail a model for understanding a sub-type of human NTD. PMID:11396850

  9. Educational attainments of spina bifida children attending ordinary or special schools.

    PubMed

    Carr, J; Halliwell, M D; Pearson, A M

    1981-12-01

    Children with spina bifida who attend special schools are usually found to be retarded in their school attainment compared with those who attend ordinary schools. This finding has, however, often been confounded by the fact that the special school children tend to have lower IQs. In this study two groups of children were identified from those in the Greater London Council (GLC) Spina Bifida Survey, one attending ordinary and the other special schools. There were 11 pairs of boys and 11 of girls, each pair being closely matched for IQ. Examination of their scores on attainment tests showed that while results of reading tests did not differ significantly between the two types of schools, children of both sexes at special schools were behind their ordinary school counterparts in number work. These results were supported by similar findings, using analysis of co-variance, on the larger group of children in the GLC survey. The effect of other factors such as physical handicap, presence of a valve, and time spent in hospital, were explored, and possible explanations for the findings are discussed.

  10. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  11. Perinatal factors associated with neural tube defects (anencephaly [correction of anancephaly], spina bifida and encephalocele).

    PubMed

    Ogata, A J; Camano, L; Brunoni, D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of risk factors for the occurrence of neural tube defects. Data for 33,535 births which occurred at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo from July 1973 to December 1986 were collected in a prospective manner as recommended by "Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas" (ECLAMC, Collaborative Latin American Study on Congenital Malformations). Twenty-six cases of neural tube defects were detected (0.77/1000 births). Of these, 11 were cases of spina bifida (0.39/1000 births), 9 of anencephaly (0.27/1000 births) and 6 of encephalocele (0.18/1000 births). We observed a higher frequency of polyhydramnios, premature labor, Apgar scores of less than 7 at the first and fifth minutes, low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation.

  12. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schiano, C.M.; Demb, H.B.; Brown, W.T.

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  13. Reading and writing skills in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen; Hetherington, Ross

    2004-09-01

    Reading and writing were studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH). Like children with this condition, young adults with SBH had better word decoding than reading comprehension, and, compared to population means, had lower scores on a test of writing fluency. Reading comprehension was predicted by word decoding and listening comprehension. Writing was predicted by fine motor finger function, verbal intelligence, and short-term and working memory. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of reading and writing. Writing, but not reading, was related to highest level of education achieved and writing fluency predicted several aspects of functional independence. Reading comprehension and writing remain deficient in adults with SBH and have consequences for educational attainments and functional independence.

  14. Assessment on self-care, mobility and social function of children with spina bifida in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sirzai, Hulya; Dogu, Beril; Demir, Selamet; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional performance in children with spina bifida, using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) to look into capacity of twenty-eight children with spina bifida with lesions at different levels in different dimensions of self-care, mobility and social function. Mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 2.3 (1–10) years. In the muscle test carried out, 13 patients (44.8%) had no movements including pelvic elevation in lower extremity muscles and they were at level 5. Sixteen patients (54%) were non-ambulatory according to the Hoofer ambulation classification. Raw and scale scores in the self-care, mobility and social function domains both in the functional skill scale and in the caregiver scale were found to be lower compared to the data of the normal population. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the self-care values of the Functional Skills Scales and the Caregiver Assistance Scale measurements, which was positive for age and negative for Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.05). A positive relation was found between the Functional Skills Scales-mobility area and age while a negative relation was observed between Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). A negative relation was also found between Caregiver Assistance Scale-mobility and Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). In our study, the functional performance of the children was found to be low. Low-level lesions, encouraging muscular strength and independence in mobility are all very important factors for functional independence. PMID:25206788

  15. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  16. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... spine, or spinal cord. It happens if the spinal column of the fetus doesn't close completely during the first month of pregnancy. This can damage the nerves and spinal cord. Screening tests during pregnancy can check for ...

  17. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ultrasound . This test uses sound waves and a computer screen to show a picture of your baby ... scans use special X-ray equipment and powerful computers to make pictures of the inside of your ...

  18. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelomeningocele (sounds like: my-low-ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how “myelomeningocele” sounds ) When people talk ... the legs. Meningocele (sounds like: ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how “meningocele” sounds ) Another type of ...

  19. The association between urinary continence and quality of life in paediatric patients with spina bifida and tethered cord

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Jamie D; Kiddoo, Darcie A; Metcalfe, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between urinary continence and quality of life (QoL) in a paediatric spina bifida population. METHODS: After appropriate ethics approval, a prospective study was initiated using multiple validated QoL instruments that were distributed to patients as they presented for their annual appointment at the Northern Alberta Spina Bifida Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta). General demographic information was collected and validated questionnaires were used. The survey package included two instruments to assess overall QoL: Global Pediatric QoL (PedsQL 4.0) and Health Specific QoL-Spina Bifida (HRQoL-SB). Two instruments were also included to quantify urinary symptoms and assess urinary specific QoL: the Urinary Incontinence Severity Index – Pediatric (ISI-P) and Urinary Specific QoL (PinQ). RESULTS: A total of 71 patients were enrolled in the study. The general QoL (PedsQL 4.0) and health-specific QoL (HRQoL-SB) scores for the population indicated an overall QoL of 66% (n=69) and 83% (n=67), respectively. Approximately 46% (33 of 71) reported >1 episode of urinary incontinence per week. Urinary continence was associated with a significantly higher urinary-specific QoL (PinQ; P<0.001), general QoL (PedsQL 4.0; P<0.05) and health-specific QoL (HRQoL-SB; P<0.05). Furthermore, urinary incontinence and its effect on QoL was not influenced by the presence of a shunt, level of the lesion or manner of dysraphism. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that QoL in patients with spina bifida is related to urinary continence. This effect appears to be independent of the type and level of the spinal dysraphism and the presence or absence of a shunt. PMID:24421717

  20. Motor learning in children with spina bifida: intact learning and performance on a ballistic task.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Jewell, Derryn; Edelstein, Kim; Brandt, Michael E; Hetherington, Ross; Blaser, Susan E; Fletcher, Jack M

    2006-09-01

    Learning and performance on a ballistic task were investigated in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), with either upper level spinal lesions (n = 21) or lower level spinal lesions (n = 81), and in typically developing controls (n = 35). Participants completed three phases (20 trials each) of an elbow goniometer task that required a ballistic arm movement to move a cursor to one of two target positions on a screen, including (1) an initial learning phase, (2) an adaptation phase with a gain change such that recalibration of the ballistic arm movement was required, and (3) a learning reactivation phase under the original gain condition. Initial error rate, asymptotic error rate, and learning rate did not differ significantly between the SBM and control groups. Relative to controls, the SBM group had reduced volumes in the cerebellar hemispheres and pericallosal gray matter (the region including the basal ganglia), although only the pericallosal gray matter was significantly correlated with motor adaptation. Congenital cerebellar dysmorphology is associated with preserved motor skill learning on voluntary, nonreflexive tasks in children with SBM, in whom the relative roles of the cerebellum and basal ganglia may differ from those in the adult brain.

  1. Spina bifida in fetus is associated with an altered pattern of DNA methylation in placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Pei, Lijun; Li, Runting; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hua; Li, Yongchao; Guo, Yu; Tan, Pingping; Han, Jingdong J; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ma, Runlin Z

    2015-10-01

    Failure in closure of neural tube leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common symptoms of human birth defects. Although epigenetic status in placenta is linked to fetal development, the mechanism behind this remains unknown. Because of the importance of DNA methylation in gene function, we set to explore whether or not DNA methylation in human placenta is also linked to fetal NTDs. Here we show for the first time that alteration of DNA methylation in placenta is closely associated with the phenotypes of fetal spina bifida (Sb). We found that patterns of DNA methylation for genes in neurological system process were differentially altered in the Sb placenta. In particular, the transcription regulatory regions of TRIM26 and GANS were kept at the hypomethylation status in Sb placenta alone. Accordingly, the protein levels of TRIM26 and GNAS were significantly elevated only in the Sb placenta but not in the Sb-affected fetuses. In cellular model of CHO cells deficient in Dihydrofolate reductase and treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, the protein levels of GNAS and TRIM26 were significantly higher than those in normal control cells. These findings suggested that epigenetic status of genes in placenta have profound impacts on the development of NTDs.

  2. Anomalous development of brain structure and function in spina bifida myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II malformation. Other structural anomalies are not necessarily unique to SBM, including altered development of the corpus callosum and posterior fossa. Within SBM, tremendous heterogeneity is reflected in the degree to which brain structures are atypical in qualitative appearance and quantitative measures of morphometry. Hallmark structural features of SBM include overall reductions in posterior fossa and cerebellum size and volume. Studies of the corpus callosum have shown complex patterns of agenesis or hypoplasia along its rostral-caudal axis, with rostrum and splenium regions particularly susceptible to agenesis. Studies of cortical regions have demonstrated complex patterns of thickening, thinning, and gyrification. Diffusion tensor imaging studies have reported compromised integrity of some specific white matter pathways. Given equally complex ocular motor, motor, and cognitive phenotypes consisting of relative strengths and weaknesses that seem to align with altered structural development, studies of SBM provide new insights to our current understanding of brain structure-function associations.

  3. Examination of Frontal and Parietal Tectocortical Attention Pathways in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele Using Probabilistic Diffusion Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Abnormalities of the midbrain tectum are common but variable malformations in spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and have been linked to neuropsychological deficits in attention orienting. The degree to which variations in tectum structure influence white matter (WM) connectivity to cortical regions is unknown. To assess the relationship of tectal structure and connectivity to frontal and parietal cortical regions, probabilistic diffusion tractography was performed on 106 individuals (80 SBM, 26 typically developing [TD]) to isolate anterior versus posterior tectocortical WM pathways. Results showed that those with SBM exhibited significantly reduced tectal volume, along with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in posterior but not anterior tectocortical WM pathways when compared with TD individuals. The group with SBM also showed greater within-subject discrepancies between frontal and parietal WM integrity compared with the TD group. Of those with SBM, qualitative classification of tectal beaking based on radiological review was associated with increased axial diffusivity across both anterior and posterior tectocortical pathways, relative to individuals with SBM and a normal appearing tectum. These results support previous volumetric findings of greater impairment to posterior versus anterior brain regions in SBM, and quantifiably relate tectal volume, tectocortical WM integrity, and tectal malformations in this population. PMID:23937233

  4. [The quality of life of Brazilian and North-American adolescents with spina bifida].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Helena Rotta; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes; Monteiro, Lúcia Maria Costa

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present research is to explore and describe the quality of life of adolescents in two different cultural environments, the Brazilian and the North American. The point of reference of the investigation is the dimension encompassing the concept of quality of life. This qualitative research utilized semi-structured interviews and focal groups in two health-care units specialized in the care of youths with spina bifida, one in Brazil and another in the USA. The discourses reflected the need for more comprehensive categories of quality of life, not pulverizing the life experience. The results reveal inequality in the interactions between the healthy and the disabled and show that the stigma permeates all dimensions of the life of these individuals, interfering in their social inclusion, as well as in their subjective construction and self-esteem. Two fields of reference were identified for the concept of quality of life: (1) the micro-political that refers to social values, beliefs and expectations that are created through face to face encounters; and (2) the macro-political referring to the public universe, democracy and human rights. PMID:19039405

  5. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Paulina A.; Treble-Barna, Amery; Williams, Victoria J.; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting) and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control) attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus. PMID:26106529

  6. Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance. Methods Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities]. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance. Conclusions Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability. PMID:20150339

  7. Ethics of selective treatment of spina bifida. Report by a working party.

    PubMed

    1975-01-11

    Ethical problems in medicine usually arise when normal guiding principles appear to be in conflict. In the case of babies with severe spina bifida, or similar abnormalities, two such fundamental principles may be applied with opposing conclusions. The first is that any decision requires an estimate of the balance of suffering and happiness for those concerned in an action, and the other is the assertion that human life is sacred. Resolution of the conflict between these is possible by looking at the problem in a different and less fundamental way, and one such approach is through the concept of ordinary and extraordinary means. While man does not possess power of absolute ownership over life, his duties of stewardship require him to use ordinary means of safeguarding life; he may use, but is not obliged to use, extraordinary means. The distinction between ordinary and extraordinary means may vary with circumstance, and so the application of this principle involves decisions at a third or more practical level. These include an assessment of the child's abnormality, of the effects of this upon the quality of life possible for the child, and of the burdens that will be placed on the family and society. At each level the ethical decisions involve complex choices, and clearly any present policies must be regarded as temporary unavoidable compromises rather than as final solutions.

  8. Effects of physical exercise on peripheral vision and learning in children with spina bifida manifesta.

    PubMed

    Krebs, P; Eickelberg, W; Krobath, H; Baruch, I

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of active exercise of the arms on various physiological, perceptual, and cognitive parameters of children with spina bifida manifesta who were aged 9 to 12 yr. Following a 5-min. rest interval, subjects were either not exercised (control days) for a 6-min. period or were exercised (experimental days) for a 6-min. period. Cardiac measures, respiratory function, peripheral vision, and figural learning trials were recorded after exercise. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests were computed on the means of the exercise and no-exercise conditions for each measure. Six minutes of active exercise resulted in significant increases in peripheral vision, respiratory and cardiac measures and significant decreases in figural learning trials for these children. A floor effect was noted for the figural learning test. It was concluded that exercise increased blood flow through the lungs allowing for greater oxygen diffusion in the brain and other facilitatory effects resulting in more effective cerebral activity. Curriculum revisions for such children seem to indicate the importance of activity in facilitating subsequent learning.

  9. Computer-mediated support for adolescents with cerebral palsy or spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Barnfather, Alison; Stewart, Miriam; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Social support plays a key role in improving health outcomes for children with chronic conditions. Internet connections are an important component of adolescents' social networks and may overcome geographic and environmental barriers for those with disabilities. This article focuses on the processes associated with a 6-month online support intervention for adolescents with cerebral palsy or spina bifida. Specifically, the purpose was to determine the extent to which adolescents used an online peer support intervention, the processes used, and the perceived benefits and satisfaction with the intervention. Five peer mentors with the same disabilities provided information, affirmation, and emotional support. The online environment created a safe space to foster reciprocal interpersonal connections and appropriate social comparison. Two-thirds of the participants viewed the computer-mediated support intervention as fun. Factors influencing the perceived utility of the intervention included typing speed, cognitive skills, and perceived need for additional support. Girls were significantly more likely to contribute messages than were boys. Peer mentors wished that this type of support program had been available when they were teens, appreciated the supportive elements, and reported learning from the teen participants. Health professionals wanting to implement online support need to consider the age and ability levels of participants and the optimal length and format of the support program.

  10. Visual assessment of segmental muscle ultrasound images in spina bifida aperta.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Rick; Verbeek, Renate J; Maurits, Natasha M; Hamminga, Janneke T; Brouwer, Oebele F; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2012-08-01

    In spina bifida aperta (SBA), spinal MRI provides a surrogate marker to estimate muscle damage caudal to the myelomeningocele (MMC). This muscle damage by the MMC can be quantified by intra-individual comparison of muscle ultrasound density (MUD) caudal versus cranial to the MMC (dMUD = [MUD(caudal-to-the-MMC)] - [MUD(cranial-to-the-MMC)]). Quantitative dMUD assessment requires time, equipment and expertise, whereas it could also be visually determined by differences in muscle echodensity caudal vs. cranial to the MMC (visual-dMUD). If visual and quantitative dMUD correspond, visual dMUD assessment could provide a clinical screening parameter. In 100 SBA muscle ultrasound recordings of patients with various MMC levels, we aimed to compare quantitative dMUD (dMUD = [MUD(calf-muscle/S1)] - [MUD(quadriceps-muscle/L2-L4)]) with visual dMUD assessments by 20 different observers. Results indicate that quantitative dMUD can be visually detected (sensitivity 86%; specificity 57%), implicating that visual dMUD screening could provide a quick, clinical screening tool for muscle impairment by the MMC.

  11. Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate--United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (e.g., spina bifida) and the brain (e.g., anencephaly) that occur during early pregnancy, often before a woman knows she is pregnant; 50%-70% of these defects can be prevented if a woman consumes sufficient folic acid daily before conception and throughout the first trimester of her pregnancy. In 1992, to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other NTDs, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. Three approaches to increase folic acid consumption were cited: 1) improve dietary habits, 2) fortify foods with folic acid, and 3) use dietary supplements containing folic acid. Mandatory fortification of cereal grain products went into effect in January 1998; during October 1998-December 1999, the reported prevalence of spina bifida declined 31%, and the prevalence of anencephaly declined 16%. Other studies have indicated similar trends. To update the estimated numbers of NTD-affected pregnancies and births, CDC recently analyzed data from 23 population-based surveillance systems that include prenatal ascertainment of these birth defects. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that the estimated number of NTD-affected pregnancies in the United States declined from 4,000 in 1995-1996 to 3,000 in 1999-2000. This decline in NTD-affected pregnancies highlights the partial success of the U.S. folic acid fortification program as a public health strategy. To reduce further the number of NTD-affected pregnancies, all women capable of becoming pregnant should follow the USPHS recommendation and consume 400 microg of folic acid every day. PMID:15129193

  12. Genes encoding critical transcriptional activators for murine neural tube development and human spina bifida: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spina bifida is a malformation of the neural tube and is the most common of neural tube defects (NTDs). The etiology of spina bifida is largely unknown, although it is thought to be multi-factorial, involving multiple interacting genes and environmental factors. Mutations in transcriptional co-activator genes-Cited2, p300, Cbp, Tfap2α, Carm1 and Cart1 result in NTDs in murine models, thus prompt us to investigate whether homologues of these genes are associated with NTDs in humans. Methods Data and biological samples from 297 spina bifida cases and 300 controls were derived from a population-based case-control study conducted in California. 37 SNPs within CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A, CARM1 and ALX1 were genotyped using an ABI SNPlex assay. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes to evaluate the risk for spina bifida. Results Several SNPs showed increased or decreased risk, including CITED2 rs1131431 (OR = 5.32, 1.04~27.30), EP300 rs4820428 (OR = 1.30, 1.01~1.67), EP300 rs4820429 (OR = 0.50, 0.26~0.50, in whites, OR = 0.7, 0.49~0.99 in all subjects), EP300 rs17002284 (OR = 0.43, 0.22~0.84), TFAP2A rs3798691 (OR = 1.78, 1.13~2.87 in Hispanics), CREBBP rs129986 (OR = 0.27, 0.11~0.69), CARM1 rs17616105 (OR = 0.41, 0.22~0.72 in whites). In addition, one haplotype block in EP300 and one in TFAP2A appeared to be associated with increased risk. Conclusions Modest associations were observed in CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A and CARM1 but not ALX1. However, these modest associations were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Searching for potential functional variants and rare causal mutations is warranted in these genes. PMID:20932315

  13. A Description of Spina Bifida Cases and Co-Occurring Malformations, 1976–2011

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400 μg/day) or high intake (≥400 μg/day). SB cases (n=1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

  14. Comparison of Health-Related Quality of Life between children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Sezen; Simsek, Tülay Tarsuslu

    2013-09-01

    This study has two aims-the first is to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) between children with cerebral palsy (CP) and children with spina bifida (SB); the second is to investigate the relationship between HRQoL and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), level of ambulation, cooperation, family income and the mother's education level in both groups of children. The study included 96 children with CP and 70 children with SB (aged 5-18) who attended a physiotherapy and rehabilitation program at an institute of special training and rehabilitation. Socio-demographic information was obtained within the study. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) was used to evaluate HRQoL. A significant difference was found in terms of age and BMI between children with CP and SB (p<0.05). HRQoL was lower for children with CP. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of role/social limitations - emotional behavioral, behavior, global behavior, parental impact-emotional and parental impact-time (p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between BMI and self-esteem in children with SB, unlike children with CP. The HRQoL of children with CP was lower than children with SB. The parameters of behavior and parental impact were particularly affected in the children with CP. Minimizing behavioral problems (which can improve with advancing age) of the children with CP and reducing parental impact are important for improving the HRQoL of both the child and parents. There is a need for further studies on this issue. PMID:23787116

  15. Factors associated with the timeliness of postnatal surgical repair of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Thibadeau, Judy K.; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines recommend repair of open spina bifida (SB) prenatally or within the first days of an infant’s life. We examined maternal, infant, and health care system factors associated with time-to-repair among infants with postnatal repair. Methods This retrospective, statewide, population-based study examined infants with SB born in Florida 1998–2007, ascertained by the Florida Birth Defects Registry. We used procedure codes from hospital discharge records to identify the first recorded myelomeningocele repair (ICD-9 CM procedure code 03.52) among infants with birth hospitalizations. Using Poisson multivariable regression, we examined time-to-repair by hydrocephalus, SB type (isolated [no other coded major birth defect] versus non-isolated), and other selected factors. Results Of 199 infants with a recorded birth hospitalization and coded myelomeningocele repair, 87.9 % had hydrocephalus and 19.6 % had non-isolated SB. About 76.4 % of infants had repair by day 2 of life. In adjusted analyses, infants with hydrocephalus were more likely to have timely repair (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.14) than infants without hydrocephalus. SB type was not associated with repair timing. Infants born in lower level nursery care hospitals with were less likely to have timely repairs (aPR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52–0.98) than those born in higher level nursery care hospitals. Conclusions Most infants with SB had surgical repair in the first 2 days of life. Lower level birth hospital nursery care was associated with later repairs. Prenatal diagnosis can facilitate planning for a birth hospital with higher level of nursery care, thus improving opportunities for timely repair. PMID:27179533

  16. Injury risk for research subjects with spina bifida occulta in a repeated impact study: a case review.

    PubMed

    Albano, J P; Shannon, S G; Alem, N M; Mason, K T

    1996-08-01

    Spina bifida occulta (SBO) occurs in 18-34% of the normal U.S. population. Recently, 16.5% of normal, asymptomatic male soldier volunteer candidates in a U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory ride motion study were excluded from the study because they had SBO at one vertebral level. Disqualifying this percentage of screened research subject candidates threatened the timely completion of the schedule-intense protocol. Although one study suggests that SBO at spinal level S1 has a higher incidence of posterior disc herniation, the preponderance of clinical literature reports that spina bifida occulta is not a medical problem. The impact literature indicates that lumbosacral vertebral bodies fracture at 7.14 kN in static compression and 20+ G during dynamic vertical impacts. In this paper, we examined the human data observed in ejection seat incidents, the rationale for excluding volunteers with single level SBO and the path of axial load transmission through the lumboscral spine. Based on the findings, we concluded that research volunteers with single level SBO are not at increased risk for injury and recommended inclusion of these volunteers in future studies involving repeated axial impacts due to ride motion. PMID:8853834

  17. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  18. The experience of adolescent women living with spina bifida part I: self-concept and family relationships.

    PubMed

    Bellin, Melissa Hayden; Sawin, Kathleen J; Roux, Gayle; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent women with spina bifida (SB) face unique and diverse challenges. The purpose of this qualitative component of a larger mixed-method study on adaptation was to heighten rehabilitation nurses' understanding of self-concept and family relationships during adolescence. Interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent women and analyzed for themes. The women described a range of experiences, including challenges of typical adolescence, specific concerns about living with SB, school-based stressors, and incidences of teasing and bullying. The overall self-concept was primarily positive, despite the diverse stressors encountered. A significant source of strength was the close relationships with parents, although an undercurrent of tension related to independence was also expressed. Results from this study support the need for rehabilitation nurses to address not only the functional status but also the well-being and psychosocial challenges of adolescent women with SB. PMID:17432634

  19. Auditory interhemispheric transfer in relation to patterns of partial agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Hannay, H. Julia; Walker, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry; Blaser, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC). We describe MRI patterns of regional CC agenesis and relate CC anomalies to functional laterality based on a dichotic listening test in 90 children with SBM and 27 typically developing controls. Many children with SBM (n = 40) showed regional CC anomalies in the form of agenesis of the rostrum and0or splenium, and a smaller number (n = 20) showed hypoplasia (thinning) of all CC regions (rostrum, genu, body, and splenium). The expected right ear advantage (REA) was exhibited by normal controls and children with SBM having a normal or hypoplastic splenium. It was not shown by children with SBM who were left handed, missing a splenium, or had a higher level spinal cord lesion. Perhaps the right hemisphere of these children is more involved in processing some aspects of linguistic stimuli. PMID:18764972

  20. Validity of a wheelchair perceived exertion scale (wheel scale) for arm ergometry exercise in people with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Crytzer, T M; Dicianno, B E; Robertson, R J; Cheng, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and construct validity of the Borg 6-20 Scale and WHEEL Scale during arm ergometry exercise stress testing in (n = 24) adolescents and adults with spina bifida. Significant, moderate, positive correlations were observed between power output and relative heart rate and power output to relative VO2peak. Further, a moderate, significant correlation between physiologic criterion variables and the rating of perceived exertion derived from the Borg Scale and the WHEEL Scale was found. Concurrent validity was supported by the following findings: (1) relative heart rate was significantly correlated with the Borg (Kendall's τ = .41) and WHEEL Scales (τ = .44), and relative VO2 was significantly correlated with the Borg (τ = .46) and WHEEL Scales (τ = .47); (2) content validity was supported by the finding that the Borg and WHEEL Scales shared significant variance (τ = .70), demonstrating internal consistency. The WHEEL Scale shows strong potential for use in this cohort subsequent to further testing and validation.

  1. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day), alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day). PMID:23917813

  2. The long-term outcome of patients treated operatively and non-operatively for scoliosis deformity secondary to spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, A; Vivas, L; Law, P W; Stephens, D; Davis, A M; Howard, A; Jarvis, J G; Wright, J G

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adults with spina bifida cystica (SBC) who had been treated either operatively or non-operatively for scoliosis during childhood. We reviewed 45 patients with a SBC scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥ 50º) who had been treated at one of two children's hospitals between 1991 and 2007. Of these, 34 (75.6%) had been treated operatively and 11 (24.4%) non-operatively. After a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (standard deviation (sd) 4.3) clinical, radiological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes were evaluated using the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire (SBSQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Although patients in the two groups were demographically similar, those who had undergone surgery had a larger mean Cobb angle (88.0º (sd 20.5; 50.0 to 122.0) ; : versus 65.7º (sd 22.0; 51.0 to 115.0); p < 0.01) and a larger mean clavicle-rib intersection difference (12.3 mm; (sd 8.5; 1 to 37); versus 4.1 mm, (sd 5.9; 0 to 16); p = 0.01) than those treated non-operatively. Both groups were statistically similar at follow-up with respect to walking capacity, neurological motor level, sitting balance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. Spinal fusion in SBC scoliosis corrects coronal deformity and stops progression of the curve but has no clear effect on HRQOL.

  3. Outcomes of Clinicians, Caregivers, Family Members and Adults with Spina Bifida Regarding Receptivity to use of the iMHere mHealth Solution to Promote Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209

  4. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change.

  5. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change. PMID:27051894

  6. Effect of preschool working memory, language, and narrative abilities on inferential comprehension at school-age in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A

    2013-04-01

    Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature.

  7. Effect of Preschool Working Memory, Language, and Narrative Abilities on Inferential Comprehension at School-Age in Children with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature. PMID:23388065

  8. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Raza; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... National Council of La Raza have jointly filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be... a food additive petition (FAP 2A4796) has been jointly filed by Gruma Corporation, Spina...

  9. What young people with spina bifida want to know about sex, and aren’t being told

    PubMed Central

    LIGHT, Alexis; SHERMAN, Laura; POLVINEN, Julie; RICH, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine sexual knowledge, concerns, and needs of youth with spina bifida (SB) to inform the medical community on ways to better support their sexual health. Methods As part of the Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA) – Transitions, a prospective cohort study, 309 hours of video data were collected from 14 participants (13–28 years) with SB. Participants were loaned a video camcorder for 8–12 weeks to shoot visual narratives about any aspects of their lives. VIA visual narratives were analyzed with Grounded Theory using NVivo. Results Out of 14 participants, 11 (6 females) addressed issues surrounding romantic relationships and sexuality in their video clips. Analysis revealed shared concerns, questions, and challenges regarding sexuality gathered under 4 main themes: romantic relationships, sexuality, fertility and parenthood, and need for more talk on sexuality. Conclusions Youth with SB reported difficulties in finding answers to questions regarding their sexuality, romantic relationships, and fertility. This study revealed a need for help from the medical community to inform and empower youth with SB in the area of sexual health. Through sexual and reproductive health education with patients and parents starting at an early age, medical providers can further encourage healthy emotional and physical development in adolescents transitioning into adulthood. PMID:26331351

  10. Plasticity of Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe White Matter Pathways Due to Early Disruption of Corpus Callosum Development in Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A; Juranek, Jenifer; Romanowska-Pawliczek, Anna; Hannay, H Julia; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry A; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-04-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalous development of the corpus callosum (CC) because of congenital partial hypogenesis and hydrocephalus-related hypoplasia. It represents a model disorder to examine the effects of early disruption of CC neurodevelopment and the plasticity of interhemispheric white matter connections. Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired on 76 individuals with SBM and 27 typically developing individuals, aged 8-36 years. Probabilistic tractography was used to isolate the interhemispheric connections between the posterior superior temporal lobes, which typically traverse the posterior third of the CC. Early disruption of CC development resulted in restructuring of interhemispheric connections through alternate commissures, particularly the anterior commissure (AC). These rerouted fibers were present in people with SBM and both CC hypoplasia and hypogenesis. In addition, microstructural integrity was reduced in the interhemispheric temporal tract in people with SBM, indexed by lower fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and higher radial diffusivity. Interhemispheric temporal tract volume was positively correlated with total volume of the CC, such that more severe underdevelopment of the CC was associated with fewer connections between the posterior temporal lobes. Therefore, both the macrostructure and microstructure of this interhemispheric tract were reduced, presumably as a result of more extensive CC malformation. The current findings suggest that early disruption in CC development reroutes interhemispheric temporal fibers through both the AC and more anterior sections of the CC in support of persistent hypotheses that the AC may serve a compensatory function in atypical CC development. PMID:26798959

  11. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

  12. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Samsudin, Azi; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M; Selmi, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case. Case report A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure). Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT) of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30% to 17%. Follow-up CT revealed reduction in the size of subcapsular hematoma, no hydronephrosis, and several residual calculi. Conclusion Risk of subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic lithotripsy can be reduced by avoiding prolonged endoscopy and performing ureteroscopy under low pressure. When a paraplegic patient develops features of infection after ureteroscopy, renal

  13. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. Results: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China. PMID:27377948

  14. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Samsudin, Azi; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M; Selmi, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case. Case report A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure). Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT) of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30% to 17%. Follow-up CT revealed reduction in the size of subcapsular hematoma, no hydronephrosis, and several residual calculi. Conclusion Risk of subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic lithotripsy can be reduced by avoiding prolonged endoscopy and performing ureteroscopy under low pressure. When a paraplegic patient develops features of infection after ureteroscopy, renal

  15. Spina bifida cystica

    PubMed Central

    James, C. C. Michael

    1971-01-01

    There is an urgent need for criteria upon which to base the decision to close a myelomeningocoele soon after birth. Orthopaedic experience advises that early closure of the spinal lesion should not be done unless there is active flexion power at both hips. This criterion is offered with the knowledge that there may occasionally be other exceptional factors to contradict it, but it is based on experience of 96 personal cases aged between 18 months and 7 years. These cases are analysed and discussed. A further possible criterion for not closing the spinal lesion early is the presence of a gross lumbosacral kyphosis. PMID:4945864

  16. Can Naturoptics fund Naturopathic Universities to Develop Interlocked Mentoring Relationships with Proposed Universities to Check Sensitivities of Individuals with Spina Bifida, to Environmentally Generated EMF Information about 'Quakes, Hurricanes, etc.?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, David M.; Ataide, Italani; McLeod, Roger D.

    2006-03-01

    Individuals harboring the herpes zoster virus following chicken pox, are susceptible to attacks of shingles. They may indicate peculiar awareness of pricking `pin and needle' sensations and co-symptoms of tinnitus and/or Meuniere's syndrome. RDM used similar symptoms in FL to predict the earthquake ninety miles north of Guantanamo bay in 1998. An astounding burial site in Florida from over six thousand years ago had a teenaged boy with severe spina bifida, with non-Asian genes, who could not have survived without very capable health support. Two youthful individuals likewise afflicted with spina bifida were unearthed from one site at Pompeii, entombed by the eruption of Vesuvius, August 24 and 25, CE 79. We know how to locate sites, active with EMF, which have tornado, hurricane and earthquake associations, and would like to foster joint research also involving Hawaiian and other volcanoes.

  17. Long-term complications following bladder augmentations in patients with spina bifida: bladder calculi, perforation of the augmented bladder and upper tract deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We desire to review our experience with bladder augmentation in spina bifida patients followed in a transitional and adult urologic practice. This paper will specifically focus on three major complications: bladder calculi, the most frequent complication found following bladder augmentation, perforation of the augmentation, its most lethal complication and finally we will address loss of renal function as a direct result of our surgical reconstructive procedures. Methods We reviewed a prospective data base maintained on patients with spina bifida followed in our transitional and adult urology clinic from 1986 to date. Specific attention was given to patients who had developed bladder calculi, sustained a spontaneous perforation of the augmented bladder or had developed new onset of renal scarring or renal insufficiency (≥ stage 3 renal failure) during prolonged follow-up. Results The development of renal stones (P<0.05) and symptomatic urinary tract infections (P<0.0001) were found to be significantly reduced by the use of high volume (≥240 mL) daily bladder wash outs. Individuals who still developed bladder calculi recalcitrant to high volume wash outs were not benefited by the correction of underlying metabolic abnormalities or mucolytic agents. Spontaneous bladder perforations in the adult patient population with spina bifida were found to be directly correlated to substance abuse and noncompliance with intermittent catheterization, P<0.005. Deterioration of the upper tracts as defined by the new onset of renal scars occurred in 40% (32/80) of the patients managed by a ileocystoplasty and simultaneous bladder neck outlet procedure during a median follow-up interval 14 years (range, 8–45 years). Development of ≥ stage 3 chronic renal failure occurred within 38% (12/32) of the patients with scarring i.e., 15% (12/80) of the total patient population. Prior to the development of the renal scarring, 69% (22/32) of the patients had been noncompliant

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

  19. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  20. Spina Bifida Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Another Way to Go Ask the Expert Beyond Crayons Living Well with SB Research Center Resource Directory ... Another Way to Go Ask the Expert Beyond Crayons Living Well with SB Research Center Resource Directory ...

  1. Men's Health and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting or maintaining an erection. This is called erectile dysfunction (ED). Often, satisfactory erections are possible, but may ... to father children. Can ED be treated? Although erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in men with SB (as ...

  2. Spina Bifida Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Materials About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Data from 12 state-based birth defects tracking programs ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spina bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the spine forms, the bones of the spinal column do not close completely around the developing nerves ... severe, depending on where the opening in the spinal column is located and how much of the spinal ...

  4. Use of open-ended Foley catheter to treat profuse urine leakage around suprapubic catheter in a female patient with spina bifida who had undergone closure of urethra and suprapubic cystostomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Bakul M; Hughes, Peter L; Singh, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Leakage of urine around a catheter is not uncommon in spinal cord injury patients, who have indwelling urethral catheter. Aetiological factors for leakage of urine around a catheter are bladder spasms, partial blockage of catheter, constipation, and urine infection. Usually, leakage of urine subsides when the underlying cause is treated. Leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter is very rare and occurs in patients, in whom the urethra is closed due to severe stricture or previous surgery. Case presentation We describe a 35-year-old female patient with spina bifida and paraplegia, who had undergone suprapubic cystotomy followed by urethral closure for leakage of urine per urethra. She developed leakage of urine around suprapubic Foley catheter, which did not subside even after changing the catheter, ruling out vesical calculus, and ensuring that there was no kink in catheter or drainage tube. As a desperate measure, we punched a large hole at the tip of a Foley catheter and used this catheter for suprapubic drainage. Leakage of urine around suprapubic catheter stopped and the patient was greatly relieved. Conclusion Leakage of urine around a catheter requires prompt attention in spinal cord injury patients; otherwise patients can develop maceration of neuropathic skin and pressure sore. Management of spinal cord injury patients with leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter should include (i) changing the catheter, (ii) prescribing anticholinergic drugs to control bladder spasm, (iii) treating constipation and urine infection when present, (iv) imaging studies or flexible cystoscopy to look for vesical calculus. If leakage of urine persists despite all these measures, use of a modified Foley catheter in which, a large hole has been made at the tip, is worth trying. PMID:19829871

  5. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  6. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... called metabolic syndrome. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. ... 95th percentile, a person is considered overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  7. Myelomeningocele (open spina bifida) - surgical management.

    PubMed

    Akalan, N

    2011-01-01

    Myelomeningocele has been recognized since ancient times although written descriptions began not before the 17th century. Among all serious congenital malformations, myelomeningocele is unique that is has a steady and considerable prevalence while being compatible with life. It has a dismal prognosis when left untreated where virtually all die within the first year while aggressive treatment have a profound effect on survival and quality of life. Effective surgical treatment became possible parallel to the treatment of hydrocephalus in the late 1950s. Advent of the shunt systems undoubtedly changed the morbidity and mortality rates due to associated hydrocephalus. Aggressive and effective treatment improved survival rates but also those suffering physical and mental disabilities have increased as well. Ethical and socioeconomic concerns have led to proposal for selective treatment criteria which have raised arguments on medical and ethico-legal rounds. After the swing of the pendulum between early treatment in all affected children and selective treatment of those who fulfilled the criteria for good prognosis, early myelomeningocele repair is practiced widely unless the infant is critically ill.Incidence of myelomeningocele has been decreasing especially in the Western world, partly due to prenatal diagnosis and elective terminations, dietary folate supplementation. Still, it is the most common central nervous system malformation and one of the leading causes of paraplegia, worldwide. Unfortunately, gains in the management of myelomeningocele have been mainly on antenatal diagnosis and prevention while efforts on understanding its cause, mechanisms involved are still tentative. Concerning the surgical management, no revolutionary modification improving outcome has been introduced unlike other fields of neurosurgery.Medical management of a child with myelomeningocele requires a lifelong effort of several disciplines including urology, orthopedics physical and social therapy besides neurosurgery. The initial and probably the most crucial step begin with proper repair of the lesion. The aim of surgery, with its simplest definition should be towards maintaining the medical condition of the newborn. In other words, consequences of an open spinal cord segment with associated malformations have to be avoided with appropriate measures. Comparable to the surgical treatment of any congenital malformation, myelomeningocele repair consist of reversing the failed steps of normal neural tube closure. This requires a thorough understanding of the normal and abnormal embryological sequence of events in formation of the spinal cord. Although the purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic concepts and technique of myelomeningocele repair, contemporary information and progress on epidemiology, and etiology and embryology is presented with discussion of controversial issues regarding the selection process, optimal time for surgery and technical modifications.

  8. Solitary Osteochondroma Arising from Cervical Spina Bifida Occulta

    PubMed Central

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina. PMID:24383028

  9. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  10. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  11. Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

  12. A concurrent resolution supporting the goals and ideals of Spina Bifida Awareness Month.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS

    2011-10-13

    10/13/2011 Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6515-6516) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns. PMID:17929034

  14. Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006

    MedlinePlus

    ... for all years exclude data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which in various years had ... 26.52 NOTE: Excludes data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which did not require reporting ...

  15. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  16. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  17. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading.

  18. 77 FR 74281 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Benefits for Certain Children With Disabilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... physical or mental disability. Under title 38 U.S.C. 1805, Spina Bifida Benefits Eligibility, authorizes payment to a spina bifida child-claimant of parent(s) who performed active military, naval, or air service... Vietnam era. Spina Bifida benefits are payable for all types of spina bifida except spina bifida...

  19. Unusually Stable Spinae from a Freshwater Chlorobium sp

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, J. S.; Koval, S. F.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    A green Chlorobium sp. with spinae, strain JSB1, was isolated from an enrichment culture previously obtained from Fayetteville Green Lake, N.Y. (J. S. Brooke, J. B. Thompson, T. J. Beveridge, and S. F. Koval, Arch. Microbiol. 157:319-322, 1992). Cells were gram-negative, nonmotile rods which contained bacteriochlorophyll c and chlorosomes. Spinae were best seen by transmission electron microscopy in thin sections of cells fixed in the presence of tannic acid. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy showed the spinae randomly distributed at the cell surface and at the junctions between cells. Spinae were physically sheared from cells and isolated from the culture supernatant by ultrafiltration. As observed by electron microscopy, spinae demonstrated unusual structural stability when exposed for 1 h at 37 deg C to chemical treatments such as hydrogen bond-breaking agents, detergents, metal-chelating agents, proteases, and organic solvents. They were stable for 1 h at 37 deg C over the pH range 2.3 to 9.9 and in 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH. The structural integrity of the spinae was also maintained when spinae were subjected to harsher treatments of autoclaving in 2% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate and exposure to dithiothreitol at pH 9 for 1 h at 100 deg C. Partially dissociated spinae were obtained after 5 h at 100 deg C in 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH. In acid, the tubular spinae became amorphous structures, with no helical striations visible. In alkali, the spinae had dissociated into irregular aggregates of disks. Since both high temperature and extremes of pH were required to achieve partial dissociation of the spinae, the strength of the structure presumably comes from covalent bonding. PMID:16534897

  20. The Many Layers of Social Support: Capturing the Voices of Young People with Spina Bifida and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…

  1. Idiom Comprehension Deficits in Relation to Corpus Callosum Agenesis and Hypoplasia in Children with Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber-Okrainec, J.; Blaser, S.E.; Dennis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Idioms are phrases with figurative meanings that are not directly derived from the literal meanings of the words in the phrase. Idiom comprehension varies with: literality, whether the idiom is literally plausible; compositionality, whether individual words contribute to a figurative meaning; and contextual bias. We studied idiom comprehension in…

  2. Patient safety in the rehabilitation of children with spinal cord injuries, spina bifida, neuromuscular disorders, and amputations.

    PubMed

    Cancel, David; Capoor, Jaishree

    2012-05-01

    Pediatric patient safety continues to challenge both pediatricians and pediatric physiatrists. While there is a trend toward developing general patient safety initiatives, there is little research on pediatric patient safety. This article identifies major areas of general safety risk, with a focus on timely diagnosis and care coordination to prevent secondary complications that compromise health, function, and quality of life in pediatric neuromuscular disease, spinal cord disorders, and amputation.

  3. 76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``National Spina Bifida Registry Longitudinal Data Collection and Evaluation,'' FOA... Longitudinal Data Collection and Evaluation,'' FOA DD11-005, initial review. Contact Person for...

  4. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords “Spina Gleditsiae”, “Zao Jiao Ci”, and “Gleditsia sinensis”. Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  5. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiayu; Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords "Spina Gleditsiae", "Zao Jiao Ci", and "Gleditsia sinensis". Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  6. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  7. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IQ of at least 70 but less than 90; or, requires medication or other means to control the effects of... control the effects of bowel impairment but does not have fecal leakage severe or frequent enough to... the use of medication or other means to control the effects of urinary bladder impairment, at...

  8. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IQ of at least 70 but less than 90; or, requires medication or other means to control the effects of... control the effects of bowel impairment but does not have fecal leakage severe or frequent enough to... the use of medication or other means to control the effects of urinary bladder impairment, at...

  9. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IQ of at least 70 but less than 90; or, requires medication or other means to control the effects of... control the effects of bowel impairment but does not have fecal leakage severe or frequent enough to... the use of medication or other means to control the effects of urinary bladder impairment, at...

  10. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IQ of at least 70 but less than 90; or, requires medication or other means to control the effects of... control the effects of bowel impairment but does not have fecal leakage severe or frequent enough to... the use of medication or other means to control the effects of urinary bladder impairment, at...

  11. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... external support as his or her primary means of mobility in the community, has no sensory or motor... external support as his or her primary means of mobility in the community; or, has sensory or motor... mobility in the community; or, has sensory or motor impairment of the upper extremities severe enough...

  12. MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro.

  15. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

  16. 75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... for children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES...-7959e to claim payment/ ] reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8140 - Evaluation and improvement of vocational potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation and... to §§ 17.900 through 17.905 of this title for the spina bifida, covered birth defects, or...

  18. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living With Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-004 Developing a... Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living...

  19. Myelomeningocele

    MedlinePlus

    Meningomyelocele; Spina bifida; Cleft spine; Neural tube defect (NTD); Birth defect - myelomeningocele ... spine at this point are called the neural tube. Spina bifida refers to any birth defect involving ...

  20. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae.

    PubMed

    Park, San-Seong; Choi, Bo-Ram

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the differences in the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) of the right and left erector spinae muscles in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of lumbar stabilization exercises on these differences. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six participants (12 in the exercise group and 14 in the control group) with a difference in the FRP in the right and left erector spinae muscles were recruited from among healthy students attending Silla University. The exercise group performed two lumbar stabilization exercises (back bridge exercise and hand-knee exercise) for 4 weeks. The control group did not exercise. [Results] No significant group-by-exercise interaction was found. The right and left erector spinae muscles did show a difference in FRP between the control and exercise groups (119.2 ± 69.2 and 131.1 ± 85.2 ms, respectively). In addition, the exercise group showed a significant decrease in post-exercise (50.0 ± 27.0 ms) compared to pre-exercise (112.3 ± 41.5 ms) differences in the right and left FRP. [Conclusion] These results suggest that lumbar stabilization exercises may counter asymmetry of the FRP in the erector spinae muscles, possibly preventing low back pain in the general population.

  1. Relationship Between Erectores Spinae Voltage and Back-Lift Strength for Isometric, Concentric, and Eccentric Contractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, T. Edwin J.; Singh, Mohan

    1975-01-01

    This study determined the maximal mean values for concentric and eccentric back-lift strength as well as isometric, and examined and compared the relationships between the mean peak voltage of the erectores spinae muscle(s) and maximal force exerted for the three types of muscle contractions. (RC)

  2. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  3. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae.

    PubMed

    Park, San-Seong; Choi, Bo-Ram

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the differences in the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) of the right and left erector spinae muscles in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of lumbar stabilization exercises on these differences. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six participants (12 in the exercise group and 14 in the control group) with a difference in the FRP in the right and left erector spinae muscles were recruited from among healthy students attending Silla University. The exercise group performed two lumbar stabilization exercises (back bridge exercise and hand-knee exercise) for 4 weeks. The control group did not exercise. [Results] No significant group-by-exercise interaction was found. The right and left erector spinae muscles did show a difference in FRP between the control and exercise groups (119.2 ± 69.2 and 131.1 ± 85.2 ms, respectively). In addition, the exercise group showed a significant decrease in post-exercise (50.0 ± 27.0 ms) compared to pre-exercise (112.3 ± 41.5 ms) differences in the right and left FRP. [Conclusion] These results suggest that lumbar stabilization exercises may counter asymmetry of the FRP in the erector spinae muscles, possibly preventing low back pain in the general population. PMID:27390399

  4. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae

    PubMed Central

    Park, San-seong; Choi, Bo-ram

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the differences in the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) of the right and left erector spinae muscles in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of lumbar stabilization exercises on these differences. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six participants (12 in the exercise group and 14 in the control group) with a difference in the FRP in the right and left erector spinae muscles were recruited from among healthy students attending Silla University. The exercise group performed two lumbar stabilization exercises (back bridge exercise and hand-knee exercise) for 4 weeks. The control group did not exercise. [Results] No significant group-by-exercise interaction was found. The right and left erector spinae muscles did show a difference in FRP between the control and exercise groups (119.2 ± 69.2 and 131.1 ± 85.2 ms, respectively). In addition, the exercise group showed a significant decrease in post-exercise (50.0 ± 27.0 ms) compared to pre-exercise (112.3 ± 41.5 ms) differences in the right and left FRP. [Conclusion] These results suggest that lumbar stabilization exercises may counter asymmetry of the FRP in the erector spinae muscles, possibly preventing low back pain in the general population. PMID:27390399

  5. First Case of Pseudoclavibacter bifida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Host with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Breyne, Joke; De Laere, Emmanuel; Mariën, Stan; Waets, Peter; Laffut, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoclavibacter spp. are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family of Microbacteriaceae. Identification of these species with conventional biochemical assays is difficult. This case report of a Pseudoclavibacter bifida bacteremia occurring in an immunocompromised host diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a lethal outcome, confirms that this organism may be a human pathogen. PMID:23536403

  6. Effect of chronic knee osteoarthritis on flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly women with chronic knee osteoarthritis and determined whether the flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in such cases. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis and 13 healthy young females voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three postural positions in 15 s: trunk flexion, complete trunk flexion, and trunk extension, each for 5 s. While these positions were held, muscle activation of the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. The flexion-relaxation rate was determined by dividing the values for trunk extension by those of complete trunk flexion and by dividing the values for trunk flexion by those of complete trunk flexion. [Results] According to our results, the flexion-relaxation phenomenon was different between healthy young and elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. Specifically, there was a difference in the left thoracic erector spinae muscle, but not in the left and right lumbar erector spinae or right thoracic spinae muscle. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the erector spinae muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27512244

  7. Spondylolisthesis in an Etruscan woman from Spina (Ferrara, Italy): an iron age case report.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Onisto, Nicoletta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Spondylolisthesis consists of the slippage of a vertebra in relation to the one beneath. It is caused by separation of the neural arch from the vertebral body (spondylolysis), and predominantly occurs at the isthmus (pars interarticularis). Originally thought to be a congenital anomaly, its strict correlation with certain activities that seem to exert stress on lower spine was later demonstrated. This paper describes a case of progression of spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis found on an adult female skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy). The case in question was identified among 209 skeletons exhumed at Spina. As spondylolisthesis is strictly connected with activities that exert stress on lower spine, the evidence suggests that this woman was engaged in stressful physical activity, perhaps related to the specific trade function of the site. PMID:25145016

  8. The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

    2005-01-01

    This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

  9. Autophagy is involved in ethanol-induced cardia bifida during chick cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Gao, Lin-rui; Lu, Wen-hui; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been acknowledged to increase the incidence of congenital disorders, especially the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanism involved in ethanol-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. We demonstrated that ethanol exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Previously, we reported that autophagy was involved in heart tube formation. In this context, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure increased ATG7 and LC3 expression. mTOR was found to be inhibited by ethanol exposure. We activated autophagy using exogenous rapamycin (RAPA) and observed that it induced cardiac bifida and increased GATA5 expression. RAPA beads implantation experiments revealed that RAPA restricted ventricular myosin heavy chain (VMHC) expression. In vitro explant cultures of anterior primitive streak demonstrated that both ethanol and RAPA treatments could reduce cell differentiation and the spontaneous beating of cardiac precursor cells. In addition, the bead experiments showed that RAPA inhibited GATA5 expression during heart tube formation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that BMP2 expression was increased while GATA4 expression was suppressed. In the embryos exposed to excess ethanol, BMP2, GATA4 and FGF8 expression was repressed. These genes are associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation, while heart tube fusion is associated with increased Wnt3a but reduced VEGF and Slit2 expression. Furthermore, the ethanol exposure also caused the production of excess ROS, which might damage the cardiac precursor cells of developing embryos. In sum, our results revealed that disrupting autophagy and excess ROS generation are responsible for inducing abnormal cardiogenesis in ethanol-treated chick embryos. PMID:26317250

  10. [Differentiation of two hemp nettle species (Galeopsis bifida Boenn. and G. tetrahit L.) inferred from morphological characters and DNA markers].

    PubMed

    Maslova, E V

    2008-03-01

    Two species of the genus Galeopsis L., G. tetrahit L. and G. bifida (family Lamiaceae), are problematic to distinguish often wrongly recognized, and treated by some taxonomists as a single species. Morphological diagnostical characters of these species are variable and partly overlap. Species independence of G. tetrahit and G. bifida was evaluated and their diagnostic characters verified using ISSR and RAPD markers. A total of 57 ISSR and 28 RAPD fragments were obtained providing distinct subdivision of the accessions examined into two groups. Analysis of molecular data using the neighbor-joining method showed that the accessions studied fell into two clades in the same way as demonstrated by the analysis of 20 morphological characters using single linkage method. The morphological characters were found to be more variable compared to the molecular markers, although the combined of these characters provided differentiation of the species.

  11. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions that are associated with the covered birth defect(s) according to the scientific literature... with spina bifida according to the scientific literature). Vietnam veteran for purposes of spina...

  12. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  13. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  14. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scientific literature. Habilitative and rehabilitative care means such professional, counseling, and guidance... associated with spina bifida according to the scientific literature). Veteran with covered service in...

  15. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... scientific literature. Habilitative and rehabilitative care means such professional, counseling, and guidance... associated with spina bifida according to the scientific literature). Veteran with covered service in...

  16. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scientific literature. Habilitative and rehabilitative care means such professional, counseling, and guidance... associated with spina bifida according to the scientific literature). Veteran with covered service in...

  17. 78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...-known childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital..., ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one year to collect information...

  18. 78 FR 35272 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs); neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly); muscular dystrophy; fragile X; deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE); sickle cell disease (SCD);...

  19. Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

  20. Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

  1. Reduction of rodent fertility by plant consumption : With particular reference toZiziphus spina-christi.

    PubMed

    Shappira, Z; Terkel, J; Egozi, J; Nyska, A; Friedman, J

    1990-06-01

    The present study investigates the possibility that plants used in traditional medicine for birth control may also reduce reproduction in their natural herbivores. Ten species of plants utilized by Bedouins for birth control were selected. These were dried, ground, and mixed with the standard diet and offered to female laboratory rats. Six plant species (60%) were found to reduce reproduction rate in white female rats, and the shoots and fruit of one of the effective species,Ziziphus spina-christi, when offered to its natural herbivore,Meriones tristrami, at the level of 35% of the standard diet, postponed female puberty and significantly reduced offspring survival. Plants that are known to be an effective factor in human birth control may have similar effects on their natural mammalian herbivores. In such cases, when the seeds of the plant are part of the herbivore diet, a certain percentage of the seeds will be dispersed and germinate, while the resulting population control of the animal achieved by its consumption of the seeds will prevent overgrazing, thus maintaining a mutual balance. It is suggested that ethnopharmacological data may assist in uncovering plants that, under the following conditions, have the potential to regulate reproduction in mammalian herbivores (with implications for human reproduction): (1) the plant is an important component of the animal's diet and (2) the active secondary metabolites of the plant directly interact with the physiological systems governing reproduction in the herbivore. PMID:24264003

  2. Changes in the flexion-relaxation response induced by hip extensor and erector spinae muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is defined by reduced lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscle myoelectric activity during full trunk flexion. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of hip and back extensor muscle fatigue on FRP parameters and lumbopelvic kinematics. Methods Twenty-seven healthy adults performed flexion-extension tasks under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load, no fatigue/load, fatigue/no load, and fatigue/load. Total flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence, hip flexion angle, lumbar flexion angle and maximal trunk flexion angle were compared across different experimental conditions by 2 × 2 (Load × Fatigue) repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The angle corresponding to the ES onset of myoelectric silence was reduced after the fatigue task, and loading the spine decreased the lumbar contribution to motion compared to the hip during both flexion and extension. A relative increment of lumbar spine motion compared to pelvic motion was also observed in fatigue conditions. Conclusions Previous results suggested that ES muscles, in a state of fatigue, are unable to provide sufficient segmental stabilization. The present findings indicate that, changes in lumbar-stabilizing mechanisms in the presence of muscle fatigue seem to be caused by modulation of lumbopelvic kinematics. PMID:20525336

  3. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA will provide a Vietnam veteran's child who has...

  4. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  5. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  6. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  7. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  8. Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

  9. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  10. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  11. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  12. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  13. Resting mechanomyographic amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles following resistance exercise in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Wages, Nathan P; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Hofford, Craig W

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are some of the most commonly occurring chronic conditions affecting the US population, with the most self-reported and diagnosed disorder being low back pain. Low back pain is often due to suboptimal back muscle function, at least in part, as a result of muscle inactivity and disuse. Resistance exercise has been shown to be successful in the treatment of low back pain. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine resting mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles prior to and following resistance exercise. Twenty healthy, college-aged men were measured for resting MMG amplitude levels prior to, and following a resistance training workout. The workout consisted of three sets of ten repetitions on the conventional deadlift, bent-over row, and lat pulldown exercises, with 1 min of rest between all sets and exercises. The results showed that there were approximate 10% and 15% decreases in normalized MMG amplitude after exercise for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles, respectively. These findings demonstrate a relaxation effect in the back muscles after exercise that could potentially be helpful in alleviating low back pain. PMID:24045398

  14. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  15. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  16. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  17. Longitudinal Magnification Drawing Mistake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, Héctor; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of the optical axis (the longitudinal magnification) is seldom treated. In several texts, the concept of longitudinal magnification is not even considered. Symmetrical objects (such as arrows) are used and their images appear laterally inverted. It is not shown how a longitudinally nonsymmetric object is imaged. One of the few books where this subject is well treated is in the textbook by Hecht.10 We have repeatedly verified in our classes that there is some confusion related to this subject. Students tend to believe that the image is longitudinally symmetric with respect to the lens optic center. Some prestigious texts commit the same mistake. In addition, a very nice optics book,11 a catalogue of optical hardware,12 a worldwide scientific magazine,13 a paper in an optics journal,14 and a Spanish encyclopedia,15 for example, have also been found to contain this error in drawing the image of a three-dimensional object formed by a positive lens. In this paper we suggest that the teaching of longitudinal magnification should be done with some care and we include a figure showing a properly drawn image.

  18. The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae

    PubMed Central

    Katayose, Masaki; Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. Purpose We aimed to investigate the variation in the lumbar facet joint orientation in an adult Asian population. The relationship between the facet joint orientation and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus and erector spinae was also clarified. Overview of Literature Several studies have reported that lumbar pathologies, such as lumbar spondylolysis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, were related to the horizontally shaped lumbar facet joint orientation at the lower lumbar level. However, data regarding variations in the facet joint orientation in asymptomatic subjects have not been well documented. Methods In 31 healthy male adult Asian volunteers, the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae were measured using magnetic resonance imaging at the L4–5 and L5–S1 levels. Variation in the facet joint orientation was examined using coefficients of variation (CV). Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae. Results Lumbar facet joint orientation had a wider range of variation at L5–S1 (CV=0.30) than at L4–5 (CV=0.18). The L4–5 facet joint orientation had a weak but significant correlation with the CSA of erector spinae (r=0.40; p=0.031). The CSA of the multifidus had no relationship with the facet joint orientation at the L4–5 (r=0.19; p=0.314) and the L5–S1 level (r=0.19; p=0.312). Conclusions The lumbar facet joint orientation was found to have a wide variation, particularly at the L5–S1 in the Asian adult population, and the facet joint orientation had a relationship with the CSA of the erector spinae at the L4–5. PMID:27790316

  19. Spina cortica and Tapetum spinosus, two new microstructures of flight feathers: description, function and distribution in modern birds.

    PubMed

    Straker, L C; Raposo, M A; Attias, Márcia

    2008-05-01

    The importance of feathers for the avian group has made them one of the most studied epidermal structures both from the morphological and evolutionary point of view. Surprisingly, our observations by Scanning Electron Microscopy detected the presence of two structures widely distributed within different avian groups and not yet described. In this paper we describe these two new structures (Spina cortica and Tapetum spinosus) and map their distribution within modern birds. The S. cortica is a thorn-like microstructure that grows on the barb cortex and the T. spinosus is the assemblage of these thorns. The distribution of these new structures among birds and their morphological diversity could be of great interest to taxonomists and evolutionary biologists interested in the origin of bird flight.

  20. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  4. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  5. LONGITUDINAL SOLUTIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.FISCHER,W.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.LUQUE,A.SCHAMEL,H.

    2003-05-12

    Stable, coherent, longitudinal oscillations have been observed in the RHIC accelerator. Within the context of perturbation theory, the beam parameters and machine impedance suggest these oscillations should be Landau damped. When nonlinear effects are included, long lived, stable oscillations become possible for low intensity beams. Simulations and theory are compared with data.

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  7. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  8. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects’ heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone. PMID:26180333

  9. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  10. Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10 MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2 μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

  11. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis.

  12. Tuberculous dactylitis (spina ventosa) with concomitant ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma in an immunocompetent child: A rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar; Khonglah, Tashi; Bareh, Jerryson

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a distinctly uncommon, yet well recognized form of tuberculosis involving the small bones of the hand or foot. It occurs in young children in endemic areas under 5 years of age. Tuberculosis of the short tubular bones like phalanges, metacarpals or metatarsals is quite uncommon beyond 6 years of age, once the epiphyseal centers are well established. The radiographic features of cystic expansion have led to the name “Spina Ventosa” for tuberculous dactylitis of the short bones. Scrofuloderma is a mycobacterial infection affecting children and young adults, representing direct extension of tuberculosis into the skin from underlying structures e.g. lymph nodes. An 8-year-old malnourished girl had multiple axillary ulcers with lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous dactylitis with ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma was suspected on clinical and radiological grounds. The suspicion was confirmed by histology and bacteriology. The patient responded to antitubercular drugs with progressive healing of the lesions without surgery. Concomitant presence of these dual lesions suggesting active disseminated tuberculosis in immune-competent child over 6 years is very rare and hardly reported. PMID:23977657

  13. Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L

    2000-09-01

    An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received.

  14. Longitudinal Stern-Gerlach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach split a beam of silver atoms using a transverse gradient field. This experiment, which lead to the understanding that electrons have intrinsic spin, oddly enough does not work for free electrons due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Heisenberg uncertainly principle. Recent calculations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 4517 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4508, have shown that a dismissed idea of L. Brillouin from 1928 to use a longitudinal gradient field to minimize the effect of the Lorentz force may in fact be possible. The history of the Stern-Gerlach device will be presented along with the revived ideas for separating a beam of free electrons into its two spin states.

  15. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital

  16. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  17. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  19. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  20. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  1. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  2. What Can a Woman Do to Promote a Healthy Pregnancy Before She Gets Pregnant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can reduce the risk of complications such as neural tube defects (NTDs) —abnormalities that can occur in ... number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. MMWR, 41 (No. RR-14), 1– ...

  3. Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or developmental disorders (such as those associated with neural tube defects including spina bifida and encephalocele). Other ... and abnormal brain development. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN, www.hcrn.org ) is a multi-center ...

  4. Pregnancy and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid to prevent spina bifida and other neural tube birth defects. Folic acid (2 mg daily) ... Crohn’s & Colitis CCFA Partners: A patient-powered research network CCFA Partners: A patient-powered research network Allergy ...

  5. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal ... with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development. Grains All About ...

  6. Going to an Occupational Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... ocupacional Mornings are tough for Joe. He has cerebral palsy , a condition that affects the brain's control over ... in the lines. Some kids with conditions like cerebral palsy (like Joe), muscular dystrophy , or spina bifida may ...

  7. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  8. Neurologic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscular dystrophy Problems with the way the nervous system develops, such as spina bifida Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are damaged or die, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease Diseases of the blood vessels that supply ...

  9. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  10. How Many People Are Affected By or Are at Risk for Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are affected by or are at risk for neural tube defects? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... with spina bifida. 1 The other types of neural tube defects are less common. About 340 infants are born ...

  11. Encephaloceles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Organizations What are Encephaloceles? Encephaloceles are rare neural tube defects characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain ... families with a history of spina bifida and anencephaly in family members. Is there any treatment? Generally, ...

  12. Iniencephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... development. Iniencephaly is in the same family of neural tube defects as spina bifida, but it is more severe. ... with iniencephaly have additional birth defects, such as anencephaly (in which major sections of the brain fail ...

  13. Kyphosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tuberculosis ) Muscular dystrophy Neurofibromatosis Paget disease Polio Scoliosis Spina bifida Tumors ... chap 671. Warner WC, Sawyer JR, Kelly DM. Scoliosis and kyphosis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation....

  17. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation....

  19. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation....

  6. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation....

  7. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of §...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of §...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of §...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of §...

  16. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.

  17. Effect of leg support on muscle cross-correlation of bilateral erector spinae during trunk flexion-extension performance.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xinhai; Wei, Yugang; Chen, Zhentao; Fan, Lixia; Shi, Weifei; Yang, Shulong

    2014-01-01

    Investigations corresponding to the affected factors of the cross-correlation of pair muscles are limited though muscle activation patterns of bilateral erector spinae (ES) during trunk flexion-extension performance in standing have been utilized as an indicator in the evaluation of low back pain condition. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of leg support on the cross-correlation of bilateral ES, and to test if the average of bilateral ES could weaken this effect. Twenty male university students volunteered for this study. Each performed the trunk flexion-extension in three leg support conditions randomly with the condition of single left leg support, double leg support and single right leg support, respectively. Each condition included three trials of trunk flexion-extension with the cycle of 5s flexion and 5s extension in standing. Surface electromyography from the right ES muscle as well as from the left one was recorded. The cross-correlation both in pair muscle of right-left ES and in pair muscle of right-average of bilateral ES was calculated in the flexion as well as extension period. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used. The results showed that leg support has some effect on cross-correlation of bilateral ES, which causes the absolute value of phase lag to be significantly larger in flexion period. It is suggested that this effect could be weakened by the average of bilateral ES through significantly increasing the cross-correlation coefficient, and decreasing the absolute value of phase lag.

  18. Comparison of surface EMG signals between electrode types, interelectrode distances and electrode orientations in isometric exercise of the erector spinae muscle.

    PubMed

    Zedka, M; Kumar, S; Narayan, Y

    1997-10-01

    The influence of electrode type, interelectrode distance (IED) and electrode orientation on EMG signals from the paraspinal muscles was investigated. Bipolar electrodes were placed at distances 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 cm over the erector spinae in the cranio-caudal direction ("in series") as well as in the direction perpendicular to it ("in parallel"). Ten subjects performed 5 s isometric contractions of the erector spinae at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% MVC by pulling upward on a handlebar attached to the floor. RMS EMG signals were analyzed for mean average amplitude (AA). Mean total power (TP) and mean median frequency (MF) of the raw EMG signal were determined using fast Fourier transform. In addition to graded loading, sustained fatiguing contractions were performed from which TP and MF were obtained. With increasing IED the AA and TP increased while MF decreased. Although a trend towards higher AA, TP and MF was found for electrodes "in series", as compared to those "in parallel", the difference never reached significance. It is concluded that consistent information about muscle activity was obtained with Miniature Biopotential Skin Electrodes and 14445C Hewlett-Packard electrodes independently from IED or orientation. Orientation "in parallel" prevented the electrodes from sliding during muscle contraction. The third tested type, electrodes developed in the Neuromuscular Research Center, Boston, proved extremely sensitive to movement.

  19. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

  20. Longitudinal instability of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, J; Watts, A C

    2016-10-01

    The Essex Lopresti lesion is a rare triad of injury to the radial head, interosseous membrane of the forearm and distal radio-ulnar joint, which results in longitudinal instability of the radius. If unrecognized this leads to chronic pain and disability which is difficult to salvage. Early recognition and appropriate treatment is therefore desirable to prevent long-term problems. The aim of this article is to review the pathoanatomy of longitudinal radius instability and use the existing literature and authors' experience to provide recommendations for recognition and treatment of acute and chronic forearm instability, including description of the author's technique for interosseous membrane reconstruction. PMID:27628434

  1. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  2. Longitudinally-vibrating surgical microelectrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D.; Kawabus, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Microelectrode attached to cone of loudspeaker imparting longitudinal vibrations, penetrates relatively tough tissue of arterial walls easier and with more precise depth control because dimpling is eliminated. Vibrating microelectrode has been successfully used to make accurate oxygen-content measurements in arterial walls.

  3. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  4. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1, it... multiengine airplanes, without the use of the primary longitudinal control system. (2) For...

  5. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  6. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  7. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  8. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  9. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  10. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  11. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G; Beek, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Based on the hypothesis that trunk-pelvis coordination is linked to overall gait stability, persons with LBP can be expected to have difficulties in dealing with perturbations. We examined the ability of 12 persons with LBP and 12 controls to adapt trunk and pelvis rotations and ES activity to sudden changes in velocity. 3D angular movements of thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic segments and surface EMG were recorded during treadmill walking at six different velocities, which increased or decreased unexpectedly. Relative phases of segmental rotations were determined and (in-)variant properties of kinematics and ES activity were studied using principal component analysis. Compared to healthy controls, persons with LBP exhibited a reduced ability to adapt trunk-pelvis coordination and ES muscle activity to changes in velocity. Altered coordination and muscular control may reflect an attempt to stabilise the spine and prevent the occurrence of unexpected perturbations. The assessment of gait patterns in terms of coordination may help clinicians to quantify movement impairments and may suggest interventions aimed at facilitating the emergence of desired coordination patterns.

  12. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  13. Longitudinal vortices beneath breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepf, H. M.; Cowen, E. A.; Kimmel, S. J.; Monismith, S. G.

    1995-08-01

    The formation of longitudinal vortices has been observed in a wavy channel flow and appears to be linked to spilling breaking and/or to vertical vorticity generated by a wave instability at the wave maker. Both conditions were present when the wave slope, ak exceeded 0.25. The wave instability produced velocity jets beneath and just downstream of the plunger that could provide the initial perturbation for the CL2 instability mechanism (Faller and Caponi, 1978). The breaker activity could also contribute to the CL2 production mechanism by eliminating the negative, stabilizing shear observed within the wave maker wake and by providing seed perturbations to the vorticity field. As the cells evolved downstream, they were maintained through interaction with the bottom boundary layer. When the vortices were present, both vertical mixing and turbulent kinetic energy were enhanced. Despite some differences in scale these results suggest that Langmuir circulation may produce similar changes in the mixed layer.

  14. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  15. Vergence instabilities and the longitudinal horopter.

    PubMed

    Reading, R W

    1986-01-01

    The method of averaging was applied to the results of repeated measures of the longitudinal horopter for four subjects classified as binocularly normal and one anisometropic amblyope. The results produced a refined horopter locus and suggested that the so-called Vieth-Mueller circle is an adequate describer of the empirical longitudinal horopter, except in those cases involving uncorrected aniseikonia.

  16. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  17. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  18. Bayesian response adaptive randomization using longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Tomoyoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The response adaptive randomization (RAR) method is used to increase the number of patients assigned to more efficacious treatment arms in clinical trials. In many trials evaluating longitudinal patient outcomes, RAR methods based only on the final measurement may not benefit significantly from RAR because of its delayed initiation. We propose a Bayesian RAR method to improve RAR performance by accounting for longitudinal patient outcomes (longitudinal RAR). We use a Bayesian linear mixed effects model to analyze longitudinal continuous patient outcomes for calculating a patient allocation probability. In addition, we aim to mitigate the loss of statistical power because of large patient allocation imbalances by embedding adjusters into the patient allocation probability calculation. Using extensive simulation we compared the operating characteristics of our proposed longitudinal RAR method with those of the RAR method based only on the final measurement and with an equal randomization method. Simulation results showed that our proposed longitudinal RAR method assigned more patients to the presumably superior treatment arm compared with the other two methods. In addition, the embedded adjuster effectively worked to prevent extreme patient allocation imbalances. However, our proposed method may not function adequately when the treatment effect difference is moderate or less, and still needs to be modified to deal with unexpectedly large departures from the presumed longitudinal data model.

  19. Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.

  20. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  1. Modeling Disease Progression with Longitudinal Markers.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Etzioni, Ruth; Morrell, Christopher; Müller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease and disease status at diagnosis. We establish a link between the longitudinal responses and the natural history of the disease by using an underlying latent disease process which describes the onset of the disease and models the transition to an advanced stage of the disease as dependent on the biomarker levels. We apply our model to the data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging on prostate specific antigen (PSA) to investigate the natural history of prostate cancer. PMID:24453387

  2. Longitudinal dynamics and tomography in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Stogin, J.; Sen, T.; Moore, R. S.

    2012-01-10

    Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report too on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

  3. Use of folic acid-containing supplements among women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-02-27

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when taken daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 and indicates that only one third of women of childbearing age consume a supplement containing the recommended amount of folic acid daily.

  4. The Lighthouse Program: A Longitudinal Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRose, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented from the Lighthouse Program for gifted students which features cluster grouping and a quota identification systems to ensure proportionate inclusion of minority students. (Author/CL)

  5. Digital Longitudinal Tomography Using Backprojection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampp, Thomas Dalton

    1987-09-01

    Conventional tomography allows a single section to be demonstrated on film with a single sweep of an x -ray tube. Each sweep of the x-ray tube exposes the patient to approximately one rad of radiation dose. This tomographic method has been extended by using a backprojection method to allow six degrees of freedom in the selection of the plane to be synthesized. As many planes as desired can be retrospectively tomosynthesized from a single sweep of the apparatus. This can greatly reduce the dose to the patient as well as eliminate patient motion artifacts that would occur with individually acquired slices using the traditional analogue film method. A linear tomographic table was modified by the addition of a digital imaging chain so that a set of projection images could be acquired with each sweep of the apparatus. The digital images were manipulated by a computer to tomosynthesize retrospectively any desired plane. This advanced tomographic system would complement CT which cannot yet match the resolution of this system for longitudinal studies. Various special phantoms were imaged in order to provide data which were used to determine the operating characteristics of this particular system. The characteristics measured are the system gray level response, sampling density, modulation transfer function, small area contrast, detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, noise Wiener spectrum, and slice thickness. This laboratory piece of equipment could significantly detect approximately 1.7% contrast with a 1 mm pixel size. The MTF values and limiting resolution were approximately one -third of what can be obtained with current CT scanners. The system performed precisely as the computer simulations indicated. The dynamic range of the display is less than that of the image. Windowing of the final image can increase displayed contrast up to the limits imposed by noise. This is an improvement compared to film. With current state -of-the-art equipment, a little engineering and

  6. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1, it... application of single-handed control forces exceeding those specified in § 23.143(c). The trimming...

  7. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  8. A Four-Year Longitudinal Study on Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marcello; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Santangelo, Gabriella; Spina, Emanuele; Allocca, Roberto; Longo, Katia; Amboni, Marianna; Palladino, Raffaele; Assante, Roberta; Pappatà, Sabina; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Barone, Paolo; Vitale, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    dopaminergic pathways, and worse sleep and cardiovascular disturbances. Citation: Moccia M, Erro R, Picillo M, Santangelo G, Spina E, Allocca R, Longo K, Amboni M, Palladino R, Assante R, Pappatà S, Pellecchia MT, Barone P, Vitale C. A four-year longitudinal study on restless legs syndrome in Parkinson disease. SLEEP 2016;39(2):405–412. PMID:26564123

  9. Immobility reduces muscle fiber necrosis in dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Ikezawa, M; Nomura, K; Ito, K; Ozasa, S; Ueno, H; Yoshioka, K; Yano, S; Yamashita, T; Matuskura, M; Miike, T

    2006-08-01

    Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy is a progressive muscle disease, which is caused by the abnormality of dystrophin. Spina bifida is characterized by paralysis of the feet, with most of the upper extremities not being affected. We report here on the first case of Becker muscular dystrophy coinciding with spina bifida. The muscle biopsy specimens of the patient showed dystrophic changes in upper extremities, but clearly less in lower extremities. The results show that the restriction of excessive exercise is important for dystrophin deficiency disease. PMID:16516424

  10. Joint multiple imputation for longitudinal outcomes and clinical events that truncate longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2016-07-30

    Longitudinal cohort studies often collect both repeated measurements of longitudinal outcomes and times to clinical events whose occurrence precludes further longitudinal measurements. Although joint modeling of the clinical events and the longitudinal data can be used to provide valid statistical inference for target estimands in certain contexts, the application of joint models in medical literature is currently rather restricted because of the complexity of the joint models and the intensive computation involved. We propose a multiple imputation approach to jointly impute missing data of both the longitudinal and clinical event outcomes. With complete imputed datasets, analysts are then able to use simple and transparent statistical methods and standard statistical software to perform various analyses without dealing with the complications of missing data and joint modeling. We show that the proposed multiple imputation approach is flexible and easy to implement in practice. Numerical results are also provided to demonstrate its performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Longitudinal stability in multiharmonic standing wave linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, L. R.; Jones, R. M.; Jiang, Y.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Accelerating cavities that excite multiple modes at integer harmonics of the fundamental frequency have the potential to be used to suppress the onset of rf breakdown and reduce the pulsed surface heating at high accelerating gradients. Understanding the effect of an additional harmonic cavity mode on the longitudinal beam dynamics is important to their development and use. A Hamiltonian that describes the longitudinal motion of a particle as it traverses a chain of multiharmonic cavities has been derived and is applied to the case of a second harmonic cavity. The Hamiltonian is based upon formalisms found in literature for the fundamental harmonic and is extended to include different longitudinal field distributions and harmonic frequencies. The study initially explores the longitudinal motion for moderate accelerating gradients with high-β protons, as this will allow fundamental properties of the stable region (acceptance and shape of the rf bucket) to be determined. High accelerating gradients are also investigated but the focus will be on phase stability throughout. This work concludes by considering the longitudinal dynamics of a modified European Spallation Source accelerator, comprised of multiharmonic cavities that has specifications broadly consistent with the accelerator.

  12. Response-adaptive regression for longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Müller, Hans-Georg

    2011-09-01

    We propose a response-adaptive model for functional linear regression, which is adapted to sparsely sampled longitudinal responses. Our method aims at predicting response trajectories and models the regression relationship by directly conditioning the sparse and irregular observations of the response on the predictor, which can be of scalar, vector, or functional type. This obliterates the need to model the response trajectories, a task that is challenging for sparse longitudinal data and was previously required for functional regression implementations for longitudinal data. The proposed approach turns out to be superior compared to previous functional regression approaches in terms of prediction error. It encompasses a variety of regression settings that are relevant for the functional modeling of longitudinal data in the life sciences. The improved prediction of response trajectories with the proposed response-adaptive approach is illustrated for a longitudinal study of Kiwi weight growth and by an analysis of the dynamic relationship between viral load and CD4 cell counts observed in AIDS clinical trials. PMID:21133880

  13. Entanglement from longitudinal and scalar photons

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J. D

    2011-09-15

    The covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge gives rise to longitudinal and scalar photons in addition to the usual transverse photons. It is shown here that the exchange of longitudinal and scalar photons can produce entanglement between two distant atoms or harmonic oscillators. The form of the entangled states produced in this way is very different from that obtained in the Coulomb gauge, where the longitudinal and scalar photons do not exist. A generalized gauge transformation is used to show that all physically observable effects are the same in the two gauges, despite the differences in the form of the entangled states. An approach of this kind may be useful for a covariant description of the dynamics of quantum information processing.

  14. Longitudinal coupling effect in microfiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Guanghui; Jiang, Meng; Ping Shum, Perry; Zhang, Xinliang

    2012-10-01

    We theoretically present longitudinal coupling effect (LCE) in air-cladding microfiber Bragg gratings (MFBGs). Distinct from conventional weakly-guiding optical fibers, large longitudinal electric field (Ez) exists in wavelength-scale microfibers. Due to LCE, MFBG reflectivity can be reduced by more than 30% within the band-gap and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is obviously narrowed. This theoretical analytical work is instructive to precisely design and fabricate MFBGs that are promising in the areas of optical sensing and nanophotonics.

  15. Longitudinal stent deformation during coronary bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Prafull; Gupta, Ankush; Goyal, Praveg; Panda, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    A distortion of implanted coronary stent along its longitudinal axis during coronary intervention is known as longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). LSD is frequently seen with newer drug eluting stents (DES), specifically with PROMUS Element stent. It is usually caused by impact of guide catheter tip, or following passage of catheters like balloon catheter, IVUS catheter, guideliner, etc. We hereby report a case of LSD during coronary bifurcation lesion intervention, using two-stents technique. Patient had acute stent thrombosis as a complication of LSD, which was successfully managed. PMID:26811144

  16. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  17. [Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: case report].

    PubMed

    Tella, Oswaldo Inácio de; Herculano, Marco Antonio; Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Faedo Neto, Atílio; Crosera, João Francisco

    2006-03-01

    Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification of cervical spine is a rare condition among caucasians. A 42 years old japanese patient with progressive walking difficulty was diagnosed with this pathology by CT scan and MRI and treated surgically by an anterior approach with arthrodesis. Pathophysiology, racial prevalence, clinical picture, radiological characteristics and surgical approaches options are revised.

  18. Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. A.; Zocca, F.; Jones, R. M.; Pasini, M.; Posocco, P. A.; Voulot, D.; Wenander, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.34±0.08 π ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.36±0.04 π ns keV/ u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.48±0.2 and 1.55±0.12 π ns keV/ u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rigorously simulated and validated. A silicon detector, in its development phase, was also exploited to measure the longitudinal beam properties. The measured longitudinal emittance is compatible with the acceptance of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac upgrade.

  19. Mother-Child Interactions: A Longitudinal Microanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velleman, Shelley L.

    This longitudinal pilot study, which extends Veneziano's (1987) work on phonetically and semantically contingent maternal response types, compared, microanalytically and globally, maternal response types and mother-child dyadic interactions of normally developing and Down syndrome children. Participants were three normally developing infants, five…

  20. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  1. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section 25.145... control. (a) It must be possible, at any point between the trim speed prescribed in § 25.103(b)(6) and..., no change in trim control, or exertion of more than 50 pounds control force (representative of...

  2. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  3. Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan; Palmore, Erdman

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of religious activities and attitudes in a longitudinal panel of 272 community residents showed there were several significant and substantial correlations between religion and happiness, feelings of usefulness, and adjustment; these correlations also tended to be stronger for older persons and tended to increase over time. (Author)

  4. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  5. NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

  6. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  7. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  8. Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

  9. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseborough, David J.; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Bradshaw, William H.

    2012-01-01

    This effectiveness study examined the course of treatment longitudinally and outcomes associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy for a sample of 1,050 people undertaking this treatment in a community setting, over the course of 4 years, at 3-month intervals, using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ)-45.2. The authors used multilevel modeling to look…

  10. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  11. Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Sabol, George V.

    1974-01-01

    Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion process in rivers are compiled from published and unpublished sources. Fifty-one sets of data, covering flows from about 30 cubic feet per second to 241,000 cubic feet per second (0.85 to 6,820 cubic meters per second), are analyzed graphically.

  12. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  13. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  14. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section 25.145 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability and Maneuverability § 25.145...

  15. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  16. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Lynley

    2010-01-01

    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

  17. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  18. 14 CFR 23.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. 23.175 Section 23.175 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Stability § 23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal...

  19. 46 CFR 172.095 - Intact longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intact longitudinal stability. 172.095 Section 172.095... Under Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.095 Intact longitudinal stability. Each tank barge must be shown by design calculations to have a longitudinal metacentric height (GM) in feet (meters) in...

  20. Longitudinal profiles in simple alluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Stephen P.; Church, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that exponential or quadratic functions are apt for describing the longitudinal profiles of aggrading, alluvial systems that are unaffected by significant lateral inputs of water or sediment. A new set of field data confirms this for individual sedimentary links along a wandering gravel-bed river in British Columbia, Canada. Each link is viewed as a simple alluvial system, without major water or sediment inputs, within which grain size typically fines downstream in a relatively systematic manner. Such homogeneous reaches are suitable for the investigation of simple profile form. It is found that quadratic approximations are the most flexible descriptor for link longitudinal profiles. Overall, the river forms an irregularly cuspate long profile structured by these fundamental length-scale units. Both link gradients and link fining rate reflect size-selective aggradation associated with the bounding lateral inputs.

  1. Spiradenoma causing longitudinal splitting of the nail.

    PubMed

    Jha, A K; Sinha, R; Kumar, A; Bhadani, P; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Longitudinal splitting of the nails can occur as a result of any growth arising in the nail matrix. We present a case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with an 18-month history of longitudinal splitting of the nail on her right little finger, along with pain in the proximal nail fold region, which was extremely tender to touch. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intensely enhancing lesion, while colour Doppler imaging revealed hypervascularity within the mass. A provisional diagnosis of glomus tumour was considered. Histopathology demonstrated presence of a well-circumscribed tumour comprising a dual population of cells, which stained negatively with periodic-acid-Schiff. The histopathological features were consistent with those of eccrine spiradenoma (ES). In this case, glomus tumour was considered as the first differential diagnosis, but histopathology confirmed it as an ES. PMID:27663150

  2. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  3. Longitudinal variations of the equatorial electojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, Esayas

    We have utilized a three dimensional electrostatic potential model to explain the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet. The model runs were constrained by net H component magnetic field measurements from three equatorial stations, namely, Huancayo (Peru) 12.05 S, 284.67 E; Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 9.8 N, 38.8 E; Tirunelveli (India) 8.42 N, 77.48 E. The model runs were done in an iterative fashion until the computed and measured H component magnetic field values come into a close agreement. The physical mechanisms for the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet were inferred by comparing and contrasting the resulting computed vertical polarization electric field (which drives the equatorial electrojet), and zonal current density profiles for the three stations mentioned above.

  4. Longitudinal spin dynamics in ferrimagnets: Multiple spin wave nature of longitudinal spin excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoruchko, V. N.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the existing controversy about the physical mechanisms that govern longitudinal magnetization dynamics under the effect of ultrafast laser pulses, in this paper we study the microscopic model of longitudinal spin excitations in a two-sublattice ferrimagnet using the diagrammatic technique for spin operators. The diagrammatic approach provides us with an efficient procedure to derive graphical representations for perturbation expansion series for different spin Green's functions and thus to overcome limitations typical for phenomenological approaches. The infinite series involving all distinct loops built from spin wave propagators are summed up. These result in an expression for the longitudinal spin susceptibility χz z(q ,ω ) applicable in all regions of frequency ω and wave vector q space beyond the hydrodynamical and critical regimes. A strong renormalization of the longitudinal spin oscillations due to processes of virtual creation and annihilation of transverse spin waves has been found. We have shown that the spectrum of longitudinal excitations consists of a quasirelaxation mode forming a central peak in χz z(q ,ω ) and two (acoustic and exchange) precessionlike modes. As the main result, it is predicted that both acoustic and exchange longitudinal excitations are energetically above similar modes of transverse spin waves at the same temperature and wave vector. The existence of the exchange longitudinal mode at such frequencies can result in a new form of excitation behavior in ferrimagnetic system, which could be important for understanding the physics of nonequilibrium magnetic dynamics under the effect of ultrafast laser pulses in multisublattice magnetic materials.

  5. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access. PMID:27656667

  6. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  7. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  8. Longitudinal ABR in the NICU infant.

    PubMed

    Cox, L C; Hack, M; Metz, D A

    1982-08-01

    To assess the reliability of ABR testing of NICU infants, longitudinal ABR testing was accomplished on 50 NICU infants while hospitalized and subsequently at 4 and at 20-24 months of age. The results indicate that ABR testing in the NICU may be a poor predictor of subsequent permanent hearing loss. The implications of these findings are discussed with the recommendation that ABR testing in the NICU be used in concert with follow-up testing.

  9. Nonlinear longitudinal control of a supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Snell, Anthony; Enns, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described which can be used for design of feedback controllers for high-performance aircraft operating in flight conditions in which nonlinearities significantly affect performance. Designs are performed on a mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a hypothetical aircraft similar to proposed supermaneuverable flight test vehicles. Nonlinear controller designs are performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Preliminary results show that the method yields promising results.

  10. Operation of PEP longitudinal feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.; McConnell, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations which might limit the capabilities of PEP, the 18 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC, a longitudinal feedback system is utilized. A frequency domain feedback system was chosen with the frequency spectrum of the stored beam being sampled close to a symmetry point in the ring where the feedback cavity itself is also located. The symmetry point chosen is symmetry point 5 which lies half-way between interaction regions 4 and 6. The system has been installed in PEP and is now operational. However, at stored currents up to the maximum stored in PEP to date at 14.5 GeV (approximately 40 mA in 6 bunches), the ring has been stable to all modes of longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations both barycentric and the other fundamental modes. By deliberately detuning the main accelerating cavities, small multibunch oscillations can be introduced which, in turn, can be damped by the feedback system. Under optimized beam conditions the feedback system could be adjusted to positive feedback and excite oscillations with relatively small power to the feedback cavity. This will be described along with other details of the system.

  11. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  12. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    SciTech Connect

    David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-11-12

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

  13. Modeling HIF relevant longitudinal dynamics in UMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Bernal, S.; Blanco, C.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koeth, T.; Mo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The foremost challenge for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) is achieving sufficiently low emittances and small energy spreads in the presence of intense space-charge, to achieve the high deposition densities necessary for pellet ignition. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) uses intense low-energy electron beams to access the scaled physics of HIF drivers. In particular, the long path-length propagation in UMER presents an opportunity to study, at realistic scales, the longitudinal beam dynamics and manipulations required for such a driver. With the use of induction modules, as in the ion machines such as NDCX-II, the resulting bunch dynamics show evidence of space-charge waves excited by an initial mismatch between the detailed initial beam distribution at the bunch ends and the applied focusing waveforms, persisting with multiple damped reflections propagating along the bunch flat-top. Using the induction module we are able to suppress space-charge waves with great accuracy, at amplitudes that include wave steepening prior to the formation of solitary wave trains. The longitudinal dynamics largely dominates when no containment fields are applied, coupling through the natural chromaticity of the ring even within the first turn. After subsequent turns, the bunch elongates and wraps the circumference of the machine multiple times; eventually reaching a point of instability that has also been shown through simulation, obtaining excellent agreement when the detailed longitudinal dynamics of the experiment are carefully incorporated into the model.

  14. Identifying longitudinal trends within EEG experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasenstab, Kyle; Sugar, Catherine A; Telesca, Donatello; McEvoy, Kevin; Jeste, Shafali; Şentürk, Damla

    2015-12-01

    Differential brain response to sensory stimuli is very small (a few microvolts) compared to the overall magnitude of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG), yielding a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in studies of event-related potentials (ERP). To cope with this phenomenon, stimuli are applied repeatedly and the ERP signals arising from the individual trials are averaged at the subject level. This results in loss of information about potentially important changes in the magnitude and form of ERP signals over the course of the experiment. In this article, we develop a meta-preprocessing step utilizing a moving average of ERP across sliding trial windows, to capture such longitudinal trends. We embed this procedure in a weighted linear mixed effects model to describe longitudinal trends in features such as ERP peak amplitude and latency across trials while adjusting for the inherent heteroskedasticity created at the meta-preprocessing step. The proposed unified framework, including the meta-processing and the weighted linear mixed effects modeling steps, is referred to as MAP-ERP (moving-averaged-processed ERP). We perform simulation studies to assess the performance of MAP-ERP in reconstructing existing longitudinal trends and apply MAP-ERP to data from young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing counterparts to examine differences in patterns of implicit learning, providing novel insights about the mechanisms underlying social and/or cognitive deficits in this disorder.

  15. Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-02-01

    Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

  16. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  17. The AQUA-FONTIS study: protocol of a multidisciplinary, cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal study for developing standardized diagnostics and classification of non-thyroidal illness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W; Stachon, Axel; Antic, Biljana; Klein, Harald H; Hering, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a characteristic functional constellation of thyrotropic feedback control that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. Although this condition is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality, there is still controversy on whether NTIS is caused by artefacts, is a form of beneficial adaptation, or is a disorder requiring treatment. Trials investigating substitution therapy of NTIS revealed contradictory results. The comparison of heterogeneous patient cohorts may be the cause for those inconsistencies. Objectives Primary objective of this study is the identification and differentiation of different functional states of thyrotropic feedback control in order to define relevant evaluation criteria for the prognosis of affected patients. Furthermore, we intend to assess the significance of an innovative physiological index approach (SPINA) in differential diagnosis between NTIS and latent (so-called "sub-clinical") thyrotoxicosis. Secondary objective is observation of variables that quantify distinct components of NTIS in the context of independent predictors of evolution, survival or pathophysiological condition and influencing or disturbing factors like medication. Design The approach to a quantitative follow-up of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (AQUA FONTIS study) is designed as both a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal observation trial in critically ill patients. Patients are observed in at least two evaluation points with consecutive assessments of thyroid status, physiological and clinical data in additional weekly observations up to discharge. A second part of the study investigates the neuropsychological impact of NTIS and medium-term outcomes. The study design incorporates a two-module structure that covers a reduced protocol in form of an observation trial before patients give informed consent. Additional investigations are performed if and after patients agree in

  18. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel expenses, reimbursement for home improvements or structural alterations, etc.). These procedures... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... notice of disagreement under 38 U.S.C. 7105(b). (b) Process. An individual who disagrees with the...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate of pursuit. 21.8310... rate consistent with his or her ability to successfully pursue training, considering: (1) Effects...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an eligible child's pursuit... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rate of pursuit....

  1. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training resources. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance,...

  2. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

  3. Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2000-01-01

    A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

  4. A case of dextrocardia, radial ray malformation and renal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Nallegowda, M; Singh, U; Shivananda; Shukla, R; Kabra, M

    2003-10-01

    A 12-year-old boy is described with bilateral radial club hands, scoliosis, hypospadias, isolated dextrocardia, hypoplastic ribs, an ectopic kidney and spina bifida occulta. Although some of the clinical features of this patient are seen in VATER association and sacrococcygeal dysgenesis, the presence of dextrocardia, facial dysmorphism, radial, renal and vertebral anomalies preclude these diagnoses.

  5. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends.

  6. Pediatric Psychology: Applications to the Schools Needs of Children with Health Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joseph D.; Flanagan, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A review of pediatric psychology considers interventions by school personnel to promote the school adjustment of children with serious medical illness. Psychosocial and educational impacts of cancer, spina bifida, enuresis, and encopresis are discussed; and suggestions for managing children with chronic health disorders, serious illness, and…

  7. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

  8. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation. 21.8360 Section 21.8360 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The provisions for satisfactory conduct and...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling. 21.8100... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance under this subpart will receive professional counseling by...

  10. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  11. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  12. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  13. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  14. Reading Fluency Instruction with Students Who Have Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Rupert, Jenny Hayes; Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Mezei, Peter J.; Calhoon, Mary Beth

    2007-01-01

    Although fluency instruction is an essential part of teaching reading, there is limited information on providing this type of instruction with students who have physical disabilities. This article examines three case studies across two students, one with cerebral palsy and the other with both arthrogryposis and spina bifida. In the first study,…

  15. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  16. Spirituality: A Coping Mechanism in the Lives of Adults with Congenital Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline A.; King, Gillian A.; Willoughby, Colleen; Brown, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the perspective of individuals with congenital disabilities about spirituality as a coping mechanism during crucial times in their lives, Qualitative analysis of interviews assessing turning points in the lives of 15 adults (6 women and 9 men; M = 37 years) with spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or…

  17. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  18. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  19. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  20. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation services. 21.8370 Section 21.8370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA authorizes transportation...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The VR&E Division will evaluate each...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  6. Irving Independent School District, Petitioner v. Henri Tatro, et Ux., Individually and as Next Friend of Amber Tatro, a Minor. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circiut. No. 83-558.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    A Supreme Court ruling is presented regarding the provision of clean intermittent catheterization as part of related services mandated under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The case argued focused on the needs of a young girl with spina bifida for intermittent catheterization to remove urine from her bladder. The court…

  7. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

    2014-03-15

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects.

  8. Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, or inborn errors of metabolism frequently have associated gastrointestinal problems. These include oral motor dysfunction leading to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise.…

  9. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical records. 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  11. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  12. 38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training..., administrative error, or finding that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom... covered birth defect. The effective date of termination will be the earliest of the following...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  14. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  15. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  16. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  17. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  18. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  19. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  20. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palm Beach, FL. Review Provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Defects Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Cancer Neural Tube Defects Ovarian Cancer Prenatal Testing Spina Bifida ...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and...) Vocational, psychological, employment, and personal adjustment counseling; (ii) Services to place the... services, and assistance that VA approves for the individual child's program under this...

  2. Ethical Problems of Screening for Neural Tube Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habgood, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Among the ethical problems in screening for severe spina bifida in a fetus are deciding who should be screened; whether the procedure, which has medical risks, is justified; and how to deal with the only known solution--abortion. Journal availability: see EC 114 865. (PHR)

  3. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  4. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions...

  5. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

    2014-03-15

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  6. Phentermine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect. Neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, occur when the baby’s ... 2nd trimester and is used to screen for neural tube defects. Now that I know I’m pregnant, can ...

  7. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  8. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that can... defects result from failure of closure of the covering of the brain or spinal cord during early embryonic... defects spina bifida or anencephaly,” “birth defects of the brain or spinal cord anencephaly or...

  9. Folic acid fortification and cancer risk: plea for objective evaluation of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The letter from Bayston and colleagues,1 representing the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, dismisses concerns raised by two recent studies2, 3 of a possible increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk following a high intake of folic acid. In relation to the postulated link between forti...

  10. Development of Intentionality in the Vocalization of Handicapped Infants Reared in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    The 15-month study followed the vocal development of five handicapped (Down Syndrome, hydrocephalus, and spina bifida) hospital reared infants. Results suggested that only the two less handicapped infants demonstrated use of sounds for social interaction and that the other infants used vocalization primarily as protest or self-stimulation.…

  11. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

  12. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  13. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome... of an infant with a diagnosis specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida. (B) In... facilities of a recipient pursuant to 45 CFR 80.6(c) (made applicable to this part by 45 CFR 84.61) shall...

  14. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  15. Swimming for the Handicapped Child and Adult: Occasional Papers No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neishloss, Lou

    Outlined are physiological and psychological values of swimming for the handicapped, basic principles and teaching procedures for instructing physically handicapped persons, and specific suggestions for teaching swimming to persons with the following conditions; amputations, polio, paraplegia, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Legg-Perthes Disease,…

  16. Utilizing Alternative Assessment Techniques with Physically Impaired Students To Increase Work Completion and Improve Work Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Traci L.

    This paper describes a practicum project that involved teaching 14 students (ages 8 through 13) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and muscular dystrophy) to plan, organize, and complete projects and assignments independently. The paper explains the low expectations for the students and the students' lack of experience in…

  17. Roughing It Smoothly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Donna

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 17-year-old son with spina bifida recounts the family's experiences camping in the Adirondack Mountains. Her son has enjoyed swimming, modified waterskiing, riding to the top of a mountain during the summer on a ski chair lift, and blueberry picking from a toboggan rather than his wheelchair. (VW)

  18. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance costs. 21.8260 Section 21.8260 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs §...

  19. Factors Associated with Self-Worth in Young People with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.

    2004-01-01

    Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…

  20. Spirituality, Loss and Recovery in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on loss, recovery and spiritual dimensions of trauma in spinal cord injury (SCI) during adolescence. From a clinical perspective, while there are physical characteristics in common with congenital childhood disabilities such as spina bifida, life adjustment issues associated with acquired disabilities can be quite different,…

  1. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Wael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bartoletti, Stefano C

    2011-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare syndrome that includes a constellation of mandibular hypoplasia and posterior rib defects as its basic features. Additional features can include hearing loss, tracheal cartilage abnormalities, scoliosis, elbow hypoplasia, and spina bifida. Here we report two cases of CCMS and discuss the reported long-term outcome of the disease.

  2. Helping SBH Pupils with Handwriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    The article describes two cases of children (7- and 8 1/2-years-old) with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who participated in a research project to discover whether such children could make significant improvements in writing given appropriate help, and to produce an advisory booklet for teachers. (SBH)

  3. 4 Out of 5 Kids with Epilepsy Have Other Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions, such as digestive troubles and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a large Norwegian study finds. "Parents should be ... and neurologic birth defects (such as spina bifida). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was more than five times as common ...

  4. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... veterans born with spina bifida and receiving vocational training or seeking employment may request... unable to pursue training or employment without travel assistance. An agency may not conduct or...

  5. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated

  6. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  7. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  8. Bootstrap inference longitudinal semiparametric regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pane, Rahmawati; Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Zain, Ismaini; Budiantara, I. Nyoman

    2016-02-01

    Semiparametric regression contains two components, i.e. parametric and nonparametric component. Semiparametric regression model is represented by yt i=μ (x˜'ti,zt i)+εt i where μ (x˜'ti,zt i)=x˜'tiβ ˜+g (zt i) and yti is response variable. It is assumed to have a linear relationship with the predictor variables x˜'ti=(x1 i 1,x2 i 2,…,xT i r) . Random error εti, i = 1, …, n, t = 1, …, T is normally distributed with zero mean and variance σ2 and g(zti) is a nonparametric component. The results of this study showed that the PLS approach on longitudinal semiparametric regression models obtain estimators β˜^t=[X'H(λ)X]-1X'H(λ )y ˜ and g˜^λ(z )=M (λ )y ˜ . The result also show that bootstrap was valid on longitudinal semiparametric regression model with g^λ(b )(z ) as nonparametric component estimator.

  9. Multivariate Longitudinal Analysis with Bivariate Correlation Test.

    PubMed

    Adjakossa, Eric Houngla; Sadissou, Ibrahim; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Nuel, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In the context of multivariate multilevel data analysis, this paper focuses on the multivariate linear mixed-effects model, including all the correlations between the random effects when the dimensional residual terms are assumed uncorrelated. Using the EM algorithm, we suggest more general expressions of the model's parameters estimators. These estimators can be used in the framework of the multivariate longitudinal data analysis as well as in the more general context of the analysis of multivariate multilevel data. By using a likelihood ratio test, we test the significance of the correlations between the random effects of two dependent variables of the model, in order to investigate whether or not it is useful to model these dependent variables jointly. Simulation studies are done to assess both the parameter recovery performance of the EM estimators and the power of the test. Using two empirical data sets which are of longitudinal multivariate type and multivariate multilevel type, respectively, the usefulness of the test is illustrated. PMID:27537692

  10. Transversal and longitudinal mixing in compound channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.; Angiolani, S.; Brocchini, M.

    2012-12-01

    An experimental campaign, based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of free-surface velocities, forms the basis for an analysis of the mixing processes which occur in a compound-channel flow. The flow mixing is characterized in terms of Lagrangian statistics (absolute dispersion and diffusivity) and of the related mean flow characteristics. Mixing properties strongly depend on the ratiorh between the main channel flow depth (h*mc) and the floodplain depth (h*fp), and three flow classes can be identified, namely shallow, intermediate, and deep flows. In the present study the large time asymptotic behavior of the mixing characteristics is analyzed in terms of the absolute diffusivity in order to characterize typical values of longitudinal and transversal diffusivity coefficients. Various sets of experiments, which cover a wide range of the governing physical parameters, have been performed and the asymptotic values of the absolute diffusivity have been evaluated. The results are then compared with several studies of flow dispersion for both the longitudinal diffusivity coefficient and the transversal turbulent mixing coefficient. The present results highlight a stronger dependence of such coefficients with the flow-depth ratio than with the flow regime (Froude number).

  11. Longitudinal residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is proposed for measuring the longitudinal residual stress distribution in commercial CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) boron on tungsten fibers of 102, 142, and 203 microns in diameter. The experimental apparatus is so designed that continuous measurements are made of the length changes of a boron fiber specimen as the surface of the fiber is removed by electropolishing. The effects of surface removal on core residual stress and core-initiated fracture are discussed. The three sizes of boron fibers investigated show similar residual stress distributions, i.e., compressive at the surface, tensile near the core, and for the 102-micron fiber compressive again in the core. It is shown that an increase in UTS is due to the increase in the compressive stress at the core produced by fiber contraction during surface removal. An expression is derived for calculating the longitudinal residual stress at a given radius for an as-received fiber of a certain radius from measurements of the axial strain produced by removal of the surface by electropolishing.

  12. Sufficient dimension reduction for longitudinally measured predictors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Forzani, Liliana; Bura, Efstathia

    2012-09-28

    We propose a method to combine several predictors (markers) that are measured repeatedly over time into a composite marker score without assuming a model and only requiring a mild condition on the predictor distribution. Assuming that the first and second moments of the predictors can be decomposed into a time and a marker component via a Kronecker product structure that accommodates the longitudinal nature of the predictors, we develop first-moment sufficient dimension reduction techniques to replace the original markers with linear transformations that contain sufficient information for the regression of the predictors on the outcome. These linear combinations can then be combined into a score that has better predictive performance than a score built under a general model that ignores the longitudinal structure of the data. Our methods can be applied to either continuous or categorical outcome measures. In simulations, we focus on binary outcomes and show that our method outperforms existing alternatives by using the AUC, the area under the receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve, as a summary measure of the discriminatory ability of a single continuous diagnostic marker for binary disease outcomes.

  13. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  14. MULTILINEAR TENSOR REGRESSION FOR LONGITUDINAL RELATIONAL DATA

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of relational data, such as from a social network, is the possibility of dependence among the relations. In particular, the relations between members of one pair of nodes may have an effect on the relations between members of another pair. This article develops a type of regression model to estimate such effects in the context of longitudinal and multivariate relational data, or other data that can be represented in the form of a tensor. The model is based on a general multilinear tensor regression model, a special case of which is a tensor autoregression model in which the tensor of relations at one time point are parsimoniously regressed on relations from previous time points. This is done via a separable, or Kronecker-structured, regression parameter along with a separable covariance model. In the context of an analysis of longitudinal multivariate relational data, it is shown how the multilinear tensor regression model can represent patterns that often appear in relational and network data, such as reciprocity and transitivity. PMID:27458495

  15. Multivariate Longitudinal Analysis with Bivariate Correlation Test

    PubMed Central

    Adjakossa, Eric Houngla; Sadissou, Ibrahim; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Nuel, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In the context of multivariate multilevel data analysis, this paper focuses on the multivariate linear mixed-effects model, including all the correlations between the random effects when the dimensional residual terms are assumed uncorrelated. Using the EM algorithm, we suggest more general expressions of the model’s parameters estimators. These estimators can be used in the framework of the multivariate longitudinal data analysis as well as in the more general context of the analysis of multivariate multilevel data. By using a likelihood ratio test, we test the significance of the correlations between the random effects of two dependent variables of the model, in order to investigate whether or not it is useful to model these dependent variables jointly. Simulation studies are done to assess both the parameter recovery performance of the EM estimators and the power of the test. Using two empirical data sets which are of longitudinal multivariate type and multivariate multilevel type, respectively, the usefulness of the test is illustrated. PMID:27537692

  16. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashmi; Chowdhary, Priyanka; Gurtu, Anuraag; Mehrotra, Nakul; Kishore, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth. PMID:27247808

  17. Perception of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations.

    PubMed

    Bank, Balázs; Lehtonen, Heidi-Maria

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the audibility of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations with listening tests. The recorded fortissimo sounds of two grand and one upright pianos have been resynthesized with and without longitudinal components and used in ABX type listening tests. Results suggest that the longitudinal components are audible up to note C(5). However, a second test seeking the importance of the difference shows that the effect of longitudinal components for the range A(3)-C(5) is subtle. This means that modeling the phenomenon up to around note A(3) only is acceptable for sound synthesis applications. PMID:20815427

  18. Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques.

  19. The International Tethered Cord Partnership: Beginnings, process, and status

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Celene B.; Aranda, Guzmán; Arredondo, Luis Angel; Calgua, Erwin; Contreras, Fernando; Espinoza, Dulce Maria; Gonzalez, Juan Bosco; Hoil, Jose A.; Komolafe, Edward; Lazareff, Jorge A.; Liu, Yunhui; Soto-Mancilla, Juan Luis; Mannucci, Graciela; Nan, Bao; Portillo, Santiago; Zhao, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spina bifida presents a significant cause of childhood morbidity in lower- and middle-income nations. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature examining outcomes among children with spina bifida in these countries. The goal of the International Tethered Cord Parternship is twofold: (1) to establish an international surveillance database to examine the correlation between time of repair and clinical outcomes in children with spina bifida and tethered cord; and (2) to foster collaboration among international institutions around pediatric neurosurgical concerns. Methods: Twelve institutions in 7 countries committed to participating in the International Tethered Cord Partnership. A neurosurgeon at each institution will evaluate all children presenting with spina bifida and/or tethered cord using the survey instrument after appropriate consent is obtained. The instrument was developed collaboratively and based on previous measures of motor and sensory function, ambulation, and continence. All institutions who have begun collecting data received appropriate Institutional Review Board approval. All data will be entered into a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant database. In addition, a participant restricted internet forum was created to foster communication and includes non–project-specific communications, such as case and journal article discussion. Results: From October 2010 to December 2010, 82 patients were entered from the various study sites. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first international pediatric neurosurgical database focused on clinical outcomes and predictors of disease progression. The collaborative nature of the project will not only increase knowledge of spina bifida and tethered cord, but also foster discussion and further collaboration between neurosurgeons internationally. PMID:21541204

  20. Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

    2013-01-01

    Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. PMID:23667744

  1. Longitudinal residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the longitudinal residual stress distribution in boron fibers is presented. The residual stresses in commercial CVD boron on tungsten fibers of 102, 142, and 203 microns (4, 5.6, and 8 mil) diameters were determined. Results for the three sizes show a compressive stress at the surface 800 to -1400 MN/sq m 120 to -200 ksi), changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile 600 to 1000 MN/sq m(90 to 150 ksi) and then decreases to compressive near the tungsten boride core. The core itself is under a compressive stress of approximately -1300 MN/sq m (-190 ksi). The effects of surface removal on core residual stress and core-initiated fracture are discussed.

  2. Simulation of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.A.

    1991-02-07

    The purpose of this note is to document some work done as part of the effort directed at designing and simulating a bunch-by-bunch feedback system to control longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in the B-factory. In particular, I discuss the ring model used in the simulation program developed to study this feedback system. Basically the simulation is a simple tracking program in which the rf drive voltage, the wakefields due to all the bunches, the synchrotron radiation losses, and the kicks applied to the bunches by the bunch-by-bunch feedback are all modelled as voltages applied at a single, discrete point in the ring. The computation of the bunch-by-bunch feedback voltages may of course be done by any desired algorithms. An example and discussion of the general behavior without bunch-by-bunch feedback is given at the end of this report.

  3. Robust solid 129Xe longitudinal relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limes, M. E.; Ma, Z. L.; Sorte, E. G.; Saam, B.

    2016-09-01

    We find that if solid xenon is formed from liquid xenon, denoted "ice," there is a 10% increase in 129Xe longitudinal relaxation T1 time (taken at 77 K and 2 T) over a trickle-freeze formation, denoted "snow." Forming xenon ice also gives an unprecedented reproducibility of 129Xe T1 measurements across a range of 77-150 K. This temperature dependence roughly follows the theory of spin rotation mediated by Raman scattering of harmonic phonons, though it results in a smaller-than-predicted spin-rotation coupling strength cK 0/h . Enriched ice 129Xe T1 experiments show no isotopic dependence of bulk relaxation mechanisms at 77 K and at kilogauss fields.

  4. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  5. Random-effects models for longitudinal data

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, N.M.; Ware, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but some random-effects parameters vary across individuals, with a distribution specified at the second stage. A general family of models is discussed, which includes both growth models and repeated-measures models as special cases. A unified approach to fitting these models, based on a combination of empirical Bayes and maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters and using the EM algorithm, is discussed. Two examples are taken from a current epidemiological study of the health effects of air pollution.

  6. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  7. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  8. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    1996-01-01

    Methodological issues in the design of prospective, longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity in humans are reviewed. A comprehensive assessment of potential confounding influences is important in these studies because inadequate assessment of confounders can threaten the validity of causal inferences drawn from the data. Potential confounders typically include demographic background variables, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, the quality of parental stimulation, the child's age at test, and the examiner. Exposure to other substances is assessed where significant exposure is expected in the target population. In most studies, control variables even weakly related to outcome are included in all multivariate statistical analyses, and a toxic effect is inferred only if the effect of exposure is significant after controlling for the potential confounders. Once a neurotoxic effect has been identified, suspected mediating variables may be added to the analysis to examine underlying processes or mechanisms through which the exposure may impact on developmental outcome. Individual differences in vulnerability may be examined in terms of either an additive compensatory model or a synergistic "risk and resilience" approach. Failure to detect real effects (Type II error) is of particular concern in these studies because public policy considerations make it likely that negative findings will be interpreted to mean that the exposure is safe. Important sources of Type II error include inadequate representation of highly exposed individuals, overcontrol for confounders, and inappropriate correction for multiple comparisons. Given the high cost and complexity of prospective, longitudinal investigations, cross-sectional pilot studies focusing on highly exposed individuals can be valuable for the initial identification of salient domains of impairment. PMID:9182034

  9. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  10. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  11. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  12. Longitudinal and transverse mode evolution in free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Giannessi, L.; Georgii, R.

    1995-12-31

    We use the method of Padg approximants and Fourier transform techniques to treat analytically the problem of transverse and longitudinal mode evolution in FELs. We obtain simple relations providing a transparent understanding of the dynamic of pulse propagation effects and of transverse mode guiding. We discuss the interplay with inhomogeneous broadening effects and derive gain formulae including longitudinal and transverse mode couplings.

  13. Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

    This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of Individual Implementation of Educational Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    Implementation is a key factor in shaping school policies. The Procedures for Adopting Educational Innovations Project conducted longitudinal studies of innovation implementation based on the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). A key dimension of CBAM, Levels of Use of the Innovation (LoU), was assessed in three longitudinal studies over a…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  16. Longitudinal Predictors of Very Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…

  17. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  18. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  19. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 25.175, the characteristics of the elevator...

  20. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 25.175, the characteristics of the elevator...