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Sample records for spinal cord lamina

  1. The contributions to the human dorsal column tracts from the spinal cord laminae.

    PubMed

    Kirazlı, Özlem; Solmaz, Bilgehan; Çavdar, Safiye

    2016-09-01

    The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated. The present study shows that dorsal column tracts receive fiber contributions from laminae III and V and from Clarke's dorsal nucleus at varying spinal levels. At upper cervical levels (C1-C4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from lamina III, and at lower cervical levels (C5-C8) there were, in addition to these laminae, also contributions from the Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At upper thoracic levels (T1-T4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At lower thoracic (T5-T12) and lumbar levels (L1-L5), in contrast, fiber contributions were only from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. The detailed knowledge of organization of the dorsal column tracts of the spinal cord may pave the way for future treatments of the spinal cord injuries.

  2. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  3. Axon Diversity of Lamina I Local-Circuit Neurons in the Lumbar Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena YX; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III–IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal “processing units” in the dorsal horn. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2719–2741, 2013. PMID:23386329

  4. Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-08-15

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn.

  5. Implications of olfactory lamina propria transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in rats with complete spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Centenaro, Lígia Aline; da Cunha Jaeger, Mariane; Ilha, Jocemar; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Balbinot, Luciane Fachin; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Marcuzzo, Simone; Achaval, Matilde

    2013-02-01

    Transplantation with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) has been adopted after several models of spinal cord injury (SCI) with the purpose of creating a favorable environment for the re-growth of injured axons. However, a consensus on the efficacy of this cellular transplantation has yet to be reached. In order to explore alternative parameters that could demonstrate the possible restorative properties of such grafts, the present study investigated the effects of olfactory lamina propria (OLP) transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in adult rats with complete spinal cord transection. The efficacy of OLP (graft containing OECs) and respiratory lamina propria (RLP, graft without OECs) was tested at different post-injury times (acutely, 2- and 4-week delayed), to establish the optimum period for transplantation. In the therapeutic windows used, OLP and RLP grafts produced no considerable improvements in withdrawal reflex responses or on the low-frequency dependent depression of H-reflex. Both lamina propria grafts produced comparable results for the myelinated fiber density and for the estimated total number of myelinated fibers at the lesion site, indicating that the delayed transplantation approach does not seem to limit the regenerative effects. However, animals transplanted with OLP 2 or 4 weeks after injury exhibit smaller myelin sheath thickness and myelinated fiber area and diameter at the lesion site compared to their respective RLP groups. Despite the ongoing clinical use of OECs, it is important to emphasize the need for more experimental studies to clarify the exact nature of the repair capacity of these grafts in the treatment of SCI.

  6. Cholera toxin B subunit labeling in lamina II of spinal cord dorsal horn following chronic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing Ping; Tian, Li

    2002-07-26

    We have investigated the effect of inflammation on the labeling pattern of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, an A-fiber marker, by an intra-sciatic nerve injection of the tracer. Following chronic inflammation in one hind paw in rats, there was substantial CTB labeling in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, which is normally absent. However, there was no change in the labeling pattern of wheat germ agglutinin or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase/thiamine monophosphatase, two C-fiber markers. The CTB labeling in lamina II after peripheral nerve injury has been interpreted as central sprouting of A-fibers or uptake of the tracer by injured C-fibers. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation and nerve injury may share some common mechanisms in generating allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  7. Spinal Cord Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord tumor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your ... as vertebral tumors. Tumors that begin within the spinal cord itself are called spinal cord tumors. There are ...

  8. Endomorphin-2 Inhibition of Substance P Signaling within Lamina I of the Spinal Cord Is Impaired in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fa-Ping; Bai, Yang; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Hui; Wang, Ya-Yun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Opiate analgesia in the spinal cord is impaired in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), but until now the reason is unknown. We hypothesized that it resulted from a decreased inhibition of substance P (SP) signaling within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the effects of endomorphin-2 (EM2), an endogenous ligand of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), on SP release within lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in rats with DNP. We established the DNP rat model and compared the analgesic efficacy of EM2 between inflammation pain and DNP rat models. Behavioral results suggested that the analgesic efficacy of EM2 was compromised in the condition of painful diabetic neuropathy. Then, we measured presynaptic SP release induced by different stimulating modalities via neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) internalization. Although there was no significant change in basal and evoked SP release between control and DNP rats, EM2 failed to inhibit SP release by noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in DNP but not in control and inflammation pain model. We also observed that EM2 decreased the number of FOS-positive neurons within lamina I of the SDH but did not change the amount of FOS/NK1R double-labeled neurons. Finally, we identified a remarkable decrease in MORs within the primary afferent fibers and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Taken together, these data suggest that reduced presynaptic MOR expression might account for the loss of the inhibitory effect of EM2 on SP signaling, which might be one of the neurobiological foundations for decreased opioid efficacy in the treatment of DNP. PMID:28119567

  9. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  11. Morphological characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn lamina I neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2007-09-20

    Many Rexed's lamina I neurons are nociceptive and project to the brain. Lamina I projection neurons can be classified as multipolar, fusiform, or pyramidal, based on cell body shape and characteristics of their proximal dendrites in the horizontal plane. There is also evidence that both multipolar and fusiform cells are nociceptive and pyramidal neurons nonnociceptive. In this investigation we identified which types of lamina I neurons belong to the spinoparabrachial tract in the rat and characterized them regarding the presence or absence of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) immunoreactivity. For this, cholera toxin subunit B (CTb), conjugated to a fluorescent marker was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Sections were additionally stained for the detection of NK-1r immunoreactivity and were examined using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Serial confocal optical sections and 3D reconstructions were obtained for a considerable number of neurons per animal. Using immunofluorescence, we assessed the proportion of lamina I neurons belonging to the spinoparabrachial (SPB) tract and/or expressing NK-1r. The relative distribution of neurons belonging to the SPB tract was: 38.7% multipolar, 36.8% fusiform, 22.7% pyramidal, and 1.9% unclassified. Most of the SPB neurons expressing NK-1r were either multipolar or fusiform. Pyramidal SPB neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r, an observation that provides further support to the concept that most lamina I projection neurons of the pyramidal type are nonnociceptive. In addition, our study provides further evidence that these distinct morphological types of neurons differ in their phenotypic properties, but not in their projection patterns.

  12. Role of glial and neuronal glycine transporters in the control of glycinergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in lamina X of the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Bradaïa, Amyaouch; Schlichter, Rémy; Trouslard, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    Using whole cell voltage clamp recordings from lamina X neurones in rat spinal cord slices, we investigated the effect of glycine transporter (GlyT) antagonists on both glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSCs) and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSCs). We used ORG 24598 and ORG 25543, selective antagonists of the glial GlyT (GlyT1) and neuronal GlyT (GlyT2), respectively. In rats (P12–P16) and in the presence of kynurenic acid, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and bicuculline, ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 applied individually at a concentration of 10 μm induced a mean inward current of −10/−50 pA at −60 mV and increased significantly the decay time constants of miniature (mIPSCs), spontaneous (sIPSCs) and electrically evoked glycinergic (eIPSCs) inhibitory postsynaptic currents. ORG 25543, but not ORG 24598, decreased the frequency of mIPSCs and sIPSCs. Replacing extracellular sodium with N-methyl-d-glucamine or superfusing the slice with micromolar concentrations of glycine also increased the decay time constant of glycinergic IPSCs. By contrast, the decay time constant, amplitude and frequency of miniature GABAergic IPSCs recorded in the presence of strychnine were not affected by ORG 24598 and ORG 25543. In the presence of strychnine, bicuculline and CNQX, we recorded electrically evoked NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (eEPSCs). eEPSCs were suppressed by 30 μmd-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, and by 30 μm dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), an antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. Glycine (1–5 μm) and d-serine (10 μm) increased the amplitude of eEPSCs whereas l-serine had no effect. ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 increased significantly the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs without affecting the amplitude of non-NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs. We conclude that blocking glial and/or neuronal glycine transporters increased the level of glycine in spinal cord slices

  13. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the ... care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  15. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. Attachments may occur congenitally at the base of ... or may be due to narrowing of the spinal column (stenosis) with age. Tethering may also develop after ...

  16. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  17. Spinal cord trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oh's Intensive Care Manual . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 78. Bryce TN. Spinal cord injury. ... Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 49. Dalzell K, Nouri A, Fehlings ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  19. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  20. Monosynaptic excitatory inputs to spinal lamina I anterolateral-tract-projecting neurons from neighbouring lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Pinho, Raquel; Safronov, Boris V

    2010-11-15

    Spinal lamina I receives nociceptive primary afferent input to project through diverse ascending pathways, including the anterolateral tract (ALT). Large projection neurons (PNs) form only a few per cent of the cell population in this layer, and little is known about their local input from other lamina I neurons. We combined single-cell imaging in the isolated spinal cord, paired recordings, 3-D reconstructions of biocytin-labelled neurons and computer simulations to study the monosynaptic input to large ALT-PNs from neighbouring (somata separated by less than 80 μm) large lamina I neurons. All 11 connections identified were excitatory. We have found that an axon of a presynaptic neuron forms multiple synapses on an ALT-PN, and both Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors are involved in transmission. The monosynaptic EPSC latencies (1-12 ms) are determined by both post- and presynaptic factors. The postsynaptic delay, resulting from the electrotonic EPSC propagation in the dendrites of an ALT-PN, could be 4 ms at most. The presynaptic delay, caused by the spike propagation in a narrow highly branched axon of a local-circuit neuron, can be about 10 ms for neighbouring ALT-PNs and longer for more distant neurons. In many cases, the EPSPs evoked by release from a lamina I neuron were sufficient to elicit a spike in an ALT-PN. Our data show that ALT-PNs can receive input from both lamina I local-circuit neurons and other ALT-PNs. We suggest that lamina I is a functionally interconnected layer. The intralaminar network described here can amplify the overall output from the principal spinal nociceptive projection area.

  1. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... to send and receive messages to and from the brain. About 200,000 people in the United States have spinal cord injuries. Most injuries occur from a traumatic event, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  2. Collateral projections of neurons in laminae I, III, and IV of rat spinal cord to thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, and lateral parabrachial area.

    PubMed

    Al-Khater, Khulood M; Todd, Andrew J

    2009-08-20

    Projection neurons in lamina I, together with those in laminae III-IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), form a major route through which nociceptive information reaches the brain. Axons of these cells innervate various targets, including thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and lateral parabrachial area (LPb), and many cells project to more than one target. The aims of this study were to quantify projections from cervical enlargement to PAG and LPb, to determine the proportion of spinothalamic neurons at lumbar and cervical levels that were labelled from PAG and LPb, and to investigate morphological differences between projection populations. The C7 segment contained fewer lamina I spinoparabrachial cells than L4, but a similar number of spino-PAG cells. Virtually all spinothalamic lamina I neurons at both levels were labelled from LPb and between one-third and one-half from PAG. This suggests that significant numbers project to all three targets. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons differed from those labelled only from LPb in that they were generally larger, were more often multipolar, and (in cervical enlargement) had stronger NK1r immunoreactivity. Most lamina III/IV NK1r cells at both levels projected to LPb, but few were labelled from PAG. The great majority of these cells in C7 and over one-fourth of those in L4 were spinothalamic, and at each level some projected to both thalamus and LPb. These results confirm that neurons in these laminae have extensive collateral projections and suggest that different neuronal subpopulations in lamina I have characteristic patterns of supraspinal projection.

  3. Two populations of neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that differ in AMPA receptor subunit composition and density of excitatory synaptic input

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, E.; Al Ghamdi, K.S.; Todd, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). It has been reported that these cells can undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which may result from insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPArs) containing GluA1 or GluA4 subunits. We therefore investigated synaptic AMPAr expression on these cells with immunocytochemistry following antigen-retrieval. We also examined their density of glutamatergic input (by analysing AMPAr synaptic puncta and contacts from glutamatergic boutons), and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERKs) following noxious stimulation. Our results indicate that there are two populations of NK1r-expressing projection neurons: large GluA4+/GluA1− cells with a high density of glutamatergic input and small GluA1+/GluA4− cells with a much lower input density. Results from pERK experiments suggested that the two groups may not differ in the types of noxious stimulus that activate them. Glutamatergic synapses on distal dendrites of the large cells were significantly longer than those on proximal dendrites, which presumably compensates for the greater attenuation of distally-generated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Both types of cell received contacts from peptidergic primary afferents, however, on the large cells these appeared to constitute over half of the glutamatergic synapses, and were often associated with elongated AMPAr puncta. This suggests that these afferents, which probably contain substance P, provide a powerful, secure synaptic input to large NK1r-expressing projection neurons. These results demonstrate the importance of GluA4-containing AMPArs in nociceptive transmission and raise the possibility that different forms of LTP in lamina I projection neurons may be related to differential expression of GluA1/GluA4. PMID:20303396

  4. Presynaptic functional trkB receptors mediate the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from primary afferent terminals in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa) of postnatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Adalberto; Bardoni, Rita; Salio, Chiara; Lossi, Laura; Ferrini, Francesco; Prandini, Massimiliano; Zonta, Micaela; Gustincich, Stefano; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2008-03-01

    A subset of primary sensory neurons produces BDNF, which is implicated in control of nociceptive neurotransmission. We previously localized full-length trkB receptors on their terminals within lamina II. To functionally study these receptors, we here employed patch-clamp recordings, calcium imaging and immunocytochemistry on slices from 8-12 days post-natal rats. In this preparation, BDNF (100-500 ng/mL) enhances the release of sensory neurotransmitters (glutamate, substance P, CGRP) in lamina II by acting on trkB receptors expressed by primary afferent fibers of the peptidergic nociceptive type (PN-PAFs). Effect was blocked by trk antagonist K252a or anti-trkB antibody clone 47. A pre-synaptic mechanism was demonstrated after (i) patch-clamp recordings where the neurotrophin induced a significant increase in frequency, but not amplitude, of AMPA-mediated mEPSCs, (ii) real time calcium imaging, where sustained application of BDNF evoked an intense response in up to 57% lamina II neurons with a significant frequency rise. Antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and NK(1) receptors completely inhibited the calcium response to BDNF. Reduction of CGRP (a specific marker of PN-PAFs) and substance P content in dorsal horn following BDNF preincubation, and analysis of the calcium response after depletion with capsaicin, confirmed that the neurotrophin presynaptically enhanced neurotransmitter release from PN-PAFs. This is the first demonstration that trkB receptors expressed by PN-PAF terminals in lamina II are functional during postnatal development. Implications of this finding are discussed considering that BDNF can be released by these same terminals and microglia, a fraction of which (as shown here) contains BDNF also in unactivated state.

  5. Projections from the paralemniscal nucleus to the spinal cord in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Duan, Deyi; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the projection from the paralemniscal nucleus (PL) to the spinal cord in the mouse by injecting the retrograde tracer fluoro-gold to different levels of the spinal cord and injecting the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into PL. We found that PL projects to the entire spinal cord with obvious contralateral predominance--420 neurons projected to the contralateral cervical cord and 270 to the contralateral lumbar cord. Fibers from PL descended in the dorsolateral funiculus on the contralateral side and terminated in laminae 5, 6, 7, and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and ventral horns. A smaller number of fibers also descended in the ventral funiculus on the ipsilateral side and terminated in laminae 7, 8 and, to a lesser extent in lamina 9. The present study is the first demonstration of the PL fiber termination in the spinal cord in mammals. The PL projection to the spinal cord may be involved in vocalization and locomotion.

  6. Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord consists of gray matter shaped like a butterfly: The front "wings" (anterior or motor horns) contain ... In the center of the spinal cord, a butterfly-shaped area of gray matter helps relay impulses ...

  7. Termination of vestibulospinal fibers arising from the spinal vestibular nucleus in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Bácskai, T; Paxinos, G

    2015-05-21

    The present study investigated the vestibulospinal system which originates from the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) with both retrograde and anterograde tracer injections. We found that fluoro-gold (FG) labeled neurons were found bilaterally with a contralateral predominance after FG injections into the upper lumbar cord. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the rostral SpVe traveled in the medial part of the ventral funiculus ipsilaterally and the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally in the cervical cord. They mainly terminated in laminae 5-8, and 10 of the ipsilateral spinal cord. The contralateral side had fewer fibers and they were found in laminae 6-8, and 10. In the thoracic cord, fibers were also found to terminate in bilateral intermediolateral columns. In the lumbar and lower cord, fibers were mainly found in the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally and they terminated predominantly in laminae 3-7 contralaterally. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the caudal SpVe did not travel in the medial part of the ventral funiculus but in the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally. They mainly terminated in laminae 3-8 and 10 contralaterally. The present study is the first to describe the termination of vestibulospinal fibers arising from the SpVe in the spinal cord. It will lay the anatomical foundation for those who investigate the physiological role of vestibulospinal fibers and potentially target these fibers during rehabilitation after stroke, spinal cord injury, or vestibular organ injury.

  8. The dura causes spinal cord compression after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, Samira; Werndle, Melissa C; Lopez de Heredia, Luis; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2016-10-01

    MR scans from 65 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury were analysed; on admission 95% had evidence of cord compression - in 26% due to the dura, and in the remaining 74% due to extradural factors. Compression due to dural factors resolved with a half-life of 5.5 days. These findings suggest that bony decompression alone may not relieve spinal cord compression in the quarter of patients in whom dural factors are significant.

  9. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  10. Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

    2010-01-01

    This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

  11. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...

  12. [Surgical anatomy of spinal cord tumors].

    PubMed

    Peltier, J; Chenin, L; Hannequin, P; Page, C; Havet, É; Foulon, P; Le Gars, D

    2015-08-03

    In this article, we respectively describe the morphology of the spinal cord, spinal meningeal layers, main fiber tracts, and both arterial and venous distribution in order to explain signs of spinal cord compression. We will then describe a surgical technique for spinal cord tumor removal.

  13. Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    in order to minimize scarring and injected dissociated adult DRGs rostral to a dorsal column transection of the spinal cord. From the sensory... columns were dissected and post-fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then spinal cords were dissected from spinal columns and cryoprotected...AD______________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

  14. Upper cervical spinal cord compression due to bony stenosis of the spinal canal.

    PubMed

    Benitah, S; Raftopoulos, C; Balériaux, D; Levivier, M; Dedeire, S

    1994-04-01

    Compression of the upper cervical spinal cord due to stenosis of the bony spinal canal is infrequent. In the first case reported here, stenosis was due to acquired extensive, unilateral osteophytes centered on the left apophyseal joints of C1-C2 in an elderly professional violinist. In the second case, stenosis was secondary to isolated congenital hypertrophy of the laminae of C1 and C2.

  15. Spinal cord projections to the cerebellum in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Gulgun; Fu, YuHong; Yu, You; Paxinos, George

    2015-09-01

    The projections from the spinal cord to the cerebellar cortex were studied using retrograde neuronal tracers. Thus far, no study has shown the detailed topographic mapping of the projections from the spinal neuron clusters to the cerebellar cortex regions for experimental animals, and there are no studies for the mouse. Tracers Fluoro-Gold and cholera toxin B were injected into circumscribed regions of the cerebellar cortex, and retrogradely labeled spinal cord neurons were mapped throughout the spinal cord. Spinal projections to the cerebellar cortex were mainly from five neuronal columns--central cervical nucleus, dorsal nucleus, lumbar and sacral precerebellar nuclei, and lumbar border precerebellar cells--and from scattered neurons located in the deep dorsal horn and laminae 6-8. The spinocerebellar projections to the cortex were mainly to the vermis. All five precerebellar cell columns projected to both anterior and posterior parts of the cerebellar cortex. Results of this study provide an amendment to the known rostral and caudal boundaries of the precerebellar cell columns in the mouse. Scattered precerebellar neurons in the most caudal deep dorsal horn and laminae 6-8 projected exclusively to the anterior part of the cerebellar cortex. In this study, no labeled spinal neurons were found to project to the lobules 6 and 7 of the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus, and the paraflocculus. Spinocerebellar neurons were located bilaterally, but the majority of the projections were contralateral for the central cervical nucleus, and ipsilateral for the remaining spinal precerebellar neuronal clusters.

  16. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0587 TITLE: Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch ...Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1...ABSTRACT Essentially all spinal cord injured patients receive stretching therapies beginning within the first few weeks post-injury. Despite

  17. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord injury? Where is the nearest SCI Model System of Care? Emergency Medical Services Hospital (Acute) Care Rehabilitation More ... spinal cord injury? Where is the nearest SCI Model System of Care? Follow Us! Get Email Updates Questions & Comments Suggest ...

  18. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal ...

  19. Timing of Surgery After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Matthew; Schuster, James

    2017-01-01

    Although timing for surgical intervention after spinal cord injury remains controversial, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that early surgery may improve neurologic outcomes, particularly with incomplete spinal cord injury, and may reduce non-neurologic complications and health care resource utilization. Moreover, even in patients with complete spinal cord injury, minor improvement in neurologic function can lead to significant changes in quality of life. This article reviews the experimental and clinical data examining surgical timing after spinal cord injury.

  20. Aquaporins in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Oklinski, Michal K.; Skowronski, Mariusz T.; Skowronska, Agnieszka; Rützler, Michael; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nieland, John D.; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins robustly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). A number of previous studies described the cellular expression sites and investigated their major roles and function in the brain and spinal cord. Among thirteen different mammalian AQPs, AQP1 and AQP4 have been mainly studied in the CNS and evidence has been presented that they play important roles in the pathogenesis of CNS injury, edema and multiple diseases such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, glioblastoma multiforme, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The objective of this review is to highlight the current knowledge about AQPs in the spinal cord and their proposed roles in pathophysiology and pathogenesis related to spinal cord lesions and injury. PMID:27941618

  1. Spinal Myoclonus After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Calancie, Blair

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: In the course of examining spinal motor function in many hundreds of people with traumatic spinal cord injury, we encountered 6 individuals who developed involuntary and rhythmic contractions in muscles of their legs. Although there are many reports of unusual muscle activation patterns associated with different forms of myoclonus, we believe that certain aspects of the patterns seen with these 6 subjects have not been previously reported. These patterns share many features with those associated with a spinal central pattern generator for walking. Methods: Subjects in this case series had a history of chronic injury to the cervical spinal cord, resulting in either complete (ASIA A; n = 4) or incomplete (ASIA D; n = 2) quadriplegia. We used multi-channel electromyography recordings of trunk and leg muscles of each subject to document muscle activation patterns associated with different postures and as influenced by a variety of sensory stimuli. Results: Involuntary contractions spanned multiple leg muscles bilaterally, sometimes including weak abdominal contractions. Contractions were smooth and graded and were highly reproducible in rate for a given subject (contraction rates were 0.3–0.5 Hz). These movements did not resemble the brief rapid contractions (ie, "jerks") ascribed to some forms of spinal myoclonus. For all subjects, the onset of involuntary muscle contraction was dependent upon hip angle; contractions did not occur unless the hips (and knees) were extended (ie, subjects were supine). In the 4 ASIA A subjects, contractions occurred simultaneously in all muscles (agonists and antagonists) bilaterally. In sharp contrast, contractions in the 2 ASIA D subjects were reciprocal between agonists and antagonists within a limb and alternated between limbs, such that movements in these 2 subjects looked just like repetitive stepping. Finally, each of the 6 subjects had a distinct pathology of their spinal cord, nerve roots, distal trunk

  2. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search En Español Category Cancer A-Z Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults If you have a brain or spinal cord tumor or are close to ... cope. Here you can find out all about brain and spinal cord tumors in adults, including risk ...

  3. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Fang, Marong; Chen, Haohao; Gou, Fangming; Ding, Mingxing

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies. PMID:25598784

  4. Neuronal organization of the spinal cord in the red stingray (Dasyatis akajei: chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Iwahori, N; Kawawaki, T; Baba, J

    1998-01-01

    The neuronal organization of the spinal cord in red stingray was studied using the rapid Golgi method. The gray matter of the spinal cord was divided into seven laminae: RS-I, RS-II, RS-III, RS-IV, RS-V, RS-VI and RS-VII. RS-I is cell dense lamina which occupies the major part of the dorsal horn and corresponds to laminae I and II of the spinal cord of mammals, birds and reptiles. The neurons of the lamina I are interspersed with those of lamina II, without forming a discrete lamina. RS-II is located at the base of the dorsal horn and is considered to correspond to the nucleus proprius. RS-III and IV form the intermediate zone and are highly reticulated. A few neurons of various shapes and sizes are distributed among the numerous fibers. The nuclei such as the intermediolateral, intermediomedial or Clarke's nucleus cannot be identified in the intermediate zone. RS-V and VI constitute the ventral horn. RS-V occupies the major part of the ventral horn and contains motoneurons which are distributed diffusely, without forming any distinct cell groups. RS-VI is located in the ventromedial part of the ventral horn, contains commissural neurons and correspond to lamina VIII. RS-VII is a small area surrounding the central canal and corresponds to lamina X. Thus, while the major features of the spinal cord of the red stingray can be correlated with those of the spinal cord of mammals, birds and reptiles, the neuronal organization of the spinal cord of the red stingray remains in an undifferentiated state.

  5. Management of Chronic Spinal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Gary M.; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Both acute and chronic spinal cord disorders present multisystem management problems to the clinician. This article highlights key issues associated with chronic spinal cord dysfunction. Recent Findings: Advances in symptomatic management for chronic spinal cord dysfunction include use of botulinum toxin to manage detrusor hyperreflexia, pregabalin for management of neuropathic pain, and intensive locomotor training for improved walking ability in incomplete spinal cord injuries. Summary: The care of spinal cord dysfunction has advanced significantly over the past 2 decades. Management and treatment of neurologic and non-neurologic complications of chronic myelopathies ensure that each patient will be able to maximize their functional independence and quality of life. PMID:25651225

  6. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G; Tan, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure-function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury.

  7. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure–function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury. PMID:28326929

  8. Pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Philip M

    2007-05-01

    Pain is one of the most common, severe, and treatment-resistant complications that follows SCI. Recent years have seen a surge of research on methods for assessing and treating spinal cord injury pain. In this article, pain after SCI is reviewed in terms of nature, scope, assessment techniques, and treatment strategies.

  9. Transection of Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Stanford T.; Madden, John D.; Esterly, John R.; Shanklin, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A newborn infant, delivered following mid-forceps rotation, presented with apnoea, anaesthesia below the level of the mid-neck, and flaccid quadriplegia. At necropsy there was transection of the cord, and atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocations. Cord injury usually follows breech presentation, the lesion is in the lower cervical or upper thoracic segments, and results from excessive traction. By contrast, in the rare cases following cephalic delivery, the lesion is most often in the upper cervical cord and probably results from rotational forces. PMID:5104538

  10. Diverse firing properties and Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs of small local circuit neurons in spinal lamina I.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elisabete C; Luz, Liliana L; Mytakhir, Oleh; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2016-02-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system, which integrates primary afferent input and relays it to supraspinal areas. More than 90% of neurons in this layer are local circuit neurons, whose role in the signal processing is poorly understood. We performed whole-cell recordings in a spinal cord preparation with attached dorsal roots to examine morphological features and physiological properties of small local circuit neurons (n = 47) in lamina I. Cells successfully filled with biocytin (n = 17) had fusiform (n = 10), flattened (n = 4), and multipolar (n = 3) somatodendritic morphology; their axons branched extensively and terminated in laminae I-III. Intrinsic firing properties were diverse; in addition to standard tonic (n = 16), adapting (n = 7), and delayed (n = 6) patterns, small local circuit neurons also generated rhythmic discharges (n = 6) and plateau potentials (n = 10), the latter were suppressed by the L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine. The neurons received monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C afferents and could generate bursts of spikes on the root stimulation. In addition, we identified lamina I neurons (n = 7) with direct inputs from the low-threshold Aβ afferents, which could be picked up by ventral dendrites protruding to lamina III. Stimulation of afferents also evoked a disynaptic inhibition of neurons. Thus, small local circuit neurons exhibit diverse firing properties, can generate rhythmic discharges and plateau potentials, and their dendrites extending into several laminae allow broad integration of Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs. These properties are required for processing diverse modalities of nociceptive inputs in lamina I and may underlie spinal sensitization to pain.

  11. Spinal cord astrocytoma mimicking multifocal myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Neutel, Dulce; Teodoro, Tiago; Coelho, Miguel; Pimentel, José; Albuquerque, Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differential diagnosis of acute/subacute intrinsic spinal cord lesions can be challenging. In addition, intramedullary neoplasms typically show gadolinium enhancement, mass effect, and cord expansion. Case report We report a patient with spinal cord and brain stem lesions resembling multifocal myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no spinal cord enlargement or gadolinium enhancing. Treatment of myelitis was undertaken without stopping the progression of the disease. Biopsy was made and led to a histological diagnosis of astrocytoma. Discussion Astrocytoma must remain as a possible diagnosis of spinal cord lesions, even without typical characteristics of neoplasms. Furthermore, biopsy should always be considered when diagnosis is uncertain. PMID:24621037

  12. Localization of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Immunoreactivity in Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdelalim, Essam M.; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR analysis showed that BNP mRNA was present in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). BNP immunoreactivity was observed in different structures of the spinal cord, including the neuronal cell bodies and neuronal processes. BNP immunoreactivity was observed in the DH of the spinal cord and in the neurons of the intermediate column (IC) and ventral horn (VH). Double-immunolabeling showed a high level of BNP expression in the afferent fibers (laminae I–II) labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting BNP involvement in sensory function. In addition, BNP was co-localized with CGRP and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the motor neurons of the VH. Together, these results indicate that BNP is expressed in sensory and motor systems of the spinal cord, suggesting its involvement in several biological actions on sensory and motor neurons via its binding to NP receptor-A (NPR-A) and/or NP receptor-B (NPR-B) at the spinal cord level. PMID:27994541

  13. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  14. The shortened spinal cord in tetraodontiform fishes.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masato; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Doi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Harumi

    2015-03-01

    In teleosts, the spinal cord generally extends along the entire vertebral canal. The Tetraodontiformes, in which the spinal cord is greatly reduced in length with a distinct long filum terminale and cauda equina, have been regarded as an aberration. The aims of this study are: 1) to elucidate whether the spinal cord in all tetraodontiform fishes shorten with the filum terminale, and 2) to describe the gross anatomical and histological differences in the spinal cord among all families of the Tetraodontiformes. Representative species from all families of the Tetraodontiformes, and for comparison the carp as a common teleost, were investigated. In the Triacanthodidae, Triacanthidae, and Triodontidae, which are the more ancestral taxa of the Tetraodontiformes, the spinal cord extends through the entire vertebral canal. In the Triacanthidae and Triodontidae, the caudal half or more spinal segments of the spinal cord, however, lack gray matter and consist largely of nerve fibers. In the other tetraodontiform families, the spinal cord is shortened forming a filum terminale with the cauda equina, which is prolonged as far as the last vertebra. The shortened spinal cord is divided into three groups. In the Ostraciidae and Molidae, the spinal cord tapers abruptly at the cranium or first vertebra forming a cord-like filum terminale. In the Monacanthidae, Tetraodontidae, and Diodontidae, it abruptly flattens at the rostral vertebrae forming a flat filum terminale. The spinal cord is relatively longer in the Monacanthidae than that in the other two families. It is suggested by histological features of the flat filum terminale that shortening of the spinal cord in this group progresses in order of the Monacanthidae, Tetraodontidae, and Diodontidae. In the Balistidae and Aracanidae, the cord is relatively long and then gradually decreased in dorso-ventral thickness.

  15. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

  16. Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    funded grant, we demonstrated proof-of-concept success of bridging a lateral hemisection of the rat spinal cord with engineered (“stretch-grown...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0941 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  17. Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    success of bridging a lateral hemisection in the rat spinal cord with engineered (“stretch-grown”) living nervous tissue constructs 2 . For the current...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered...SUBTITLE Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0941 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Survival rates are often ... Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors More In Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children About Brain ...

  19. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  20. Neurochemistry Study of Spinal Cord in Non-Human Primate (Sapajus Spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Torres-da-Silva, K.R.; da Silva, A.V.; Barioni, N.O.; Tessarin, G.W.L.; de Oliveira, J.A.; Ervolino, E.; Horta-Júnior, J.A.C.; Casatti, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evident in the neuronal somata in laminae V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, CCN, IML and in the Clarke’s column (CC). Immunohistochemistry data revealed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in neuronal somata and in fibers of laminae I, II, III, VII, VIII, X and IML; choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in neuronal somata and in fibers of laminae VII, VIII and IX; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was noticed in neuronal somata of lamina IX and in nerve fibers of laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII; substance P (SP) in nerve fibers of laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, CCN, CC and IML; serotonin (5-HT) and vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) was noticed in nerve fibers of all laminae; somatostatin (SOM) in neuronal somata of laminae III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and IX and nerve fibers in laminae I, II, V, VI, VII, X and IML; calbindin (Cb) in neuronal somata of laminae I, II, VI, VII, IX and X; parvalbumin (PV) was found in neuronal somata and in nerve fibers of laminae III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and CC; finally, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) was present in neuronal somata of laminae V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X. This study revealed interesting results concerning the chemoarchitecture of the Sapajus spp. spinal cord with a distribution pattern mostly similar to

  1. Part 1: recognizing neonatal spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brand, M Colleen

    2006-02-01

    Neonatal spinal cord injury can occur in utero, as well as after either a difficult delivery or a nontraumatic delivery. Spinal cord injury can also be related to invasive nursery procedures or underlying neonatal pathology. Early clinical signs of spinal cord injury that has occurred in utero or at delivery includes severe respiratory compromise and profound hypotonia. Knowledge of risk factors and awareness of symptoms is required for early recognition and appropriate treatment. This article reviews the embryological development of the spinal column highlighting mechanisms of injury and identifying underlying factors that increase the risk of spinal cord injury in newborns. Signs and symptoms of injury, cervical spine immobilization, and the differential diagnosis are discussed. Nursing implications, general prognosis, and research in spinal cord injury are provided.

  2. Somatostatinergic nerves in the cervical spinal cord of the monkey.

    PubMed

    Burnweit, C; Forssmann, W G

    1979-08-03

    Somatostatinergic nerves in the spinal cord of the monkey were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry with various antibodies against synthetic somatostatin. In contrast to earlier investigations, it is shown that somatostatinergic nerve endings occur in most of the areas of the grey matter of the spinal cord. The somatostatinergic axons are, however, characteristically distributed in three main regions: (1) Densely-packed endings are seen in lamina II of the substantia gelatinosa, forming a crescent-shaped pattern in the columna dorsalis. Somatostatin immunoreactivity is also seen in lamina I and in the Lissauer tract. (2) A fine network of fibers is observed around the central canal; the endings are concentrated on special cell bodies. Some single perikarya are also stained in this region. (3) A loose network of single fibers is found ending on perikarya of the columna lateralis or ventralis. The perikarya of the nerve axons, with the exception of those terminating in the columna dorsalis, have as yet not been identified. In order to better understand the somatostatinergic system of the spinal cord, these newly-detected somatostatinergic nerves must be studied and their exact pathways analyzed.

  3. Nutrition of People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This conference proceeding summarizes current knowledge about the nutritional status and needs of the spinal cord injured patient. Topics covered include the aspects of spinal cord injury that influence nutrient intakes and status, and the nutrients most likely to be problematic in this diverse gro...

  4. Sphingolipids in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Zachary B; Ren, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite progress over the last few decades, the molecular mechanisms of secondary SCI that continue to occur days and weeks after the original trauma remain poorly understood. As a result, current therapies for SCI are only marginally effective. Sphingolipids, a diverse class of bioactive lipids, have been shown to regulate SCI repair and key secondary injury processes such as apoptosis, ischemia and inflammation. This review will discuss the numerous roles of sphingolipids and highlight the potential of sphingolipid-targeted therapies for SCI. PMID:27570580

  5. [Therapy progress of spinal cord compression by metastatic spinal tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-sheng; He, Qi-zhen; Liu, Shu-bin; Jiang, Wei-gang; Lei, Ming-xing

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic epidural compression of the spinal cord is a significant source of morbidity in patients with systemic cancer. With improvment of oncotheray, survival period in the patients is improving and metastatic cord compression is en- countered increasingly often. Surgical management performed for early circumferential decompression for the spinal cord com- pression with spine instability, and spine reconstruction performed. Patients with radiosensitive tumours without spine instabili- ty, radiotherapy is an effective therapy. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery and minimally invasive techniques, such as vertebro- plasty and kyphoplasty, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation, radiofrequency ablation are promising options for treatment of cer- tain selected patients with spinal metastases.

  6. Spinal cord ischemia secondary to hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jacob Yl; Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy Km; Yang, Eugene Wr; Hee, Hwan-Tak

    2014-12-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable.

  7. Galactorrhea: a complication of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yarkony, G M; Novick, A K; Roth, E J; Kirschner, K L; Rayner, S; Betts, H B

    1992-09-01

    Galactorrhea, a secretion of milk or milk-like products from the breast in the absence of parturition, has been reported to occur in women with spinal cord injuries in association with amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Four cases of galactorrhea in association with spinal cord injury are reported. Galactorrhea developed in four spinal cord injured women who had thoracic paraplegia. The onset of galactorrhea was from one month to five months after injury. Although the onset of galactorrhea may have been related to prescribed medications in all four cases, insufficient data exist to draw conclusions. The three women whose galactorrhea persisted declined treatment and galactorrhea continuing for more than two years in one instance. We conclude that galactorrhea with or without amenorrhea may develop after a spinal cord injury and that spinal cord injured women may have an enhanced sensitivity to medication-induced galactorrhea.

  8. Relationship between Spinal Cord Volume and Spinal Cord Injury due to Spinal Shortening

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feng; Yang, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Jun-Jie; Yang, Qing-Lei; Zhou, Xin; Xiao, Yao-Sheng; Hu, Hai-Sheng; Xia, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column resection is associated with a risk of spinal cord injury. In the present study, using a goat model, we aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in spinal cord volume and spinal cord injury due to spinal shortening, and to quantify the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height in order to clarify a safe limit for shortening. Vertebral column resection was performed at T10 in 10 goats. The spinal cord was shortened until the somatosensory-evoked potential was decreased by 50% from the baseline amplitude or delayed by 10% relative to the baseline peak latency. A wake-up test was performed, and the goats were observed for two days postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the spinal cord volume, T10 height, disc height, osteotomy segment height, and spinal segment height pre- and postoperatively. Two of the 10 goats were excluded, and hence, only data from eight goats were analyzed. The somatosensory-evoked potential of these eight goats demonstrated meaningful changes. With regard to neurologic function, five and three goats were classified as Tarlov grades 5 and 4 at two days postoperatively. The mean shortening distance was 23.6 ± 1.51 mm, which correlated with the d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) and with the height of the T10 body (r = 0.79, p = 0.02). The mean d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment was 142.87 ± 0.59 mm3 (range, 142.19–143.67 mm3). The limit for shortening was approximately 106% of the vertebral height. The mean volumes of the osteotomy and spinal segments did not significantly change after surgery (t = 0.310, p = 0.765 and t = 1.241, p = 0.255, respectively). Thus, our results indicate that the safe limit for shortening can be calculated using the change in spinal cord volume per 1-mm height. PMID:26001196

  9. [Traumatic recurrence of idiopathic spinal cord herniation].

    PubMed

    Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence.

  10. [Osteoporosis associated with spinal cord lesion].

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Ksenija; Vavra-Hadziahmetović, Narcisa; Muftić, Mirsad; Sakota, Slavica

    2007-01-01

    One of the complications caused by spinal lesion is osteoporosis which development is induced by lesion itself, and its mechanism is not explained enough. Risk factor of this kind of osteoporosis is fracture which management is difficult and is cause of further complications which aggravate already damaged quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury, and demand additional health insurance expenses. Importance of prevention and treatment of spinal cord injury induced osteoporosis is enlightened by case report.

  11. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  12. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients' family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary.

  13. Projections from the oral pontine reticular nucleus to the spinal cord of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated projections of the mouse oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) to the spinal cord by (a) injecting a retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) to the lumbar cord and (b) an anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to PnO. We found that PnO projects to the entire spinal cord with an ipsilateral predominance. PnO fibers mainly travel in the ipsilateral ventral funiculus in the entire cord, terminating in laminae 7-10 with a lower density of fibers and boutons in lower segments. A small number of fibers travel in the contralateral ventral funiculus in the cervical cord with a similar terminating pattern to the ipsilateral counterpart. The present study is the first demonstration of PnO fiber terminals in the mouse spinal cord. This pathway might be responsible for muscle atonia during REM sleep, but needs physiological research to confirm this.

  14. Segmentation of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Taso, Manuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Callot, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Segmenting the spinal cord contour is a necessary step for quantifying spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. Delineating gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) is also useful for quantifying GM atrophy or for extracting multiparametric MRI metrics into specific WM tracts. Spinal cord segmentation in clinical research is not as developed as brain segmentation, however with the substantial improvement of MR sequences adapted to spinal cord MR investigations, the field of spinal cord MR segmentation has advanced greatly within the last decade. Segmentation techniques with variable accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper, we review some of the existing methods for cord and WM/GM segmentation, including intensity-based, surface-based, and image-based methods. We also provide recommendations for validating spinal cord segmentation techniques, as it is important to understand the intrinsic characteristics of the methods and to evaluate their performance and limitations. Lastly, we illustrate some applications in the healthy and pathological spinal cord. One conclusion of this review is that robust and automatic segmentation is clinically relevant, as it would allow for longitudinal and group studies free from user bias as well as reproducible multicentric studies in large populations, thereby helping to further our understanding of the spinal cord pathophysiology and to develop new criteria for early detection of subclinical evolution for prognosis prediction and for patient management. Another conclusion is that at the present time, no single method adequately segments the cord and its substructure in all the cases encountered (abnormal intensities, loss of contrast, deformation of the cord, etc.). A combination of different approaches is thus advised for future developments, along with the introduction of probabilistic shape models. Maturation of standardized frameworks, multiplatform availability, inclusion

  15. The cellular and subcellular localization of zinc transporter 7 in the mouse spinal cord

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present work addresses the cellular and subcellular localization of the zinc transporter 7 (ZNT7, SLC30a7) protein and the distribution of zinc ions (Zn2+) in the mouse spinal cord. Our results indicated that the ZNT7 immunoreactive neurons were widely distributed in the Rexed’s laminae of the g...

  16. Fitness and Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, J. William; McCormack, Rebecca; Campbell, Duncan

    1989-01-01

    Activity for many disabled persons often begins as therapy, but the additional rewards derived from exercise must be appreciated. Public attitudes toward disabled persons have changed during the last few decades, recently focusing on abilities rather than on disabilities. The family physician of patients with spinal cord injuries will assist in managing acute medical problems and the association with loss of some degree of physical capacity. Physicians also can guide these individuals to choose a life that remains active and interesting over a “house-bound,” but safe, existence. Sensitivity and timing play key roles in establishing exercise as an intergral part of a disabled individuals' altered lifestyle. The physician can advocate increased access to wheelchairs and other facilities that make life easier for disabled individuals. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21248871

  17. Spinal cord injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Apple, D F; Anson, C A; Hunter, J D; Bell, R B

    1995-02-01

    To identify special characteristics of the pediatric spinal cord-injured (SCI) population, we analyzed a database of 1,770 traumatic SCI patients; 88 (5%) fell into the two pediatric subgroups: 0-12 years (n = 26) and 13-15 years (n = 62) at time of injury. Differences between age groups were identified with regard to demographics, neurologic characteristics, associated injuries and complications, and management. Mode level of bony injury was C2 in preteens, C4 in teens, and C4-C5 in adults. Scoliosis developed far more frequently in children, particularly preteens (23%), than in adults (5%). Violent etiologies, predominantly gunshots, accounted for a disproportionate share of injuries to preteens (19%) and African-Americans (28%), as compared with adults (12%) and Caucasians (7%). This last finding underscores the urgent need to mount a response to the nationwide proliferation of gunshot-related SCI in children and minorities.

  18. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  19. Spinal cord transection in the larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Briona, Lisa K; Dorsky, Richard I

    2014-05-21

    Mammals fail in sensory and motor recovery following spinal cord injury due to lack of axonal regrowth below the level of injury as well as an inability to reinitiate spinal neurogenesis. However, some anamniotes including the zebrafish Danio rerio exhibit both sensory and functional recovery even after complete transection of the spinal cord. The adult zebrafish is an established model organism for studying regeneration following spinal cord injury, with sensory and motor recovery by 6 weeks post-injury. To take advantage of in vivo analysis of the regenerative process available in the transparent larval zebrafish as well as genetic tools not accessible in the adult, we use the larval zebrafish to study regeneration after spinal cord transection. Here we demonstrate a method for reproducibly and verifiably transecting the larval spinal cord. After transection, our data shows sensory recovery beginning at 2 days post-injury (dpi), with the C-bend movement detectable by 3 dpi and resumption of free swimming by 5 dpi. Thus we propose the larval zebrafish as a companion tool to the adult zebrafish for the study of recovery after spinal cord injury.

  20. Spinal cord lesions - The rehabilitation perspective.

    PubMed

    Faria, Filipa

    2006-02-01

    The present study provides an overview of the spinal cord injury focusing mainly on aspects related to rehabilitation. Spinal cord injury affects young people in an active phase of life, determining severe handicaps. Most of the lesions are traumatic, caused by car accidents. Until fifty years ago, the survival of individuals with spinal cord injury was very reduced and the leading cause of death was renal failure. Due to developments in medical knowledge and technical advances, the survival rates have significantly improved. The causes of death have also changed being respiratory complications, particularly pneumonia, the leading causes. Immediately after a spinal cord lesion there is a phase of spinal shock which is characterized by flaccid paralysis and bladder and bowel retention. Progressively there is a return of the spinal cord automatism with the beginning of some reflex activities. Based on neurological evaluation it is pos-sible to predict motor and functional recovery and establish the rehabilitation program. We can consider three phases on the rehabilitation program: the first while the patient is still in bed, directed to prevent or treat complications due to immobility and begin sphincters reeducation; the second phase is intended to achieve wheelchair autonomy; the last phase is training in ortostatism. The rehabilitation program also comprises sports and recreational activities, psychological and social support in order to achieve an integral of the individual with a spinal cord injury.

  1. VOLUNTARY EXERCISE INCREASES OLIGODENDROGENESIS IN SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    Krityakiarana, W.; Espinosa-Jeffrey, A.; Ghiani, C.A.; Zhao, P. M.; Gomez-Pinilla, F.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kotchabhakdi, N.; de Vellis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of exercise on oligodendrocyte generation have not yet been reported. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that voluntary exercise may affect neurogenesis, and more in particular, oligodendrogenesis, in the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord of adult nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Voluntary exercise for 7 and 14 days increased nestin-GFP expression around the ependymal area. In addition, voluntary exercise for 7 days significantly increased nestin-GFP expression in both the white and gray matter of the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord, whereas, 14 days-exercise decreased nestin-GFP expression. Markers for immature oligodendrocytes (Transferrin and CNPase) were significantly increased after 7 days of voluntary exercise. These results suggest that voluntary exercise positively influences oligodendrogenesis in the intact spinal cord, emphasizing the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise as a possible co-treatment for spinal cord injury. PMID:20374076

  2. Properties of Mouse Spinal Lamina I GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Sawchuk, Michael A.; Hochman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Lamina I is a sensory relay region containing projection cells and local interneurons involved in thermal and nociceptive signaling. These neurons differ in morphology, sensory response modality, and firing characteristics. We examined intrinsic properties of mouse lamina I GABAergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). GABAergic neuron identity was confirmed by a high correspondence between GABA immunolabeling and EGFP fluorescence. Morphologies of these EGFP+/GABA+ cells were multipolar (65%), fusiform (31%), and pyramidal (4%). In whole cell recordings, cells fired a single spike (44%), tonically (35%), or an initial burst (21%) in response to current steps, representing a subset of reported lamina I firing properties. Membrane properties of tonic and initial burst cells were indistinguishable and these neurons may represent one functional population because, in individual neurons, their firing patterns could interconvert. Single spike cells were less excitable with lower membrane resistivity and higher rheobase. Most fusiform cells (64%) fired tonically while most multipolar cells (56%) fired single spikes. In summary, lamina I inhibitory interneurons are functionally divisible into at least two major groups both of which presumably function to limit excitatory transmission. PMID:16014799

  3. Alleviating Autonomic Dysreflexia after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    develop from 1) aberrant plasticity and 2) the loss of tonic input onto sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the spinal cord that drive...life. Another cause of autonomic dysreflexia is aberrant plasticity of spinal circuits that increase activity of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons...modulatory circuitry and pharmacological mitigation of hyperexcitability resulting from aberrant plasticity will result in greater mitigation of

  4. Spinal cord stimulation: uses and applications.

    PubMed

    Golovac, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Spinal cord stimulation has been used successfully for more than 40 years. The application of an electrical impulse field on to the spinal cord is used with a battery generator source and a variety of either cylindrical or paddle/plate leads. Energy is delivered from either a conventional internal programmable generator or a rechargeable style battery. Many clinical conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, failed back spinal syndrome, and extremity neuropathic pain involving the trunk and limbs are approved for its use. This device allows patients to live a successful life without pain.

  5. Diagnosis and management of spinal cord emergencies.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, E P; Pittock, S J

    2017-01-01

    Most spinal cord injury is seen with trauma. Nontraumatic spinal cord emergencies are discussed in this chapter. These myelopathies are rare but potentially devastating neurologic disorders. In some situations prior comorbidity (e.g., advanced cancer) provides a clue, but in others (e.g., autoimmune myelopathies) it may come with little warning. Neurologic examination helps distinguish spinal cord emergencies from peripheral nervous system emergencies (e.g., Guillain-Barré), although some features overlap. Neurologic deficits are often severe and may quickly become irreversible, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the entire spine is the imaging modality of choice for nontraumatic spinal cord emergencies and helps differentiate extramedullary compressive causes (e.g., epidural abscess, metastatic compression, epidural hematoma) from intramedullary etiologies (e.g., transverse myelitis, infectious myelitis, or spinal cord infarct). The MRI characteristics may give a clue to the diagnosis (e.g., flow voids dorsal to the cord in dural arteriovenous fistula). However, additional investigations (e.g., aquaporin-4-IgG) are often necessary to diagnose intramedullary etiologies and guide treatment. Emergency decompressive surgery is necessary for many extramedullary compressive causes, either alone or in combination with other treatments (e.g., radiation) and preoperative neurologic deficit is the best predictor of outcome.

  6. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  7. Managing chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Palmieri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction as a procedure of last resort in a terminally ill patient with intractable cancer-related pain, spinal cord stimulation has been used to effectively treat chronic pain of varied origins. Spinal cord stimulation is commonly used for control of pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome, as well as pain from angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and other causes. By stimulating one or more electrodes implanted in the posterior epidural space, the patient feels paresthesias in their areas of pain, which reduces the level of pain. Pain is reduced without the side effects associated with analgesic medications. Patients have improved quality of life and improved function, with many returning to work. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be cost effective as compared with conservative management alone. There is strong evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with intractable angina, failed back surgery syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. In this article, we review the history and pathophysiology of spinal cord stimulation, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for efficacy in common clinical practice.

  8. How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Diagnosed in Children? Brain ... resonance angiography (MRA) or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Brain or spinal cord tumor biopsy Imaging tests such ...

  9. Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poor, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews historical development of organized vocational rehabilitation programming for the spinal cord injured in the United States. Significant factors that affect vocational rehabilitation outcomes with spinal cord injured persons are listed and discussed. (Author)

  10. Characteristics and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord stab injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyong; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Shudong; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Liu, Jiesheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to compare the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with spinal cord stab injury to those with the more common spinal cord contusion injury. [Subjects] Of patients hospitalized in China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1994 to 2014, 40 of those having a spinal cord stab injury and 50 with spinal cord contusion were selected. [Methods] The data of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated by collecting admission and discharge ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) and ADL (activity of daily living) scores. [Results] After a comprehensive rehabilitation program, ASIA and ADL scores of patients having both spinal cord stab injury and spinal cord contusion significantly increase. However, the increases were noted to be higher in patients having a spinal cord stab injury than those having spinal cord contusion. [Conclusion] Comprehensive rehabilitation is effective both for patients having spinal cord stab injury and those with spinal cord contusion injury. However, the prognosis of patients having spinal cord stab injury is better than that of patients with spinal cord contusion.

  11. Causes of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

  12. Spinal cord infarction: a rare cause of paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonali; Naidoo, Khimara; Thomas, Peter

    2014-06-25

    Spinal cord infarction is rare and represents a diagnostic challenge for many physicians. There are few reported cases worldwide with a prevalence of 1.2% of all strokes. Circulation to the spinal cord is supplied by a rich anastomosis. The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord and infarction to this area is marked by paralysis, spinothalamic sensory deficit and loss of sphincter control depending on where the lesion is. Treatment of spinal cord infarction focuses on rehabilitation with diverse outcomes. This report presents a case of acute spinal cord infarction with acquisition of MRI to aid diagnosis.

  13. Surgical Neurostimulation for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Aswin; Hentall, Ian D.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.; Pereira, Erlick A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI. We consider the ability of these therapies to address pain, sensorimotor symptoms and autonomic dysregulation associated with SCI. In addition to the potential to make important contributions to SCI treatment, neuromodulation has the added ability to contribute to our understanding of spinal cord neurobiology and the pathophysiology of SCI. PMID:28208601

  14. Radiation-induced spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-10-23

    Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing's sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies.

  15. Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

  16. Sexuality Counseling with Clients Who Have Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Examines effects of spinal cord injury on sexuality. Discusses areas of sexual concern. Provides suggestions for treating clients with spinal cord injuries experiencing sexual difficulties. Concludes that major goal in working with clients with spinal cord injuries who have sexual difficulties should be the facilitation of a creative and…

  17. Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

    2012-01-01

    Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

  18. Serotonergic transmission after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Höller, Peter; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-02-01

    Changes in descending serotonergic innervation of spinal neural activity have been implicated in symptoms of paralysis, spasticity, sensory disturbances and pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). Serotonergic neurons possess an enhanced ability to regenerate or sprout after many types of injury, including SCI. Current research suggests that serotonine (5-HT) release within the ventral horn of the spinal cord plays a critical role in motor function, and activation of 5-HT receptors mediates locomotor control. 5-HT originating from the brain stem inhibits sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes; by abolishing 5-HT innervation SCI leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission. 5-HT denervation supersensitivity is one of the key mechanisms underlying the increased motoneuron excitability that occurs after SCI, and this hyperexcitability has been demonstrated to underlie the pathogenesis of spasticity after SCI. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates serotonergic descending facilitatory pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord in the maintenance of pathologic pain. There are functional relevant connections between the descending serotonergic system from the rostral ventromedial medulla in the brainstem, the 5-HT receptors in the spinal dorsal horn, and the descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. This narrative review focussed on the most important studies that have investigated the above-mentioned effects of impaired 5-HT-transmission in humans after SCI. We also briefly discussed the promising therapeutical approaches with serotonergic drugs, monoclonal antibodies and intraspinal cell transplantation.

  19. [The use micro-polarization in spinal cord lesions].

    PubMed

    Sheliakin, A M; Preobrazhenskaia, I G; Komantsev, V N; Makarovskiĭ, A N; Bogdanov, O V

    1998-01-01

    Transdermal micropolarization of the spinal cord was made in patients with consequences of the spinal cord injury or tuberculous spondylitis. Changes in clinical and electrophysiologic status were evaluated. It was found that local direct current through dermal electrodes promotes an improvement of both motor and autonomic functions in such patients. This corresponded to a positive dynamics both of the spinal cord state and cardiac activity. Possible mechanisms of influence of the direct current on the spinal cord as well as perspectives of application of micropolarization in spinal cord's damage are outlined.

  20. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  1. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-05-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  2. Spinal cord compression due to vertebral hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Gorkem; Fayda, Merdan; Saynak, Mert; Karadeniz, Ahmet

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a case of multiple vertebral hemangiomas in a 58-year-old man with pain in the dorsal region and bilateral progressive foot numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple vertebral hemangiomas. One hemangioma at the T7 level demonstrated epidural extension, causing spinal cord compression. After treatment with radiotherapy, the patient's symptoms improved significantly.

  3. Employment Outcomes Following Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, S.; Murphy, G. S.; Athanasou, J. A.; Hickey, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 83 Australian adults with spinal cord injuries found that at least 56% had worked at some time post-injury and those who were working when surveyed had done so for an average of close to 10 years. Clerical, office, and administrative occupations proved to be the most suitable. (Author/CR)

  4. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  5. Diffuse distribution of sulforhodamine-labeled neurons during serotonin-evoked locomotion in the neonatal rat thoracolumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cina, C; Hochman, S

    2000-08-07

    The fluorescent dye sulforhodamine-101 undergoes synaptic activity-dependent endocytotic uptake and consequent retrograde transport in presynaptic neurons. We used sulforhodamine to identify thoracolumbar spinal premotor neurons (T11-L6) activated during serotonin (5-HT) -induced hindlimb locomotor-like activity in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord preparation. Sulforhodamine labeling required locomotor-like activity because few neurons were labeled unless bath applied 5-HT recruited the locomotor rhythm. In contrast, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 5 microM) profoundly increased spinal neuronal labeling irrespective of locomotor activity. The contribution of false-positive activity labeling during locomotion induced by application of NMDA with 5-HT (Kjaerulff et al. [1994] J Physiol (Lond). 478:265-273) necessitated the present re-mapping of sulforhodamine-labeled neurons. During 5-HT-evoked locomotion, the sulforhodamine-labeled neurons were diffusely scattered within the spinal cord with predominant labeling in lamina VII. Motor nuclei (lamina IX) and superficial laminae (I-II) were typically devoid of labeled cells in the isolated spinal cord. However, unilateral labeling of motoneurons was achieved when the ipsilateral hindlimb remained attached, suggesting that uptake in motoneurons requires an intact neuromuscular junction. The rostrocaudal incidence and distribution of labeled neurons was uniform in spinal segments L1-L5, with reduced numbers observed in thoracic and L6 spinal segments. Mean total cell labeling was less than 400 per spinal segment, suggesting recruitment from a very small fraction of the neurons contained within the spinal cord (calculated at < 0.1%). These results are consistent with the limited transfer of locomotor-related synaptic activity (Raastad et al. [1996] Neuron 17:729-738) and severe synaptic fatigue (Lev-Tov and Pinco [1992] J Physiol. 447:149-169; Pinco and Lev-Tov [1993] J Neurophysiol. 70:1151-1158; Fleoter and Lev-Tov [1993

  6. Metastatic carcinoid tumour with spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Scott, Si; Antwi-Yeboah, Y; Bucur, Sd

    2012-07-01

    Carcinoid tumours are rare with an incidence of 5.25/100,000. They predominantly originate in the gastrointestinal tract (50-60%) or bronchopulmonary system (25-30%). Common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, liver, lungs and bone. Spinal metastasis are rare, but has been reported in patients with symptoms of spinal cord compression including neurological deficits. We report a rare case of carcinoid metastasis with spinal cord compression, in a 63-year-old man, presenting with a one-year history of back pain without any neurological symptoms. The patient underwent a two-level decompressive laminectomy of T10 and T11 as well as piecemeal tumour resection. Post-operatively the patient made a good recovery without complications.

  7. Metastatic carcinoid tumour with spinal cord compression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, SI; Antwi-Yeboah, Y; Bucur, SD

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are rare with an incidence of 5.25/100,000. They predominantly originate in the gastrointestinal tract (50-60%) or bronchopulmonary system (25-30%). Common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, liver, lungs and bone. Spinal metastasis are rare, but has been reported in patients with symptoms of spinal cord compression including neurological deficits. We report a rare case of carcinoid metastasis with spinal cord compression, in a 63-year-old man, presenting with a one-year history of back pain without any neurological symptoms. The patient underwent a two-level decompressive laminectomy of T10 and T11 as well as piecemeal tumour resection. Post-operatively the patient made a good recovery without complications. PMID:24960730

  8. Comparative analysis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. A histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kluchová, D; Rybárová, S; Miklosová, M; Lovásová, K; Schmidtová, K; Dorko, F

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was investigated and compared in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. The investigation of all spinal cord regions (laminae) in three experimental species revealed marked differences in the distribution of NADPH-d activity. Cross sectional analysis of the spinal cord of the rat, rabbit and pheasant confirmed differences in the shape of the gray matter in all examined species. More detailed investigation of Rexed's laminas showed similar distribution of NADPH-d activity in the spinal cord of the rat and rabbit, which were different when compared with the spinal cord of the pheasant. Ventral horn of the rat and rabbit showed no labelling whereas in pheasant this area possessed a number of scattered, intensively stained neurons. In the location of autonomic preganglionic neurons, differences were found as well. In the rat there was seen a number of densely packed, clearly dark blue coloured neurons. Similarly, these neurons were present in the rabbit spinal cord but they were less numerous. No staining was found in this region of pheasant. Pericentral area (lamina X) and intermediate zone (laminaVII) revealed the presence of NADPH-d positive neurons in all examined species although they differed in number and shape of their bodies. The dorsal horn showed the presence of NADPH-d staining in all three animals but its distribution was different in medio-lateral direction. It can be suggested that observed differencies in the presence and distribution of NADPH-d activity across the examined species may reflect different fylogenetic development.

  9. The morphology of hair follicle afferent fibre collaterals in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1977-11-01

    1. The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into single axons that innervated hair follicle receptors to study the morphology of their collaterals in the dorsal horn of the cord. The axons were impaled near the dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats and HRP injected by passing current through the intra-axonal micro-electrode. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry.2. Thirteen hair-follicle afferent fibres were stained including six that innervated tylotrichs (type T hair follicle afferent units) and one that innervated guard hairs (type G unit). The remaining six axons were not classified according to hair type, but, on the basis of their axonal conduction velocities, would have been either type G or T.3. Eleven axons could be traced back into the dorsal roots. Eight of these, upon entering the cord, turned and ran towards the brain. They did not divide into rostral and caudal branches. Three of the eleven did divide and gave rise to both rostral and caudal branches.4. Sixty-three collaterals were given off the thirteen stained axons. All well-filled collaterals had a strikingly similar morphology. They descended through laminae I-III of the dorsal horn into the deeper parts of lamina IV or into lamina V, before turning and ascending back into superficial lamina IV and lamina III where they branched profusely to give rise to their terminal arborizations. Terminal boutons, most commonly of the ;en passant' type, were numerous in lamina III, but were also seen in the dorsal part of lamina IV and in ventral lamina II. None were observed in dorsal lamina II or near the junction of the grey and white matter (lamina I) or in lamina V.5. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from a single hair follicle afferent fibre were in line with one another in the longitudinal axis of the cord. In the better-stained preparations the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals from a single axon formed a

  10. Spinal cord neuron inputs to the cuneate nucleus that partially survive dorsal column lesions: a pathway that could contribute to recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; DiCarlo, Gabriella E.; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal column lesions at a high cervical level deprive the cuneate nucleus and much of the somatosensory system of its major cutaneous inputs. Over weeks of recovery, much of the hand representations in the contralateral cortex are reactivated. One possibility for such cortical reactivation by hand afferents is that preserved second-order spinal cord neurons reach the cuneate nucleus through pathways that circumvent the dorsal column lesions, contributing to cortical reactivation in an increasingly effective manner over time. To evaluate this possibility, we first injected anatomical tracers into the cuneate nucleus and plotted the distributions of labeled spinal cord neurons and fibers in control monkeys. Large numbers of neurons in the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord were labeled, especially unilaterally in lamina IV. Labeled fibers were distributed in the cuneate fasciculus and lateral funiculus. In three other squirrel monkeys, unilateral dorsal column lesions were placed at the cervical segment 4 (C4) level and tracers were injected into the ipsilateral cuneate nucleus. Two weeks later, a largely unresponsive hand representation in contralateral somatosensory cortex confirmed the effectiveness of the dorsal column lesion. However, tracer injections in the cuneate nucleus labeled only about 5% of the normal number of dorsal horn neurons, mainly in lamina IV, below the level of lesions. Our results revealed a small second-order pathway to the cuneate nucleus that survives high cervical dorsal column lesions by traveling in the lateral funiculus. This could be important for cortical reactivation by hand afferents, and recovery of hand use. PMID:25845707

  11. Spinal cord neuron inputs to the cuneate nucleus that partially survive dorsal column lesions: A pathway that could contribute to recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chi; DiCarlo, Gabriella E; Gharbawie, Omar A; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-10-01

    Dorsal column lesions at a high cervical level deprive the cuneate nucleus and much of the somatosensory system of its major cutaneous inputs. Over weeks of recovery, much of the hand representations in the contralateral cortex are reactivated. One possibility for such cortical reactivation by hand afferents is that preserved second-order spinal cord neurons reach the cuneate nucleus through pathways that circumvent the dorsal column lesions, contributing to cortical reactivation in an increasingly effective manner over time. To evaluate this possibility, we first injected anatomical tracers into the cuneate nucleus and plotted the distributions of labeled spinal cord neurons and fibers in control monkeys. Large numbers of neurons in the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord were labeled, especially ipsilaterally in lamina IV. Labeled fibers were distributed in the cuneate fasciculus and lateral funiculus. In three other squirrel monkeys, unilateral dorsal column lesions were placed at the cervical segment 4 level and tracers were injected into the ipsilateral cuneate nucleus. Two weeks later, a largely unresponsive hand representation in contralateral somatosensory cortex confirmed the effectiveness of the dorsal column lesion. However, tracer injections in the cuneate nucleus labeled only about 5% of the normal number of dorsal horn neurons, mainly in lamina IV, below the level of lesions. Our results revealed a small second-order pathway to the cuneate nucleus that survives high cervical dorsal column lesions by traveling in the lateral funiculus. This could be important for cortical reactivation by hand afferents, and recovery of hand use.

  12. Dopamine is produced in the rat spinal cord and regulates micturition reflex after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoping; Carson, David M; Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Houlé, John D; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are thought to be restricted to the brain. DA-mediated regulation of urinary activity is considered to occur through an interaction between midbrain DA neurons and the pontine micturition center. Here we show that DA is produced in the rat spinal cord and modulates the bladder reflex. We observed numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+) neurons in the autonomic nuclei and superficial dorsal horn in L6-S3 spinal segments. These neurons are dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)(-) and some contain detectable dopamine decarboxylase (DDC), suggesting their capacity to produce DA. Interestingly, following a complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) to interrupt supraspinal projections, more TH(+) neurons emerged in the lumbosacral spinal cord, coincident with a sustained, low level of DA expression there and a partially recovered micturition reflex. Non-selective blockade of spinal DA receptors reduced bladder activity whereas activation of spinal D2-like receptors increased bladder activity and facilitated voiding. Additionally, depletion of lumbosacral TH(+) neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) decreased bladder non-voiding contractions and voiding efficiency. Furthermore, injecting the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) into the bladder detrusor labeled TH(+) cells in the lumbosacral cord, confirming their involvement in spinal micturition reflex circuits. These results illustrate that DA is synthesized in the rat spinal cord; plasticity of lumbosacral TH(+) neurons following SCI may contribute to DA expression and modulate the spinal bladder reflex. Thus, spinally-derived DA and receptors could be a novel therapeutic target to improve micturition recovery after SCI.

  13. Multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: Magnetic resonance appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Thielen, K.R.; Miller, G.M.

    1996-05-01

    To determine the MR appearance of spinal cord multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques in patients presenting with myclopathy by using a high-field (1.5 T) imager. We studied 119 patients who underwent high-field (1.5 T) MR studies of the spinal cord for evaluation of myelopathy. All 119 patients were thought to have possible findings of spinal cord MS at the time of the MRI interpretation. Sixty-four plaques were studied in 47 patients with clinically definite MS and adequate quality MRI. Of these patients 68% had a single spinal cord plaque, 19% had two plaques, and 13% had three or more plaques. Sixty-two percent of the plaques occurred in the cervical spinal cord and most frequently involved the posterior (41%) and lateral (25%) aspects of the spinal cord. None of the 64 lesions involved the entire thickness of the spinal cord. The lesion length varied from 2 to 60 mm, with 84% of the lesions <15 mm in length. The spinal cord diameter was unchanged in 84% of plaques, enlarged at the level of the lesion in 14%, and atrophic in 2%. Just over half (55%) of the plaques enhanced with intravenously administered gadolinium. Of the patients who received synchronous head and spinal cord examinations on the same day, 24% had normal findings on the MR study of the head. Follow-up spinal cord studies were available in nine patients. New lesions developed in two patients, while previously described lesions resolved. In three patients only new lesions developed. In four patients no change occurred in the existing number of cord plaques. Spinal cord demyelinating plaques present as well-circumscribed foci of increased T2 signal that asymmetrically involve the spinal cord parenchyma. Knowledge of their usual appearance may prevent unnecessary biopsy. An MR examination of the head may confirm the imaging suggestion of spinal cord demyelinating disease, because up to 76% of patients have abnormal intracranial findings. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  14. The cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Zili; Zou, Shuang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Wu, Fenzan; Gong, Fanhua; Zhang, Hongyu; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury induces the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier and triggers a complex array of tissue responses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. However, the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption have not been discussed in acute spinal cord trauma. In the present study, we respectively detected the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury. Besides, we also detected the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress both in vivo and in vitro. ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, were respectively or combinedly administrated in the model of acute spinal cord injury rats. At day 1 after spinal cord injury, blood-spinal cord barrier was disrupted and activation of ER stress and autophagy were involved in the rat model of trauma. Inhibition of ER stress by treating with 4-phenylbutyric acid decreased blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, prevented the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins and reduced autophagy activation after spinal cord injury. On the contrary, inhibition of autophagy by treating with chloroquine exacerbated blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, promoted the loss of TJ proteins and enhanced ER stress after spinal cord injury. When 4-phenylbutyric acid and chloroquine were combinedly administrated in spinal cord injury rats, chloroquine abolished the blood-spinal cord barrier protective effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid by exacerbating ER stress after spinal cord injury, indicating that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress may play a central role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in acute spinal cord injury. The present study illustrates that ER stress induced by spinal cord injury plays a detrimental role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, on the contrary, autophagy induced by spinal cord injury plays a furthersome role in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in

  15. The cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Wu, Yanqing; Liu, Yanlong; He, Zili; Zou, Shuang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Wu, Fenzan; Gong, Fanhua; Zhang, Hongyu; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-03

    Spinal cord injury induces the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier and triggers a complex array of tissue responses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. However, the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption have not been discussed in acute spinal cord trauma. In the present study, we respectively detected the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury. Besides, we also detected the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress both in vivo and in vitro. ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, were respectively or combinedly administrated in the model of acute spinal cord injury rats. At day 1 after spinal cord injury, blood-spinal cord barrier was disrupted and activation of ER stress and autophagy were involved in the rat model of trauma. Inhibition of ER stress by treating with 4-phenylbutyric acid decreased blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, prevented the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins and reduced autophagy activation after spinal cord injury. On the contrary, inhibition of autophagy by treating with chloroquine exacerbated blood-spinal cord barrier permeability, promoted the loss of TJ proteins and enhanced ER stress after spinal cord injury. When 4-phenylbutyric acid and chloroquine were combinedly administrated in spinal cord injury rats, chloroquine abolished the blood-spinal cord barrier protective effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid by exacerbating ER stress after spinal cord injury, indicating that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress may play a central role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in acute spinal cord injury. The present study illustrates that ER stress induced by spinal cord injury plays a detrimental role on blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, on the contrary, autophagy induced by spinal cord injury plays a furthersome role in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity in

  16. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-03-07

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication.

  17. Update on traumatic acute spinal cord injury. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Mourelo Fariña, M; Salvador de la Barrera, S; Montoto Marqués, A; Ferreiro Velasco, M E; Galeiras Vázquez, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of treatment in acute traumatic spinal cord injury is to preserve residual neurologic function, avoid secondary injury, and restore spinal alignment and stability. In this second part of the review, we describe the management of spinal cord injury focusing on issues related to short-term respiratory management, where the preservation of diaphragmatic function is a priority, with prediction of the duration of mechanical ventilation and the need for tracheostomy. Surgical assessment of spinal injuries based on updated criteria is discussed, taking into account that although the type of intervention depends on the surgical team, nowadays treatment should afford early spinal decompression and stabilization. Within a comprehensive strategy in spinal cord injury, it is essential to identify and properly treat patient anxiety and pain associated to spinal cord injury, as well as to prevent and ensure the early diagnosis of complications secondary to spinal cord injury (thromboembolic disease, gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, pressure ulcers).

  18. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  19. Projections from the lateral vestibular nucleus to the spinal cord in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Bácskai, Timea; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the projections from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVe) to the spinal cord using retrograde and anterograde tracers. Retrogradely labeled neurons were found after fluoro-gold injections into both the cervical and lumbar cord, with a smaller number of labeled neurons seen after lumbar cord injections. Labeled neurons in the LVe were found in clusters at caudal levels of the nucleus, and a small gap separated these clusters from labeled neurons in the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe). In the anterograde study, BDA-labeled fiber tracts were found in both the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi on the ipsilateral side. These fibers terminated in laminae 6-9. Some fibers were continuous with boutons in contact with motor neurons in both the medial and lateral motor neuron columns. In the lumbar and sacral segments, some collaterals from the ipsilateral vestibulospinal tracts were found on the contralateral side, and these fibers mainly terminated in laminae 6-8. The present study reveals for the first time the fiber terminations of the lateral vestibular nucleus in the mouse spinal cord and therefore enhances future functional studies of the vestibulospinal system.

  20. SCT: Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Lévy, Simon; Dupont, Sara M; Fonov, Vladimir S; Stikov, Nikola; Louis Collins, D; Callot, Virginie; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-01-15

    For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc.), researchers have been developing specific tools that, while necessary, do not provide an integrative framework that is compatible with most usages and that is capable of reaching the community at large. This hinders cross-validation and the possibility to perform multi-center studies. In this study we introduce the Spinal Cord Toolbox (SCT), a comprehensive software dedicated to the processing of spinal cord MRI data. SCT builds on previously-validated methods and includes state-of-the-art MRI templates and atlases of the spinal cord, algorithms to segment and register new data to the templates, and motion correction methods for diffusion and functional time series. SCT is tailored towards standardization and automation of the processing pipeline, versatility, modularity, and it follows guidelines of software development and distribution. Preliminary applications of SCT cover a variety of studies, from cross-sectional area measures in large databases of patients, to the precise quantification of mpMRI metrics in specific spinal pathways. We anticipate that SCT will bring together the spinal cord neuroimaging community by establishing standard templates and analysis procedures.

  1. Hydrogels in Spinal Cord Injury Repair Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are at present no efficient therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI), and new approaches have to be proposed. Recently, a new regenerative medicine strategy has been suggested using smart biomaterials able to carry and deliver cells and/or drugs in the damaged spinal cord. Among the wide field of emerging materials, research has been focused on hydrogels, three-dimensional polymeric networks able to swell and absorb a large amount of water. The present paper intends to give an overview of a wide range of natural, synthetic, and composite hydrogels with particular efforts for the ones studied in the last five years. Here, different hydrogel applications are underlined, together with their different nature, in order to have a clearer view of what is happening in one of the most sparkling fields of regenerative medicine. PMID:22816020

  2. Neural plasticity after spinal cord injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Lianying; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Maoguang

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity changes of uninjured nerves can result in a novel neural circuit after spinal cord injury, which can restore sensory and motor functions to different degrees. Although processes of neural plasticity have been studied, the mechanism and treatment to effectively improve neural plasticity changes remain controversial. The present study reviewed studies regarding plasticity of the central nervous system and methods for promoting plasticity to improve repair of injured central nerves. The results showed that synaptic reorganization, axonal sprouting, and neurogenesis are critical factors for neural circuit reconstruction. Directed functional exercise, neurotrophic factor and transplantation of nerve-derived and non-nerve-derived tissues and cells can effectively ameliorate functional disturbances caused by spinal cord injury and improve quality of life for patients. PMID:25774179

  3. Cardiac dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Iacobini, MA; Stoian, R; Neascu, C; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze cardiac dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Cardiac dysfunctions are common complications following SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. We reviewed epidemiology of cardiac disturbances after SCI, and neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic. SCI causes disruption of descendent pathways from central control centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating into intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 spinal cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant cardiac dysfunction. Impairment of autonomic nervous control system, mostly in patients with cervical or high thoracic SCI, causes cardiac dysrrhythmias, especially bradycardia and, rarely, cardiac arrest, or tachyarrhytmias and hypotension. Specific complication dependent on the period of time after trauma like spinal shock and autonomic dysreflexia are also reviewed. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe bradycardia and hypotension. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Besides all this, additional cardiac complications, such as cardiac deconditioning and coronary heart disease may also occur. Proper prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic and pharmacological strategies and cardiac rehabilitation diminish occurrence of the cardiac dysfunction following

  4. Shoulder biomechanics and muscle plasticity: implications in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thay Q; McMahon, Patrick J

    2002-10-01

    After spinal cord injury, excessive burden falls on the upper extremity, especially the shoulder. Overall, 51% of persons with spinal cord injury have shoulder problems. Common shoulder problems in persons with spinal cord injury begin with muscle imbalance that can lead to glenohumeral instability, impingement disease, rotator cuff tears, and subsequent degenerative joint disease. These problems can be attributed to the functional demands placed on the shoulder that are specific to patients with spinal cord injury, including overhead activities, wheelchair use, and transfers. Despite preventive exercises, shoulder problems in persons with spinal cord injury remain a significant problem, causing pain and functional limitations. The biomechanics of the shoulder for persons with spinal cord injury resulting from changes in muscle plasticity will be elucidated. Specifically, the effects of scapular protraction that can result from muscle imbalance, the age-dependent properties of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, and the influence of the dynamic restraints around the shoulder will be addressed.

  5. Update on traumatic acute spinal cord injury. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Galeiras Vázquez, R; Ferreiro Velasco, M E; Mourelo Fariña, M; Montoto Marqués, A; Salvador de la Barrera, S

    2017-02-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury requires a multidisciplinary approach both for specialized treatment of the acute phase and for dealing with the secondary complications. A suspicion or diagnosis of spinal cord injury is the first step for a correct management. A review is made of the prehospital management and characteristics of the acute phase of spinal cord injury. Respiratory monitoring for early selective intubation, proper identification and treatment of neurogenic shock are essential for the prevention of secondary spinal cord injury. The use of corticosteroids is currently not a standard practice in neuroprotective treatment, and hemodynamic monitoring and early surgical decompression constitute the cornerstones of adequate management. Traumatic spinal cord injury usually occurs as part of multiple trauma, and this can make diagnosis difficult. Neurological examination and correct selection of radiological exams prevent delayed diagnosis of spinal cord injuries, and help to establish the prognosis.

  6. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus.

  7. Tracking Changes following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Curt, Armin; Friston, Karl; Thompson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is often disabling and recovery of function is limited. As a consequence of damage, both spinal cord and brain undergo anatomical and functional changes. Besides clinical measures of recovery, biomarkers that can detect early anatomical and functional changes might be useful in determining clinical outcome—during the course of rehabilitation and recovery—as well as furnishing a tool to evaluate novel treatment interventions and their mechanisms of action. Recent evidence suggests an interesting three-way relationship between neurological deficit and changes in the spinal cord and of the brain and that, importantly, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques, both structural and functional, provide a sensitive tool to lay out these interactions. This review describes recent findings from multimodal imaging studies of remote anatomical changes (i.e., beyond the lesion site), cortical reorganization, and their relationship to clinical disability. These developments in this field may improve our understanding of effects on the nervous system that are attributable to the injury itself and will allow their distinction from changes that result from rehabilitation (i.e., functional retraining) and from interventions affecting the nervous system directly (i.e., neuroprotection or regeneration). PMID:22730072

  8. Terminations of reticulospinal fibers originating from the gigantocellular reticular formation in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the projections of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and its neighbors--the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi), the alpha/ventral part of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GiA/V), and the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi)--to the mouse spinal cord by injecting the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the Gi, DPGi, GiA/GiV, and LPGi. The Gi projected to the entire spinal cord bilaterally with an ipsilateral predominance. Its fibers traveled in both the ventral and lateral funiculi with a greater presence in the ventral funiculus. As the fibers descended in the spinal cord, their density in the lateral funiculus increased. The terminals were present mainly in laminae 7-10 with a dorsolateral expansion caudally. In the lumbar and sacral cord, a considerable number of terminals were also present in laminae 5 and 6. Contralateral fibers shared a similar pattern to their ipsilateral counterparts and some fibers were seen to cross the midline. Fibers arising from the DPGi were similarly distributed in the spinal cord except that there was no dorsolateral expansion in the lumbar and sacral segments and there were fewer fiber terminals. Fibers arising from GiA/V predominantly traveled in the ventral and lateral funiculi ipsilaterally. Ipsilaterally, the density of fibers in the ventral funiculus decreased along the rostrocaudal axis, whereas the density of fibers in the lateral funiculus increased. They terminate mainly in the medial ventral horn and lamina 10 with a smaller number of fibers in the dorsal horn. Fibers arising from the LPGi traveled in both the ventral and lateral funiculi and the density of these fibers in the ventral and lateral funiculi decreased dramatically in the lumbar and sacral segments. Their terminals were present in the ventral horn with a large portion of them terminating in the motor neuron columns. The present study is the first demonstration

  9. Review of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation for Augmenting Cough after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hachmann, Jan T.; Calvert, Jonathan S.; Grahn, Peter J.; Drubach, Dina I.; Lee, Kendall H.; Lavrov, Igor A.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a debilitating condition for which there is no cure. In addition to loss of somatic sensorimotor functions, SCI is also commonly associated with impairment of autonomic function. Importantly, cough dysfunction due to paralysis of expiratory muscles in combination with respiratory insufficiency can render affected individuals vulnerable to respiratory morbidity. Failure to clear sputum can aggravate both risk for and severity of respiratory infections, accounting for frequent hospitalizations and even mortality. Recently, epidural stimulation of the lower thoracic spinal cord has been investigated as novel means for restoring cough by evoking expiratory muscle contraction to generate large positive airway pressures and expulsive air flow. This review article discusses available preclinical and clinical evidence, current challenges and clinical potential of lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for restoring cough in individuals with SCI.

  10. Experiences of Living with Pain after a Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Eva G. Widerström-Noga, DDS, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Miami REPORT...AND SUBTITLE Experiences of Living with Pain after a Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0465 5c. PROGRAM...after a spinal cord injury (SCI), with about two-thirds of persons with SCI reporting persistent pain despite available treatments. There is a risk

  11. Nitrergic neurons in the spinal cord of the bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Bombardi, Cristiano; Grandis, Annamaria; Gardini, Anna; Cozzi, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a freely diffusible gaseous neurotransmitter generated by a selected population of neurons and acts as a paracrine molecule in the nervous system. NO is synthesized from l-arginine by means of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), an enzyme requiring nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as cofactor. In this study, we used histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and nNOS in the spinal cord of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Cells with a fusiform-shaped somata were numerous in the laminae I and II. The intermediolateral horn showed darkly-stained cells with a multipolar morphology. Neurons with a multipolar or fusiform morphology were observed in the ventral horn. Multipolar and fusiform neurons were the most common cell types in lamina X. Nitrergic fibers were numerous especially in the dorsal and intermediolateral horns. The presence of nitrergic cells and fibers in different laminae of the spinal cord suggests that NO may be involved in spinal sensory and visceral circuitries, and potentially contribute to the regulation of the complex retia mirabilia.

  12. What Are the Key Statistics about Brain and Spinal Cord Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Adults What Are the Key Statistics About Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors? The American Cancer Society’s ... Spinal Cord Tumor Research and Treatment? More In Brain And Spinal Cord Tumors In Adults About Brain ...

  13. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as

  14. Congenital malformations of the spinal cord without early symptoms.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D; Stefanko, S Z; Makkink, B

    1986-01-01

    Description of 11 patients with congenital malformations of the spinal cord. Six of them were males, five females and the age varied from 7 to 70 years. Most of these cases produced clinical neurological signs indicating spinal cord disease in later life during an intercurrent disease. It was thought that changes in the bloodvessels and/or perfusion of the area of the spinal cord malformation was the ultimate cause of the neurological symptoms. An exact explanation of the origin of these developmental disturbances of the spinal cord remains unknown. Different hypotheses proposed in the literature, concerning these malformations, are not satisfactory.

  15. The spinal cord: a review of functional neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Bican, Orhan; Minagar, Alireza; Pruitt, Amy A

    2013-02-01

    The spinal cord controls the voluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs and receives sensory input from these areas. It extends from the medulla oblongata to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra. A basic knowledge of spinal cord anatomy is essential for interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms and for understanding of pathologic processes involving the spinal cord. In this article, anatomic structures are correlated with relevant clinical signs and symptoms and a step-wise approach to spinal cord diagnosis is outlined.

  16. Subacute combined degeneration mimicking traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ian; Reichard, R Ross

    2009-03-01

    Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord is the most common neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency and is usually secondary to autoimmune gastritis, but may also be seen in malnutrition syndromes such as chronic alcoholism, strict vegetarianism, gastrectomy, and also in nitrous oxide abuse. Although traumatic spinal cord injury is routinely encountered in the medical examiner's office, medical causes of spinal cord abnormalities such as SCD should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. We report a case of alcohol-associated SCD mimicking traumatic spinal cord injury.

  17. Calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the mice thoracic spinal cord after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porseva, Valentina V.; Shilkin, Valentin V.; Krasnov, Igor B.; Masliukov, Petr M.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse changes in the location and morphological characteristics of calbindin (CB)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons of the thoracic spinal cord of C57BL/6N male mice after completion of a 30-day space flight on board the BION-M1 biosatellite (Russia, 2013). Space flight induced multidirectional changes of the number and morphological parameters of CB-positive neurons. The number of IR neurons increased in laminae I (from 10 to 17 neurons per section), II (from 42 to 67 cells per section) and IX (from two neurons per segment to two neurons per section), but CB disappeared in neurons of lamina VIII. Weightlessness did not affect the number of CB-IR neurons in laminae III-V and VII, including preganglionic sympathetic neurons. The cross-sectional area of CB-IR neurons decreased in lamina II and VII (group of partition cells) and increased in laminae III-V and IX. After a space flight, few very large neurons with long dendrites appeared in lamina IV. The results obtained give evidence about substantial changes in the calcium buffer system and imbalance of different groups of CB-IR neurons due to reduction of afferent information under microgravity.

  18. In-vivo spinal cord deformation in flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing; Dougherty, Lawrence; Margulies, Susan S.

    1997-05-01

    Traumatic mechanical loading of the head-neck complex results cervical spinal cord injury when the distortion of the cord is sufficient to produce functional or structural failure of the cord's neural and/or vascular components. Characterizing cervical spinal cord deformation during physiological loading conditions is an important step to defining a comprehensive injury threshold associated with acute spinal cord injury. In this study, in vivo quasi- static deformation of the cervical spinal cord during flexion of the neck in human volunteers was measured using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of motion with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM). A custom-designed device was built to guide the motion of the neck and enhance more reproducibility. the SPAMM pulse sequence labeled the tissue with a series of parallel tagging lines. A single- shot gradient-recalled-echo sequence was used to acquire the mid-sagittal image of the cervical spine. A comparison of the tagged line pattern in each MR reference and deformed image pair revealed the distortion of the spinal cord. The results showed the cervical spinal cord elongates during head flexion. The elongation experienced by the spinal cord varies linearly with head flexion, with the posterior surface of the cord stretching more than the anterior surface. The maximal elongation of the cord is about 12 percent of its original length.

  19. Clinical radiology of the spine and spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Banna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a source of information about aspects of radiology of the spine and spinal column. It presents coverage of both normal and abnormal conditions. Contents: Spinal fractures and dislocations. Degenerative diseases of the spine. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges. Intraspinal mass lesions. Spinal dysraphism. Congenital anomalies. Tumors of the vertebral column, and more.

  20. Central pattern generators of the mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Alain

    2012-02-01

    Neuronal networks within the spinal cord of mammals are responsible for generating various rhythmic movements, such as walking, running, swimming, and scratching. The ability to generate multiple rhythmic movements highlights the complexity and flexibility of the mammalian spinal circuitry. The present review describes features of some rhythmic motor behaviors generated by the mammalian spinal cord and discusses how the spinal circuitry is able to produce different rhythmic movements with their own sets of goals and demands.

  1. Identifying functional populations among the interneurons in laminae I-III of the spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain. However, at present, we have only a limited understanding of the neuronal circuitry within this region, and this is largely because of the difficulty in defining functional populations among the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. The recent discovery of specific neurochemically defined interneuron populations, together with the development of molecular genetic techniques for altering neuronal function in vivo, are resulting in a dramatic improvement in our understanding of somatosensory processing at the spinal level. PMID:28326935

  2. Management of acute traumatic spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Shank, C D; Walters, B C; Hadley, M N

    2017-01-01

    Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease process affecting tens of thousands of people across the USA each year. Despite the increase in primary prevention measures, such as educational programs, motor vehicle speed limits, automobile running lights, and safety technology that includes automobile passive restraint systems and airbags, SCIs continue to carry substantial permanent morbidity and mortality. Medical measures implemented following the initial injury are designed to limit secondary insult to the spinal cord and to stabilize the spinal column in an attempt to decrease devastating sequelae. This chapter is an overview of the contemporary management of an acute traumatic SCI patient from the time of injury through the stay in the intensive care unit. We discuss initial triage, immobilization, and transportation of the patient by emergency medical services personnel to a definitive treatment facility. Upon arrival at the emergency department, we review initial trauma protocols and the evidence-based recommendations for radiographic evaluation of the patient's vertebral column. Finally, we outline closed cervical spine reduction and various aggressive medical therapies aimed at improving neurologic outcome.

  3. Spinal cord pattern generators for locomotion.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V

    2003-08-01

    It is generally accepted that locomotion in mammals, including humans, is based on the activity of neuronal circuits within the spinal cord (the central pattern generator, CPG). Afferent information from the periphery (i.e. the limbs) influences the central pattern and, conversely, the CPG selects appropriate afferent information according to the external requirement. Both the CPG and the reflexes that mediate afferent input to the spinal cord are under the control of the brainstem. There is increasing evidence that in central motor diseases, a defective utilization of afferent input, in combination with secondary compensatory processes, is involved in typical movement disorders, such as spasticity and Parkinson's disease. Recent studies indicate a plastic behavior of the spinal neuronal circuits following a central motor lesion. This has implications for any rehabilitative therapy that should be directed to take advantage of the plasticity of the central nervous system. The significance of this research is in a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying movement disorders and the consequences for an appropriate treatment.

  4. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Louisville, KY After spinal cord injury (SCI) patients commonly develop spasticity and contractures as secondary complications of “upper motor neuron...lesions. Physical therapists use stretching maneuvers to maintain extensibility of soft tissues and to manage spasticity . Previous studies in our lab

  5. Permissive Schwann cell graft/spinal cord interfaces for axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement. Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface. The regenerating brainstem axons formed synaptophysin(+) bouton-like terminals and contacted MAP2A(+) dendrites at the caudal interface. Brainstem axon regeneration was directly associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) astrocyte processes that elongated into the SC bridge. Electron microscopy revealed that axons, SCs, and astrocytes were enclosed together within tunnels bounded by a continuous basal lamina. Neuroglycan (NG2) expression was associated with these tunnels. One week after injury, the GFAP(+) processes coexpressed nestin and brain lipid-binding protein, and the tips of GFAP(+)/NG2(+) processes extended into the bridges together with the regenerating brainstem axons. Both brainstem axon regeneration and number of GFAP(+) processes in the bridges correlated with improvement in hindlimb locomotion. Following SCI, astrocytes may enter a reactive state that prohibits axon regeneration. Elongation of astrocyte processes into SC bridges, however, and formation of NG2(+) tunnels enable brainstem axon regeneration and improvement in function. It is important for spinal cord repair to define conditions that favor elongation of astrocytes into lesions/transplants.

  6. Spinal cord distribution of sup 3 H-morphine after intrathecal administration: Relationship to analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Y.; Sinatra, R.S.; Kitahata, L.M.; Collins, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    The distribution of intrathecally administered {sup 3}H-morphine was examined by light microscopic autoradiography in rat spinal cord and temporal changes in silver grain localization were compared with results obtained from simultaneous measurements of analgesia. After tissue processing, radio-activity was found to have penetrated in superficial as well as in deeper layers (Rexed lamina V, VII, and X) of rat spinal cord within minutes after application. Silver grain density reached maximal values at 30 min in every region of cord studied. Radioactivity decreased rapidly between 30 min and 2 hr and then more slowly over the next 24 hr. In rats tested for responses to a thermal stimulus (tail flick test), intrathecal administration of morphine (5 and 15 micrograms) resulted in significant dose dependent analgesia that peaked at 30 min and lasted up to 5 hr (P less than 0.5). There was a close relationship between analgesia and spinal cord silver grain density during the first 4 hr of the study. It is postulated that the onset of spinal morphine analgesia depends on appearance of molecules at sites of action followed by the activation of anti-nociceptive mechanisms.

  7. Pediatric spinal cord injury: a review by organ system.

    PubMed

    Powell, Aaron; Davidson, Loren

    2015-02-01

    In this article, an overview is provided of pediatric spinal cord injury, organized by effects of this injury on various organ systems. Specific management differences between children and adults with spinal cord injury are highlighted. A detailed management approach is offered for particularly complex topics, such as spasticity and upper extremity reconstruction.

  8. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  9. Personal Adjustment Training for the Spinal Cord Injured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes experiences with Personal Achievement Skills (PAS), a group counseling process in a spinal cord injury project, emphasizing training in communication and goal setting in the context of group process. Issues in conducting such training and providing comprehensive service to the spinal cord injured are discussed in detail.…

  10. Early elective colostomy following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle

    Elective colostomy is an accepted method of bowel management for patients who have had a spinal cord injury (SCI). Approximately 2.4% of patients with SCI have a colostomy, and traditionally it is performed as a last resort several years after injury, and only if bowel complications persist when all other methods have failed. This is despite evidence that patients find a colostomy easier to manage and frequently report wishing it had been performed earlier. It was noticed in the author's spinal unit that increasing numbers of patients were requesting colostomy formation during inpatient rehabilitation following SCI. No supporting literature was found for this; it appears to be an emerging and untested practice. This article explores colostomy formation as a method of bowel management in patients with SCI, considers the optimal time for colostomy formation after injury and examines issues for health professionals.

  11. Steroids, spinal cord and pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy

    2011-10-01

    During the whole life, the nervous system is continuously submitted to the actions of different categories of hormones, including steroids. Therefore, the interactions between hormonal compounds and neural tissues are subjected to intense investigations. While a majority of studies focus on the brain, the spinal cord (SC) has received little attention, although this structure is also an important part of the central nervous system, controlling motor and sensory functions. To point out the importance of interactions between hormones and the SC in the regulation of neurobiological activities, we recapitulated and discussed herein various key data, revealing that the pivotal role played by the SC in nociception and pain modulation, directly depends on the SC ability to metabolize and synthesize steroidal molecules. The paper suggests that future investigations aiming to develop effective strategies against chronic pain, must integrate regulatory effects exerted by hormonal steroids on the SC activity, as well as the actions of endogenous neurosteroids locally synthesized in spinal neural networks.

  12. Effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jianbo; Gu, Zhengsong; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hong

    2016-09-05

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a mouse model. Lycopene inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage as a highly efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Lycopene (4 mg/kg/d) was administrated immediately following SCI. The permeability of the BSCB and water content in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Additionally, levels of expression of tight junction proteins and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined with Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of spinal cord tissue homogenates was performed 48 h after SCI to evaluate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines. In addition, recovery of motor function was assessed 1 d, 2 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 15 d after SCI using the Basso Mouse Scale to score locomotion. Compared to the group with an untreated SCI, mice with an SCI treated with lycopene had significantly reduced spinal cord tissue water content and BSCB permeability. Furthermore, motor function of mice with an SCI was also greatly improved by lycopene administration. The expression of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and NF-kB increased markedly 48 h after SCI, and their upregulation was significantly attenuated by lycopene treatment. The expression of molecules that protect tight junctions, zonula occluden-1 and claudin-5, was upregulated by lycopene treatment after SCI. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that lycopene attenuated SCI by promoting repair of the damaged BSCB, so lycopene is a novel and promising treatment for SCI in humans.

  13. Natural Polyphenols and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Khalatbary, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI. PMID:24842137

  14. Vascular Imaging Techniques of the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Maria Isabel; Barnaure, Isabelle; Gariani, Joanna; Boto, José; Pellaton, Alain; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kulcsar, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    The various imaging techniques used to depict vascular lesions of the spinal cord are described in this article with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), vascular sequences, and advantages of high-field MRI. Technical vascular protocols are discussed in computed tomography, MRI, and conventional angiography. The diverse magnetic resonance angiography protocols are presented as well as their findings, specificities, and pitfalls. A review of the vascular anatomy and the most common pathologies analyzed by magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography is described.

  15. Open Access Platforms in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kramer, John L K; Geisler, Fred; Ramer, Leanne; Plunet, Ward; Cragg, Jacquelyn J

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by extensive heterogeneity, resulting in uncertain prognosis. Reliable prediction of recovery in the acute phase benefits patients and their families directly, as well as improves the likelihood of detecting efficacy in clinical trials. This issue of heterogeneity is not unique to SCI. In fields such as traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one approach to understand variability in recovery has been to make clinical trial data widely available to the greater research community. We contend that the SCI community should adopt a similar approach in providing open access clinical trial data.

  16. Epidemiologic Change of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Yu, Su Jin; Yang, Hea Eun; Yoon, Seo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic change of patients with spinal cord injury who were admitted to a Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, during 1987-1996 and 2004-2008. Methods Medical records of 629 patients with spinal cord injury admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, from 2004 to 2008 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. Results The male-to-female ratio decreased to 2.86:1, the mean age at injury increased, nontraumatic etiology increased, traffic accident remained to be the most common in traumatic spinal cord injury, and falling increased significantly. Tumor was the most common etiology in nontraumatic spinal cord injury, tetraplegia and incomplete injuries occurred more than paraplegia and complete injuries, indwelling catheter was the most common voiding method, and the duration of hospitalization decreased. Conclusion Many trends changed in epidemiology of spinal cord injury. PMID:23525183

  17. Motoneuron differentiation of immortalized human spinal cord cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Thode, S; Zhou, J; Richard, N; Pardinas, J; Rao, M S; Sah, D W

    2000-02-01

    Human motoneuron cell lines will be valuable tools for spinal cord research and drug discovery. To create such cell lines, we immortalized NCAM(+)/neurofilament(+) precursors from human embryonic spinal cord with a tetracycline repressible v-myc oncogene. Clonal NCAM(+)/neurofilament(+) cell lines differentiated exclusively into neurons within 1 week. These neurons displayed extensive processes, exhibited immunoreactivity for mature neuron-specific markers such as tau and synaptophysin, and fired action potentials upon current injection. Moreover, a clonal precursor cell line gave rise to multiple types of spinal cord neurons, including ChAT(+)/Lhx3(+)/Lhx4(+) motoneurons and GABA(+) interneurons. These neuronal restricted precursor cell lines will expedite the elucidation of molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maturation and survival of specific subsets of spinal cord neurons, and the identification and validation of novel drug targets for motoneuron diseases and spinal cord injury.

  18. Lizard tail spinal cord: a new experimental model of spinal cord injury without limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Szarek, Dariusz; Marycz, Krzysztof; Lis, Anna; Zawada, Zbigniew; Tabakow, Paweł; Laska, Jadwiga; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a well-known devastating lesion that sadly is very resistant to all treatment attempts. This fact has stimulated the exploration of multiple regenerative strategies that are examined at both the basic and clinical level. For laboratory research, differentin vivomodels are used, but each has many important limitations. The main limitation of these models is the high level of animal suffering related to the inflicted neurologic injury. It has caused a growing tendency to limit the injury, but this, in turn, produces incomplete SCI models and uncertainties in the neuroregeneration interpretation. To overcome such limitations, a new experimental SCI model is proposed. Geckos have been extensively examined as a potential animal model of SCI. Their spinal cord extends into the tail and can be transected without causing the typical neurologic consequences observed in rat models. In this study, we compared the gecko tail SCI model with the rat model of thoracic SCI. Anatomic and histologic analyses showed comparability between the gecko and rat in diameter of spinal canal and spinal cord, as well as applicability of multiple staining techniques (hematoxylin and eosin, immunostaining, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy). We tested the suitability ofin vivostudy with 3 prototype implants for the reconstruction of SCI: a multichannel sponge, a multilaminar tube, and a gel cylinder. These were compared with a spinal cord excision (control). A 20-wk observation revealed no adverse effects of SCI on the animals' well-being. The animals were easily housed and observed. Histologic analysis showed growth of nervous tissue elements on implant surface and implant cellular colonization. The study showed that the gecko SCI model can be used as a primary model for the assessment of SCI treatment methods. It provides a platform for testing multiple solutions with limited animal suffering before performing tests on mammals. Detailed results of

  19. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of spinal cord diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aichner, F; Poewe, W; Rogalsky, W; Wallnöfer, K; Willeit, J; Gerstenbrand, F

    1985-01-01

    Experience with magnetic resonance imaging in 22 patients with diseases of the spinal cord is reported. Important additional diagnostic information as compared to conventional neuroradiological techniques (myelography, spinal CT) was gained especially in cases of hydrosyringomyelia, intraspinal tumour and multiple sclerosis. It is suggested that magnetic resonance imaging may become the method of choice in the diagnosis of structural spinal cord diseases. Images PMID:3936900

  1. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Taweel, Waleed Al; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:26090342

  2. Targeting the blood-spinal cord barrier: A therapeutic approach to spinal cord protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji; Yu, Qijing; Xie, Lijie; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-08-01

    One of the principal functions of physical barriers between the blood and central nervous system protects system (i.e., blood brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier) is the protection from toxic and pathogenic agents in the blood. Disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a key role in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI). Following SCIRI, the permeability of the BSCB increases. Maintaining the integrity of the BSCB alleviates the spinal cord injury after spinal cord ischemia. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structure and function of the BSCB and its changes following SCIRI, as well as the prevention and cure of SCIRI and the role of the BSCB.

  3. Spinal cord interneurons expressing the gastrin releasing peptide receptor convey itch through VGLUT2-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Aresh, Bejan; Freitag, Fabio B; Perry, Sharn; Blümel, Edda; Lau, Joey; Franck, Marina C M; Lagerström, Malin C

    2017-02-01

    Itch is a sensation that promotes the desire to scratch, which can be evoked by mechanical and chemical stimuli. In the spinal cord, neurons expressing the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) have been identified as specific mediators of itch. However, our understanding of the GRPR-population in the spinal cord, and thus how these neurons exercise their functions, is limited. For this purpose, we constructed a Cre line designed to target the GRPR population of neurons (Grpr-Cre). Our analysis revealed that Grpr-Cre cells in the spinal cord are predominantly excitatory interneurons that are found in the dorsal lamina, especially in lamina II-IV. Application of the specific agonist gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) induced spike responses in 43.3% of the patched Grpr-Cre neurons, where the majority of the cells displayed a tonic firing property. Additionally, our analysis showed that the Grpr-Cre population expresses Vglut2 mRNA and mice ablated of Vglut2 in Grpr-Cre cells (Vglut2-lox;Grpr-Cre mice) displayed less spontaneous itch, and attenuated responses to both histaminergic and non-histaminergic agents. We could also show that application of the itch-inducing peptide natriuretic polypeptide b (NPPB) induces calcium influx in a sub-population of Grpr-Cre neurons. To summarize, our data indicate that the Grpr-Cre spinal cord neural population is composed of interneurons that use VGLUT2-mediated signaling for transmitting chemical and spontaneous itch stimuli to the next, currently unknown, neurons in the labeled line of itch.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  4. Anatomical evidence for red nucleus projections to motoneuronal cell groups in the spinal cord of the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert; Blok, Bertil F.; Ralston, Diane Daly

    1988-01-01

    In four rhesus monkeys wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injections were made in the mesencephalic tegmentum. In three cases with injections involving the red nucleus (RN), rubrospinal fibers descended mainly contralaterally to terminate in laminae V, VI and dorsal VII of the spinal cord and in the lateral motoneuronal cell groups at the level of the cervical and lumbosacral enlargements. In all four cases the area of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) was injected, which resulted in labeled interstitiospinal fibers in the medial part of the ipsilateral ventral funiculus of the spinal cord. The results indicate that there is no major qualitative difference between the mesencephalic (RN and INC) and motor cortical projections to the spinal cord.

  5. Stab wound to the intramedullary spinal cord: Presurgical and surgical management options for a retained blade to optimize neurological preservation

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prateek; Burke, John F.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Piazza, Matthew; Smith, Brian P.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We present a rare case of an intraparenchymal nonmissile penetrating spinal injury (NMPSI) occurring at the T11 level in a patient presenting without neurological deficit. Case Description: The patient sustained a knife wound that penetrated the lamina without incurring bony injury and entered the spinal cord at the T11 level. During surgery, the intramedullary penetration of the cord was confirmed, and following surgical removal of the knife, the patient fully recovered without losing any neurological function. Conclusions: The surgical management of NMPSI in patients who are neurologically intact is controversial. Here, we report surgical excision of a knife that penetrated the spinal cord at the T11 level, without the patient incurring further neurological deterioration. PMID:28144493

  6. The thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Dineen, R; White, B; Jaspan, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study included a series of middle-aged male and female patients who presented with chronic anterior hemicord dysfunction progressing to paraplegia. Imaging of anterior thoracic cord displacement by either a dural adhesion or a dural defect with associated cord herniation is presented. Methods This is a retrospective review of cases referred to a tertiary neuroscience centre over a 19-year period. Imaging series were classified by two experienced neuroradiologists against several criteria and correlated with clinical examination and/or findings at surgery. Results 16 cases were available for full review. Nine were considered to represent adhesions (four confirmed surgically) and four to represent true herniation (three confirmed surgically). In the three remaining cases the diagnosis was radiologically uncertain. Conclusion The authors propose “thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome” as a novel term to describe this patient cohort and suggest appropriate clinicoradiological features for diagnosis. Several possible aetiologies are also suggested, with disc rupture and inflammation followed by disc resorption and dural pocket formation being a possible mechanism predisposing to herniation at the extreme end of a clinicopathological spectrum. PMID:22665931

  7. Cyto- and myeloarchitectonic organisation of the spinal cord of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W; Zhang, L L

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the cyto- and myeloarchitectural organisation of the spinal cord of an echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) with the aid of Nisst staining, darkfield examination and p-phenylenediamine staining. We have also examined the distribution of unmyelinated afferents by labelling with a peroxidase-conjugated lectin derived from Griffonia simplicifolia (B1 isolectin). The cytoarchitectural features characterising the laminar organisation of the spinal cord in eutherian mammals were broadly applicable to the spinal cord of this monotreme. In addition, we identified a distinct group of large neurons in the ventral part of lamina X, extending into the ventral funiculus, that we have called the median nuclear group. We were unable to identify a central cervical nucleus in this echidna on the basis of cytoarchitectural criteria, although all other spinal cord nuclei found in eutherians could be found in this monotreme. Lectin labelling with the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 revealed a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion cells similar to those labelled in Eutheria. In this echidna, labelling of unmyelinated fibres was found in Lissauer's zone and laminae I and II, as seen in rats (Rattus norvegicus); there were also deeper patches extending into laminae III to V and what appeared to be commissural axons approaching the dorsal grey commissure, which have not been seen in Eutheria. Fibre calibre in the dorsal and ventral roots of this echidna was similar to that reported in Eutheria, suggesting similar proportion of afferent fibre classes and alpha and gamma motoneurons. In the echidna, mean diameter of myelinated dorsal root axons was 4.65 microns at T1 and 5.22 microns at L3, with a clear bimodal distribution in the L3 dorsal root showing distinct groups at 1 to 5 microns and 6 to 12 microns. These made up approximately 45 and 55% of the total myelinated axon population, respectively. Myelinated fibres in the ventral root at L3 showed two major peaks in

  8. The effects of cyclosporin-A on functional outcome and axonal regrowth following spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Roozbehi, Amrollah; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Mirzaei, Ali; Delaviz, Hamdollah

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the immunophilin ligands have the special advantage in spinal cord repair. In this study, the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on functional recovery and histological outcome were evaluated following spinal cord injury in rats. After spinal cord hemisection in thirty six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (200- 250 g), treatment groups received CsA (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) at 15min and 24h after lesion (CsA 15min group and CsA 24h group) daily, for 8 weeks. Control and sham groups received normal saline and in sham operated animals the spinal cord was exposed in the same manner as treatment groups, but was not hemisected. Hindlimb motor function was assessed in 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks after lesion, using locomotive rating scale developed by Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB). Motor neurons were counted within the lamina IX of ventral horn and lesion size was measured in 5 mm of spinal lumbar segment with the epicenter of the lesion site. The mean number of motor neurons and the mean BBB scale in 3, 5 and 7 weeks in CsA 15min groups significantly increased compared to the control group. Although, the lesion size reduced in rats with CsA treatment compared to the control group, no significant difference was observed. Thus, it can be concluded that CsA can improve locomotor function and histological outcome in the partial spinal cord injury.

  9. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to...

  14. Anti-NGF Local Therapy for Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    pathophysiological basis of neurogenic detrusor overactivity with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the... bladder distention after SCI. Using adult female rats with chronic spinal cord injury induced by Th4 spinal cord transection, we will investigate: (1...autonomic dysreflexia during bladder distention in rats with spinal cord injury . 111th Annual Meeting AUA, Abstract No. 34, San Diego, May 4-8, 2013.

  15. Revisiting the segmental organization of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N; D'Herde, K

    2016-09-01

    In classic anatomic atlases, the spinal cord is standardly represented in its anatomical form with symmetrically emerging anterior and posterior roots, which at the level of the intervertebral foramen combine into the spinal nerves. The parts of the cord delimited by the boundaries of the roots are called segments or myelomeres. Associated with their regular repetitive appearance is the notion that the cord is segmentally organized. This segmental view is reinforced by clinical practice. Spinal cord roots innervate specific body parts. The level of cord trauma is diagnosed by the de-innervation symptoms of these parts. However, systemically, the case for a segmentally organized cord is not so clear. To date, developmental and genetic research points to a regionally rather than a segmentally organized cord. In the present study, to what degree the fila radicularia are segmentally implanted along the cord was investigated. The research hypothesis was that if the fila radicularia were non-segmentally implanted at the cord surface, it would be unlikely that the internal neuron stratum would be segmented. The visual segmented aspect of the myelomeres would then be the consequence of the necessary bundling of axons towards the vertebral foramen as the only exits of the vertebral canal, rather than of an underlying segment organization of the cord itself. To investigate the research hypothesis, the fila radicularia in the cervical-upper thoracic part of five spinal cords were detached from their spinal nerves and dissected in detail. The principal research question was if the fila radicularia are separated from their spinal nerves and dissected from their connective tissues up to the cord, would it be possible to reconstruct the original spinal segments from the morphology and interspaces of the fila? The dissections revealed that the anterior fila radicularia emerge from the cord at regular regionally modulated interspaces without systematic segmental delineations. The

  16. Expression and action of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha in inflammatory hyperalgesia in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y X; Hassan, A; Haddad, E; Johns, R A

    2000-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown a role for the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway in the development of spinal hyperalgesia. However, the roles of effectors for cyclic guanosine monophosphate are not fully understood in the processing of pain in the spinal cord. The present study showed that cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha but not Ibeta was localized in the neuronal bodies and processes, and was distributed primarily in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha, Rp-8-[(4-chlorophenyl)thio]-cGMPS triethylamine, produced a significant antinociception demonstrated by the decrease in the number of flinches and shakes in the formalin test. This was accompanied by a marked reduction in formalin-induced c-fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Moreover, cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha protein expression was dramatically increased in the lumbar spinal cord 96 h after injection of formalin into a hindpaw, which occurred mainly in the superficial laminae on the ipsilateral side of a formalin-injected hindpaw. This up-regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha expression was completely blocked not only by a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, but also by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine maleate (MK-801). The present results indicate that noxious stimulation not only initially activates but also later up-regulates cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha expression in the superficial laminae via an N-methyl-D-aspartate-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, suggesting that cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase Ialpha may play an

  17. Termination of supraspinal descending pathways in the spinal cord of the tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    PubMed

    Cruce, W L

    1975-01-01

    Descending fiber projections to the lizard spinal cord were studied using anterograde axonal degeneration. Following hemisection of the cord at the first spinal segment, degeneration was found in the white and gray matter as far down as the 31st (caudal) segment. Degenerating fibers in the white matter were confined to the ipsilateral side and were found in the medial longitudinal fasiculus and the outer half ot the lateral and ventral funiculi. Degeneration was more intense in the dorsolateral and ventromedial funiculi than in the ventrolateral funiculus. In the gray matter, REXED's criteria were applied to Nissl-stained material to delimit boundaries of ten laminae. Degeneration of suprospinal axons was most intense in the medial part of VII, dorsal and ventral commissures to ramify contralaterally in the medial part of VII, in VII, and in medial IX. No degeneration was present in the lateral part of the spinal gray on the contralateral side. In Golgi-stained material, dendrites of lateral IX cells were seen to extend into lamina VII, the dorsolateral part of VII, and the lateral funiculus. Thus, fibers of the ventromedial supraspinal pathway may make axodendritic contact with motoneurons of lateral IX as well as medial IX, ipsilaterally. In addition, there is a possibility of a crossed connection to contralateral motoneurons.

  18. GABA and Central Neuropathic Pain following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Young S.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury induces maladaptive synaptic transmission in the somatosensory system that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. Recent literature suggests that glial-neuronal interactions are important modulators in synaptic transmission following spinal cord injury. Neuronal hyperexcitability is one of the predominant phenomenon caused by maladaptive synaptic transmission via altered glial-neuronal interactions after spinal cord injury. In the somatosensory system, spinal inhibitory neurons counter balance the enhanced synaptic transmission from peripheral input. For a decade, the literature suggests that hypofunction of GABAergic inhibitory tone is an important factor in the enhanced synaptic transmission that often results in neuronal hyperexcitability in dorsal horn neurons following spinal cord injury. Neurons and glial cells synergistically control intracellular chloride ion gradients via modulation of chloride transporters, extracellular glutamate and GABA concentrations via uptake mechanisms. Thus, the intracellular “GABA-glutamate-glutamine cycle” is maintained for normal physiological homeostasis. However, hyperexcitable neurons and glial activation after spinal cord injury disrupts the balance of chloride ions, glutamate and GABA distribution in the spinal dorsal horn and results in chronic neuropathic pain. In this review, we address spinal cord injury induced mechanisms in hypofunction of GABAergic tone that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. PMID:21216257

  19. A knowledge-based approach to automatic detection of the spinal cord in CT images.

    PubMed

    Archip, Neculai; Erard, Pierre-Jean; Egmont-Petersen, Michael; Haefliger, Jean-Marie; Germond, Jean-Francois

    2002-12-01

    Accurate planning of radiation therapy entails the definition of treatment volumes and a clear delimitation of normal tissue of which unnecessary exposure should be prevented. The spinal cord is a radiosensitive organ, which should be precisely identified because an overexposure to radiation may lead to undesired complications for the patient such as neuronal disfunction or paralysis. In this paper, a knowledge-based approach to identifying the spinal cord in computed tomography images of the thorax is presented. The approach relies on a knowledge-base which consists of a so-called anatomical structures map (ASM) and a task-oriented architecture called the plan solver. The ASM contains a frame-like knowledge representation of the macro-anatomy in the human thorax. The plan solver is responsible for determining the position, orientation and size of the structures of interest to radiation therapy. The plan solver relies on a number of image processing operators. Some are so-called atomic (e.g., thresholding and snakes) whereas others are composite. The whole system has been implemented on a standard PC. Experiments performed on the image material from 23 patients show that the approach results in a reliable recognition of the spinal cord (92% accuracy) and the spinal canal (85% accuracy). The lamina is more problematic to locate correctly (accuracy 72%). The position of the outer thorax is always determined correctly.

  20. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ABSTRACT Essentially all spinal cord injured patients receive stretching therapies beginning within the first few weeks post-injury. Despite this fact...that stretching for short periods of time (4-5 weeks ) allows substantial recovery to occur once stretching is stopped, and both acute and chronic...4hours after one stretching session and then on Friday afternoon 3-4hours after the final stretching session of the week (the lowest scores). As seen

  1. Disability, atrophy and cortical reorganization following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Freund, Patrick; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ward, Nick S; Hutton, Chloe; Gall, Angela; Ciccarelli, Olga; Craggs, Michael; Friston, Karl; Thompson, Alan J

    2011-06-01

    The impact of traumatic spinal cord injury on structural integrity, cortical reorganization and ensuing disability is variable and may depend on a dynamic interaction between the severity of local damage and the capacity of the brain for plastic reorganization. We investigated trauma-induced anatomical changes in the spinal cord and brain, and explored their relationship to functional changes in sensorimotor cortex. Structural changes were assessed using cross-sectional cord area, voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness of T1-weighted images in 10 subjects with cervical spinal cord injury and 16 controls. Cortical activation in response to right-sided (i) handgrip; and (ii) median and tibial nerve stimulation were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regression analyses explored associations between cord area, grey and white matter volume, cortical activations and thickness, and disability. Subjects with spinal cord injury had impaired upper and lower limb function bilaterally, a 30% reduced cord area, smaller white matter volume in the pyramids and left cerebellar peduncle, and smaller grey matter volume and cortical thinning in the leg area of the primary motor and sensory cortex compared with controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased activation in the left primary motor cortex leg area during handgrip and the left primary sensory cortex face area during median nerve stimulation in subjects with spinal cord injury compared with controls, but no increased activation following tibial nerve stimulation. A smaller cervical cord area was associated with impaired upper limb function and increased activations with handgrip and median nerve stimulation, but reduced activations with tibial nerve stimulation. Increased sensory deficits were associated with increased activations in the left primary sensory cortex face area due to median nerve stimulation. In conclusion, spinal cord injury leads to cord atrophy

  2. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2016-05-18

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  3. Neuromyelitis optica mimics the morphology of spinal cord tumors.

    PubMed

    Erol, İlknur; Özkale, Murat; Savaş, Tülin; Alkan, Özlem; Çekinmez, Melih; Erbay, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, that predominantly affects the spinal cord and the optic nerve. Its key features include transverse myelitis, commonly associated with extensive inflammation spanning three or more consecutive vertebral segments. Longitudinal extensive spinal cord lesions can also occur in systemic autoimmune diseases, infections, vascular and metabolic disorders, subsequent to irradiation, intramedullary tumors and paraneoplastic myelopathies. We present a case study of an 8-year-old girl seropositive for antibodies against the aquaporin 4 who displayed longitudinal extensive spinal cord lesions, that was initially misdiagnosed as an intramedullary tumor.

  4. Current and emerging treatment options for spinal cord ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Pikija, Slaven; Mutzenbach, J Sebastian; Seidl, Martin; Leis, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Sellner, Johann

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare but disabling disorder caused by a wide spectrum of conditions. Given the lack of randomized-controlled trials, contemporary treatment concepts are adapted from guidelines for cerebral ischemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and acute traumatic spinal cord injury. In addition, patients with SCI are at risk for several potentially life-threatening but preventable systemic and neurologic complications. Notably, there is emerging evidence from preclinical studies for the use of neuroprotection in acute ischemic injury of the spinal cord. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art for the therapy and prevention of SCI and highlight potential emerging treatment concepts awaiting translational adoption.

  5. Risks associated with pregnancy in spinal cord-injured women.

    PubMed

    Baker, E R; Cardenas, D D; Benedetti, T J

    1992-09-01

    We reviewed the experience with pregnancy in spinal cord-injured women at the University of Washington over the past 10 years. During that time, 11 women with spinal cord injury had 13 pregnancies. Infant outcome was uniformly good. No major obstetric complication occurred. The mothers experienced medical problems including urinary tract infection in ten and pyelonephritis in three. Autonomic hyperreflexia occurred in three of five subjects with lesions at or above the sixth thoracic vertebra. Pregnancy in the spinal cord-injured patient involves medical risk for the mother, but with careful management, an excellent outcome for both mother and infant may be anticipated.

  6. Partial agonistic action of endomorphins in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, H; Wu, H E; Narita, M

    2001-09-07

    The partial agonistic properties of endogenous mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 for G-protein activation were determined in the mouse spinal cord, monitoring the increases in guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. The G-protein activation induced by endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin in the spinal cord was significantly, but partially, attenuated by co-incubation with endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2. The data indicates that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are endogenous partial agonists for mu-opioid receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  7. Current therapeutic strategies for inflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka L.; Agarwal, Nitin; Barrese, James C.; Heary, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Damage from spinal cord injury occurs in two phases – the trauma of the initial mechanical insult and a secondary injury to nervous tissue spared by the primary insult. Apart from damage sustained as a result of direct trauma to the spinal cord, the post-traumatic inflammatory response contributes significantly to functional motor deficits exacerbated by the secondary injury. Attenuating the detrimental aspects of the inflammatory response is a promising strategy to potentially ameliorate the secondary injury, and promote significant functional recovery. This review details how the inflammatory component of secondary injury to the spinal cord can be treated currently and in the foreseeable future. PMID:25624806

  8. The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Delayed Fetal Spinal Cord Tissue Transplantation on Respiratory Function Following Mid-Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Lai, Sih-Rong; Shao, Yu-Han; Chen, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kun-Ze

    2017-01-17

    Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury. The histological results showed that FSC-derived grafts can survive, fill the lesion cavity, and differentiate into neurons and astrocytes at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Some FSC-derived graft neurons exhibited specific neurochemical markers of neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin, noradrenalin, or acetylcholine). Moreover, a robust expression of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic fibers was observed within FSC-derived grafts. Retrograde tracing results indicated that there was a connection between FSC-derived grafts and host phrenic nucleus. Neurophysiological recording of the phrenic nerve demonstrated that phrenic burst amplitude ipsilateral to the lesion was significantly greater in injured animals that received FSC transplantation than in those that received buffer transplantation under high respiratory drives. These results suggest that delayed FSC transplantation may have the potential to repair the injured spinal cord and promote respiratory functional recovery after mid-cervical spinal cord injury.

  9. [Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Pittner, Y; Dufour, J-F; David, G; Boibieux, A; Peyramond, D

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of an atypical localization of a spinal cord "toxoplasmic abscess". The 46-year-old patient, HIV-1 positive, was admitted for acute urine retention and gait disorders. MRI revealed a T12-L1 medullary lesion suggesting a tumoral, inflammatory and infectious pathology. The radiological aspect and immunosuppression lead to the initiation of a treatment against Toxoplasma gondii, following the same treatment principles as for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis can only be proved by data from autopsy or surgical biopsy, but toxoplasmosis PCR on CSF seems to be an interesting alternative to confirm the diagnosis. According to the literature, PCR is not sensitive enough as a diagnostic tool. Improvement after treatment supported the diagnosis confirmed by PCR.

  10. Functional Electrical Stimulation and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chester H.; Triolo, Ronald J.; Elias, Anastasia L.; Kilgore, Kevin L.; DiMarco, Anthony F.; Bogie, Kath; Vette, Albert H.; Audu, Musa; Kobetic, Rudi; Chang, Sarah R.; Chan, K. Ming; Dukelow, Sean; Bourbeau, Dennis J.; Brose, Steven W.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Kiss, Zelma; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can disrupt communications between the brain and the body, leading to a loss of control over otherwise intact neuromuscular systems. The use of electrical stimulation (ES) of the central and peripheral nervous system can take advantage of these intact neuromuscular systems to provide therapeutic exercise options, to allow functional restoration, and even to manage or prevent many medical complications following SCI. The use of ES for the restoration of upper extremity, lower extremity and truncal functions can make many activities of daily living a potential reality for individuals with SCI. Restoring bladder and respiratory functions and preventing pressure ulcers may significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality following SCI. Many of the ES devices are already commercially available and should be considered by all SCI clinicians routinely as part of the lifelong rehabilitation care plan for all eligible individuals with SCI. PMID:25064792

  11. Spinal Cord Injury and Related Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kee-Yong; Kim, Sang-Il

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been considered an incurable condition and it often causes devastating sequelae. In terms of the pathophysiology of SCI, reducing secondary damage is the key to its treatment. Various researches and clinical trials have been performed, and some of them showed promising results; however, there is still no gold standard treatment with sufficient evidence. Two therapeutic concepts for SCI are neuroprotective and neuroregenerative strategies. The neuroprotective strategy modulates the pathomechanism of SCI. The purpose of neuroprotective treatment is to minimize secondary damage following direct injury. The aim of neuroregenerative treatment is to enhance the endogenous regeneration process and to alter the intrinsic barrier. With advancement in biotechnology, cell therapy using cell transplantation is currently under investigation. This review discusses the pathophysiology of SCI and introduces the therapeutic candidates that have been developed so far. PMID:28261421

  12. Cervical Spinal Cord Compression: A Rare Presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chime, Chukwunonso; Arjun, Shiva; Reddy, Pavithra; Niazi, Masooma

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of liver. Distant metastasis to various organs is well known. Skeletal metastasis is also reported to various locations. Vertebral metastasis has been reported mostly to thoracic spine. However, cervical spinal cord involvement leading to cord compression has been reported very rarely in literature. We present a case of 58-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting as neck pain. Further work-up revealed metastatic HCC to cervical spinal cord resulting in acute cord compression. Patient has been treated with neurosurgical intervention. PMID:28299213

  13. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient.

  14. Ischemic spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Golomb, Meredith R.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord infarction in children is a rare condition which is becoming more widely recognized. There are few reports in the pediatric literature characterizing etiology, diagnosis, treament and prognosis. The risk factors for pediatric ischemic spinal cord infarction include obstruction of blood flow associated with cardiovascular compromise or malformation, iatrogenic or traumatic vascular inujury, cerebellar herniation, thrombotic or embolic disease, infection, and vasculitis. In many children the cause of spinal cord ischemia in the absence of vertebral fracture is unknown. Imaging diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia is often difficult due to the small transverse area of the cord, cerebrospinal fluid artifact and inadequate resolution of MRI. Physical therapy is the most important treatment option. The prognosis is dependent on the level of spinal cord damage, early identification and reversal of ischemia, and follow-up with intensive physical therapy and medical support. In addition to summarizing the literature regarding spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture, this review article adds two cases to the literature which highlight the difficulties and controversies in the management of this condition. PMID:17437902

  15. Fas and FasL expression in the spinal cord following cord hemisection in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liu; Yu, Zou; Hui, Li; Yu-Guang, Guan; Xin-Fu, Zhou; Chao, You; Yanbin, Xiyang; Xi, Zhan; Jun, Wang; Xin-Hua, Heng; Xin-Hua, Hen; Ting-Hua, Wang

    2011-03-01

    The changes of endogenous Fas/FasL in injured spinal cord, mostly in primates, are not well known. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes in the expression of Fas and FasL and explored their possible roles in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and associated precentral gyrus following T(11) spinal cord hemisection in the adult rhesus monkey. A significant functional improvement was seen with the time going on in monkeys subjected to cord hemisection. Apoptotic cells were also seen in the ventral horn of injured spinal cord with TUNEL staining, and a marked increase presents at 7 days post operation (dpo). Simultaneously, the number of Fas and FasL immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cords caudal and rostral to injury site and their intracellular optical density (OD) in the ipsilateral side of injury site at 7 dpo increased significantly more than that of control group and contralateral sides. This was followed by a decrease and returned to normal level at 60 dpo. No positive neurons were observed in precentral gyrus. The present results may provide some insights to understand the role of Fas/FasL in the spinal cord but not motor cortex with neuronal apoptosis and neuroplasticity in monkeys subjected to hemisection spinal cord injury.

  16. Temperature sensitivity of neurones in slices of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Pehl, U; Schmid, H A; Simon, E

    1997-01-01

    1. The inherent temperature sensitivity of 343 spontaneously active neurones recorded from rat spinal cord (SC) slices was investigated electrophysiologically. Recordings were made from 321 neurons from transverse and 22 neurons from longitudinal slices and their thermosensitivity was determined by relating changes in firing rate to changes in slice temperature. 2. Of the neurones from transverse slices, 53% were warm sensitive, 2% were cold sensitive and 45% were temperature insensitive. In longitudinal slices, 68% were warm sensitive and the remaining neurones were temperature insensitive. 3. When classified according to their recording sites in transverse slices, warm-sensitive neurones in laminae I and II had the same mean temperature coefficient compared with those recorded from lamina X, despite the fact that the latter had a significantly higher spontaneous activity. 4. The intrinsic temperature sensitivity of the majority of warm-sensitive neurones was confirmed by blocking their synaptic input. 5. A transient overshoot in activity, i.e. a dynamic response characteristic following rapid temperature stimuli (0.4 degree C s-1) was observed in 73% of the warm-sensitive and 59% of the temperature-insensitive neurones in laminae I and II in response to rapid warming, but only rarely (< 10%) in lamina X. 6. Temperature-sensitive SC neurones share response characteristics with temperature-sensitive neurones in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic (PO/AH) area and with peripheral temperature receptors. Functionally, these neurones may represent the cellular basis for the temperature sensory function of the spinal cord that has been well characterized in vivo in homeothermic species. PMID:9032695

  17. Connexin36 identified at morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses on trigeminal motoneurons and at primary afferent terminals on spinal cord neurons in adult mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Bautista, W; McCrea, D A; Nagy, J I

    2014-03-28

    Morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses at axon terminals, with the electrical component formed by gap junctions, is common in the CNS of lower vertebrates. In mammalian CNS, evidence for morphologically mixed synapses has been obtained in only a few locations. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to examine the localization of the neuronally expressed gap junction forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in relation to the axon terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (vglut1) in the spinal cord and the trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) of rat and mouse. In adult rodents, immunolabeling for Cx36 appeared exclusively as Cx36-puncta, and was widely distributed at all rostro-caudal levels in most spinal cord laminae and in the Mo5. A high proportion of Cx36-puncta was co-localized with vglut1, forming morphologically mixed synapses on motoneurons, in intermediate spinal cord lamina, and in regions of medial lamina VII, where vglut1-containing terminals associated with Cx36 converged on neurons adjacent to the central canal. Unilateral transection of lumbar dorsal roots reduced immunolabeling of both vglut1 and Cx36 in intermediate laminae and lamina IX. Further, vglut1-terminals displaying Cx36-puncta were contacted by terminals labeled for glutamic acid decarboxylase65, which is known to be contained in presynaptic terminals on large-diameter primary afferents. Developmentally, mixed synapses begin to emerge in the spinal cord only after the second to third postnatal week and thereafter increase to adult levels. Our findings demonstrate that axon terminals of primary afferent origin form morphologically mixed synapses containing Cx36 in broadly distributed areas of adult rodent spinal cord and Mo5.

  18. Alterations in cardiac autonomic control in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Liu, Nan; Malmqvist, Lasse; Wecht, Jill Maria; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2017-02-15

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) interferes with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect on the cardiovascular system will depend on the extent of damage to the spinal/central component of ANS. The cardiac changes are caused by loss of supraspinal sympathetic control and relatively increased parasympathetic cardiac control. Decreases in sympathetic activity result in heart rate and the arterial blood pressure changes, and may cause arrhythmias, in particular bradycardia, with the risk of cardiac arrest in those with cervical or high thoracic injuries. The objective of this review is to give an update of the current knowledge related to the alterations in cardiac autonomic control following SCI. With this purpose the review includes the following subheadings: 2. Neuro-anatomical plasticity and cardiac control 2.1 Autonomic nervous system and the heart 2.2 Alteration in autonomic control of the heart following spinal cord injury 3. Spinal shock and neurogenic shock 3.1 Pathophysiology of spinal shock 3.2 Pathophysiology of neurogenic shock 4. Autonomic dysreflexia 4.1 Pathophysiology of autonomic dysreflexia 4.2 Diagnosis of autonomic dysreflexia 5. Heart rate/electrocardiography following spinal cord injury 5.1 Acute phase 5.2 Chronic phase 6. Heart rate variability 6.1 Time domain analysis 6.2 Frequency domain analysis 6.3 QT-variability index 6.4 Nonlinear (fractal) indexes 7. Echocardiography 7.1 Changes in cardiac structure following spinal cord injury 7.2 Changes in cardiac function following spinal cord injury 8. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular basic data set and international standards to document the remaining autonomic function in spinal cord injury.

  19. Use of intraoperative ultrasonography in canine spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Nanai, Beatrix; Lyman, Ronald; Bichsel, Pierre S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the intraoperative appearance of various spinal cord conditions, and to investigate how intraoperative ultrasonography assisted in modification of surgical and postoperative treatment plans. Intraoperative ultrasonography (B-mode, and power Doppler mode) was used in 25 dogs undergoing spinal surgery. The neurologic conditions included cervical spondylomyelopathy, intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion, IVD extrusion, spinal tumors, nerve sheath mass, granulomatous myelitis, and discospondylitis. All of these diagnoses were supported by histopathologic and/or cytologic evaluation. It was possible to visualize the spinal cord and the abnormal spinal tissue in all of the patients. Power Doppler imaging allowed assessment of the spinal cord microcirculation, and assisted in judgment of the degree of decompression. Ultrasound imaging directly impacted the surgical and the medical treatment plans in four patients. Owing to the intraoperative imaging, two hemilaminectomies were extended cranially and caudally, and additional disc spaces were fenestrated, one hemilaminectomy site was extended dorsally to retrieve the disc material from the opposite side, and one intramedullary cervical spinal cord lesion was discovered, aspirated, and consequently diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation, which altered the long-term medication protocol in that dog. This study suggests that intraoperative sonographic spinal cord imaging is a useful and viable technique.

  20. Endogenous neurogenesis in adult mammals after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Song, Wei; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Yudan; Yang, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-12-01

    During the whole life cycle of mammals, new neurons are constantly regenerated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Thanks to emerging methodologies, great progress has been made in the characterization of spinal cord endogenous neural stem cells (ependymal cells) and identification of their role in adult spinal cord development. As recently evidenced, both the intrinsic and extrinsic molecular mechanisms of ependymal cells control the sequential steps of the adult spinal cord neurogenesis. This review introduces the concept of adult endogenous neurogenesis, the reaction of ependymal cells after adult spinal cord injury (SCI), the heterogeneity and markers of ependymal cells, the factors that regulate ependymal cells, and the niches that impact the activation or differentiation of ependymal cells.

  1. Molecular and cellular development of spinal cord locomotor circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Daniel C.; Niu, Tianyi; Alaynick, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The spinal cord of vertebrate animals is comprised of intrinsic circuits that are capable of sensing the environment and generating complex motor behaviors. There are two major perspectives for understanding the biology of this complicated structure. The first approaches the spinal cord from the point of view of function and is based on classic and ongoing research in electrophysiology, adult behavior, and spinal cord injury. The second view considers the spinal cord from a developmental perspective and is founded mostly on gene expression and gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic experiments. Together these studies have uncovered functional classes of neurons and their lineage relationships. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of developmental classes, with an eye toward understanding the functional roles of each group. PMID:26136656

  2. Syrinx of the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Horner Syndrome (Video) Overview of the Nervous System (News) Youth With Type 2 Diabetes Often Face Complications (News) Study Tracks Bleeding Risk ...

  3. Dynamic loading characteristics of an intradural spinal cord stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliynyk, M. S.; Gillies, G. T.; Oya, H.; Wilson, S.; Reddy, C. G.; Howard, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the forces that act on the electrode-bearing surface of an intradural neuromodulator designed to be in direct contact with the pial surface of the spinal cord, as part of our effort to develop a new method for treating intractable pain. The goal was to investigate the pressures produced by this device on the spinal cord and compare them with normal intrathecal pressure. For this purpose, we employed a dual-sensor arrangement that allowed us to measure the response of a custom-designed silicone spinal cord surrogate to the forces applied by the device. We found that the device had a mean compliance of ≈63 μN μm-1, and that over a 3 mm range of compression, the mid-span pressure it exerted on the spinal cord was ≈1.88 × 103 Pa = 14.1 mm Hg, which lies within the range of normal intrathecal pressure in humans.

  4. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  5. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  6. Biomaterial Design Strategies for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Straley, Karin S.; Po Foo, Cheryl Wong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The highly debilitating nature of spinal cord injuries has provided much inspiration for the design of novel biomaterials that can stimulate cellular regeneration and functional recovery. Many experts agree that the greatest hope for treatment of spinal cord injuries will involve a combinatorial approach that integrates biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and molecule delivery. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of biomaterial-scaffold design strategies currently being applied to the development of nerve guidance channels and hydrogels that more effectively stimulate spinal cord tissue regeneration. To enhance the regenerative capacity of these two scaffold types, researchers are focusing on optimizing the mechanical properties, cell-adhesivity, biodegradability, electrical activity, and topography of synthetic and natural materials, and are developing mechanisms to use these scaffolds to deliver cells and biomolecules. Developing scaffolds that address several of these key design parameters will lead to more successful therapies for the regeneration of spinal cord tissue. PMID:19698073

  7. Corticospinal circuit plasticity in motor rehabilitation from spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Najet; Agger, Sydney F; Hollis, Edmund R

    2016-12-06

    Restoring corticospinal function after spinal cord injury is a significant challenge as the corticospinal tract elicits no substantive, spontaneous regeneration, and its interruption leaves a permanent deficit. The corticospinal circuit serves multiple motor and sensory functions within the mammalian nervous system as the direct link between isocortex and spinal cord. Maturation of the corticospinal circuit involves the refinement of projections within the spinal cord and a subsequent refinement of motor maps within the cortex. The plasticity of these cortical motor maps mirrors the acquisition of skilled motor learning, and both the maps and motor skills are disrupted following injury to the corticospinal tract. The motor cortex exhibits the capacity to incorporate changes in corticospinal projections induced by both spontaneous and therapeutic-mediated plasticity of corticospinal axons through appropriate rehabilitation. An understanding of the mechanisms of corticospinal plasticity in motor learning will undoubtedly help inform strategies to improve motor rehabilitation after spinal cord injury.

  8. Toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord in an immunocompromised patient

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ernesto; Bolívar, Guillermo; Sánchez, Sandra; Carrascal, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We, herein, describe an HIV-positive patient with toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord. We also carried out a comprehensive literature review of this topic, with emphasis on the diagnostic tools and therapeutic approach. PMID:24892240

  9. Spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA): clinical applications of mechanical modeling of the spinal cord and brainstem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Choi, Jae; Wilson, William; Berry, Joel; Henderson, Fraser C., Sr.

    2009-02-01

    Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses exerted upon the spinal cord and brainstem. Furthermore, there is no current means to correlate these stress patterns with known spinal cord injuries and other clinical metrics such as neurological impairment. We have therefore developed the spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA) system, which uses imaging and finite element analysis to predict stretch injury. This system was tested on a small cohort of neurosurgery patients. Initial results show that the calculated stress values decreased following surgery, and that this decrease was accompanied by a significant decrease in neurological symptoms. Regression analysis identified modest correlations between stress values and clinical metrics. The strongest correlations were seen with the Brainstem Disability Index (BDI) and the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), whereas the weakest correlations were seen with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale. SCOSIA therefore shows encouraging initial results and may have wide applicability to trauma and degenerative disease involving the spinal cord and brainstem.

  10. Rapid changes in expression of glutamate transporters after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P; Mills, Charles D; Ye, Zaiming; Fullwood, Steven D; McAdoo, David J; Hulsebosch, Claire E; Westlund, Karin N

    2002-02-08

    Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. After its release, specific transporter proteins rapidly remove extracellular glutamate from the synaptic cleft. The clearance of excess extracellular glutamate prevents accumulation under normal conditions; however, CNS injury elevates extracellular glutamate concentrations to neurotoxic levels. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in expression and in spatial localization of glial glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and GLT-1 (EAAT2) and the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 (EAAT3) after spinal cord contusion injury (SCI). The levels of all three transporters significantly increased at the epicenter of injury (T10) and in segments rostral and caudal to the epicenter as determined by Western blot analysis. Quantitative immunohistochemistry demonstrated an increase in GLAST staining in laminae I-V and lamina X both rostral and caudal to the epicenter of injury. Staining for GLT-1 increased significantly in lamina I rostral to the injury site and in the entire gray matter caudal to the injury site. A significant increase in EAAC1 staining was observed in laminae I-IV rostral to the epicenter of injury and throughout the gray matter caudal to the injury site. The results suggest that upregulation of these high affinity transporters occurs rapidly and is important in regulating glutamate homeostasis after SCI.

  11. Anatomy and biomechanics of the spinal column and cord.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vincent J; Panjabi, Manohar M; Benzel, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    The field of biomechanics combines the disciplines of biology and engineering, attempting to quantitatively describe the complicated properties of biological materials. These properties depend not only upon the inherent attributes of its constituents but also upon how the constituents are arranged relative to each other. Its importance in understanding spinal column and spinal cord pathology cannot be overemphasized. This chapter is a primer on the application of biomechanical principles to the normal and pathological spine. The basic concepts of biomechanics will first be reviewed followed by a review of the structural anatomy of the osteoligamentous spinal column and the biomechanics of injury. Relevant spinal cord anatomy will then be addressed as well as current biomechanical theories of spinal cord injury.

  12. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  13. Targeted Iron Chelation Will Improve Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Treatment with the flavonoid quercetin starting 1 h after compression SCI in rats had a var- iable effect on improving locomotor function in that a...Kendall, E., Kamencic, H., Ghong, Z., Griebel, R.W., Juurlink, B.H., 2003. Quercetin promotes functional recovery following acute spinal cord injury. J...Neurotrauma 20 (6), 583-591. Schultke, E., Griebel, R.W., Juurlink, B.H., 2010a. Quercetin attenuates inflammatory pro- cesses after spinal cord

  14. Cystic Abnormalities of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Cook, Laurie B

    2016-03-01

    Cystic lesions of the vertebral column and spinal cord are important differential diagnoses in dogs with signs of spinal cord disease. Synovial cysts are commonly associated with degenerative joint disease and usually affect the cervical and lumbosacral regions. Arachnoid diverticulum (previously known as cyst) is seen in the cervical region of large breed dogs and thoracolumbar region of small breed dogs. This article reviews the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of these and other, less common, cystic lesions.

  15. [Spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2016-06-22

    Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy.

  16. Robust, accurate and fast automatic segmentation of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Kadoury, Samuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord segmentation provides measures of atrophy and facilitates group analysis via inter-subject correspondence. Automatizing this procedure enables studies with large throughput and minimizes user bias. Although several automatic segmentation methods exist, they are often restricted in terms of image contrast and field-of-view. This paper presents a new automatic segmentation method (PropSeg) optimized for robustness, accuracy and speed. The algorithm is based on the propagation of a deformable model and is divided into three parts: firstly, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation using a circular Hough transform on multiple axial slices rostral and caudal to the starting plane and builds an initial elliptical tubular mesh. Secondly, a low-resolution deformable model is propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a local contrast-to-noise adaptation at each iteration. Thirdly, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the propagated mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Validation was performed in 15 healthy subjects and two patients with spinal cord injury, using T1- and T2-weighted images of the entire spinal cord and on multiecho T2*-weighted images. Our method was compared against manual segmentation and against an active surface method. Results show high precision for all the MR sequences. Dice coefficients were 0.9 for the T1- and T2-weighted cohorts and 0.86 for the T2*-weighted images. The proposed method runs in less than 1min on a normal computer and can be used to quantify morphological features such as cross-sectional area along the whole spinal cord.

  17. [Vascular and autonomic disorders of the spinal cord in dystopia of the spinal motor segment].

    PubMed

    Gongal'skiĭ, V V; Kuftyreva, T P

    1992-01-01

    Microcirculation disorders may cause functional deviation in gray matter cells of the spinal cord. One of the setting moments of the disorders is the subluxation of a vertebra as a result of the disturbance in carrying ability of the spinal disc in case of spinal osteochondrosis. In this position the soft tissues of the spinal motional well innervated segment are stretched, which induces irritation in the segmental part of the spinal cord including vegetative nervous structures. Subluxation of a vertebra causes changes in the structures and in the microcirculation vessels which grow simultaneously and this permits supposing their interrelation.

  18. Effect of Combination of Non-Invasive Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation and Serotonin Receptor Activation in Patients with Chronic Spinal Cord Lesion.

    PubMed

    Moshonkina, T R; Shapkova, E Yu; Sukhotina, I A; Emeljannikov, D V; Gerasimenko, Yu P

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed the efficiency of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and serotonin receptor activation in rehabilitation of paralyzed patients. Four-week course of spinal cord electrical stimulation combined with mechanotherapy produced positive shifts in the status of chronically paralyzed patients. Serotonin receptor activation potentiated the effect of spinal cord stimulation and can be regarded as an additional neurorehabilitation option.

  19. Spinal cord lesions and disability in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, L.; Lerner, A.; Ledezma, K.; Conti, D.; Law, M.; Weiner, L.; Langer-Gould, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) are believed to occur predominantly with opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) and are associated with disability. Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of spinal cord lesions in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis (MS) and OSMS and their association with disability. Methods Cross-sectional study of 164 patients with complete MRIs. Spinal cord was classified: LESCLs, scattered spinal cord lesions (sSCLs) or no spinal cord lesions (noSCLs). Clinical course was defined as classical MS or OSMS. Risk of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥4.0) was adjusted for age, disease duration and sex using logistic regression. Results 125/164(73%) MS patients had spinal cord lesions (sSCLs, 57%; LESCLs, 19%) but only 11(7%) had OSMS. LESCLs were associated with disability (p<0.0001), longer disease duration (p<0.0001) and MS (n=21 vs. n=10 OSMS; p<0.0001). LESCLs was associated with the greatest risk to disability (OR 7.3, 95% CIs1.9-26.5; p=0.003; sSCLs OR 2.5, 95% CIs0.9-7.1; p=0.09) compared with noSCLs. Conclusion LESCLs are more common than OSMS and are associated with worse disability even in patients with MS. These results suggest that LESCLs are a more important marker of disability in MS than OSMS and may be an early indicator of more aggressive disease in this population. PMID:23912723

  20. Intrinsically organized resting state networks in the human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Beckmann, Christian F.; Andersson, Jesper; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Büchel, Christian; Tracey, Irene; Brooks, Jonathan C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks (RSN). It is not known however, whether intrinsically organized and spatially circumscribed RSNs also exist in the spinal cord, the brain’s principal sensorimotor interface with the body. Here, we use recent advances in spinal fMRI methodology and independent component analysis to answer this question in healthy human volunteers. We identified spatially distinct RSNs in the human spinal cord that were clearly separated into dorsal and ventral components, mirroring the functional neuroanatomy of the spinal cord and likely reflecting sensory and motor processing. Interestingly, dorsal (sensory) RSNs were separated into right and left components, presumably related to ongoing hemibody processing of somatosensory information, whereas ventral (motor) RSNs were bilateral, possibly related to commissural interneuronal networks involved in central pattern generation. Importantly, all of these RSNs showed a restricted spatial extent along the spinal cord and likely conform to the spinal cord’s functionally relevant segmental organization. Although the spatial and temporal properties of the dorsal and ventral RSNs were found to be significantly different, these networks showed significant interactions with each other at the segmental level. Together, our data demonstrate that intrinsically highly organized resting-state fluctuations exist in the human spinal cord and are thus a hallmark of the entire central nervous system. PMID:25472845

  1. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... paraplegic patient who has a complete transection of the spinal cord and who is unable to empty his or...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... paraplegic patient who has a complete transection of the spinal cord and who is unable to empty his or...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... paraplegic patient who has a complete transection of the spinal cord and who is unable to empty his or...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... paraplegic patient who has a complete transection of the spinal cord and who is unable to empty his or...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... paraplegic patient who has a complete transection of the spinal cord and who is unable to empty his or...

  6. Anti-NGF Local Therapy for Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    bladder distention between spinal intact and spinal cord injury ...excitability of bladder afferent neurons in rats with spinal cord injury : a role of A-type voltage-gated potassium channels. 110th Annual Meeting AUA...Increased excitability of bladder afferent neurons in rats with spinal cord injury : a role of A-type voltage-gated potassium channels. 110th Annual

  7. Early radiation-induced endothelial cell loss and blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qing; Chen, Paul; Jain, Vipan; Reilly, Raymond M; Wong, C Shun

    2004-02-01

    Using a rat spinal cord model, this study was designed to characterize radiation-induced vascular endothelial cell loss and its relationship to early blood-brain barrier disruption in the central nervous system. Adult rats were given a single dose of 0, 2, 8, 19.5, 22, 30 or 50 Gy to the cervical spinal cord. At various times up to 2 weeks after irradiation, the spinal cord was processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by morphology and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling combined with immunohistochemical markers for endothelial and glial cells. Image analysis was performed to determine endothelial cell and microvessel density using immunohistochemistry with endothelial markers, namely endothelial barrier antigen, glucose transporter isoform 1, laminin and zonula occludens 1. Blood-spinal cord barrier permeability was assessed using immunohistochemistry for albumin and (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid as a vascular tracer. Endothelial cell proliferation was assessed using in vivo BrdU labeling. During the first 24 h after irradiation, apoptotic endothelial cells were observed in the rat spinal cord. The decrease in endothelial cell density at 24 h after irradiation was associated with an increase in albumin immunostaining around microvessels. The decrease in the number of endothelial cells persisted for 7 days and recovery of endothelial density was apparent by day 14. A similar pattern of blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and recovery of permeability was observed over the 2 weeks, and an increase in BrdU-labeled endothelial cells was seen at day 3. These results are consistent with an association between endothelial cell death and acute blood-spinal cord barrier disruption in the rat spinal cord after irradiation.

  8. Fibrocartilagenous embolism: an unusual cause of spinal cord infarction.

    PubMed

    Yousef, O M; Appenzeller, P; Kornfeld, M

    1998-12-01

    A 14-year-old girl experienced sudden onset of weakness progressing rapidly to paralysis. She died 7 days later from a massive pulmonary thromboembolus. Autopsy revealed extensive infarction of the spinal cord with a fibrocartilaginous embolus of the corresponding segment of the anterior spinal artery.

  9. Surgical Outcomes of High-Grade Spinal Cord Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Syunsuke; Aoyama, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to obtain useful information for establishing the guidelines for treating high-grade spinal cord gliomas. Overview of Literature The optimal management of high-grade spinal cord gliomas remains controversial. We report the outcomes of the surgical management of 14 high-grade spinal glioma. Methods We analyzed the outcomes of 14 patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas who were surgically treated between 1989 and 2012. Survival was charted with the Kaplan-Meier plots and comparisons were made with the log-rank test. Results None of the patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas underwent total resection. Subtotal resection was performed in two patients, partial resection was performed in nine patients, and open biopsy was performed in three patients. All patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy and six patients further underwent radiation cordotomy. The median survival time for patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas was 15 months, with a 5-year survival rate of 22.2%. The median survival time for patients with World Health Organization grade III tumors was 25.5 months, whereas the median survival time for patients with glioblastoma multiforme was 12.5 months. Both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models demonstrated a significant effect only in the group that did not include cervical cord lesion as a factor associated with survival (p=0.04 and 0.03). Conclusions The surgical outcome of patients diagnosed with high-grade spinal cord gliomas remains poor. Notably, only the model which excluded cervical cord lesions as a factor significantly predicted survival. PMID:26713128

  10. In Vivo Measurement of Cervical Spinal Cord Deformation During Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Liu, Jie; Yung, Andrew; Cripton, Peter A; Kozlowski, Piotr; Oxland, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The spinal cord undergoes physical deformation during traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), which results in biological damage. This study demonstrates a novel approach, using magnetic resonance imaging and image registration techniques, to quantify the three-dimensional deformation of the cervical spinal cord in an in vivo rat model. Twenty-four male rats were subjected to one of two clinically relevant mechanisms of TSCI (i.e. contusion and dislocation) inside of a MR scanner using a novel apparatus, enabling imaging of the deformed spinal cords. The displacement fields demonstrated qualitative differences between injury mechanisms. Three-dimensional Lagrangian strain fields were calculated, and the results from the contusion injury mechanism were deemed most reliable. Strain field error was assessed using a Monte Carlo approach, which showed that simulated normal strain error experienced a bias, whereas shear strain error did not. In contusion injury, a large region of dorso-ventral compressive strain was observed under the impactor which extended into the ventral region of the spinal cord. High tensile lateral strains under the impactor and compressive lateral strains in the lateral white matter were also observed in contusion. The ability to directly observe and quantify in vivo spinal cord deformation informs our knowledge of the mechanics of TSCI.

  11. Spinal Cord Tolerance for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun; Ma Lijun; Gibbs, Iris; Gerszten, Peter C.; Ryu, Sam; Soltys, Scott; Weinberg, Vivian; Wong Shun; Chang, Eric; Fowler, Jack; Larson, David A.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric data are reported for five cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to spinal tumors. Analysis per the biologically effective dose (BED) model was performed. Methods and Materials: Five patients with radiation myelopathy were compared to a subset of 19 patients with no radiation myelopathy post-SBRT. In all patients, the thecal sac was contoured to represent the spinal cord, and doses to the maximum point, 0.1-, 1-, 2-, and 5-cc volumes, were analyzed. The mean normalized 2-Gy-equivalent BEDs (nBEDs), calculated using an alpha/beta value of 2 for late toxicity with units Gy 2/2, were compared using the t test and analysis of variance test. Results: Radiation myelopathy was observed at the maximum point with doses of 25.6 Gy in two fractions, 30.9 Gy in three fractions, and 14.8, 13.1, and 10.6 Gy in one fraction. Overall, there was a significant interaction between patient subsets and volume based on the nBED (p = 0.0003). Given individual volumes, a significant difference was observed for the mean maximum point nBED (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The maximum point dose should be respected for spine SBRT. For single-fraction SBRT 10 Gy to a maximum point is safe, and up to five fractions an nBED of 30 to 35 Gy 2/2 to the thecal sac also poses a low risk of radiation myelopathy.

  12. Inflammogenesis of Secondary Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, M. Akhtar; Al Shehabi, Tuqa S.; Eid, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal infarction lead to neurological complications and eventually to paraplegia or quadriplegia. These extremely debilitating conditions are major contributors to morbidity. Our understanding of SCI has certainly increased during the last decade, but remains far from clear. SCI consists of two defined phases: the initial impact causes primary injury, which is followed by a prolonged secondary injury consisting of evolving sub-phases that may last for years. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving this condition are complex. Derangement of the vasculature is a notable feature of the pathology of SCI. In particular, an important component of SCI is the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) that leads to endothelial dysfunction and changes in vascular permeability. Indeed, together with endothelial cell damage and failure in homeostasis, ischemia reperfusion injury triggers full-blown inflammatory cascades arising from activation of residential innate immune cells (microglia and astrocytes) and infiltrating leukocytes (neutrophils and macrophages). These inflammatory cells release neurotoxins (proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, free radicals, excitotoxic amino acids, nitric oxide (NO)), all of which partake in axonal and neuronal deficit. Therefore, our review considers the recent advances in SCI mechanisms, whereby it becomes clear that SCI is a heterogeneous condition. Hence, this leads towards evidence of a restorative approach based on monotherapy with multiple targets or combinatorial treatment. Moreover, from evaluation of the existing literature, it appears that there is an urgent requirement for multi-centered, randomized trials for a large patient population. These clinical studies would offer an opportunity in stratifying SCI patients at high risk and selecting appropriate, optimal therapeutic regimens for personalized medicine. PMID:27147970

  13. [Mortality structure following spine and spinal cord injuries].

    PubMed

    Bazilevskaia, Z V; Golovnykh, L L; Kirkinskaia, T A

    1980-01-01

    In a group of 520 patients with injury to the spine and spinal cord 125 died within 10 years. The highest fatality rate (76.0 +/0 3.8) is recorded in the first year after the injury. In the following 10 years the fatality rate was uniform and ranged between 1.6 and 4.1%. This value increases with the patient's age, the severity of the spinal cord injury, and the degree of damage to the spinal ligamento-bursal apparatus. Among the total number of injured, 76% have a survival period of more than 10 years.

  14. Management of severe spinal cord injury following hyperbaric exposure.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bruce; Laden, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that drainage of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) improves functional neurological outcome after reperfusion injury to the spinal cord that occasionally follows aortic reconstructive surgery. This beneficial effect is considered owing to lowering of the CSF pressure thereby normalising spinal cord blood flow and reducing the 'secondary' cord injury caused by vascular congestion and cord swelling in the relatively confined spinal canal. Whilst lacking definitive proof, there are convincing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort data and systematic reviews supporting this intervention. The therapeutic window for lumbar CSF drainage requires further elucidation; however, it appears to be days rather than hours post insult. We contend that the same benefit is likely to be achieved following other primary spinal cord injuries that cause cord swelling and elicit the 'secondary' injury. Traditionally the concept of CSF drainage has been considered more applicable to the brain as contained in a 'closed box' by lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) to improve cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The control of CPP is intended to limit 'secondary' brain injury and is a key concept of brain injury management. Using microdialysis in the spinal cords of trauma patients, it has been shown that intraspinal pressure (ISP) needs to be kept below 20 mmHg and spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) above 70 mmHg to avoid biochemical evidence of secondary cord damage. Vasopressor have also been used in spinal cord injury to improve perfusion, however complications are common, typically cardiac in nature, and require very careful monitoring; the evidence supporting this approach is notably less convincing. Decompression illness (DCI) of the spinal cord is treated with recompression, hyperbaric oxygen, various medications designed to reduce the inflammatory response and fluid administration to normalise blood pressure and haematocrit. These

  15. New rehabilitation interventions in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Progress in the care of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) spans every aspect, from research in neuroregeneration to pharmacologic interventions. This article focuses on advances in rehabilitation interventions, which have employed bioengineering, computerization, and advanced therapeutic techniques. These interventions are being applied to functional deficits of the bladder, bowel, upper extremities, and respiratory system, as well as to improvements in ambulation and mobility. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is being used to augment the function of the lower extremities, the upper extremities (Freehand System), and the bowel and bladder (Vocare System). Tendon transfer is a reconstructive technique used to improve upper extremity function; it is sometimes combined with FES. Body weight-supported treadmill training is being used to improve ambulation in people with incomplete SCI, and advances in wheelchair technology are expanding options for mobility. Cushion design and pressure mapping are modalities being used to reduce the high risk for pressure ulcers in the SCI population. Research on shoulder stressors is being applied to transfer techniques, exercise regimens, adaptive equipment and wheelchair mechanics to minimize shoulder pain, another common complication. The effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions needs to be documented by evidence-based research. Researchers are focusing on the identification of outcomes measures that will form the basis for established standards of care for individuals with SCI. Perhaps the combination of conventional and newer therapies may enhance neurological recovery. Well-designed studies are needed before we can make this determination.

  16. Osteoporosis in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology, clinical considerations, and relevant experimental findings with regard to osteoporosis in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) will be discussed. The bone loss that occurs acutely after more neurologically motor complete SCI is unique for its sublesional skeletal distribution and rate, at certain skeletal sites approaching 1% of bone mineral density per week, and its resistance to currently available treatments. The areas of high bone loss include the distal femur, proximal tibia, and more distal boney sites. Evidence from a study performed in monozygotic twins discordant for SCI indicates that sublesional bone loss in the twin with SCI increases for several decades, strongly suggesting that the heightened net bone loss after SCI may persist for an extended period of time. The increased frequency of fragility fracture after paralysis will be discussed, and a few risk factors for such fractures after SCI will be examined. Because vitamin D deficiency, regardless of disability, is a relevant consideration for bone health, as well as an easily reversible condition, the increased prevalence of and treatment target values for vitamin D in this deficiency state in the SCI population will be reviewed. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches to preserving bone integrity in persons with acute and chronic SCI will be reviewed, with emphasis placed on efficacy and practicality. Emerging osteoanabolic agents that improve functioning of WNT/β-catenin signaling after paralysis will be introduced as therapeutic interventions that may hold promise.

  17. Stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kan, E M; Ling, E A; Lu, J

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) damages axons and disrupts myelination interrupting sensory and motor neuronal transmission to and from the brain. Patients suffering from SCI although continue to survive, are often left chronically disabled and with no promise of a cure. Advances in stem cell biology has opened up doors for the use of human embryonic, adult neural and induced pluripotent stem cell strategies for SCI. Despite great promise from animal research, clinical trials have been limited and the jury is still out on its safety and efficacy. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the various stem cell types, barriers hindering translation from animal to humans, and the need for established guidelines for standardization of clinical trials ensuring subsequent implementation. Ultimately, unrealistic expectations of stem cell therapy (SCT) as the elixir for SCI should be managed. The success of SCT for SCI lies in the network of research scientists, medical professionals and patients working cooperatively to build up a knowledge-intensive platform for a comprehensive risk-benefit assessment of SCT for SCI.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R.W.; Hsieh, T.J.; Aubut, JA. L.; Eng, J.J.; Krassioukov, A.; Tu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the published literature on the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism post-spinal cord injury (SCI). Data Sources MEDLINE/Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles addressing the treatment of deep venous thromboembolism post-SCI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale, while non-RCTs were assessed using the Downs and Black evaluation tool. Study Selection Studies included RCTs, non-RCTS, cohort, case-control, case series, pre-post, and postinterventional studies. Case studies were included only when no other studies were available. Data Extraction Data extracted included demographics, the nature of the study intervention, and study results. Data Synthesis Levels of evidence were assigned to the interventions using a modified Sackett scale. Conclusions Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies examined various pharmacologic interventions for the treatment or prevention of deep venous thrombosis in SCI patients. There was strong evidence to support the use of low molecular weight heparin in reducing venous thrombosis events, and a higher adjusted dose of unfractionated heparin was found to be more effective than 5000 units administered every 12 hours, although bleeding complication was more common. Nonpharmacologic treatments were also reviewed, but again limited evidence was found to support these treatments. PMID:19236977

  19. Spinal cord involvement in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-03-14

    A severe spinal cord involvement may rarely occur in patients with cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases; this complication is usually associated with overt liver failure and surgical or spontaneous porto-systemic shunt. Hepatic myelopathy (HM) is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower extremities, while sensory and sphincter disturbances have rarely been described and are usually less important. The diagnosis is assigned in the appropriate clinical setting on clinical grounds after the exclusion of other clinical entities leading to spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging is often unremarkable; however, also intracerebral corticospinal tract abnormalities have been reported recently. The study of motor evoked potentials may disclose central conduction abnormalities even before HM is clinically manifest. HM responds poorly to blood ammonia-lowering and other conservative medical therapy. Liver transplantation represents a potentially definitive treatment for HM in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of Child-Pugh B and C grades. Other surgical treatment options in HM include surgical ligation, shunt reduction, or occlusion by interventional procedures.

  20. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Nebahat; Akkuş, Selami; Uğurlu, Fatma Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition that causes functional, psychological and socioeconomic disorder. Therefore, patients with SCI experience significant impairments in various aspects of their life. The goals of rehabilitation and other treatment approaches in SCI are to improve functional level, decrease secondary morbidity and enhance health-related quality of life. Acute and long-term secondary medical complications are common in patients with SCI. However, chronic complications especially further negatively impact on patients’ functional independence and quality of life. Therefore, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of chronic secondary complications in patients with SCI is critical for limiting these complications, improving survival, community participation and health-related quality of life. The management of secondary chronic complications of SCI is also important for SCI specialists, families and caregivers as well as patients. In this paper, we review data about common secondary long-term complications after SCI, including respiratory complications, cardiovascular complications, urinary and bowel complications, spasticity, pain syndromes, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis and bone fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of risk factors, signs, symptoms, prevention and treatment approaches for secondary long-term complications in patients with SCI. PMID:25621208

  1. Cardiovascular dysfunction following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Partida, Elizabeth; Mironets, Eugene; Hou, Shaoping; Tom, Veronica J.

    2016-01-01

    Both sensorimotor and autonomic dysfunctions often occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). Particularly, a high thoracic or cervical SCI interrupts supraspinal vasomotor pathways and results in disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. As a result of the reduced sympathetic activity, patients with SCI may experience hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hypothermia post-injury. In the chronic phase, changes within the CNS and blood vessels lead to orthostatic hypotension and life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is characterized by an episodic, massive sympathetic discharge that causes severe hypertension associated with bradycardia. The syndrome is often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. Currently the only treatments are palliative – once a stimulus elicits AD, pharmacological vasodilators are administered to help reduce the spike in arterial blood pressure. However, a more effective means would be to mitigate AD development by attenuating contributing mechanisms, such as the reorganization of intraspinal circuits below the level of injury. A better understanding of the neuropathophysiology underlying cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is essential to better develop novel therapeutic approaches to restore hemodynamic performance. PMID:27073353

  2. Enrichment of spinal cord cell cultures with motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Spinal cord cell cultures contain several types of neurons. Two methods are described for enriching such cultures with motoneurons (defined here simply as cholinergic cells that are capable of innervating muscle). In the first method, 7-day embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were separated according to size by 1 g velocity sedimentation. It is assumed that cholinergic motoneurons are among the largest cells present at this stage. The spinal cords were dissociated vigorously so that 95-98% of the cells in the initial suspension were isolated from one another. Cells in leading fractions (large cell fractions: LCFs) contain about seven times as much choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity per unit cytoplasm as do cells in trailing fractions (small cell fractions: SCFs). Muscle cultures seeded with LCFs develop 10-70 times as much CAT as cultures seeded with SCFs and six times as much CAT as cultures seeded with control (unfractionated) spinal cord cells. More than 20% of the large neurons in LCF-muscle cultures innervate nearby myotubes. In the second method, neurons were gently dissociated from 4-day embryonic spinal cords and maintained in vitro. This approach is based on earlier observations that cholinergic neurons are among the first cells to withdraw form the mitotic cycle in the developing chick embryo (Hamburger, V. 1948. J. Comp. Neurol. 88:221- 283; and Levi-Montalcini, R. 1950. J. Morphol. 86:253-283). 4-Day spinal cord-muscle cultures develop three times as much CAT as do 7-day spinal cord-muscle plates, prepared in the same (gentle) manner. More than 50% of the relatively large 4-day neurons innervate nearby myotubes. Thus, both methods are useful first steps toward the complete isolation of motoneurons. Both methods should facilitate study of the development of cholinergic neurons and of nerve-muscle synapse formation. PMID:566275

  3. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    PubMed

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  4. Undirected compensatory plasticity contributes to neuronal dysfunction after severe spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Barraud, Quentin; Friedli, Lucia; Musienko, Pavel; Dietz, Volker; Courtine, Grégoire

    2013-11-01

    Severe spinal cord injury in humans leads to a progressive neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. This dysfunction is characterized by premature exhaustion of muscle activity during assisted locomotion, which is associated with the emergence of abnormal reflex responses. Here, we hypothesize that undirected compensatory plasticity within neural systems caudal to a severe spinal cord injury contributes to the development of neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. We evaluated alterations in functional, electrophysiological and neuromorphological properties of lumbosacral circuitries in adult rats with a staggered thoracic hemisection injury. In the chronic stage of the injury, rats exhibited significant neuronal dysfunction, which was characterized by co-activation of antagonistic muscles, exhaustion of locomotor muscle activity, and deterioration of electrochemically-enabled gait patterns. As observed in humans, neuronal dysfunction was associated with the emergence of abnormal, long-latency reflex responses in leg muscles. Analyses of circuit, fibre and synapse density in segments caudal to the spinal cord injury revealed an extensive, lamina-specific remodelling of neuronal networks in response to the interruption of supraspinal input. These plastic changes restored a near-normal level of synaptic input within denervated spinal segments in the chronic stage of injury. Syndromic analysis uncovered significant correlations between the development of neuronal dysfunction, emergence of abnormal reflexes, and anatomical remodelling of lumbosacral circuitries. Together, these results suggest that spinal neurons deprived of supraspinal input strive to re-establish their synaptic environment. However, this undirected compensatory plasticity forms aberrant neuronal circuits, which may engage inappropriate combinations of sensorimotor networks during gait execution.

  5. Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons From Preclinical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Paul M.; Boike, Thomas P.

    2011-04-01

    Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years, but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions, and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in preclinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small- and large-animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Preclinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose-volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data are sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat, and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury Immediately Changes the State of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Humanes-Valera, Desiré; Alonso-Calviño, Elena; Yague, Josué G.; Moxon, Karen A.; Oliviero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury can produce extensive long-term reorganization of the cerebral cortex. Little is known, however, about the sequence of cortical events starting immediately after the lesion. Here we show that a complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord produces immediate functional reorganization in the primary somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats. Besides the obvious loss of cortical responses to hindpaw stimuli (below the level of the lesion), cortical responses evoked by forepaw stimuli (above the level of the lesion) markedly increase. Importantly, these increased responses correlate with a slower and overall more silent cortical spontaneous activity, representing a switch to a network state of slow-wave activity similar to that observed during slow-wave sleep. The same immediate cortical changes are observed after reversible pharmacological block of spinal cord conduction, but not after sham. We conclude that the deafferentation due to spinal cord injury can immediately (within minutes) change the state of large cortical networks, and that this state change plays a critical role in the early cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury. PMID:20519527

  7. Frequency Mapping of Rat Spinal Cord at 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Evan; Rauscher, Alexander; Kozlowski, Piotr; Yung, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The spinal cord is an integral part of the nervous system responsible for sensory, motor, and reflex control crucial to all bodily function. Due to its non-invasive nature, MRI is well matched for characterizing and imaging of spinal cord, and is used extensively for clinical applications. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high field (7T) using phase represents a new approach of characterizing spinal cord myelin. Theory suggests that microstructure differences in myelinated white matter (WM) and non-myelinated gray matter (GM) affect MR phase, measurable frequency shifts. Data from pilot experiments using a multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence to image rat spinal cords placed parallel to main magnetic field B0 has shown frequency shifts between not only between WM and GM, but also between specific WM tracts of the dorsal column, including the fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, and corticospinal tract. Using MGE, frequency maps at multiple echo times (TE) between 4ms and 22ms show a non-linear relationship between WM frequency, contrary to what was previously expected. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of MGE in revealing new information about spinal cord tissue microstructure, and lays important groundwork for in-vivo and human studies.

  8. Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele.

    PubMed

    Dawley, Ellen M; O Samson, Shoji; Woodard, Kenton T; Matthias, Kathryn A

    2012-02-01

    Adult urodele amphibians possess extensive regenerative abilities, including lens, jaws, limbs, and tails. In this study, we examined the cellular events and time course of spinal cord regeneration in a species, Plethodon cinereus, that has the ability to autotomize its tail as an antipredator strategy. We propose that this species may have enhanced regenerative abilities as further coadaptations with this antipredator strategy. We examined the expression of nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after autotomy as markers of neural precursor cells and astroglia; we also traced the appearance of new neurons using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN) double labeling. As expected, the regenerating ependymal tube was a major source of new neurons; however, the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy showed significant mitotic activity, more extensive than what is reported for other urodeles that cannot autotomize their tails. In addition, this species shows upregulation of nestin, vimentin, and GFAP within days after tail autotomy; further, this expression is upregulated within the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy, not just within the extending ependymal tube, as reported in other urodeles. We suggest that enhanced survival of the spinal cord cranial to autotomy allows this portion to participate in the enhanced recovery and regeneration of the spinal cord.

  9. Spinal stimulation of the upper lumbar spinal cord modulates urethral sphincter activity in rats after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Abud, Edsel M; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M; Havton, Leif A; Chang, Huiyi H

    2015-05-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), the neurogenic bladder is observed to develop asynchronous bladder and external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions in a condition known as detrusor-sphincter dyssnergia (DSD). Activation of the EUS spinal controlling center located at the upper lumbar spinal cord may contribute to reduce EUS dyssynergic contractions and decrease urethral resistance during voiding. However, this mechanism has not been well studied. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of epidural stimulation (EpS) over the spinal EUS controlling center (L3) in combination with a serotonergic receptor agonist on EUS relaxation in naive rats and chronic (6-8 wk) T8 SCI rats. Cystometrogram and EUS electromyography (EMG) were obtained before and after the intravenous administration of 5HT-1A receptor agonist and antagonist. The latency, duration, frequency, amplitude, and area under curve of EpS-evoked EUS EMG responses were analyzed. EpS on L3 evoked an inhibition of EUS tonic contraction and an excitation of EUS intermittent bursting/relaxation correlating with urine expulsion in intact rats. Combined with a 5HT-1A receptor agonist, EpS on L3 evoked a similar effect in chronic T8 SCI rats to reduce urethral contraction (resistance). This study examined the effect of facilitating the EUS spinal controlling center to switch between urine storage and voiding phases by using EpS and a serotonergic receptor agonist. This novel approach of applying EpS on the EUS controlling center modulates EUS contraction and relaxation as well as reduces urethral resistance during voiding in chronic SCI rats with DSD.

  10. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  11. Electrophysiological and Anatomical Correlates of Spinal Cord Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Maurizio; Krstajic, Nikola; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the continuous improvement in medical imaging technology, visualizing the spinal cord poses severe problems due to structural or incidental causes, such as small access space and motion artifacts. In addition, positional guidance on the spinal cord is not commonly available during surgery, with the exception of neuronavigation techniques based on static pre-surgical data and of radiation-based methods, such as fluoroscopy. A fast, bedside, intraoperative real-time imaging, particularly necessary during the positioning of endoscopic probes or tools, is an unsolved issue. The objective of our work, performed on experimental rats, is to demonstrate potential intraoperative spinal cord imaging and probe guidance by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Concurrently, we aimed to demonstrate that the electromagnetic OCT irradiation exerted no particular effect at the neuronal and synaptic levels. OCT is a user-friendly, low-cost and endoscopy-compatible photonics-based imaging technique. In particular, by using a Fourier-domain OCT imager, operating at 850 nm wavelength and scanning transversally with respect to the spinal cord, we have been able to: 1) accurately image tissue structures in an animal model (muscle, spine bone, cerebro-spinal fluid, dura mater and spinal cord), and 2) identify the position of a recording microelectrode approaching and inserting into the cord tissue 3) check that the infrared radiation has no actual effect on the electrophysiological activity of spinal neurons. The technique, potentially extendable to full three-dimensional image reconstruction, shows prospective further application not only in endoscopic intraoperative analyses and for probe insertion guidance, but also in emergency and adverse situations (e.g. after trauma) for damage recognition, diagnosis and fast image-guided intervention. PMID:27050096

  12. Developmental changes in the distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive neurons in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Antal, M; Berki, A C; Horváth, L; O'Donovan, M J

    1994-05-08

    The development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive neurons was investigated in the embryonic and posthatch chick lumbosacral spinal cord by using pre- and postembedding immunostaining with an anti-GABA antiserum. The first GABA-immunoreactive cells were detected in the ventral one-half of the spinal cord dorsal to the lateral motor column at E4. GABAergic neurons in this location sharply increased in number and, with the exception of the lateral motor column, appeared throughout the entire extent of the ventral one-half of the spinal gray matter by E6. Thereafter, GABA-immunoreactive neurons extended from ventral to dorsal regions. Stained perikarya first appeared at E8 and then progressively accumulated in the dorsal horn, while immunoreactive neurons gradually declined in the ventral horn. The general pattern of GABA immunoreactivity characteristic of mature animals had been achieved by E12 and was only slightly altered afterwards. In the dorsal horn, most of the stained neurons were observed in laminae I-III, both at the upper (LS 1-3) and at the lower (LS 5-7) segments of the lumbosacral spinal cord. In the ventral horn, the upper and lower lumbosacral segments showed marked differences in the distribution of stained perikarya. GABAergic neurons were scattered in a relatively large region dorsomedial to the lateral motor column at the level of the upper lumbosacral segments, whereas they were confined to the dorsalmost region of lamina VII at the lower segments. The early expression of GABA immunoreactivity may indicate a trophic and synaptogenetic role for GABA in early phases of spinal cord development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The spinal cord supports of vertebrae in the crown-group salamanders (Caudata, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Skutschas, Pavel P; Baleeva, Nataly V

    2012-09-01

    The development of spinal cord supports (bony thickenings which extend into the vertebral canal of vertebrae) in primitive (Salamandrella keyserlingii) and derived (Lissotriton vulgaris) salamanders were described. The spinal cord supports develop as the protuberances of periostal bone of the neural arches in the anteroproximal part of the septal collagenous fibers which connect a transverse myoseptum with the notochord and spinal cord, in the septal bundle inside the vertebral canal. Spinal cord supports were also found in some teleostean (Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and dipnoan (Protopterus sp.) fishes. The absence of the spinal cord supports in vertebrates with cartilaginous vertebrae (lampreys, chondrichthyan, and chondrostean fishes) corresponds to the fact that the spinal cord supports are bone structures. The absence of the spinal cord supports in frogs correlates with the lack of the well developed septal bundles inside the vertebral canal. The spinal cord supports are, presumably, a synapomorphic character for salamanders which originated independently of those observed in teleostean and dipnoan fishes.

  14. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request... spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and health care system. Affected Public... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title:...

  15. [Electrophysiological testing in spinal cord tumors].

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Mauguière, F

    2017-02-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are useful to evaluate the functional impairment of motor and somatosensory pathways in spinal cord tumors. Conduction through pyramidal tracts is evaluated by motor EPs (MEPs) elicited by transcranial stimulation, magnetic for awake patients or electric in the operating room. Somatosensory EPs (SEPs) and laser EPs (LEPs) are complementary procedures to explore conduction in dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts, respectively. MEPs as well as SEPs show conduction abnormalities in about 60% of cases with a sensitivity that increases up to 70% when both procedures are carried out. Abnormalities are observed in the absence of any clinical sign in respectively 7% and 15% of cases for MEPs and SEPs. Multilevel stimulations for SEPs recordings permit to detect segmental dysfunction in 70% in case of cervical TIM, even in the absence of clinical signs. LEPs are useful in specific clinical situations: they allow a dermatomal stimulation and are correlated to segmental thermoalgic anaesthesia. Electrophysiological testing plays an important role in the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy: before surgery, MEPs and SEPs objectively evaluate the functional impairment directly related to the lesion. They also help by permitting a follow-up, either before surgery when the surgical decision is delayed because of a good clinical tolerance of the lesion, or after operation to evaluate the functional evolution. Intraoperative monitoring of MEPs and SEPs allows informing the surgeon about the impact on each surgical manipulation. No prospective randomized study has been performed to date to compare clinical evolution after surgery with or without monitoring. Nevertheless, a wide consensus became established in favor of monitoring to limit the risk of postoperative definite deficit and to permit an optimal surgical resection without risk when responses are preserved.

  16. Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Keller, A Florence; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W; De Koninck, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Background Disinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate for neuropathic pain. But, a central unresolved question is whether this disinhibition can transform the activity and responses of spinal nociceptive output neurons to account for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury, local spinal administration of ATP-stimulated microglia or pharmacological disruption of chloride transport change the phenotype of spinal lamina I output neurons, causing them to 1) increase the gain of nociceptive responsiveness, 2) relay innocuous mechanical input and 3) generate spontaneous bursts of activity. The changes in the electrophysiological phenotype of lamina I neurons may account for three principal components of neuropathic pain: hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, respectively. Conclusion The transformation of discharge activity and sensory specificity provides an aberrant signal in a primarily nociceptive ascending pathway that may serve as a basis for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. PMID:17900333

  17. De novo expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor in spinal lamina I pyramidal neurons in polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2009-05-20

    Spinal lamina I (LI) neurons play a major role in the transmission and integration of pain-related information that is relayed to higher centers. Alterations in the excitability of these neurons influence chronic pain development, and expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1r) is thought to play a major role in such changes. Novel expression of NK-1r may underlie hyperexcitability in new populations of LI neurons. LI projection neurons can be classified morphologically into fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar cells, differing in their functional properties, with the pyramidal type being nonnociceptive. In agreement with this, we have shown that spinoparabrachial pyramidal neurons seldom express NK-1r, in contrast with the other two cell types. In this study we investigated in the rat the long-term changes in NK-1r expression by spinoparabrachial LI neurons following the unilateral injection in the hindpaw plantar surface of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Our results revealed that, ipsilaterally, pyramidal neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r both in saline-injected and in CFA-injected rats, up to 10 days post-CFA. However, a considerable number of pyramidal cells were immunoreactive for NK-1r at 15, 21, and 30 days post-CFA. Our data raise the possibility -- which needs to be confirmed by electrophysiology -- that most LI projection neurons of the pyramidal type are likely nonnociceptive in naive animals but might become nociceptive following the development of arthritis.

  18. Treadmill training promotes spinal changes leading to locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Rossignol, Serge

    2013-06-01

    After a spinal hemisection at thoracic level in cats, the paretic hindlimb progressively recovers locomotion without treadmill training but asymmetries between hindlimbs persist for several weeks and can be seen even after a further complete spinal transection at T13. To promote optimal locomotor recovery after hemisection, such asymmetrical changes need to be corrected. In the present study we determined if the locomotor deficits induced by a spinal hemisection can be corrected by locomotor training and, if so, whether the spinal stepping after the complete spinal cord transection is also more symmetrical. This would indicate that locomotor training in the hemisected period induces efficient changes in the spinal cord itself. Sixteen adult cats were first submitted to a spinal hemisection at T10. One group received 3 wk of treadmill training, whereas the second group did not. Detailed kinematic and electromyographic analyses showed that a 3-wk period of locomotor training was sufficient to improve the quality and symmetry of walking of the hindlimbs. Moreover, after the complete spinal lesion was performed, all the trained cats reexpressed bilateral and symmetrical hindlimb locomotion within 24 h. By contrast, the locomotor pattern of the untrained cats remained asymmetrical, and the hindlimb on the side of the hemisection was still deficient. This study highlights the beneficial role of locomotor training in facilitating bilateral and symmetrical functional plastic changes within the spinal circuitry and in promoting locomotor recovery after an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  19. Somatotopic arrangement of thermal sensory regions in the healthy human spinal cord determined by means of spinal cord functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Patrick W; Bosma, Rachael L; Tsyben, Anastasia

    2012-09-01

    Previous functional MRI studies of normal sensory function in the human spinal cord, including right-to-left symmetry of activity, have been influenced by order effects between repeated studies. In this study, we apply thermal sensory stimulation to four dermatomes within each functional MRI time-series acquisition. Each of the four dermatomes receives a unique stimulation paradigm, such that the four paradigms form a linearly independent set, enabling detection of each individual stimulus response. Functional MRI data are shown spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem in 10 healthy volunteers. Results of general linear model analysis demonstrate consistent patterns of activity within the spinal cord segments corresponding to each dermatome, and a high degree of symmetry between right-side and left-side stimulation. Connectivity analyses also demonstrate consistent areas of activity and connectivity between spinal cord and brainstem regions corresponding to known anatomy. However, right-side and left-side responses are not at precisely the same rostral-caudal positions, but are offset by several millimeters, with left-side responses consistently more caudal than right-side responses. The results confirm that distinct responses to multiple interleaved sensory stimuli can be distinguished, enabling studies of sensory responses within the spinal cord without the confounding effects of comparing sequential studies.

  20. Malnutrition in Spinal Cord Injury: More Than Nutritional Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. PMID:22870169

  1. Exercise Training Promotes Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Deng, Lingxiao; Li, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    The exercise training is an effective therapy for spinal cord injury which has been applied to clinic. Traditionally, the exercise training has been considered to improve spinal cord function only through enhancement, compensation, and replacement of the remaining function of nerve and muscle. Recently, accumulating evidences indicated that exercise training can improve the function in different levels from end-effector organ such as skeletal muscle to cerebral cortex through reshaping skeletal muscle structure and muscle fiber type, regulating physiological and metabolic function of motor neurons in the spinal cord and remodeling function of the cerebral cortex. We compiled published data collected in different animal models and clinical studies into a succinct review of the current state of knowledge. PMID:28050288

  2. Respiration following Spinal Cord Injury: Evidence for Human Neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hoh, Daniel J.; Mercier, Lynne M.; Hussey, Shaunn P.; Lane, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory dysfunction is one of the most devastating consequences of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) with impaired breathing being a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. However, there is mounting experimental and clinical evidence for moderate spontaneous respiratory recovery, or “plasticity”, after some spinal cord injuries. Pre-clinical models of respiratory dysfunction following SCI have demonstrated plasticity at neural and behavioral levels that result in progressive recovery of function. Temporal changes in respiration after human SCI have revealed some functional improvements suggesting plasticity paralleling that seen in experimental models – a concept that has been previously under-appreciated. While the extent of spontaneous recovery remains limited, it is possible that enhancing or facilitating neuroplastic mechanisms may have significant therapeutic potential. The next generation of treatment strategies for SCI and related respiratory dysfunction should aim to optimize these recovery processes of the injured spinal cord for lasting functional restoration. PMID:23891679

  3. Spinal cord electrophysiology II: extracellular suction electrode fabrication.

    PubMed

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-02-20

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively.

  4. Peripheral injury and anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horse radish peroxidase to the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Valtschanoff, J G; Weinberg, R J; Rustioni, A

    1992-10-01

    Previous observations have revealed labeling in the extracellular space surrounding boutons and unmyelinated fibers in superficial laminae of the spinal cord after injection of the tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase in dorsal root ganglia. The degree of extracellular labeling appeared related to the extent of the damage to the ganglia at the time of the injection. To determine whether injury might produce extracellular labeling, we investigated the effects of unilateral nerve crush or transection on spinal labeling after bilateral injections of the tracer into sciatic nerves. Confirming previous reports, labeling was confined to small dorsal root ganglion cells and to spinal laminae I and II, suggesting a selective affinity of this tracer for unmyelinated fibers. Labeling of both ganglion neurons and superficial spinal laminae was increased on the injured side, probably as a result of increased efficiency of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Electron microscopical observations revealed that the tracer was largely confined to unmyelinated dorsal root fibers bilaterally; a higher percentage of these fibers were labeled on the injured side. In the dorsal horn, the tracer was predominantly within unmyelinated axons and their terminals on the control side, whereas most of the labeling was extracellular and transneuronal on the injured side. The extracellular labeling surrounded unmyelinated fibers and their terminals in the spinal cord, but was excluded from the synaptic cleft. The demonstration that injury is accompanied by significantly increased release of this tracer from the terminals of unmyelinated fibers into the extracellular space suggests that endogenous substances may be released after peripheral lesions as a central signal of injury.

  5. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Seth D. Messinger...SUBTITLE Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service- Social Reintegration of Service Me Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord...communities and cultural identities that is key to long-term success . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Community Reintegration , Qualitative

  6. Spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina in a patient implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Paolo; Grimaldi, Roberto; Massa, Riccardo; Chiribiri, Amedeo; De Luca, Anna; Castellano, Maddalena; Cardano, Paola; Trevi, Gian Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is currently used to treat refractory angina. Some concerns may arise about the possible interaction concerning the spinal cord stimulator in patients already implanted with a pacemaker or a cardioverter defibrillator. We are going to describe the successful implantation of a spinal cord stimulator in a patient previously implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

  7. 76 FR 71623 - Agency Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... 2900-New (VA Form 10-0515).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey... Collection. Abstract: Information collected on VA Form 10-0515 will be used to determine spinal cord...

  8. Nogo-A expression dynamically varies after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-wei; Yang, Jun-feng; Ma, Yong; Hua, Zhen; Guo, Yang; Gu, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Ya-feng

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism involved in neural regeneration after spinal cord injury is unclear. The myelin-derived protein Nogo-A, which is specific to the central nervous system, has been identified to negatively affect the cytoskeleton and growth program of axotomized neurons. Studies have shown that Nogo-A exerts immediate and chronic inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth. In vivo, inhibitors of Nogo-A have been shown to lead to a marked enhancement of regenerative axon extension. We established a spinal cord injury model in rats using a free-falling weight drop device to subsequently investigate Nogo-A expression. Nogo-A mRNA and protein expression and immunoreactivity were detected in spinal cord tissue using real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. At 24 hours after spinal cord injury, Nogo-A protein and mRNA expression was low in the injured group compared with control and sham-operated groups. The levels then continued to drop further and were at their lowest at 3 days, rapidly rose to a peak after 7 days, and then gradually declined again after 14 days. These changes were observed at both the mRNA and protein level. The transient decrease observed early after injury followed by high levels for a few days indicates Nogo-A expression is time dependent. This may contribute to the lack of regeneration in the central nervous system after spinal cord injury. The dynamic variation of Nogo-A should be taken into account in the treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:25883620

  9. [Operative ultrasonography of the brain and spinal cord pathology].

    PubMed

    Machi, J; Sigel, B; Menoni, R; Jafar, J J; Beitler, J C; Crowell, R M

    1984-07-01

    B-mode real-time ultrasound using 5 or 7.5 MHz transducer has been employed during 21 operations for brain pathology and spinal cord lesions. Ultrasonic scanning was performed at the following operations: 10 brain tumors (4 glioblastomas multiforme, 2 astrocytomas, 1 medulloblastoma, 2 metastatic tumors), 2 brain cysts (arachnoid, epidermoid), 1 tuberculous abscess, 3 cerebral hematomas: 2 spinal cord tumors (malignant melanoma, glioma), 2 syringomyelias, 1 posterior longitudinal ligament thickening. Operative ultrasound was useful prior to dural incisions and particularly for subcortical lesions. In addition, ultrasound provided assistance at spinal cord surgery. Our experience has been reviewed and summarized in this report in terms of specific usefulness of assistance of this method which has proven helpful to the neurosurgeons. The types of assistance provided by operative ultrasonography include: Location of dural incision. Localization of brain and spinal cord lesions prior to biopsy. Diagnosis which has not been made preoperatively (e.g. necrosis or cystic area in tumor). Consistency of each lesion (e.g. solid or cystic, necrosis, loculation). Size, extent and depth of brain tumor, cyst, abscess and hematoma. Presence and extent of spinal cord syrinx. Relation of tumor to spinal cord and dura. Access route for biopsy and drainage (avoiding critical areas such as motor strip). Exclusion of bleeding or hematoma following biopsy. Confirmation of the effectiveness of drainage or resection of lesions. Relationship between pathology and surrounding anatomic structures. A number of important assistance by the utilization of ultrasound during neurological surgery have been identified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Scratching activates microglia in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Dun, Siok L; Chen, Yi-Hung; Luo, Jin J; Cowan, Alan; Dun, Nae J

    2015-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that repetitive scratching provoked by two known pruritogens, compound 48/80 and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI), is accompanied by activation of microglial cells in the mouse spinal cord. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the complement receptor 3, also known as cluster determinant 11b (CD11b), a cell surface marker of microglial cells, was upregulated in the spinal cord 10-30 min after a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of compound 48/80 (50 μg/100 μl) or GNTI (0.3 mg/kg) to the back of the mouse neck. Numerous intensely labeled CD11b-immunoreactive (CD11b-ir) cells, with the appearance of hypertrophic reactive microglia, were distributed throughout the gray and white matter. In contrast, weakly labeled CD11b-ir cells were distributed in the spinal cord from mice injected with saline. Western blots showed that CD11b expression levels were significantly increased in spinal cords of mice injected s.c. with either pruritogen, reached a peak response in about 30 min, and declined to about the basal level in the ensuing 60 min. In addition, phospho-p38 (p-p38) but not p38 levels were upregulated in spinal cords from mice injected with compound 48/80 or GNTI, with a time course parallel to that of CD11b expression. Pretreatment of the mice with nalfurafine (20 µg/kg; s.c.), a κ-opioid receptor agonist that has been shown to suppress scratching, reduced CD11b and p-p38 expression induced by either pruritogen. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that scratch behavior induced by the pruritogens GNTI and compound 48/80 is accompanied by a parallel activation of microglial cells in the spinal cord.

  11. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, AC; Parrish, TB; Hoggarth, MA; McPherson, JG; Tysseling, VM; Wasielewski, M; Kim, HE; Hornby, TG; Elliott, JM

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives: Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting: University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods: Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results: We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion: The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship: NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770

  12. Spinal cord lesions and disability in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, L; Lerner, A; Ledezma, K; Conti, D; Law, M; Weiner, L; Langer-Gould, A

    2013-11-01

    Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) are believed to occur predominantly with opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) and are associated with disability. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence and patterns of spinal cord lesions in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis (MS) and OSMS and their association with disability. A cross-sectional study of 164 patients with complete MRIs was used. In each case the spinal cord was classified: LESCLs, scattered spinal cord lesions (sSCLs) or no spinal cord lesions (noSCLs). Clinical course was defined as classical MS or OSMS. Risk of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥4.0) was adjusted for age, disease duration and sex using logistic regression. A total of 125/164 (73 %) MS patients had spinal cord lesions (sSCLs, 57 %; LESCLs, 19 %), but only 11 (7 %) had OSMS. LESCLs were associated with disability (p < 0.0001), longer disease duration (p < 0.0001) and MS (n = 21 vs. n = 10 OSMS; p < 0.0001). LESCLs were also associated with the greatest risk to disability (OR 7.3, 95 % CIs 1.9-26.5; p = 0.003; sSCLs OR 2.5, 95 % CIs 0.9-7.1; p = 0.09) compared with noSCLs. LESCLs are more common than OSMS and are associated with worse disability even in patients with MS. These results suggest that LESCLs are a more important marker of disability in MS than OSMS and may be an early indicator of more aggressive disease in this population.

  13. Scratching activates microglia in the mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Dun, Siok L.; Chen, Yi-Hung; Luo, Jin J.; Cowan, Alan; Dun, Nae J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that repetitive scratching provoked by either of two known pruritogens, compound 48/80 and 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI), is accompanied by activation of microglia cells in the mouse spinal cord. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that CD11b, a cell surface marker of microglia cells, was up-regulated in the spinal cord 10–30 min post subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of compound 48/80 (50 μg/100 μl) or GNTI (0.3 mg/kg) to the back of the mouse neck. Numerous intensely labeled CD11b immunoreactive (irCD11b) cells, with the appearance of hypertrophic reactive microglia, were distributed throughout the gray and white matter. In contrast, weakly labeled irCD11b cells were distributed in the spinal cord from mice injected with saline. Western blots showed that CD11b expression levels were significantly increased in spinal cords of mice injected s.c. with either pruritogen, reached a peak response in about 30 min, and declined toward the basal level in the ensuing 60 min. In addition, phospho-p38 (p-p38), but not p38, levels were up-regulated in spinal cords from mice injected with compound 48/80 or GNTI, with a time course parallel to that of CD11b expression. Pretreatment of the mice with nalfurafine (20 μg/kg; s.c.), a κ opioid receptor agonist that has been shown to suppress scratching, reduced CD11b and p-p38 expression induced by either pruritogen. The result demonstrates, for the first time, that scratch behavior induced by pruritogens GNTI and compound 48/80 is accompanied by a parallel activation of microglia cells in the spinal cord. PMID:25354468

  14. Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain constitutes a significant portion of chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain are usually more heavily burdened than patients with nociceptive pain. They suffer more often from insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, analgesic medication often has an insufficient effect on neuropathic pain. Spinal cord stimulation constitutes a therapy alternative that, to date, remains underused. In the last 10 to 15 years, it has undergone constant technical advancement. This review gives an overview of the present practice of spinal cord stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain and current developments such as high-frequency stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation. PMID:25429237

  15. Human spinal cord injury: new and emerging approaches to treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L

    2001-11-01

    The World Health Organization together with the Iceland Ministry of Health and Social Security sponsored a conference entitled 'Human Spinal Cord Injury: New and Emerging Approaches to Treatment' held on May 31-June 2, 2001 in Reykjavik, Iceland. To help catalyze the development of new paradigms to address spinal cord injury, the conference's overall goal was to bring in a diversity of perspectives, ranging from state-of-the-art stem cell biology to the ancient wisdom of Eastern Medicine. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the presentations of the conference's 26 speakers.

  16. Spinal cord stimulation in pain management: a review.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young Hoon

    2012-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation has become a widely used and efficient alternative for the management of refractory chronic pain that is unresponsive to conservative therapies. Technological improvements have been considerable and the current neuromodulation devices are both extremely sophisticated and reliable in obtaining good results for various clinical situations of chronic pain, such as failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, ischemic and coronary artery disease. This technique is likely to possess a savings in costs compared with alternative therapy strategies despite its high initial cost. Spinal cord stimulation continues to be a valuable tool in the treatment of chronic disabling pain.

  17. Rodent spinal cord injury models for studies of axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Steward, Oswald; Willenberg, Rafer

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, axon regeneration has been considered the Holy Grail for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. Although there are other factors that could contribute to improving function, restoring the long motor and sensory tracts that are interrupted by SCI has the greatest potential for actually reversing paralysis, restoring the brain's control of autonomic functions mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic circuits of the spinal cord and restoring sensation. Accordingly and in keeping with the overall theme of this special issue, this review focuses narrowly on rodent SCI models for studies of axon regeneration.

  18. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  19. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  20. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    injury . They will supervise the creation of the cervical spine injuries , care of the animals, sacrifice and perfusion fixation, and, after completion...cord injury . They will supervise the creation of the cervical spine injuries , care of the animals, sacrifice and perfusion fixation, and, after...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0715 TITLE: Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  1. Complete rat spinal cord transection as a faithful model of spinal cord injury for translational cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lukovic, Dunja; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Lopez-Mocholi, Eric; Rodriguez-Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva; Oria, Marc; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Erceg, Slaven

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in neural loss and consequently motor and sensory impairment below the injury. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of traumatic SCI in humans. Various animal models have been developed to mimic human SCI. Widely used animal models of SCI are complete or partial transection or experimental contusion and compression, with both bearing controversy as to which one more appropriately reproduces the human SCI functional consequences. Here we present in details the widely used procedure of complete spinal cord transection as a faithful animal model to investigate neural and functional repair of the damaged tissue by exogenous human transplanted cells. This injury model offers the advantage of complete damage to a spinal cord at a defined place and time, is relatively simple to standardize and is highly reproducible. PMID:25860664

  2. The Function of FGFR1 Signalling in the Spinal Cord: Therapeutic Approaches Using FGFR1 Ligands after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Lawrence D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft. Further they provide evidence for partial recovery of sensory function shown by electrophysiology and motor activity evidenced by behavioural data. We also present one study that indicates that combination with additional, synergistic factors might further drive the system towards functional regeneration. In essence, this review summarises the potential of nerve and cell grafts combined with FGF1/2 supplementation to improve outcome even after severe spinal cord injury. PMID:28197342

  3. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Yisheng, W; Fuying, Z; Limin, W; Junwei, Li; Guofu, P; Weidong, W

    2007-01-01

    Background: Traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with subaxial fracture and dislocation not only indicates a highly unstable spine but can also induce life-threatening complications. This makes first aid critically important before any definitive operative procedure is undertaken. The present study analyzes the various first aid measures and operative procedures for such injury. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-five patients suffered from cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation. The average period between injury and admission was 4.5 days (range 5 h-12 weeks). The injury includes burst fractures (n = 90), compression fractures with herniated discs (n = 50), fractures and dislocation (n = 88) and pure dislocation (n = 36). Other injuries including developmental spinal canal stenosis and/or multi-segment spinal cord compression associated with trauma (n = 12), lamina fractures compressing the spinal cord (n = 6), ligament injuries (n = 7) and hematoma (n = 6) were observed in the present study. The injury level was C4 (n = 17), C5 (n = 29), C6 (n = 39), C7 (n = 35), C4-5 (n = 38), C5-6 (n = 58), C6-7 (n = 49), C4-6 (n = 16) and C5-7 (n = 14). According to the Frankel grading system, grade A was observed in 20 cases, grade B in 91, grade C in 124 and grade D in 60. One hundred and eighteen (40%) patients had a high fever and difficulty in breathing on presentation. First aid measures included early reduction and immobilization of the injured cervical spine, controlling the temperature, breathing support, and administration of high-dose methylprednisolone within eight hours of the injury (n = 12) and administration of dehydration and neurotrophy medicine. Oxygen support was given and tracheotomy was performed for patients with serious difficulty in breathing. Measures were taken to prevent bedsores and infections of the respiratory and urological systems. Two hundred and thirty six patients were treated with anterior decompression, 31

  4. Augmentation of Voluntary Locomotor Activity by Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation in Motor-Incomplete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Krenn, Matthias; Danner, Simon M; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; McKay, William B; Mayr, Winfried; Minassian, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The level of sustainable excitability within lumbar spinal cord circuitries is one of the factors determining the functional outcome of locomotor therapy after motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Here, we present initial data using noninvasive transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) to modulate this central state of excitability during voluntary treadmill stepping in three motor-incomplete spinal cord-injured individuals. Stimulation was applied at 30 Hz with an intensity that generated tingling sensations in the lower limb dermatomes, yet without producing muscle reflex activity. This stimulation changed muscle activation, gait kinematics, and the amount of manual assistance required from the therapists to maintain stepping with some interindividual differences. The effect on motor outputs during treadmill-stepping was essentially augmentative and step-phase dependent despite the invariant tonic stimulation. The most consistent modification was found in the gait kinematics, with the hip flexion during swing increased by 11.3° ± 5.6° across all subjects. This preliminary work suggests that tSCS provides for a background increase in activation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuitry that has partially lost its descending drive. Voluntary inputs and step-related feedback build upon the stimulation-induced increased state of excitability in the generation of locomotor activity. Thus, tSCS essentially works as an electrical neuroprosthesis augmenting remaining motor control.

  5. A Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord Compression Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Züchner, Mark; Glover, Joel C.; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically causes devastating neurological deficits, particularly through damage to fibers descending from the brain to the spinal cord. A major current area of research is focused on the mechanisms of adaptive plasticity that underlie spontaneous or induced functional recovery following SCI. Spontaneous functional recovery is reported to be greater early in life, raising interesting questions about how adaptive plasticity changes as the spinal cord develops. To facilitate investigation of this dynamic, we have developed a SCI model in the neonatal mouse. The model has relevance for pediatric SCI, which is too little studied. Because neural plasticity in the adult involves some of the same mechanisms as neural plasticity in early life1, this model may potentially have some relevance also for adult SCI. Here we describe the entire procedure for generating a reproducible spinal cord compression (SCC) injury in the neonatal mouse as early as postnatal (P) day 1. SCC is achieved by performing a laminectomy at a given spinal level (here described at thoracic levels 9-11) and then using a modified Yasargil aneurysm mini-clip to rapidly compress and decompress the spinal cord. As previously described, the injured neonatal mice can be tested for behavioral deficits or sacrificed for ex vivo physiological analysis of synaptic connectivity using electrophysiological and high-throughput optical recording techniques1. Earlier and ongoing studies using behavioral and physiological assessment have demonstrated a dramatic, acute impairment of hindlimb motility followed by a complete functional recovery within 2 weeks, and the first evidence of changes in functional circuitry at the level of identified descending synaptic connections1. PMID:27078037

  6. Spinal cord metastasis in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Holoye, P.; Libnoch, J.; Cox, J.; Kun, L.; Byhardt, R.; Almagro, U.; McCelland, S.; Chintapali, K.

    1984-03-01

    Among 50 patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma who were placed on a protocol of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy, seven patients developed recurrence in the spinal cord. Five cases terminated in paraplegia and death. One patient with pontine recurrence recovered with local radiation therapy. One patient, diagnosed early, responded to local radiation therapy and is ambulatory. Methods of diagnosis were myelogram, computerized axial tomography, cerebro spinal fluid, chemistry and cytologies. The poor prognosis and the difficulty of diagnosis suggest that prophylactic therapy of the entire cranio-spinal axis should be evaluated.

  7. Combined Effects of Acrobatic Exercise and Magnetic Stimulation on the Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in vitro. Acrobatic exercise attenuated the behavioral effects of spinal cord injury. The exposure to magnetic fields facilitated further this improvement. The progress in behavioral recovery was correlated with reduced muscle degeneration and enhanced muscle contraction. The acrobatic exercise combined with stimulation with magnetic fields significantly facilitates behavioral recovery and muscle physiology in mice following spinal cord injury. PMID:18986227

  8. The use of micropolarization in the treatment of spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Shelyakin, A M; Preobrazhenskaya, I G; Komantsev, V N; Makarovskii, A N; Bogdanov, O V

    2000-01-01

    Transdermal micropolarization of the spinal cord was performed in patients suffering sequelae of spinal cord trauma and tuberculous spondylitis. Changes in clinical and electrophysiological status were monitored. These studies demonstrated that the use of local direct currents passed via skin electrodes promoted improvements in motor and autonomic functions in these patients, leading to positive changes in measures of the functional state of the spinal cord and heart activity. The possible mechanisms of the action of direct currents acting on the spinal cord are discussed, along with the potential for applying micropolarization in the treatment of spinal cord lesions.

  9. Spinal cord projections of the rat main forelimb nerves, studied by transganglionic transport of WGA-HRP and by the disappearance of acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Castro-Lopes, J M; Coimbra, A

    1991-03-01

    The spinal cord projections of the 3 main forelimb nerves-median, radial and ulnar, were studied in the rat dorsal horn with transganglionic transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), or using the disappearance of fluoride resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) after nerve section. The projection patterns in lamina II were similar following the two procedures. The median and the radial nerve fibers projected to the medial and the intermediate thirds, respectively, of the dorsal horn lamina II in spinal cord segments C4-C8. The ulnar nerve projected to segments C6-C8 between the areas occupied by the other two nerves. The FRAP method also showed that the lateral part of lamina II, which was not filled by radial nerve fibers, received the projections from the dorsal cutaneous branches of cervical spinal nerves. In addition, FRAP disappeared from the medial end of segment T1 after skin incisions extending from the medial brachium to the axilla, which seemed due to severance of the cutaneous branchlets of the lateral anterior thoracic nerve. The FRAP procedure is thus sensitive enough to detect fibers in lamina II arising from small peripheral nerves, and may be used as an alternative to the anterograde tracing methods whenever there are no overlapping projections.

  10. Metabolic profile of injured human spinal cord determined using surface microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suliang; Phang, Isaac; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2016-12-01

    The management of patients having traumatic spinal cord injury would benefit from understanding and monitoring of spinal cord metabolic states. We hypothesized that the metabolism of the injured spinal cord could be visualized using Kohonen self-organizing maps. Sixteen patients with acute, severe spinal cord injuries were studied. Starting within 72 h of the injury, and for up to a week, we monitored the injury site hourly for tissue glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol using microdialysis as well as intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure. A Kohonen map, which is an unsupervised, self-organizing topology-preserving neural network, was used to analyze 3366 h of monitoring data. We first visualized the different spinal cord metabolic states. Our data show that the injured cord assumes one or more of four metabolic states. On the basis of their metabolite profiles, we termed these states near-normal, ischemic, hypermetabolic, and distal. We then visualized how patients' intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure affect spinal cord metabolism. This revealed that for more than 60% of the time, spinal cord metabolism is patient-specific; periods of high intraspinal pressure or low perfusion pressure are not associated with specific spinal cord metabolic patterns. Finally, we determined relationships between spinal cord metabolism and neurological status. Patients with complete deficits have shorter periods of near-normal spinal cord metabolic states (7 ± 4% vs. 58 ± 12%, p < 0.01, mean ± standard error) and more variable injury site metabolic responses (metabolism spread in 70 ± 11 vs. 40 ± 6 hexagons, p < 0.05), compared with patients who have incomplete neurological deficits. We conclude that Kohonen maps allow us to visualize the metabolic responses of the injured spinal cord and may thus aid us in treating patients with acute spinal cord injuries.

  11. Impaired blood-brain/spinal cord barrier in ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Rodrigues, Maria C O; Haller, Edward; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Mirtyl, Santhia; Sallot, Sebastian; Saporta, Samuel; Borlongan, Cesario V; Sanberg, Paul R

    2012-08-21

    Vascular pathology, including blood-brain/spinal cord barrier (BBB/BSCB) alterations, has recently been recognized as a key factor possibly aggravating motor neuron damage, identifying a neurovascular disease signature for ALS. However, BBB/BSCB competence in sporadic ALS (SALS) is still undetermined. In this study, BBB/BSCB integrity in postmortem gray and white matter of medulla and spinal cord tissue from SALS patients and controls was investigated. Major findings include (1) endothelial cell damage and pericyte degeneration, (2) severe intra- and extracellular edema, (3) reduced CD31 and CD105 expressions in endothelium, (4) significant accumulation of perivascular collagen IV, and fibrin deposits (5) significantly increased microvascular density in lumbar spinal cord, (6) IgG microvascular leakage, (7) reduced tight junction and adhesion protein expressions. Microvascular barrier abnormalities determined in gray and white matter of the medulla, cervical, and lumbar spinal cord of SALS patients are novel findings. Pervasive barrier damage discovered in ALS may have implications for disease pathogenesis and progression, as well as for uncovering novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary haemopoiesis in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G; Sharp, R A

    1994-01-01

    Extramedullary haemopoiesis resulting in spinal cord compression is rare. This report of extramedullary myeloid metaplasia in a patient with myelofibrosis serves to illustrate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and management of good neurological recovery. Images PMID:8027402

  13. Emerging concepts in myeloid cell biology after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Alicia L; Popovich, Phillip G

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects the activation, migration, and function of microglia, neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. Because these myeloid cells can positively and negatively affect survival of neurons and glia, they are among the most commonly studied immune cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate myeloid cell activation and recruitment after SCI have not been adequately defined. In general, the dynamics and composition of myeloid cell recruitment to the injured spinal cord are consistent between mammalian species; only the onset, duration, and magnitude of the response vary. Emerging data, mostly from rat and mouse SCI models, indicate that resident and recruited myeloid cells are derived from multiple sources, including the yolk sac during development and the bone marrow and spleen in adulthood. After SCI, a complex array of chemokines and cytokines regulate myelopoiesis and intraspinal trafficking of myeloid cells. As these cells accumulate in the injured spinal cord, the collective actions of diverse cues in the lesion environment help to create an inflammatory response marked by tremendous phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Indeed, it is difficult to attribute specific reparative or injurious functions to one or more myeloid cells because of convergence of cell function and difficulties in using specific molecular markers to distinguish between subsets of myeloid cell populations. Here we review each of these concepts and include a discussion of future challenges that will need to be overcome to develop newer and improved immune modulatory therapies for the injured brain or spinal cord.

  14. The spinal cord of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles; Sengul, Gulgun; Tanaka, Ikuko; Rusznak, Zoltan; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The marmoset spinal cord possesses all the characteristic features of a typical mammalian spinal cord, but with some interesting variation in the levels of origin of the limb nerves. In our study Nissl and ChAT sections of the each segment of the spinal cord in two marmosets (Ma5 and Ma8), we found that the spinal cord can be functionally and anatomically divided into six regions: the prebrachial region (C1 to C3); the brachial region (C4 to C8) - segments supplying the upper limb; the post-brachial region (T1 to L1) - containing the sympathetic outflow, and supplying the hypaxial muscles of the body wall; the crural region (L2 to L5) - segments supplying the lower limb; the postcrural region (L6) - containing the parasympathetic outflow; and the caudal region (L7 to Co4) - supplying the tail. In the rat, mouse, and rhesus monkey, the prebrachial region consists of segments C1 to C4 (with the phrenic nucleus located at the C4 segment), and the brachial region extends from C5 to T1 inclusive. The prefixing of the upper limb outflow in these two marmosets mirrors the finding in the literature that a large C4 contribution to the brachial plexus is common in humans.

  15. The Role of Hope in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen; And Others

    Hope has motivational importance to individuals who have suffered a major physical loss. Theories of adjustment to a spinal cord injury take one of three approaches: (1) premorbid personality, which highlights the individual's past experiences, personal meanings, and body image; (2) typologies of injury reactions, which range from normal to…

  16. Organisation of the sympathetic skin response in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cariga, P; Catley, M; Mathias, C; Savic, G; Frankel, H; Ellaway, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a technique to assess the sympathetic cholinergic pathways, and it can be used to study the central sympathetic pathways in spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the capacity of the isolated spinal cord to generate an SSR, and determined the relation between SSR, levels of spinal cord lesion, and supraspinal connections. Methods: Palmar and plantar SSR to peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (median or supraorbital nerve above the lesion, and peroneal nerve below the lesion) were recorded in 29 patients with SCI at various neurological levels and in 10 healthy control subjects. Results: In complete SCI at any neurological level, SSR was absent below the lesion. Palmar SSR to median nerve stimuli was absent in complete SCI with level of lesion above T6. Plantar SSR was absent in all patients with complete SCI at the cervical and thoracic level. In incomplete SCI, the occurrence of SSR was dependent on the preservation of supraspinal connections. For all stimulated nerves, there was no difference between recording from ipsilateral and contralateral limbs. Conclusions: No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the spinal cord isolated from the brain stem could generate an SSR. The results indicate that supraspinal connections are necessary for the SSR, together with integrity of central sympathetic pathways of the upper thoracic segments for palmar SSR, and possibly all thoracic segments for plantar SSR. PMID:11861696

  17. [Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous hemangiomas: clinical features and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous hemangiomas (angiomas) are occult vascular malformations characterized by rare lesions consisting of closely packed capillary-like vessels. In general, patients with this disease become symptomatic because of hemorrhage leads to progressive neurological deficits. Therefore, surgical tumor resection should be considered for symptomatic patients should be considered a surgical tumor resection.

  18. Calcium imaging of network function in the developing spinal cord.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Michael J; Bonnot, Agnès; Wenner, Peter; Mentis, George Z

    2005-05-01

    We have used calcium imaging to visualize the spatiotemporal organization of activity generated by in vitro spinal cord preparations of the developing chick embryo and the neonatal mouse. During each episode of spontaneous activity, we found that chick spinal neurons were activated rhythmically and synchronously throughout the transverse extent of the spinal cord. At the onset of a spontaneous episode, optical activity originated in the ventrolateral part of the cord. Back-labeling of spinal interneurons with calcium dyes suggested that this ventrolateral initiation was mediated by activation of a class of interneurons, located dorsomedial to the motor nucleus, that receive direct monosynaptic input from motoneurons. Studies of locomotor-like activity in the anterior lumbar segments of the neonatal mouse cord revealed the existence of a rostrocaudal wave in the oscillatory component of each cycle of rhythmic motoneuron activity. This finding raises the possibility that the activation of mammalian motoneurons during locomotion may share some of the same rostrocaudally organized mechanisms that evolved to control swimming in fishes.

  19. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  20. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  1. Quality of Life in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Eksioglu, Emel; Cakci, Aytul

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects of various sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on QoL. This cross-sectional study included 54 patients with SCI. The Turkish version of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey was…

  2. Incidence of Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, C. A.; Shepherd, C.

    1996-01-01

    Data from 348 patients (mean age 37) with postacute spinal cord injury revealed that 95% reported at least 1 secondary problem, and 58% reported 3 or more. The number and severity of complications varied with time since the injury. Obesity, pain, spasticity, urinary tract infections, pressure sores, and lack of social integration were common…

  3. Cell Therapy Augments Functional Recovery Subsequent to Spinal Cord Injury under Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Tharion, George; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The spinal cord injury leads to enervation of normal tissue homeostasis ultimately leading to paralysis. Until now there is no proper cure for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, cell therapy in animal spinal cord injury models has shown some progress of recovery. At present, clinical trials are under progress to evaluate the efficacy of cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Different types of cells such as pluripotent stem cells derived neural cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, neural stem cells, glial cells are being tested in various spinal cord injury models. In this review we highlight both the advances and lacuna in the field of spinal cord injury by discussing epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular mechanism, and various cell therapy strategies employed in preclinical and clinical injury models and finally we discuss the limitations and ethical issues involved in cell therapy approach for treating spinal cord injury. PMID:26240569

  4. Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes regeneration after adult zebrafish spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Strand, Nicholas S; Hoi, Kimberly K; Phan, Tien M T; Ray, Catherine A; Berndt, Jason D; Moon, Randall T

    2016-09-02

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate their injured spinal cord and regain control of caudal tissues. It was recently shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for spinal cord regeneration in the larval zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanisms of regeneration may or may not be conserved between larval and adult zebrafish. To test this, we assessed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. We show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is increased after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. Moreover, overexpression of Dkk1b inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the regenerating spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Dkk1b overexpression also inhibited locomotor recovery, axon regeneration, and glial bridge formation in the injured spinal cord. Thus, our data illustrate a conserved role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult and larval zebrafish spinal cord regeneration.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in spinal cord injury: clinical practicability.

    PubMed

    Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-05-01

    Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population.

  6. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2010-03-01

    Dose-volume data for myelopathy in humans treated with radiotherapy (RT) to the spine is reviewed, along with pertinent preclinical data. Using conventional fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy/fraction to the full-thickness cord, the estimated risk of myelopathy is <1% and <10% at 54 Gy and 61 Gy, respectively, with a calculated strong dependence on dose/fraction (alpha/beta = 0.87 Gy.) Reirradiation data in animals and humans suggest partial repair of RT-induced subclinical damage becoming evident about 6 months post-RT and increasing over the next 2 years. Reports of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions appear rare (<1%) when the maximum spinal cord dose is limited to the equivalent of 13 Gy in a single fraction or 20 Gy in three fractions. However, long-term data are insufficient to calculate a dose-volume relationship for myelopathy when the partial cord is treated with a hypofractionated regimen.

  7. Radionuclide assessment of heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, V.

    1983-01-01

    Whole body /sup 99m/T-pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained and correlated with skeletal radiographs for detection of heterotopic ossification in 135 spinal injury patients. There were 40 patients with recent injury (less than 6 months) and 95 with injury of over 6 months duration. Heterotopic new bone was detected on the bone scan in 33.7% of 95 patients with spinal cord injuries of more than 6 months duration and 30% of 40 patients with injuries of less than 6 months. The radionuclide scan was found to be useful in detection of heterotopic ossification at its early stage and in its differentiation from other complications in spinal cord injury patients.

  8. Translational Relevance of Swine Models of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, Dominic T; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S; Chopra, Abhishek; Patel, Kush; Meudt, Jennifer J; Tellez, Armando; Resnick, Daniel K; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan

    2017-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a physically and psychologically devastating clinical condition. The typical treatment regimens of decompressive surgery and rehabilitation therapy still leave many patients with permanent disability. The development of new therapies and devices can be accelerated if relevant translational animal models are more effectively used in pre-clinical stages. Swine is a highly relevant model for SCI research, especially with respect to spine and spinal cord anatomy, spine vasculature, immune responses to injury, and functional assessments. Several spine injury models have recently been developed for swine and are beginning to be used to evaluate new therapies. Swine models of SCI offer tremendous advantages for efficient translation of pre-clinical discoveries and the development of new therapies and devices. Future swine models will also be enhanced by advances in gene-editing technology to further elucidate the complex pathophysiology associated with SCI and provide a means to engineer specific spinal pathologies.

  9. Mechanical characterization of the injured spinal cord after lateral spinal hemisection injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Tarun; Gilbert, Jeremy; Stelzner, Dennis; Hasenwinkel, Julie

    2012-06-10

    The glial scar formed at the site of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been classically hypothesized to be a potent physical and biochemical barrier to nerve regeneration. One longstanding hypothesis is that the scar acts as a physical barrier due to its increased stiffness in comparison to uninjured spinal cord tissue. However, the information regarding the mechanical properties of the glial scar in the current literature is mostly anecdotal and not well quantified. We monitored the mechanical relaxation behavior of injured rat spinal cord tissue at the site of mid-thoracic spinal hemisection 2 weeks and 8 weeks post-injury using a microindentation test method. Elastic moduli were calculated and a modified standard linear model (mSLM) was fit to the data to estimate the relaxation time constant and viscosity. The SLM was modified to account for a spectrum of relaxation times, a phenomenon common to biological tissues, by incorporating a stretched exponential term. Injured tissue exhibited significantly lower stiffness and elastic modulus in comparison to uninjured control tissue, and the results from the model parameters indicated that the relaxation time constant and viscosity of injured tissue were significantly higher than controls. This study presents direct micromechanical measurements of injured spinal cord tissue post-injury. The results of this study show that the injured spinal tissue displays complex viscoelastic behavior, likely indicating changes in tissue permeability and diffusivity.

  10. Expectations of life and health among spinal cord injured adults.

    PubMed

    McColl, M A; Walker, J; Stirling, P; Wilkins, R; Corey, P

    1997-12-01

    While our understanding of aging and mortality in spinal cord injury is evolving, precise estimates are still not available for expectations of life and health following a spinal cord injury. In order to derive these estimates, information about mortality and health must be combined into a single estimate. Health expectancy estimates have been widely used in the literature of the last decade to try to understand the relationship between population health and survival, both in the general population and in special populations. This study brought the benefit of this methodology to the question of long-term survival following spinal cord injury. Specifically, the study aimed to calculate life and health expectancy in a population of spinal cord injured individuals; and to estimate the effect of factors associated with survival and health. The study involved a retrospective cohort, all of whom sustained a spinal cord injury between the ages of 25 and 34 years, and between 1945 and 1990. The study predicted a median survival time of 38 years post-injury, with 43% surviving at least 40 years. These findings suggest an increase in life expectancy of about 5 years over previous research on the same cohort. Factors affecting survival were age at injury, level and completeness of lesion. Expectations of health found in the present study are similar to those found in studies of the general population. This study showed seven remaining years of poor health expected at injury, and five remaining years expected at 40 years post injury, presumably occurring at the end of life.

  11. Hematogenous macrophage depletion reduces the fibrotic scar and increases axonal growth after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Soderblom, C; Krishnan, V; Ashbaugh, J; Bethea, J R; Lee, J K

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to formation of a fibrotic scar that is inhibitory to axon regeneration. Recent evidence indicates that the fibrotic scar is formed by perivascular fibroblasts, but the mechanism by which they are recruited to the injury site is unknown. Using bone marrow transplantation in mouse model of spinal cord injury, we show that fibroblasts in the fibrotic scar are associated with hematogenous macrophages rather than microglia, which are limited to the surrounding astroglial scar. Depletion of hematogenous macrophages results in reduced fibroblast density and basal lamina formation that is associated with increased axonal growth in the fibrotic scar. Cytokine gene expression analysis after macrophage depletion indicates that decreased Tnfsf8, Tnfsf13 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily members) and increased BMP1-7 (bone morphogenetic proteins) expression may serve as anti-fibrotic mechanisms. Our study demonstrates that hematogenous macrophages are necessary for fibrotic scar formation and macrophage depletion results in changes in multiple cytokines that make the injury site less fibrotic and more conducive to axonal growth.

  12. Photochemically induced cystic lesion in the rat spinal cord. I. Behavioral and morphological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, T.; Prado, R.; Watson, B.D.; Gonzalez-Carvajal, M.; Holets, V.R. )

    1990-08-01

    The present study describes the production of a spinal cord lesion which is initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The lesion has characteristics similar to those of the central cavity thought to lead to the production of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) in humans. The present study examines the behavioral and morphological characteristics of this injury over a 28-day period. Histological analysis revealed a cavity extending from the dorsal horns to lamina VIII, with some lateral and ventral pathways being spared. The cavity volume reached a maximum 7 days after lesion induction. Behavioral changes were assessed using six different tests of motor and reflex function (motor function, climbing, waterbath, inclined plane, withdrawal to pain, and withdrawal to extension). Lesioned animals exhibited flaccid paralysis for 3-5 days, which resolved afterward. The photochemically induced cavity should provide a reproducible model for examining the effects of cystic spinal cord injury on locomotor and reflex function.

  13. Spinal cord gray matter atrophy correlates with multiple sclerosis disability

    PubMed Central

    Schlaeger, Regina; Papinutto, Nico; Panara, Valentina; Bevan, Carolyn; Lobach, Iryna V.; Bucci, Monica; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Green, Ari J.; Jordan, Kesshi M.; Stern, William A.; von Büdingen, H.-Christian; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zhu, Alyssa H.; Goodin, Douglas S.; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Henry, Roland G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In multiple sclerosis (MS) cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy correlates more strongly than white matter (WM) atrophy with disability. The corresponding relationships in the spinal cord (SC) are unknown due to technical limitations in assessing SCGM atrophy. Using phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) MRI, we determined the association of the SCGM and SCWM areas with MS disability and disease type. Methods 113 MS patients and 20 healthy controls were examined at 3T with a PSIR sequence acquired at the C2/C3 disc level. Two independent, clinically-masked readers measured the cord WM and GM areas. Correlations between cord areas and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) were determined. Differences in areas between groups were assessed with age and sex as covariates. Results Relapsing (R) MS patients showed smaller SCGM areas than age and sex matched controls (p=0.008) without significant differences in SCWM areas. Progressive MS patients showed smaller SCGM and SCWM areas compared to RMS patients (all p≤0.004). SCGM, SCWM, and whole cord areas inversely correlated with EDSS (rho: −0.60, −0.32, −0.42, respectively; all p≤0.001). SCGM area was the strongest correlate of disability in multivariate models including brain GM and WM volumes, FLAIR lesion load, T1-lesion load, SCWM area, number of spinal cord T2 lesions, age, sex, disease duration. Brain and spinal GM independently contributed to EDSS. Interpretation SCGM atrophy is detectable in-vivo in absence of WM atrophy in RMS. It is more pronounced in progressive than RMS and contributes more to patient disability than spinal cord WM or brain GM atrophy. PMID:25087920

  14. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  15. How Is Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the standard ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale for this diagnosis. X-rays, MRIs, or more ... entire length of the spine. The ASIA Impairment Scale has five classification levels, ranging from complete loss ...

  16. The calcium binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, and calretinin have specific patterns of expression in the gray matter of cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Anelli, Roberta; Heckman, C J

    2005-12-01

    Calcium binding proteins (CBPs) regulate intracellular levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) ions. CBPs are particularly interesting from a morphological standpoint, because they are differentially expressed in certain sub-populations of cells in the nervous system of various species of vertebrate animals. However, knowledge on the cellular regulation governing such cell-specific CBP expression is still incomplete. In this work on the L7 segment of the cat spinal cord, we analyzed the localization and morphology of neurons expressing the CBPs calbindin-28 KD (CB), parvalbumin (PV), and calretinin (CR), and co-expressing CB and PV, CB and CR, and PV and CR. Single CBP-positive ((+)) neurons showed specific distributions: (1) CB was present in small neurons localized in laminae I, II, III and X, in small to medium size neurons in laminae III-VI, and in medium to large neurons in laminae VI-VIII; (2) PV was present in small size neurons in laminae III and IV and in medial portions of laminae V and VI, medium neurons and in lamina X at the border with lamina VII, in medium to large neurons in laminae VII and VIII; (3) CR labeling was detected in small size neurons in laminae I, II, III and VIII, in medium to large size neurons in laminae I and III-VII, and in small to medium size neurons in lamina X. Double labeled neurons were a small minority of the CBP(+) cells. Co-expression of CB and PV was seen in 1 to 2% of the CBP(+) cells, and they were detected in the ventral and intermediate portions of lamina VII and in lamina X. Co-localization of CB and CR was present in 0.3% of the cells and these cells were localized in lamina II. Double labeling for PV and CR occurred in 6% of the cells, and the cells were localized in ventral part of lamina VII and in lamina VIII. Overall, these results revealed distinct and reproducible patterns of localization of the neurons expressing single CBPs and co-expressing two of them. Distinct differences of CBP expression between cat and other

  17. Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis Mimicking an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Andrew A.; Olszewski, Nathan P.; Lipinski, Lindsay J.; Qiu, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM. Subsequent treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms as well as the intramedullary enhancement. ITM is most common in the cervical and thoracic spine, spanning 3-4 spinal segments. It usually occupies more than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and tends to be central, uniform, and symmetric. It exhibits patchy and peripheral contrast enhancement. These criteria are useful guidelines that help distinguish ITM from neoplastic spinal lesions. A decision to perform biopsy must take into consideration the patient's clinical symptoms, the rate of progression of neurological deficits, and the imaging characteristics of the lesion. Surgical biopsy for questionable lesions should be reserved for patients with progressive neurological deficits refractory to empirical medical therapy. PMID:27672469

  18. An Intermediate Animal Model of Spinal Cord Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Guiho, Thomas; Coste, Christine Azevedo; Delleci, Claire; Chenu, Jean-Patrick; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Bauchet, Luc; Guiraud, David

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self-) catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session. PMID:27478570

  19. Muscular, skeletal, and neural adaptations following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shields, Richard K

    2002-02-01

    Spinal cord injury is associated with adaptations to the muscular, skeletal, and spinal systems. Experimental data are lacking regarding the extent to which rehabilitative methods may influence these adaptations. An understanding of the plasticity of the muscular, skeletal, and spinal systems after paralysis may be important as new rehabilitative technologies emerge in the 21st century. Moreover, individuals injured today may become poor candidates for future scientific advancements (cure) if their neuromusculoskeletal systems are irreversibly impaired. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the physiological properties of skeletal muscle as a result of spinal cord injury; secondarily, to consider associated changes at the skeletal and spinal levels. Muscular adaptations include a transformation to faster myosin, increased contractile speeds, shift to the right on the torque-frequency curve, increased fatigue, and enhanced doublet potentiation. These muscular adaptations may be prevented in individuals with acute paralysis and partially reversed in individuals with chronic paralysis. Moreover, the muscular changes may be coordinated with motor unit and spinal circuitry adaptations. Concurrently, skeletal adaptations, as measured by bone mineral density, show extensive loss within the first six months after paralysis. The underlying science governing neuromusculoskeletal adaptations after paralysis will help guide professionals as new rehabilitation strategies evolve in the future.

  20. Intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Siozos, George; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Moschovi, Maria; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2013-02-01

    Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors are exceedingly rare. Herewith, we present the first case of an intramedullary spinal cord tumor associated with hydrocephalus in a 2-month-old boy that presented with left hemiparesis. The patient had been diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound with enlarged ventricular system. At his current admission, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and an intramedullary lesion extending from the second cervical to the first thoracic vertebrae. Dissemination of the tumor was revealed intracranially and in the spinal canal. After a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement a radical resection of the tumor was performed, however some small tumor remnants could not be safely removed. Postoperative there was no neurologic deterioration. The tumor was diagnosed as a central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (World Health Organization grade IV). Spinal intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely rare. In such rare tumors, multiinstitutional studies are needed for treatment guidelines to be established.

  1. Genetic deletion of synapsin II reduces neuropathic pain due to reduced glutamate but increased GABA in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Schmidtko, Achim; Luo, Ceng; Gao, Wei; Geisslinger, Gerd; Kuner, Rohini; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2008-10-31

    The synaptic vesicle protein synapsin II is specifically expressed in synaptic terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and regulates transmitter release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Here, we assessed its role in nerve injury-evoked molecular and behavioral adaptations in models of peripheral neuropathic pain using mice genetically lacking synapsin II. Deficiency of synapsin II resulted in reduced mechanical and cold allodynia in two models of peripheral neuropathic pain. This was associated with decreased glutamate release in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord upon sciatic nerve injury or capsaicin application onto the sciatic nerve and reduced calcium signals in spinal cord slices upon persistent activation of primary afferents. In addition, the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, was strongly reduced in synapsin II knockout mice in the spinal cord. Conversely, synapsin II knockout mice showed a stronger and longer-lasting increase of GABA in lamina II of the dorsal horn after nerve injury than wild type mice. These results suggest that synapsin II is involved in the regulation of glutamate and GABA release in the spinal cord after nerve injury, and that a imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission contributes to the manifestation of neuropathic pain.

  2. Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view of learning

    PubMed Central

    Grau, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews research examining whether and how training can induce a lasting change in spinal cord function. A framework for the study of learning, and some essential issues in experimental design, are discussed. A core element involves delayed assessment under common conditions. Research has shown that brain systems can induce a lasting (memory-like) alteration in spinal function. Neurons within the lower (lumbosacral) spinal cord can also adapt when isolated from the brain by means of a thoracic transection. Using traditional learning paradigms, evidence suggests that spinal neurons support habituation and sensitization as well as Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. At a neurobiological level, spinal systems support phenomena (e.g., long-term potentiation), and involve mechanisms (e.g., NMDA mediated plasticity, protein synthesis) implicated in brain-dependent learning and memory. Spinal learning also induces modulatory effects that alter the capacity for learning. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation disables the capacity for instrumental learning and this effect has been linked to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Predictable/controllable stimulation enables learning and counters the adverse effects of uncontrollable simulation through a process that depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, uncontrollable, but not controllable, nociceptive stimulation impairs recovery after a contusion injury. A process-oriented approach (neurofunctionalism) is outlined that encourages a broader view of learning phenomena. PMID:23973905

  3. A model of evoked potentials in spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Laird, James H; Parker, John L

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord is used for pain relief, and is in use for hundreds of thousands of cases of chronic neuropathic pain. In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), an array of electrodes is implanted in the epidural space of the cord, and electrical currents are used to stimulate nearby nerve fibers, believed to be in the dorsal columns of the cord. Despite the long history of SCS for pain, stretching over 30 years, its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and the therapy has evolved very little in this time. Recent work has resulted in the ability to record complex compound action potential waveforms during therapy. These waveforms reflect the neural activity evoked by the therapeutic stimulation, and reveal information about the underlying physiological processes. We aim to simulate these processes to the point of reproducing these recordings. We establish a hybrid model of SCS, composed of a three dimensional electrical model and a neural model. The 3D model describes the geometry of the spinal regions under consideration, and the electric fields that result from any flow of current within them. The neural model simulates the behaviour of spinal nerve fibers, which are the target tissues of the therapy. The combination of these two models is used to predict which fibers may be recruited by a given stimulus, as well as to predict the ensuing recorded waveforms. The model is shown to reproduce major features of spinal compound action potentials, such as threshold and propagation behaviour, which have been observed in experiments. The model's coverage of processes from stimulation to recording allows it to be compared side-by-side with actual experimental data, and will permit its refinement to a substantial level of accuracy.

  4. The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Syed, Ishaq; Smith, Thomas L; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically the result of direct mechanical impact to the spine, leading to fracture and/or dislocation of the vertebrae along with damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of axonal transmission of signals. This primary trauma causes secondary injuries that produce immunological responses such as neuroinflammation, which perpetuates neurodegeneration and cytotoxicity within the injured spinal cord. To date there is no FDA-approved pharmacological agent to prevent the development of secondary SCI and induce regenerative processes aimed at healing the spinal cord and restoring neurological function. An alternative method to electrically activate spinal circuits is the application of a noninvasive electromagnetic field (EMF) over intact vertebrae. The EMF method of modulating molecular signaling of inflammatory cells emitted in the extra-low frequency range of <100 Hz, and field strengths of <5 mT, has been reported to decrease inflammatory markers in macrophages, and increase endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation rates. EMF has been reported to promote osteogenesis by improving the effects of osteogenic media, and increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts, while inhibiting osteoclast formation and increasing bone matrix in vitro. EMF has also been shown to increase chondrogenic markers and collagen and induce neural differentiation, while increasing cell viability by over 50%. As advances are made in stem cell technologies, stabilizing the cell line after differentiation is crucial to SCI repair. Once cell-seeded scaffolds are implanted, EMF may be applied outside the wound for potential continued adjunct treatment during recovery.

  5. Neurogenesis In The Lamprey CNS Following Spinal Cord Transection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guixin; Pizarro, Ivonne Vidal; Swain, Gary P.; Kang, Shin H.; Selzer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    After spinal cord transection, lampreys recover functionally and axons regenerate. It is not known whether this is accompanied by neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested a baseline level of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the spinal cord and rhombencephalon (where most supraspinal projecting neurons are located). To determine whether cell proliferation increases after injury and whether this includes neurogenesis, larval lampreys were spinally transected and injected with BrdU at 0-3 weeks post-transection. Labeled cells were counted in the lesion site, within 0.5 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion, and in the rhombencephalon. One group of animals was processed in the winter, and a second group was processed in the summer. The number of labeled cells was greater in winter than in summer. The lesion site had the most BrdU labeling at all times, correlating with an increase in the number of cells. In the adjacent spinal cord the percentage of BrdU labeling was higher in the ependymal than in non-ependymal regions. This was also true in the rhombencephalon but only in summer. In winter, BrdU labeling was seen primarily in the subventricular and peripheral zones. Some BrdU-labeled cells were also double-labeled by antibodies to glial-specific (anti-keratin) as well as to neuron-specific (anti-Hu) antigens, indicating that both gliogenesis and neurogenesis occurred after spinal cord transection. However, the new neurons were restricted to the ependymal zone, were never labeled by anti-neurofilament antibodies, and never migrated away from the ependyma, even at 5 weeks after BrdU injection. They would appear to be CSF-contacting neurons. PMID:24151158

  6. Generation of electromotor neurons in Sternarchus albifrons: differences between normally growing and regenerating spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Waxman, S G; Anderson, M J

    1985-12-01

    This study examines the regulation of the number of electromotor neurons during postnatal growth of the spinal cord in the gymnotiform teleost Sternarchus albifrons. It specifically asks whether a large overproduction of electromotor neurons and a wave of cell death, similar to those occurring during spinal cord regeneration in this species, play a role in the on-going growth at the caudal tip of the normal spinal cord. Neurons are produced from ependymal precursors at the caudal end of the spinal cord during both normal growth in the adult and regeneration of the spinal cord in this species. Previous studies have demonstrated that during spinal cord regeneration after amputation of the tail in Sternarchus, there is an initial massive (up to fivefold) overproduction of electromotor neurons, followed by a wave of cell death which reduces the number of these neurons to the normal level. In the present study, transverse sections through the caudalmost spinal segment of normal adult Sternarchus were examined. Proceeding rostrally from the caudal tip of the cord, the number of electromotor neurons increases monotonically to reach the normal number at a site 4-5 mm rostral to the caudal tip. Neither a massive overproduction of electromotor neurons nor a wave of neuronal death are observed during on-going growth of the normal spinal cord. The mechanisms by which the neuronal number is modulated are therefore different in the on-going normal growth of spinal cord versus regeneration of spinal cord in this species.

  7. Isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations remain important tools in respiratory neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephen M; Turner, Sara M; Huxtable, Adrianne G; Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza

    2012-01-15

    Isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations are used extensively in respiratory neurobiology because the respiratory network in the pons and medulla is intact, monosynaptic descending inputs to spinal motoneurons can be activated, brainstem and spinal cord tissue can be bathed with different solutions, and the responses of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal motoneurons to experimental perturbations can be compared. The caveats and limitations of in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations are well-documented. However, isolated brainstem-spinal cords are still valuable experimental preparations that can be used to study neuronal connectivity within the brainstem, development of motor networks with lethal genetic mutations, deleterious effects of pathological drugs and conditions, respiratory spinal motor plasticity, and interactions with other motor behaviors. Our goal is to show how isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations still have a lot to offer scientifically and experimentally to address questions within and outside the field of respiratory neurobiology.

  8. Spinal transection induces widespread proliferation of cells along the length of the spinal cord in a weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Antiño R.; Smith, G. Troy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regenerate spinal cord tissue after tail amputation has been well studied in several species of teleost fish. The present study examined proliferation and survival of cells following complete spinal cord transection rather than tail amputation in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. To quantify cell proliferation along the length of the spinal cord, fish were given a single bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection immediately after spinal transection or sham surgery. Spinal transection significantly increased the density of BrdU+ cells along the entire length of the spinal cord at 1 day post transection (dpt), and most newly generated cells survived up to 14 dpt. To examine longer term survival of the newly proliferated cells, BrdU was injected for 5 days after the surgery, and fish were sacrificed 14 or 30 dpt. Spinal transection significantly increased proliferation and/or survival, as indicated by an elevated density of BrdU+ cells in the spinal cords of spinally transected compared to sham-operated and intact fish. At 14 dpt, BrdU+ cells were abundant at all levels of the spinal cord. By 30 dpt, the density of BrdU+ cells decreased at all levels of the spinal cord except at the tip of the tail. Thus, newly generated cells in the caudal-most segment of the spinal cord survived longer than those in more rostral segments. Our findings indicate that spinal cord transection stimulates widespread cellular proliferation; however, there were regional differences in the survival of the newly generated cells. PMID:23147638

  9. Complications after spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Jie; Guan, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Sheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since little has been reported about complications of spinal anesthesia in adult tethered cord syndrome (TCS), we sought to delineate the characteristics of the condition. A total of 4 cases of adult TCS after spinal anesthesia were reviewed. The medical charts of the patients were obtained. Anesthesia, which was combined spinal and epidural anesthesia or spinal anesthesia was performed, and follow-up were carried out in all patients. The most common neurological symptom of adult TCS before surgery was occasional severe pain in back, perineal region, or legs. Frequent micturition, diminished knee and ankle reflexes, and difficulty in bending were exhibited in partial patients. Paraesthesia of perineal region or/and lower extremities existed 2 to 3 days after spinal anesthesia in all the cases. Weakness of lower extremities existed in 1 case. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the low location of conus medullaris. At follow-up, 3 cases recovered completely within 3 weeks, and 1 case underwent permanent disability. These cases suggest anesthesiologists and surgeons alert to the association of adult TCS and spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia should be prohibited in patients with adult TCS to prevent neurological damages. PMID:27442670

  10. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Baulot, E; Bouillien, D; Giroux, E A; Grammont, P M

    1998-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a very rare condition of unknown etiology and most commonly occurs during childhood or adolescence. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of CRMO in a vertebral location with severe kyphosis, spinal cord compression, and neurological dysfunction requiring anterior decompression and fusion. After 12 weeks, the patient was physically able to return to school. At 2-year follow-up, neurological and functional outcomes are fair. Magnetic resonance imaging shows good restoration of the sagittal spine alignment despite residual mild kyphosis, and restoration of a normal sagittal diameter of the spinal canal.

  11. Silencing spinal interneurons inhibits immune suppressive autonomic reflexes caused by spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Masaki; Ueno-Nakamura, Yuka; Niehaus, Jesse; Popovich, Phillip G.; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) at high spinal levels (e.g., above thoracic level 5) causes systemic immune suppression; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that profound plasticity develops within spinal autonomic circuitry below the injury, creating a sympathetic anti-inflammatory reflex, and that chemogenetic silencing of this reflex circuitry blocks post-SCI immune suppression. These data provide new insights and potential therapeutic options for limiting the devastating consequences of post-traumatic autonomic hyperreflexia and post-injury immune suppression. PMID:27089020

  12. Continuous Cervical Epidural Analgesia in Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Mahesh; Taha, Nafisa; Purohit, Navita; Kothari, Vatsal; Singh, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic spinal cord compression is a devastating complication of cancer. Patients may often require high doses of opioids that may cause side effects, myoclonus being one such. A 63-year-old male suffering from malignant spinal cord compression was admitted to our institution. The primary team managed him conservatively with pharmacotherapy with no relief of pain, and he experienced myoclonus and sedation as adverse effects. A continuous cervical epidural catheter with local anesthetic infusion was inserted for 5 days to control his pain. This relieved his pain, which was sustained even after we removed the epidural catheter on day 5, for up to 64 days until the time of his death. Continuous cervical epidural local anesthetic infusions may help with refractory pain by deafferentation of noxious stimuli. Central neuraxial blocks may be a valuable rescue in selected patients. PMID:27803576

  13. Photoplethysmographic sensors for perfusion measurements in spinal cord tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Kyriacou, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Sensors for recording photoplethysmographic signals from the nervous tissue of the spinal cord are described. The purpose of these sensors is to establish whether perfusion is compromised in various states of injury which occur in certain animal models of spinal cord injury, for example compression injury. Various measures of perfusion are applicable such as the amplitude of the photoplethysmograph signal and the oxygen saturation, measured using a dual wavelength configuration. Signals are usually compared to baseline measurements made in uninjured subjects. This paper describes two types of probe, one based on optical fibres, and one in which optotes are placed in direct contact with the tissue surface. Results from a study based on a compression model utilising a fibreoptic sensor are presented.

  14. Stem Cells and Labeling for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Vladislav; Arsenijevic, Aleksandar; Erceg, Slaven; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that usually results in sudden and long-lasting locomotor and sensory neuron degeneration below the lesion site. During the last two decades, the search for new therapies has been revolutionized with the improved knowledge of stem cell (SC) biology. SCs therapy offers several attractive strategies for spinal cord repair. The transplantation of SCs promotes remyelination, neurite outgrowth and axonal elongation, and activates resident or transplanted progenitor cells across the lesion cavity. However, optimized growth and differentiation protocols along with reliable safety assays should be established prior to the clinical application of SCs. Additionally, the ideal method of SCs labeling for efficient cell tracking after SCI remains a challenging issue that requires further investigation. This review summarizes the current findings on the SCs-based therapeutic strategies, and compares different SCs labeling approaches for SCI. PMID:28035961

  15. Spinal Cord Mechanisms of Chronic Pain and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsinlin Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Due to complex pathological mechanisms involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn to release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. These events induce multiple inflammatory and neuropathic processes in the spinal cord dorsal horn and trigger modification and plasticity of local neural circuits. As a result, ongoing noxious signals to the brain are amplified and prolonged, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, the molecular events associated with central sensitization as well as their clinical implications are discussed. PMID:20461476

  16. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    White-Schenk, Désirée; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F

    2015-01-01

    Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. PMID:25673988

  17. Key central pattern generators of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Pierre A; Steuer, Inge

    2009-08-15

    In the central nervous system (CNS), central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally considered as specialized networks that can produce oscillatory motor output in the absence of any oscillatory input. For instance, respiration and mastication are among the critical biological functions well known to be controlled by such specialized networks. Several other CPGs have also been found specifically in the spinal cord. Among them, the CPG for locomotion is probably the most extensively studied rhythm- and pattern-generating network of the CNS. Other, less completely understood CPGs have also been associated with the control of scratching, micturition, and ejaculation. This review provides a brief update on CPG organization and function in the spinal cord and focuses on similarities and differences between these networks and their pharmacological modulation.

  18. Neuropathic pain modifies antioxidant activity in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata P; Bosco, Lidiane Dal; Teixeira, Camila M; Araújo, Alex S R; Llesuy, Susana; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M; Partata, Wania A

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological mechanism of many neurological diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been cited as molecules involved in the nociceptive process. In this study, rats were submitted to sciatic nerve transection (SNT) for induction of neuropathic pain, and enzyme activities of SOD and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The results show that LPO was not changed after SNT. SOD activity was reduced 7 days after SNT, while the change in catalase activity occurred on the third and seventh days in both sham and SNT animals. Hyperalgesia in SNT group was detected at the same points in time. These results suggest that SNT was not a strong enough stimulus to deplete all antioxidant content in the spinal cord, since increase in LPO was not detected. However, the role of oxidative stress in nociception can not be excluded.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury—Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, William H

    2007-01-01

    Summary: This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

  20. Percutaneous Technique for Sclerotherapy of Vertebral Hemangioma Compressing Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M.

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: In this study we report a percutaneous technique to achieve sclerosis of vertebral hemangioma and decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Methods: Under CT guidance the affected vertebral body is punctured by a biopsy needle and sclerosant is injected directly into the tumor. In the case of large paravertebral extension, additional injection is given in the paravertebral soft tissue component to induce shrinkage of the whole tumor mass and release of the compressed spinal cord. Results: Using this technique we treated five patients in whom vertebral hemangioma gave rise to neurologic symptoms.In three patients, sclerotherapy was the only treatment given. In the other two patients, sclerotherapy was preceded by transcatheter embolization. Neither decompressive surgery, radiation therapy nor stabilization was required with this technique. Conclusion: Our experience with CT-guided intraosseous sclerotherapy has proved highly satisfactory.

  1. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS). It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI)) gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI. PMID:24701583

  2. Care of the Spinal Cord-Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Jan

    1989-01-01

    Family physicians are often unfamiliar with the care of patients with spinal cord injuries because they may have only one such patient in their practice. Urinary tract infections, constipation, and decubitus ulcers are the most common problems, and autonomic dysreflexia the most serious emergency that family physicians treat in this population. This article addresses these areas, as well as spasticity, sexuality, depression, and the acute abdomen. PMID:20469504

  3. Can a spinal cord tumor cause brachioradial pruritus?

    PubMed

    Kavak, Ayse; Dosoglu, Murat

    2002-03-01

    A woman had burning pruritus on both arms and thenar regions for 1 year. The location of pruritus was consistent with C5-C6 dermatomes. Brachioradial pruritus caused by spinal cord tumor was diagnosed. Although cases of brachioradial pruritus were reported in cervical osteoarthritis and cervical rib previously, to our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case of brachioradial pruritus caused by a tumor.

  4. Pain following Spinal Cord Injury: The Impact on Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Catherine; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective, correlational Objectives 1) describe how pain changes over recovery from admission to spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation, discharge and after 6 months of community living and 2) examine the relationship between pain and community integration at 6 months of community living. Setting Tertiary rehabilitation centre, spinal cord injury unit, Vancouver, Canada. Methods Subjects from 66 consecutive admissions to the Spinal Cord Injury Program of a tertiary rehabilitation centre for the treatment of a traumatic spinal cord injury during the years 2000 to 2002 were followed using data from the National Rehabilitation Reporting System (NRRS). Information was obtained from NRRS standardized assessments performed on admission, discharge and 6 month community living. Early community living was defined as 6-months post-discharge. Community re-integration was assessed by the Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL). Pain presence, pain impact and pain intensity were assessed using single item Likhert type scales. Results 86% of individuals with a SCI reported pain at 6-months post discharge, with 27% of these individuals reporting pain that impacted on many or most activities. Pain impact and pain intensity were related to the community re-integration (r=−0.39 and r=−0.55, p<.001), with pain intensity accounting for 25% of the variance in RNL scores. Conclusions Pain is a major consequence of a SCI, impacting on an individual’s activities and perception of how well they are integrated into the community. The results of this study highlight the need to address pain during both the rehabilitation phase of treatment and the early transition into the community. PMID:15570317

  5. Fertility treatment in spinal cord injury and other neurologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Trofimenko, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Infertility in individuals with neurologic disorders is complex in etiology and manifestation. Its management therefore often requires a multimodal approach. This review addresses the implications of spinal cord injury (SCI) and other neurologic disease on fertility, including the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction, ejaculation disorders and compromised semen parameters. Available treatment approaches discussed include assisted ejaculation techniques and assisted reproductive technology including surgical sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:26904416

  6. Fertility treatment in spinal cord injury and other neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Trofimenko, Vera; Hotaling, James M

    2016-02-01

    Infertility in individuals with neurologic disorders is complex in etiology and manifestation. Its management therefore often requires a multimodal approach. This review addresses the implications of spinal cord injury (SCI) and other neurologic disease on fertility, including the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction, ejaculation disorders and compromised semen parameters. Available treatment approaches discussed include assisted ejaculation techniques and assisted reproductive technology including surgical sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  7. Differentiation of idiopathic spinal cord herniation from CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions displacing the cord.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc D; Nguyen, Dustin D; Li, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Focal spinal cord displacement can be caused by idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), in which the cord protrudes through a dural defect into the epidural space, causing cord displacement and tethering. ISCH is uncommon and often is misdiagnosed initially, which results in delayed management. ISCH can be mimicked by space-occupying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions, such as epidermoid cysts or teratomas, intradural arachnoid cysts, epidural hematomas or abscesses, cystic nerve sheath tumors, synovial or Tarlov cysts, meningoceles, and pseudomeningoceles. Initial computed tomography (CT) and unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies may depict focal cord displacement and a widened CSF space but often are not sufficient to identify the underlying cause. High-resolution thin-section MR imaging can delineate the exact location of the dural defect and the protrusion of the herniated cord through this defect into the epidural space. At imaging, unimpeded CSF pulsation artifacts seen within a widened CSF space exclude a space-occupying lesion. A filling defect seen at conventional or CT myelography can help confirm a CSF-isointense space-occupying lesion; intravenous contrast agent administration can help exclude a rim-enhancing cystic extramedullary lesion. The clinical presentation usually is nonspecific, but symptom acuity, fever, and trauma can guide the imaging evaluation and help narrow the differential diagnosis. A multimodality imaging approach is essential to differentiate ISCH from space-occupying CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Zadroga; Joanna, Czarzasta; Barczewska, Monika; Wojciech, Maksymowicz

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition that affects individuals worldwide, significantly reducing quality of life, for both patients and their families. In recent years there has been a growing interest in cell therapy potential in the context of spinal cord injuries. The present review aims to discuss and compare the restorative approaches based on the current knowledge, available spinal cord restorative cell therapies, and use of selected cell types. However, treatment options for spinal cord injury are limited, but rehabilitation and experimental technologies have been found to help maintain or improve remaining nerve function in some cases. Mesenchymal stem cells as well as olfactory ensheathing cells seem to show therapeutic impact on damaged spinal cord and might be useful in neuroregeneration. Recent research in animal models and first human trials give patients with spinal cord injuries hope for recovery. PMID:28298927

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Anna, Zadroga; Katarzyna, Jezierska-Woźniak; Joanna, Czarzasta; Barczewska, Monika; Joanna, Wojtkiewicz; Wojciech, Maksymowicz

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition that affects individuals worldwide, significantly reducing quality of life, for both patients and their families. In recent years there has been a growing interest in cell therapy potential in the context of spinal cord injuries. The present review aims to discuss and compare the restorative approaches based on the current knowledge, available spinal cord restorative cell therapies, and use of selected cell types. However, treatment options for spinal cord injury are limited, but rehabilitation and experimental technologies have been found to help maintain or improve remaining nerve function in some cases. Mesenchymal stem cells as well as olfactory ensheathing cells seem to show therapeutic impact on damaged spinal cord and might be useful in neuroregeneration. Recent research in animal models and first human trials give patients with spinal cord injuries hope for recovery.

  10. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

  11. Biomechanical properties of the spinal cord: implications for tissue engineering and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Richard D; Choi, David; Phillips, James B

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury is a severely debilitating condition which can leave individuals paralyzed and suffering from autonomic dysfunction. Regenerative medicine may offer a promising solution to this problem. Previous research has focused primarily on exploring the cellular and biological aspects of the spinal cord, yet relatively little remains known about the biomechanical properties of spinal cord tissue. Given that a number of regenerative strategies aim to deliver cells and materials in the form of tissue-engineered therapies, understanding the biomechanical properties of host spinal cord tissue is important. We review the relevant biomechanical properties of spinal cord tissue and provide the baseline knowledge required to apply these important physical concepts to spinal cord tissue engineering.

  12. Aquaporin-4 in brain and spinal cord oedema.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, S; Papadopoulos, M C

    2010-07-28

    Brain oedema is a major clinical problem produced by CNS diseases (e.g. stroke, brain tumour, brain abscess) and systemic diseases that secondarily affect the CNS (e.g. hyponatraemia, liver failure). The swollen brain is compressed against the surrounding dura and skull, which causes the intracranial pressure to rise, leading to brain ischaemia, herniation, and ultimately death. A water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is found in astrocyte foot processes (blood-brain border), the glia limitans (subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid-brain border) and ependyma (ventricular cerebrospinal fluid-brain border). Experiments using mice lacking AQP4 or alpha syntrophin (which secondarily downregulate AQP4) showed that AQP4 facilitates oedema formation in diseases causing cytotoxic (cell swelling) oedema such as cerebral ischaemia, hyponatraemia and meningitis. In contrast, AQP4 facilitates oedema elimination in diseases causing vasogenic (vessel leak) oedema and therefore AQP4 deletion aggravates brain oedema produced by brain tumour and brain abscess. AQP4 is also important in spinal cord oedema. AQP4 deletion was associated with less cord oedema and improved outcome after compression spinal cord injury in mice. Here we consider the possible routes of oedema formation and elimination in the injured cord and speculate about the role of AQP4. Finally we discuss the role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that produces oedema in the spinal cord and optic nerves. NMO patients have circulating AQP4 IgG autoantibody, which is now used for diagnosing NMO. We speculate how NMO-IgG might produce CNS inflammation, demyelination and oedema. Since AQP4 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CNS oedema, we conclude that AQP4 inhibitors and activators may reduce CNS oedema in many diseases.

  13. Astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoplasms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems of wild animals are extremely rare. Described are clinical signs, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma which involved brainstem, cervical spinal cord and roots of the ...

  14. Altered distribution of interstitial cells and innervation in the rat urinary bladder following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Louise; Cunningham, Rebecca MJ; Young, John S; Fry, Christopher H; McMurray, Gordon; Eccles, Rachel; McCloskey, Karen D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the distribution of interstitial cells (IC) are reportedly associated with dysfunctional bladder. This study investigated whether spinal cord injury (SCI) resulted in changes to IC subpopulations (vimentin-positive with the ultrastructural profile of IC), smooth muscle and nerves within the bladder wall and correlated cellular remodelling with functional properties. Bladders from SCI (T8/9 transection) and sham-operated rats 5 weeks post-injury were used for ex vivo pressure–volume experiments or processed for morphological analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light/confocal microscopy. Pressure-volume relationships revealed low-pressure, hypercompliance in SCI bladders indicative of decompensation. Extensive networks of vimentin-positive IC were typical in sham lamina propria and detrusor but were markedly reduced post-SCI; semi-quantitative analysis showed significant reduction. Nerves labelled with anti-neurofilament and anti-vAChT were notably decreased post-SCI. TEM revealed lamina propria IC and detrusor IC which formed close synaptic-like contacts with vesicle-containing nerve varicosities in shams. Lamina propria and detrusor IC were ultrastructurally damaged post-SCI with retracted/lost cell processes and were adjacent to areas of cellular debris and neuronal degradation. Smooth muscle hypertrophy was common to SCI tissues. In conclusion, IC populations in bladder wall were decreased 5 weeks post-SCI, accompanied with reduced innervation, smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased compliance. These novel findings indicate that bladder wall remodelling post-SCI affects the integrity of interactions between smooth muscle, nerves and IC, with compromised IC populations. Correlation between IC reduction and a hypercompliant phenotype suggests that disruption to bladder IC contribute to pathophysiological processes underpinning the dysfunctional SCI bladder. PMID:21883887

  15. Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Gandhi, Sapan; Zambrotta, Marina; Houlé, John D

    2014-07-02

    Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs.

  16. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practicability

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653

  17. Prolotherapy-induced Cervical Spinal Cord Injury - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyun-Sik; Sun, Hyung-Seok; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Han, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A 49-year-old man received prolotherapy in the upper cervical region at a local medical clinic. Immediately after the procedure, he felt a sensation resembling an electric shock in his right upper and lower extremities, and continuously complained of numbness and discomfort in the right hemibody. He visited our clinic a week later. Upon physical examination, there were no significant abnormal findings. The visual analog scale was 60 points. T2-weight magnetic resonance images of the cervical spine showed a 0.7 cm sized bright oval spot on the right side of the spinal cord at the level of C4-C5 disc, suggesting spinal cord injury. There were no definite electrodiagnostic abnormalities. Digital infrared thermal images showed moderately decreased surface temperature on lateral aspect of the right forearm and dorsum of the right hand compared with the other side. Considering that very rare complications like spinal cord injury may develop after prolotherapy, we suggest that special interventions such as prolotherapy be performed by professional experts. PMID:22506175

  18. Cause of death for patients with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    DeVivo, M J; Kartus, P L; Stover, S L; Rutt, R D; Fine, P R

    1989-08-01

    An epidemiologic study of 5131 patients sustaining spinal cord injuries between 1973 and 1980 was conducted to determine and characterize the leading causes of death in this population. Patients who were studied had been admitted to one of seven federally designated regional spinal cord injury care systems and they survived for at least 24 hours after injury. When follow-up was terminated, 459 patients (9%) had died. Overall, the leading cause of death was pneumonia, followed by other subsequent unintentional injuries and suicides. The highest ratios of actual to expected deaths were for septicemia, pulmonary emboli, and pneumonia. Pneumonia was the leading cause of death among quadriplegics and persons at least 55 years of age, while among paraplegics and persons who were less than 55 years of age, subsequent unintentional injuries and suicides were the leading causes of death. While there is conclusive evidence that mortality rates for spinal-cord injured persons have declined dramatically since the end of World War II, many cause-specific mortality rates remain substantially above normal.

  19. Acute sports-related spinal cord injury: contemporary management principles.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Berta, Scott C

    2003-07-01

    Improvements in helmet and equipment design have led to significant decreases in overall injury incidence, but no available helmet can prevent catastrophic injury to the neck and cervical spine. The most effective strategy for preventing this type of injury appears to be careful instruction, training, and regulations designed to eliminate head-first contact. The incidence of football-related quadriplegia has decreased from a peak of 13 cases per one million players between 1976 and 1980 to 3 per million from 1991 to 1993, mostly as a result of systematic research and an organized effort to eliminate high-risk behavior. An episode of transient quadriparesis does not appear to be a risk factor for catastrophic spinal cord injury. Torg reported that 0 of 117 quadriplegics in the National Football Head and Neck Injuries Registry recalled a prior episode of transient quadriparesis, and 0 of the 45 patients originally studied in his transient quadriparesis cohort have subsequently suffered quadriplegia. The significance of developmental spinal stenosis is unclear. Plain radiographic identification of a narrow spinal canal in a player sustaining cervical cord neurapraxia warrants further evaluation by MRI to rule out functional stenosis. The presence of actual cord deformation or compression on MRI should preclude participation in high-risk contact or collision sports.

  20. Radial glia regulate vascular patterning around the developing spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Ryota L; Marass, Michele; Avdesh, Avdesh; Helker, Christian SM; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Grosse, Ann S; Kaur, Harmandeep; Lawson, Nathan D; Herzog, Wiebke; Stainier, Didier YR

    2016-01-01

    Vascular networks surrounding individual organs are important for their development, maintenance, and function; however, how these networks are assembled remains poorly understood. Here we show that CNS progenitors, referred to as radial glia, modulate vascular patterning around the spinal cord by acting as negative regulators. We found that radial glia ablation in zebrafish embryos leads to excessive sprouting of the trunk vessels around the spinal cord, and exclusively those of venous identity. Mechanistically, we determined that radial glia control this process via the Vegf decoy receptor sFlt1: sflt1 mutants exhibit the venous over-sprouting observed in radial glia-ablated larvae, and sFlt1 overexpression rescues it. Genetic mosaic analyses show that sFlt1 function in trunk endothelial cells can limit their over-sprouting. Together, our findings identify CNS-resident progenitors as critical angiogenic regulators that determine the precise patterning of the vasculature around the spinal cord, providing novel insights into vascular network formation around developing organs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20253.001 PMID:27852438

  1. Transplant restoration of spinal cord inhibitory controls ameliorates neuropathic itch.

    PubMed

    Braz, Joao M; Juarez-Salinas, Dina; Ross, Sarah E; Basbaum, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    The transmission of pruritoceptive (itch) messages involves specific neural circuits within the spinal cord that are distinct from those that transmit pain messages. These itch-specific circuits are tonically regulated by inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Consistent with these findings, it has previously been reported that loss of GABAergic interneurons in mice harboring a deletion of the transcription factor Bhlhb5 generates a severe, nonremitting condition of chronic itch. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the neuropathic itch in BHLHB5-deficient animals can be treated by restoring inhibitory controls through spinal cord transplantation and integration of precursors of cortical inhibitory interneurons derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence. We specifically targeted the transplants to segments of the spinal cord innervated by areas of the body that were most severely affected. BHLHB5-deficient mice that received transplants demonstrated a substantial reduction of excessive scratching and dramatic resolution of skin lesions. In contrast, the scratching persisted and skin lesions worsened over time in sham-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that cell-mediated restoration of inhibitory controls has potential as a powerful, cell-based therapy for neuropathic itch that not only ameliorates symptoms of chronic itch, but also may modify disease.

  2. Caffeine treatment aggravates secondary degeneration after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Chang; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in some form of paralysis. Recently, SCI therapy has been focused on preventing secondary injury to reduce both neuroinflammation and lesion size so that functional outcome after an SCI may be improved. Previous studies have shown that adenosine receptors (AR) are a major regulator of inflammation after an SCI. The current study was performed to examine the effect of caffeine, a pan-AR blocker, on spontaneous functional recovery after an SCI. Animals were assigned into 3 groups randomly, including sham, PBS and caffeine groups. The rat SCI was generated by an NYU impactor with a 10 g rod dropped from a 25 mm height at thoracic 9 spinal cord level. Caffeine and PBS were injected daily during the experiment period. Hind limb motor function was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale at 1 week and 4 weeks after the SCI. Spinal cord segments were collected after final behavior evaluation for morphological analysis. The tissue sparing was evaluated by luxol fast blue staining. Immunofluorescence stain was employed to assess astrocyte activation and neurofilament positioning, while microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemistry stain.The results showed that spontaneous functional recovery was blocked after the animals were subjected caffeine daily. Moreover, caffeine administration increased the demyelination area, promoted astrocyte and microglia activation and decreased the quantity of neurofilaments. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity effect of caffeine may be associated with the inhibition of neural repair and the promotion of neuroinflammation.

  3. The role of extracellular matrix in spinal cord development.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Stefan; Faissner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The development of the spinal cord represents one of the most complex structure developments of the central nervous system (CNS) as it has to unfold along the longitudinal axis and within segmental cues. There it has to cope with on the one hand connection to the periphery (skeletal muscle, dermomyotome, smooth muscles) and connect it to the higher midbrain and cortical regions of the CNS. Major studies have been performed to analyze the specific subset of transcription factors of the different types of cells within the different segments of the spinal cord. But transcription factor expression is always a result of cellular positioning as the environment defines the intracellular changes during differentiation and in adulthood. The surrounding composed of mainly extracellular matrix does not only provide a "glue" to attach cells to each other but also provides signals with special domains docking to cell surface receptors and presents soluble molecules such as basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGFs) or Wnt-proteins. The availability of these molecules depends on the matrix composition and influences the transcription factor code of each cell. Recent research has also provided strong evidence that depletion of single matrix molecules like Tenascin C (TnC) can lead to developmental changes within the progenitor pools. Therefore beyond the transcription factor code that defines cellular properties we want to focus on the role of the extracellular matrix in the development of the spinal cord.

  4. Diagnosis and Prognosis of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Goss, Ben; Urquhart, Susan; Atresh, Sridhar; Williams, Richard P.; Schuetz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite promising advances in basic spinal cord repair research, no effective therapy resulting in major neurological or functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) is available to date. The neurological examination according to the International Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Patients (International Standards) has become the cornerstone in the assessment of the severity and level of the injury. Based on parameters from the International Standards, physicians are able to inform patients about the predicted long-term outcomes, including the ability to walk, with high accuracy. In those patients who cannot participate in a reliable physical neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examinations may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information. As clinical research on this topic continues, the prognostic value of the reviewed diagnostic assessments will become more accurate in the near future. These advances will provide useful information for physicians to counsel tSCI patients and their families during the catastrophic initial phase after the injury. PMID:24353930

  5. Rotator cuff repair in spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    Popowitz, Richard L; Zvijac, John E; Uribe, John W; Hechtman, Keith S; Schürhoff, Matthias R; Green, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in wheelchair-bound patients have concentrated on nonsurgical management. We conducted a retrospective review to determine the effectiveness of surgical repair of rotator cuff tears in spinal cord-injured patients. Five male patients with rotator cuff tears confirmed by physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging underwent rotator cuff repair. Two of eight shoulders were revisions. The patients were evaluated postoperatively with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Scoring System. These results were compared with preoperative functional assessment. Patients were given a subjective questionnaire to assess their overall experience. Postoperative range of motion improved in 6 of 8 shoulders. Strength was increased in 6 of 8 shoulders. Patients reported satisfaction with the results in 7 of 8 shoulders, and all 5 patients would recommend the procedure to other spinal cord injury patients. At recent follow-up, 7 of 8 shoulders returned to their preinjury level of function. Surgery for spinal cord injury patients with rotator cuff tears can improve their functional capability and autonomy while reducing their pain. Compliance with the demanding postoperative rehabilitation is essential; therefore proper patient selection is crucial for optimal results.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and motor-evoked potentials in spinal cord infarction: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Bergmann, Jürgen; Kronbichler, Martin; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Caleri, Francesca; Tezzon, Frediano; Ladurner, Gunther; Golaszewski, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Because in the early phases of spinal cord ischemia magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be normal, its clinical diagnosis is often difficult. We aimed to explore if motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recordings may contribute to earlier diagnosis of spinal cord stroke. The clinical, MRI, and MEP findings in one case each of cervical and lumbar spinal cord infarction were reported. Spinal MRI at admission was unremarkable in both patients. At this time, MEPs were abnormal in both patients, to the upper and lower limbs in the first patient, exclusively to the lower limbs in the second. Follow-up MRI examinations documented an infarction in the territory of the anterior spinal artery and of the Adamkiewicz artery, respectively. MEP study can be useful in demonstrating spinal cord involvement also when radiological evidence for spinal cord damage is absent or equivocal. Early diagnosis may allow earlier intervention and contribute to improved patient management.

  7. Return of function after spinal cord implantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, T; Grane, P; Hallin, R G; Norén, G

    1995-11-18

    Avulsion of nerve roots from the spinal cord is widely regarded as an untreatable injury. However, a series of experiments in animals has shown that, if continuity is restored between spinal cord and ventral roots, axons from spinal motor neurons can regrow into the peripheral nerves with recovery of motor function. These observations were applied in the treatment of a man with avulsion of the 6th cervical (C6) to 1st thoracic roots due to brachial plexus injury. Two ventral roots were implanted into the spinal cord through slits in the pia mater, C6 directly and C7 via sural nerve grafts. Voluntary activity in proximal arm muscles was detected electromyographically after nine months and clinically after one year. After three years the patient had voluntary activity (with some co-contraction) in the deltoid, biceps, and triceps muscles. To determine whether the improvement was due to spontaneous recovery from C5, the C5 root was blocked pharmacologically, and the results indicated that the repaired roots were contributing substantially to motor function. Repair of spinal nerve roots deserves further exploration in management of brachial plexus injury.

  8. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-07-22

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinases as a Therapeutic Target to Improve Neurologic Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0797 TITLE: Matrix metalloproteinases as a therapeutic target to improve neurologic recovery after spinal cord injury...after spinal cord injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0797 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Linda J. Noble, Alpa...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: We are evaluating efficacy of GM6001, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in a murine model of spinal cord

  10. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Seth D. Messinger, PhD... Reintegration of Service- 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Members and Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0811 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... success . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Community Reintegration , Qualitative Research 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  11. Treatment of Pain and Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury with Deep Brain Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0559 TITLE: Treatment of Pain and Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury with Deep Brain Stimulation...Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Treatment of Pain and Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury with Deep Brain...as a method for treating pain and autonomic dysreflexia in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is collaboration between the

  12. Family Caregivers for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury: Exploring the Stresses and Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0213 TITLE: Family Caregivers for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury: Exploring the Stresses and Benefits PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Family Caregivers for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury: Exploring the Stresses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER and Benefits 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Unfortunately, there are few studies that examine the intricacies of caregiving for people with spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this study is to

  13. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patrick L; Nash, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit deficits in volitional motor control and sensation that limit not only the performance of daily tasks but also the overall activity level of these persons. This population has been characterised as extremely sedentary with an increased incidence of secondary complications including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and atherogenic lipid profiles. As the daily lifestyle of the average person with SCI is without adequate stress for conditioning purposes, structured exercise activities must be added to the regular schedule if the individual is to reduce the likelihood of secondary complications and/or to enhance their physical capacity. The acute exercise responses and the capacity for exercise conditioning are directly related to the level and completeness of the spinal lesion. Appropriate exercise testing and training of persons with SCI should be based on the individual's exercise capacity as determined by accurate assessment of the spinal lesion. The standard means of classification of SCI is by application of the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, written by the Neurological Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association. Individuals with complete spinal injuries at or above the fourth thoracic level generally exhibit dramatically diminished cardiac acceleration with maximal heart rates less than 130 beats/min. The work capacity of these persons will be limited by reductions in cardiac output and circulation to the exercising musculature. Persons with complete spinal lesions below the T(10) level will generally display injuries to the lower motor neurons within the lower extremities and, therefore, will not retain the capacity for neuromuscular activation by means of electrical stimulation. Persons with paraplegia also exhibit reduced exercise capacity and increased heart rate responses (compared with the non-disabled), which have been associated with circulatory limitations

  14. Improving outcome of sensorimotor functions after traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the rehabilitation of a patient suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI), the exploitation of neuroplasticity is well established. It can be facilitated through the training of functional movements with technical assistance as needed and can improve outcome after an SCI. The success of such training in individuals with incomplete SCI critically depends on the presence of physiological proprioceptive input to the spinal cord leading to meaningful muscle activations during movement performances. Some actual preclinical approaches to restore function by compensating for the loss of descending input to spinal networks following complete/incomplete SCI are critically discussed in this report. Electrical and pharmacological stimulation of spinal neural networks is still in the experimental stage, and despite promising repair studies in animal models, translations to humans up to now have not been convincing. It is possible that a combination of techniques targeting the promotion of axonal regeneration is necessary to advance the restoration of function. In the future, refinement of animal models according to clinical conditions and requirements may contribute to greater translational success. PMID:27303641

  15. Adult spinal cord ependymal layer: a promising pool of quiescent stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Elena; Malas, Stavros

    2013-11-28

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major health burden and currently there is no effective medical intervention. Research performed over the last decade revealed that cells surrounding the central canal of the adult spinal cord and forming the ependymal layer acquire stem cell properties either in vitro or in response to injury. Following SCI activated ependymal cells generate progeny cells which migrate to the injury site but fail to produce the appropriate type of cells in sufficient number to limit the damage, rendering this physiological response mainly ineffective. Research is now focusing on the manipulation of ependymal cells to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage which are primarily lost in such a situation leading to secondary neuronal degeneration. Thus, there is a need for a more focused approach to understand the molecular properties of adult ependymal cells in greater detail and develop effective strategies for guiding their response during SCI.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity, Neurogenesis, and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury research has greatly expanded in recent years, but our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functional recovery that can occur over the weeks and months following the initial injury, is far from complete. To grasp the scope of the problem, it is important to begin by defining the sensorimotor pathways that might be involved by a spinal injury. This is done in the rodent and nonhuman primate, which are two of the most commonly used animal models in basic and translational spinal injury research. Many of the better known experimentally induced models are then reviewed in terms of the pathways they involve and the reorganization and recovery that have been shown to follow. The better understood neuronal mechanisms mediating such post-injury plasticity, including dendritic spine growth and axonal sprouting, are then examined. PMID:19307422

  17. Intradural Extramedullary Tuberculoma of the Spinal Cord Following Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Deok-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord (IETSC) is an uncommon disease which can occurs secondary to tuberculous meningitis. A 31-year-old woman was diagnosed as tuberculous meningitis after mental disorientation. Her mentality was recovered after antituberculous therapy. After 7 months of antituberculous therapy, paraplegia has developed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass lesion between the T1 and T12 spinal levels with arachnoid thickening which results in the development of tuberculoma. She received surgical resection of IETSC followed by antituberculous therapy and neurological function has been improved. The two years after surgical treatment, spinal MRI showed syringomyelia between T1 to L1. But, her neurological outcome was not aggravated. PMID:26217394

  18. The Radiation Dose-Response of the Human Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To characterize the radiation dose-response of the human spinal cord. Methods and Materials: Because no single institution has sufficient data to establish a dose-response function for the human spinal cord, published reports were combined. Requisite data were dose and fractionation, number of patients at risk, number of myelopathy cases, and survival experience of the population. Eight data points for cervical myelopathy were obtained from five reports. Using maximum likelihood estimation correcting for the survival experience of the population, estimates were obtained for the median tolerance dose, slope parameter, and {alpha}/{beta} ratio in a logistic dose-response function. An adequate fit to thoracic data was not possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments involving the cervical cord were also analyzed. Results: The estimate of the median tolerance dose (cervical cord) was 69.4 Gy (95% confidence interval, 66.4-72.6). The {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy. At 45 Gy, the (extrapolated) probability of myelopathy is 0.03%; and at 50 Gy, 0.2%. The dose for a 5% myelopathy rate is 59.3 Gy. Graphical analysis indicates that the sensitivity of the thoracic cord is less than that of the cervical cord. There appears to be a sensitizing effect from hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} is smaller than usually quoted, but values this small were found in some studies. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy, one would expect a considerable advantage by decreasing the dose/fraction to less than 2 Gy. These results were obtained from only single fractions/day and should not be applied uncritically to hyperfractionation.

  19. Differential effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, on lamina I and lamina V spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akiko; Meng, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    Direct application of cannabinoids to the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) inhibits lamina V nociceptive neurons. The present study compared the effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) on the activity of lamina I and lamina V MDH neurons using extracellular single unit recording in anesthetized rats. Activity evoked by a contact thermode was measured before and after local application of WIN-2 (0.5-2.0 μg/μl) to the brainstem. Fast and slow heat ramps were used to differentiate between activity evoked primarily by A-delta and C primary afferent fibers, respectively. In lamina V neurons, WIN-2 produced a concentration dependent decrease in activity evoked by both fast and slow heat, reaching significance at 1.0 μg/μl. In lamina I neurons, WIN-2 administration inhibited slow heat evoked activity beginning at 1.0 μg/μl but had no significant effect on fast heat evoked activity, even at the highest concentration (2.0 μg/μl). In separate experiments, the effect of intrathecal administration of WIN-2 to the MDH on head withdrawal latencies elicited by fast and slow heat ramps applied to the whisker pad was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats. Head withdrawal latencies elicited by slow but not fast heat stimulation were increased by WIN-2. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of lamina I neurons in the control of a nociceptive heat-evoked reflex. PMID:19114295

  20. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Spinal Metastases Recurring in Close Proximity to Previously Irradiated Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Adler, John R.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steven D.; Jackson, Paul S.; Minn, A. Yuriko; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: As the spinal cord tolerance often precludes reirradiation with conventional techniques, local recurrence within a previously irradiated field presents a treatment challenge. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 51 lesions in 42 patients treated from 2002 to 2008 whose spinal metastases recurred in a previous radiation field (median previous spinal cord dose of 40 Gy) and were subsequently treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Results: SRS was delivered to a median marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 10-30 Gy) in 1-5 fractions (median, 2), targeting a median tumor volume of 10.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-128.6 cm{sup 3}). Converting the SRS regimens with the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3), the median spinal cord maximum single-session equivalent dose (SSED) was 12.1 Gy{sub 3} (range, 4.7-19.3 Gy{sub 3}). With a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 2-47 months), the Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival rates at 6/12 months were 87%/73% and 81%/68%, respectively. A time to retreatment of {<=}12 months and the combination of time to retreatment of {<=}12 months with an SSED of <15 Gy{sub 10} were significant predictors of local failure on univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients with a retreatment interval of <12 months, 6/12 month local control rates were 88%/58%, with a SSED of >15 Gy{sub 10}, compared to 45%/0% with <15 Gy{sub 10}, respectively. One patient (2%) experienced Grade 4 neurotoxicity. Conclusion: SRS is safe and effective in the treatment of spinal metastases recurring in previously irradiated fields. Tumor recurrence within 12 months may correlate with biologic aggressiveness and require higher SRS doses (SSED >15 Gy{sub 10}). Further research is needed to define the partial volume retreatment tolerance of the spinal cord and the optimal target dose.

  1. Upper cervical spinal cord gunshot injury without bone destruction☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Seçer, Mehmet; Ulutaş, Murat; Yayla, Erdal; Çınar, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report describes a rare case of the gunshot injury of the spine and spinal cord. PRESENTATION OF CASE A rare case of the bullet lodged intra-durally in the upper cervical region without damaging the vertebrae or the spinal cord. The bullet was removed as microneurosurgical and duraplasty was performed. DISCUSSION Surgical management of the gunshot wounds of the spine and spinal cord is not widely advocated and controversial. CONCLUSION Advances in microneurosurgical instrumentation and microscopic techniques may open up a new era of surgical treatment of spinal cord gunshot wounds. PMID:24566426

  2. Is there a role for the autochthonous bubble in the pathogenesis of spinal cord decompression sickness?

    PubMed

    Francis, T J; Pezeshkpour, G H; Dutka, A J; Hallenbeck, J M; Flynn, E T

    1988-07-01

    Histological examination by light and electron microscopy of the spinal cords of four dogs rapidly perfusion-fixed after the onset of decompression sickness revealed the presence of numerous non-staining, space-occupying lesions that were absent in similarly prepared sections of control or ischemic spinal cords. We propose the hypothesis that these lesions are caused by the liberation of a gas phase. The possible significance of these lesions in the evolution of spinal cord dysfunction is discussed with reference to the principal theories of the pathogenesis of spinal cord decompression sickness.

  3. A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nandra, Mandheerej. S.; Lavrov, Igor A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury. PMID:21841938

  4. A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Nandra, Mandheerej S; Lavrov, Igor A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-01-23

    The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury.

  5. [Preface and comments: Protection of the brain and the spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    2007-03-01

    Basic and clinical investigations have been performed, focusing on the mechanism of ischemic brain and spinal cord injuries, and preventive measures against ischemic insults such as drug therapy, hypothermia, maintenace of blood flow to brain and spinal cord, preconditioning, and no use of high dose fentanyl. In this special issue, five experts have provided new relevant information concerning brain and spinal cord protection. Further research in brain and spinal cord protection will contribute to better understanding of ischemic central nervous system injuries and to the establishment of novel therapies for protection of central nervous system.

  6. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula draining into spinal cord veins: case report].

    PubMed

    Seda, Lauro Franco; Pieruccetti, Marco Antonio; Freitas, José Maria Modenesi; Listik, Sérgio; Pereira, Clemente Augusto Brito

    2002-09-01

    We present an usual case of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary and spinal cord venous plexus drainage and discuss its etiological, physiopathological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  7. Spinal cord compression from Wegener’s granulomatosis: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deb; Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J.; Selby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) causing spinal cord compression is very rare with only few cases reported in literature. We present a case report with review of literature. A 55-year-old lady with known WG presented with acute on chronic spinal cord compression. MRI scan revealed spinal cord compression anteriorly and posteriorly at T2–T5 level. Patient underwent urgent surgical decompression with excision of the posterior dural lesion with synthetic duraplasty. Patient made good neurological recovery. Histopathology revealed features consistent with WG. A rare case of spinal cord compression from WG is presented. Urgent surgical decompression with duraplasty resulted in good neurological outcome. PMID:28097250

  8. TRESK contributes to pain threshold changes by mediating apoptosis via MAPK pathway in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Lin, Wenjing; Chen, Hongtao; Fan, Youling; Yang, Chengxiang

    2016-12-17

    The mechanism underlying neuropathic pain (NP) is complex and has not been fully elucidated. The TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) is the major background potassium current in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway were activated in spinal cord accompanied by TRESK down regulation in response to NP. Therefore, we investigated whether TRESK mediates inflammation and apoptosis by MAPK pathway in the spinal cord of NP rats. SNI rats exhibited reduced TRESK expression in DRG and spinal cord and higher sensitivity to mechanical stimuli but no effect on thermal stimuli. Intrathecal injections of TRESK overexpressing adenovirus alleviated mechanical allodynia, inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, and decreased inflammatory reactions and apoptosis in the spinal cords of SNI rats. Down regulation of TRESK in DRG and spinal cord was detected in normal rats after intrathecal TRESK shRNA lentivirus injection, which induced mechanical allodynia but had no effect on pain thresholds for heat stimulation. Phosphorylated ERK and p38 were increased in the spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of an ERK antagonist (PD98059) and p38 antagonist (SB203580) prevented ERK and p38 activation in the spinal cord and mechanical allodynia induced by TRESK shRNA lentivirus. In conclusion, our study clearly demonstrated an important role for TRESK in NP and that TRESK regulation contributes to pain sensitivity mediates inflammation and apoptosis by ERK and p38 MAPK signaling in the spinal cord.

  9. Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited.

    PubMed

    Petrova, N; Carassiti, D; Altmann, D R; Baker, D; Schmierer, K

    2017-04-12

    Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between cross-sectional area and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue. We extensively sampled spinal cords of seven women and six men with multiple sclerosis (mean disease duration= 29 years) and five healthy controls to quantify axonal density and its association with demyelination and cross-sectional area. 396 tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin and immuno-stained for myelin basic protein and phosphorylated neurofilaments. Measurements included total cross-sectional area, areas of (i) lateral cortico-spinal tracts, (ii) grey matter, (iii) white matter, (iv) demyelination, and the number of axons within the lateral cortico-spinal tracts. Linear mixed models were used to analyse relationships. In multiple sclerosis cross-sectional area reduction at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels ranged between 19 and 24% with white (19-24%) and grey (17-21%) matter atrophy contributing equally across levels. Axonal density in multiple sclerosis was lower by 57-62% across all levels and affected all fibres regardless of diameter. Demyelination affected 24-48% of the grey matter, most extensively at the thoracic level, and 11-13% of the white matter, with no significant differences across levels. Disease duration was associated with reduced axonal density, however not with any area index. Significant association was detected between focal demyelination and decreased axonal density. In conclusion, over nearly 30 years multiple sclerosis reduces axonal density by 60

  10. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide in the cerebrospinal fluid is associated with self-repair of rats after chronic spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Rong, W; Hu, X; Liu, X; Jiang, L; Ma, Y; Dang, G; Liu, Z; Wei, F

    2012-05-17

    The objective of this study was to explore changes in hyaluronan levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a spinal cord compression model, to investigate whether hyaluronan tetrasaccharide was involved in this process, and to test the effects of hyaluronan tetrasaccharide on neuron and oligodendrocyte repair. We developed a chronic spinal cord compression model with various sizes of polymer sheets (1.5×0.7×0.3 mm(3); 5×1.5×0.7 mm(3)) that were implanted microsurgically underneath the C(5-6) laminae. The rats were divided into three groups: a sham group, a mildly compressed (MC) group, and a widely compressed (WC) group. Locomotor functional evaluations revealed that the behavioral function of the MC and WC groups dropped to their lowest level from the fourth to fifth week and gradually recovered thereafter. The hyaluronan levels in the CSF gradually increased after spinal cord compression. Furthermore, hyaluronan tetrasaccharide was involved in the hyaluronan change. In addition, we found that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP(2)) were co-expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and caspase-3 expression gradually decreased in the compression model. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was upregulated in astrocytes at the fourth week post-compression. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide (HA(4)) induced NF-κB and c-IAP(2) to suppress the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in primary neuronal cultures and increased BDNF and VEGF expression in astrocytic cultures in vitro. These findings suggest that HA(4) in the CSF may associate with behavioral recovery by increasing the levels of NF-κB, c-IAP(2), and neurotrophic factors after chronic spinal cord compression.

  11. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of metals in mouse spinal cord by laser ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, Bei; Steinacker, Petra; Otto, Markus; Matusch, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed as a powerful MS imaging (MSI) tool for the direct investigation of element distributions in biological tissues. Here, this technique was adapted for the analysis of native mouse spinal cord cryosections of 3.1 mm × 1.7 mm by implementing a new conventional ablation system (NWR-213) and improving the spatial resolution from 120 μm to 65 μm in routine mode. Element images of the spinal cord are provided for the first time and the metalloarchitecture was established using a multimodal atlas approach. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of Rb was mapped for the first time in biological tissue. Metal concentrations were quantified using matrix-matched laboratory standards and normalization of the respective ion intensities to the average (13)C ion intensity of standards and samples as a surrogate of slice thickness. The "butterfly" shape of the central spinal grey matter was visualized in positive contrast by the distributions of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn and in negative contrast by C and P. Mg, Na, K, S and Rb showed a more homogenous distribution. The concentrations averaged throughout grey matter and white matter were 8 and 4 μg g(-1) of Fe, 3 and 2 μg g(-1) of Cu, 8 and 5 μg g(-1) of Zn, 0.4 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of Mn. The carbon concentration in white matter exceeded that of grey matter by a factor of 1.44. Zn and Cu at 9 and 4 μg g(-1), respectively, were particularly enriched in the laminae I and II, in line with the high synaptic and cellular density there. Surprisingly Zn but not Cu was enriched in the central channel. Rb occurred at 0.3 μg g(-1) with a distribution pattern congruent to that of K. The coefficients of variation were 6%, 5%, 8% and 10% for Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively, throughout three different animals measured on different days. These MSI analyses of healthy wild type spinal cords demonstrate the suitability of the established techniques for

  12. Cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury: always for good?

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, Karen A.; Oliviero, Antonio; Aguilar, Juan; Foffani, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity constitutes the basis of behavioral changes as a result of experience. It refers to neural network shaping and re-shaping at the global level and to synaptic contacts remodeling at the local level, either during learning or memory encoding, or as a result of acute or chronic pathological conditions. ‘Plastic’ brain reorganization after central nervous system lesions has a pivotal role in the recovery and rehabilitation of sensory and motor dysfunction, but can also be “maladaptive”. Moreover, it is clear that brain reorganization it is not a “static” phenomenon but rather a very dynamic process. Spinal cord injury immediately initiates a change in brain state and starts cortical reorganization. In the long term, the impact of injury – with or without accompanying therapy – on the brain is a complex balance between supraspinal reorganization and spinal recovery. The degree of cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury is highly variable, and can range from no reorganization (i.e. “silencing”) to massive cortical remapping. This variability critically depends on the species, the age of the animal when the injury occurs, the time after the injury has occurred, and the behavioral activity and possible therapy regimes after the injury. We will briefly discuss these dependencies, trying to highlight their translational value. Overall, it is not only necessary to better understand how the brain can reorganize after injury with or without therapy, it is also necessary to clarify when and why brain reorganization can be either “good” or “bad” in terms of its clinical consequences. This information is critical in order to develop and optimize cost-effective therapies to maximize functional recovery while minimizing maladaptive states after spinal cord injury. PMID:24997269

  13. Spinal cord infarction is an unusual complication of intracranial neuroendovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Okamaoto, Takeshi; Izumi, Takashi; Asai, Takumi; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Ota, Keisuke; Oda, Keiko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-12-01

    Spinal cord infarction is an unusual complication of intracranial neuroendovascular intervention. The authors report on two cases involving spinal cord infarction after endovascular coil embolization for large basilar-tip aneurysms. Each aneurysm was sufficiently embolized by the stent/balloon combination-assisted technique or double catheter technique. However, postoperatively, patients presented neurological symptoms without cranial nerve manifestation. MRI revealed multiple infarctions at the cervical spinal cord. In both cases, larger-sized guiding catheters were used for an adjunctive technique. Therefore, guiding catheters had been wedged in the vertebral artery (VA). The wedge of the VA and flow restriction may have caused thromboemboli and/or hemodynamic insufficiency of the spinal branches from the VA (radiculomedullary artery), resulting in spinal cord infarction. Spinal cord infarction should be taken into consideration as a complication of endovascular intervention for lesions of the posterior circulation.

  14. Photochemically induced spinal ischaemia: a model of spinal cord trauma in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olby, Natasha J.; Blakemore, W. F.

    1995-05-01

    Focal thrombosis was induced in the dorsal funiculus of the rat spinal cord by exposing the cord to light following intravenous injection of the photoactive dye, rose bengal. The light source was a 599 standing wave dye laser, pumped by an Innova 70 - 4 argon ion laser (Coherent Ltd, Cambridge, UK) and the light was delivered to the operative site via an optical fiber. The histological characteristics of the development and resolution of the lesion have been studied. Forty rats were examined with light and electron microscopy at various time points between 30 minutes and one month after irradiation and the lesion length was measured. Platelet aggregation, increased extracellular space in the white matter and vacuolation of the neurones and glia of the grey matter were present 30 minutes after injury. Progressive necrosis of the white and grey matter developed over the subsequent 24 hours to produce a fusiform lesion that occupied the dorsal funiculus and dorsal horns of the spinal cord at its center and tapered cranially and caudally along the dorsal columns for a total distance of seven millimeters. By one month after injury the area of necrosis had become a cyst lined by astrocytes ventrolaterally and meningeal cells dorsally. Measurements of lesion length showed a variability of 26%. This model of spinal cord trauma produces a lesion that is sufficiently reproducible to be suitable for performing studies aimed at tissue preservation and repair.

  15. How to prevent spinal cord injury during endovascular repair of thoracic aortic disease.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naomichi

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of spinal cord injury in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been 3-5 % from recent major papers where sacrifice of the critical intercostal arteries is inevitable by a stent graft. Hemodynamic stability, which depends on a network of blood vessels around the cord is most important not only during but also after stent-graft deployment. High risk factors of spinal cord injury during endovascular aortic repair are (1) coverage of the left subclavian artery, (2) extensive coverage of long segments of the thoracic aorta, (3) prior downstream aortic repair, (4) compromising important intercostal (T8-L1), vertebral, pelvic and hypogastric collaterals, and (5) shaggy aorta. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative managements have been required to prevent spinal cord injury with TEVAR. For imaging assessment of blood supply to spinal cord including Adamkiewicz artery, prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid drainage is mandatory, and monitoring motor-evoked potential is recommended for high risk factors of spinal cord injury. Mean arterial pressure should be maintained over 90 mmHg after stent-graft placement for a while to prevent delayed spinal cord ischemia in high-risk patients of spinal cord ischemia. Finally, because spinal cord injury during TEVAR is not rare and negligible, perioperative care during TEVAR should be strictly performed according to the protocol proposed by each cardiovascular team.

  16. A Review of the Segmental Diameter of the Healthy Human Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Frostell, Arvid; Hakim, Ramil; Thelin, Eric Peter; Mattsson, Per; Svensson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the average size and variability of the human spinal cord can be of importance when treating pathological conditions in the spinal cord. Data on healthy human spinal cord morphometrics have been published for more than a century using different techniques of measurements, but unfortunately, comparison of results from different studies is difficult because of the different anatomical landmarks used as reference points along the craniocaudal axis for the measurements. The aim of this review was to compute population estimates of the transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the human spinal cord by comparing and combining previously published data on a normalized craniocaudal axis. We included 11 studies presenting measurements of spinal cord cross-sectional diameters, with a combined sample size ranging from 15 to 488 subjects, depending on spinal cord level. Based on five published studies presenting data on the lengths of the segments of the spinal cord and vertebral column, we calculated the relative positions of all spinal cord neuronal segments and vertebral bony segments and mapped measurements of spinal cord size to a normalized craniocaudal axis. This mapping resulted in better alignment between studies and allowed the calculation of weighted averages and standard deviations (SDs) along the spinal cord. These weighted averages were smoothed using a generalized additive model to yield continuous population estimates for transverse and anteroposterior diameter and associated SDs. The spinal cord had the largest transverse diameter at spinal cord neuronal segment C5 (13.3 ± 2.2), decreased to segment T8 (8.3 ± 2.1), and increased slightly again to 9.4 ± 1.5 at L3. The anteroposterior diameter showed less variation in size along the spinal cord at C5 (7.4 ± 1.6), T8 (6.3 ± 2.0), and L3 (7.5 ± 1.6). All estimates are presented in millimeters ± 2 SDs. We conclude that segmental transverse and anteroposterior

  17. A Review of the Segmental Diameter of the Healthy Human Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Frostell, Arvid; Hakim, Ramil; Thelin, Eric Peter; Mattsson, Per; Svensson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the average size and variability of the human spinal cord can be of importance when treating pathological conditions in the spinal cord. Data on healthy human spinal cord morphometrics have been published for more than a century using different techniques of measurements, but unfortunately, comparison of results from different studies is difficult because of the different anatomical landmarks used as reference points along the craniocaudal axis for the measurements. The aim of this review was to compute population estimates of the transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the human spinal cord by comparing and combining previously published data on a normalized craniocaudal axis. We included 11 studies presenting measurements of spinal cord cross-sectional diameters, with a combined sample size ranging from 15 to 488 subjects, depending on spinal cord level. Based on five published studies presenting data on the lengths of the segments of the spinal cord and vertebral column, we calculated the relative positions of all spinal cord neuronal segments and vertebral bony segments and mapped measurements of spinal cord size to a normalized craniocaudal axis. This mapping resulted in better alignment between studies and allowed the calculation of weighted averages and standard deviations (SDs) along the spinal cord. These weighted averages were smoothed using a generalized additive model to yield continuous population estimates for transverse and anteroposterior diameter and associated SDs. The spinal cord had the largest transverse diameter at spinal cord neuronal segment C5 (13.3 ± 2.2), decreased to segment T8 (8.3 ± 2.1), and increased slightly again to 9.4 ± 1.5 at L3. The anteroposterior diameter showed less variation in size along the spinal cord at C5 (7.4 ± 1.6), T8 (6.3 ± 2.0), and L3 (7.5 ± 1.6). All estimates are presented in millimeters ± 2 SDs. We conclude that segmental transverse and anteroposterior

  18. Development of Surrogate Spinal Cords for the Evaluation of Electrode Arrays Used in Intraspinal Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Kmech, Jonn; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a surrogate spinal cord for evaluating the mechanical suitability of electrode arrays for intraspinal implants. The mechanical and interfacial properties of candidate materials (including silicone elastomers and gelatin hydrogels) for the surrogate cord were tested. The elastic modulus was characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, and compared with values of actual human spinal cords from the literature. Forces required to indent the surrogate cords to specified depths were measured to obtain values under static conditions. Importantly, to quantify surface properties in addition to mechanical properties normally considered, interfacial frictional forces were measured by pulling a needle out of each cord at a controlled rate. The measured forces were then compared to those obtained from rat spinal cords. Formaldehyde-crosslinked gelatin, 12 wt% in water, was identified as the most suitable material for the construction of surrogate spinal cords. To demonstrate the utility of surrogate spinal cords in evaluating the behavior of various electrode arrays, cords were implanted with two types of intraspinal electrode arrays (one made of individual microwires and another of microwires anchored with a solid base), and cord deformation under elongation was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the surrogate model simulates the mechanical and interfacial properties of the spinal cord, and enables in vitro screening of intraspinal implants. PMID:23358939

  19. Cellular transplantation strategies for spinal cord injury and translational neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Reier, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    Basic science advances in spinal cord injury and regeneration research have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Among these interventions are cell-based approaches involving transplantation of neural and non-neural tissue elements that have potential for restoring damaged neural pathways or reconstructing intraspinal synaptic circuitries by either regeneration or neuronal/glial replacement. Notably, some of these strategies (e.g., grafts of peripheral nerve tissue, olfactory ensheathing glia, activated macrophages, marrow stromal cells, myelin-forming oligodendrocyte precursors or stem cells, and fetal spinal cord tissue) have already been translated to the clinical arena, whereas others have imminent likelihood of bench-to-bedside application. Although this progress has generated considerable enthusiasm about treating what once was thought to be a totally incurable condition, there are many issues to be considered relative to treatment safety and efficacy. The following review reflects on different experimental applications of intraspinal transplantation with consideration of the underlying pathological, pathophysiological, functional, and neuroplastic responses to spinal trauma that such treatments may target along with related issues of procedural and biological safety. The discussion then moves to an overview of ongoing and completed clinical trials to date. The pros and cons of these endeavors are considered, as well as what has been learned from them. Attention is primarily directed at preclinical animal modeling and the importance of patterning clinical trials, as much as possible, according to laboratory experiences.

  20. Putaminal alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Hilga; Rolfsnes, Hans O; Montag, Swantje; Wilting, Janine; Droby, Amgad; Reuter, Eva; Gawehn, Joachim; Zipp, Frauke; Gröger, Adriane

    2015-10-01

    Typical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions occur in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. However, two extreme magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes appear occasionally: those with predominantly spinal cord lesions (MS + SL) and those with cerebral lesions and no detectable spinal lesions (MS + CL). We assessed whether morphological differences can be found between these two extreme phenotypes. We examined 19 patients with MS + SL, 18 with MS + CL and 20 controls. All subjects were examined using magnetic resonance imaging, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging sequences. Voxel-based morphologic and regions of interest-based analyses and tract-based spatial statistics were performed. Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing. Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics did not differ between MS + SL and MS + CL patients. Patients with MS + SL showed significantly larger putamen volumes than those with MS + CL which correlated negatively with disability. Compared to controls, only MS + CL revealed clear cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, which correlated with cerebral lesion volume. Additionally, extensive white matter microstructural damage was found only in MS + CL compared to MS + SL and controls in the tract-based spatial statistics. Higher putamen volumes in MS + SL could suggest compensatory mechanisms in this area responsible for motor control. Widely reduced fractional anisotropy values in MS + CL were caused by higher cerebral lesion volume and thus presumably stronger demyelination, which subsequently leads to higher global gray matter atrophy.

  1. Localized diseases of the bovine brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D M

    1987-03-01

    Localized lesions of the central nervous system do occur in cattle. Those affecting the cranial nerves and focal lesions of the spinal cord are most easily recognized by careful neurologic examination. Once the lesion has been anatomically localized, likely etiologic causes can be pursued. Probably the most common cause of cranial nerve deficits in cattle is listeriosis. Important differential diagnoses include brain and pituitary abscesses and extensions of ear infections. Other possible causes include PEM, TEME, hypovitaminosis A, and several rare, sporadic causes. In young cattle, spinal trauma and vertebral body abscesses are the most common causes of progressive paresis resulting from spinal cord lesions. Congenital abnormalities must be considered in the differential diagnoses for very young calves. Non-neurologic conditions, including fractures of the limbs and especially nutritional muscular dystrophy, must be ruled out. In older cattle, compressive neoplasms, most notably lymphosarcoma, are primarily responsible for progressive paresis. Differential diagnosis should include other neurologic conditions such as delayed organophosphate neurotoxicity; early progressive diffuse neurologic diseases such as rabies, pseudorabies, and botulism; plant toxicities; and non-neurologic conditions resulting in recumbency, such as hypocalcemia and musculoskeletal trauma.

  2. Tritherapy (Spinalon)-Elicited Spinal Locomotor Network Activation: Phase I-IIa Clinical Trial in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    PROTOCOL SPIN-01 Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I-Ila clinicaltrials in spinalcord-injured patients Clinical...STUDY) described in the Protocol SPIN-01 (PROTOCOL) being entitled: "Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I...Report SC100155 SPIN-01 Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I-IIa clinical trials in spinal cord-injured

  3. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression and Recurrent Spinal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Simon Shek-Man; Ryu, Samuel; Chang, Eric L; Galanopoulos, Nicholas; Jones, Joshua; Kim, Edward Y; Kubicky, Charlotte D; Lee, Charles P; Rose, Peter S; Sahgal, Arjun; Sloan, Andrew E; Teh, Bin S; Traughber, Bryan J; Van Poznak, Catherine; Vassil, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is an oncologic emergency and if left untreated, permanent paralysis will ensue. The treatment of MESCC is governed by disease, patient, and treatment factors. Patient's preferences and goals of care are to be weighed into the treatment plan. Ideally, a patient with MESCC is evaluated by an interdisciplinary team promptly to determine the urgency of the clinical scenario. Treatment recommendations must take into consideration the risk-benefit profiles of surgical intervention and radiotherapy for the particular individual's circumstance, including neurologic status, performance status, extent of epidural disease, stability of the spine, extra-spinal disease status, and life expectancy. In patients with high spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) or retropulsion of bone fragments in the spinal canal, surgical intervention should be strongly considered. The rate of development of motor deficits from spinal cord compression may be a prognostic factor for ultimate functional outcome, and should be taken into account when a treatment recommendation is made. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  4. Role of spinal cholecystokinin in neuropathic pain after spinal cord hemisection in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junesun; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Youngkyung; Cho, Hwi-young; Hong, Seung Kil; Yoon, Young Wook

    2009-10-25

    In the present study we determined whether spinal cholecystokinin (CCK) or the cholecystokinin receptor is involved in below-level neuropathic pain of spinal cord injury (SCI). The effect of the CCK(B) receptor antagonist, CI-988 on mechanical allodynia and the expression level of CCK and CCK(B) receptor were investigated. Spinal hemisection was done at the T13 level in rats under enflurane anesthesia. CI-988 was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally and behavioral tests were conducted. After systemic injection, mechanical allodynia was reduced by higher doses of CI-988 (10 and 20mg/kg). Intrathecal CI-988 (100, 200 and 500 microg) dose-dependently increased the paw withdrawal threshold in both paws. Following spinal hemisection, CCK mRNA expression increased on the ipsilateral side at the spinal segments caudal to the injury and both sides of the spinal L4-5 segments without any significant changes in CCK(B) receptor mRNA levels. These results suggest that up-regulation of spinal CCK may contribute to maintenance of mechanical allodynia following SCI and that clinical application of CI-988 or similar drugs may be useful therapeutic agents for management of central neuropathic pain.

  5. Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Susan M.; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L.; Bopp, Anne C.; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2009-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP. PMID:19853381

  6. Somatotopic organization of lumbar muscle-innervating neurons in the ventral horn of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuzuru; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2010-04-01

    The ventral horn of the rat spinal cord was investigated with respect to the somatotopic organization of the motor neurons that innervate the lumbar muscles. Neurotracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was applied to specific sites in lumbar muscles. Spinal cord segments at L1 through L4 levels were cut into 40-mum serial transverse sections. Labeled neurons were located in the ventromedial nucleus (VM) and lateromedial nucleus (LM) nuclei of Rexed's lamina IX. Motor neurons innervating the m. interspinales lumborum and m. multifidus were without exception present in the VM, whereas all motor neurons innervating the m. rectus abdominis were present in the LM. Forty percent of motor neurons innervating the m. quadratus lumborum were present in the VM and the other 60% were in the LM. Although most of the motor neurons innervating the m. psoas major were present in the LM, a few labeled neurons existed in the VM. These results suggest that the border zone demarcating the areas of innervation of the dorsal and ventral rami of spinal nerves crosses the m. quadratus lumborum.

  7. Exercise Training after Spinal Cord Injury Selectively Alters Synaptic Properties in Neurons in Adult Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jamie R.; Dunn, Lynda R.; Galea, Mary P.; Callister, Robin; Rank, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Following spinal cord injury (SCI), anatomical changes such as axonal sprouting occur within weeks in the vicinity of the injury. Exercise training enhances axon sprouting; however, the exact mechanisms that mediate exercised-induced plasticity are unknown. We studied the effects of exercise training after SCI on the intrinsic and synaptic properties of spinal neurons in the immediate vicinity (<2 segments) of the SCI. Male mice (C57BL/6, 9–10 weeks old) received a spinal hemisection (T10) and after 1 week of recovery, they were randomized to trained (treadmill exercise for 3 weeks) and untrained (no exercise) groups. After 3 weeks, mice were killed and horizontal spinal cord slices (T6–L1, 250 μm thick) were prepared for visually guided whole cell patch clamp recording. Intrinsic properties, including resting membrane potential, input resistance, rheobase current, action potential (AP) threshold and after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude were similar in neurons from trained and untrained mice (n=67 and 70 neurons, respectively). Neurons could be grouped into four categories based on their AP discharge during depolarizing current injection; the proportions of tonic firing, initial bursting, single spiking, and delayed firing neurons were similar in trained and untrained mice. The properties of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents (sEPSCs) did not differ in trained and untrained animals. In contrast, evoked excitatory synaptic currents recorded after dorsal column stimulation were markedly increased in trained animals (peak amplitude 78.9±17.5 vs. 42.2±6.8 pA; charge 1054±376 vs. 348±75 pA·ms). These data suggest that 3 weeks of treadmill exercise does not affect the intrinsic properties of spinal neurons after SCI; however, excitatory synaptic drive from dorsal column pathways, such as the corticospinal tract, is enhanced. PMID:23320512

  8. Effect of Teriparatide, Vibration and the Combination on Bone Mass and Bone Architecture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Bone Architechture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Effect of Teriparatide, Vibration and the Combination on Bone Mass and Bone Architechture in Chronic... Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0951 Mass and Bone Architecture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Severe bone loss commonly occurs in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury who are non

  9. The relationship of bone-tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression to mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity in intact female and ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Smeester, B A; O'Brien, E E; Michlitsch, K S; Lee, J-H; Beitz, A J

    2016-06-02

    Recently, our group established a relationship between tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and the development of bone tumor nociception in male mice. As an extension of this work, we now report on the association of tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity to changes in spinal cord dorsal horn GFAP and aromatase expression in intact (INT) female mice and the effect of ovariectomy on these parameters. Implantation of fibrosarcoma cells produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia in INT animals, while ovariectomized (OVX) females had significantly less mechanical hyperalgesia. Cold hypersensitivity was apparent by post-implantation day 7 in INT and OVX females compared to their saline-injected controls and increased throughout the experiment. The decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia in OVX females was mirrored by significant decreases in spinal astrocyte activity in laminae I-II, III-IV, V-VI and X and aromatase expression in laminae V-VI and X in the dorsal horn of tumor-bearing animals. Administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole reduced tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT females only suggesting that the tumor-induced increase in aromatase expression and its associated increase in spinal estrogen play a role in the development of bone tumor-induced hyperalgesia. Finally, intrathecal (i.t.) administration of 17β-estradiol caused a significant increase in tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT tumor-bearing females. Since i.t. 17β-estradiol increases tumor pain and ovariectomy significantly decreases tumor pain, as well as spinal aromatase, estrogen may play a critical role in the spinal cord response to the changing tumor environment and the development of tumor-induced nociception.

  10. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingxiao; Ruan, Yiwen; Chen, Chen; Frye, Christian Corbin; Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming; Jones, Kathryn; Sengelaub, Dale; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    acetyltransferase (ChAT), glycine, and GABA was performed in the T7-9 spinal cord. We show that the majority of FG retrogradely-labeled dPSNs were located in the Rexed Lamina VII. Over 90% of FG-labeled neurons were glutamatergic, with the other three neurotransmitters contributing less than 10% of the total. To our knowledge this is the first report describing the morphologic characteristics of dPSNs and their neurotransmitter expressions, as well as the dendritic response of dPSNs after transection injury and GDNF treatment.

  11. AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF CULTURED RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, Richard P.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Peterson, Edith R.

    1965-01-01

    Explants prepared from 17- to 18-day fetal rat spinal cord were allowed to mature in culture; such preparations have been shown to differentiate and myelinate in vitro (61) and to be capable of complex bioelectric activity (14–16). At 23, 35, or 76 days, the cultures were fixed (without removal from the coverslip) in buffered OsO4, embedded in Epon, sectioned, and stained for light and electron microscopy. These mature explants generally are composed of several strata of neurons with an overlying zone of neuropil. The remarkable cytological similarity between in vivo and in vitro nervous tissues is established by the following observations. Cells and processes in the central culture mass are generally closely packed together with little intervening space. Neurons exhibit well developed Nissl bodies, elaborate Golgi regions, and subsurface cisternae. Axosomatic and axodendritic synapses, including synaptic junctions between axons and dendritic spines, are present. Typical synaptic vesicles and increased membrane densities are seen at the terminals. Variations in synaptic fine structure (Type 1 and Type 2 synapses of Gray) are visible. Some characteristics of the cultured spinal cord resemble infrequently observed specializations of in vivo central nervous tissue. Neuronal somas may display minute synapse-bearing projections. Occasionally, synaptic vesicles are grouped in a crystal-like array. A variety of glial cells, many apparently at intermediate stages of differentiation, are found throughout the otherwise mature explant. There is ultrastructural evidence of extensive glycogen deposits in some glial processes and scattered glycogen particles in neuronal terminals. This is the first description of the ultrastructure of cultured spinal cord. Where possible, correlation is made between the ultrastructural data and the known physiological properties of these cultures. PMID:14326105

  12. Novel combination strategies to repair the injured mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2008-01-01

    Due to the varied and numerous changes in spinal cord tissue following injury, successful treatment for repair may involve strategies combining neuroprotection (pharmacological prevention of some of the damaging intracellular cascades that lead to secondary tissue loss), axonal regeneration promotion (cell transplantation, genetic engineering to increase growth factors, neutralization of inhibitory factors, reduction in scar formation), and rehabilitation. Our goal has been to find effective combination strategies to improve outcome after injury to the adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Combination interventions tested have been implantation of Schwann cells (SCs) plus neuroprotective agents and growth factors administered in various ways, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) implantation, chondroitinase addition, or elevation of cyclic AMP. The most efficacious strategy in our hands for the acute complete transection/SC bridge model, including improvement in locomotion [Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Scale (BBB)], is the combination of SCs, OECs, and chondroitinase administration (BBB 2.1 vs 6.6, 3 times more myelinated axons in the SC bridge, increased serotonergic axons in the bridge and beyond, and significant correlation between the number of bridge myelinated axons and functional improvement). We found the most successful combination strategy for a subacute spinal cord contusion injury (12.5-mm, 10-g weight, MASCIS impactor) to be SCs and elevation of cyclic AMP (BBB 10.4 vs 15, significant increases in white matter sparing, in myelinated axons in the implant, and in responding reticular formation and red and raphe nuclei, and a significant correlation between the number of serotonergic fibers and improvement in locomotion). Thus, in two injury paradigms, these combination strategies as well as others studied in our laboratory have been found to be more effective than SCs alone and suggest ways in which clinical application may be developed.

  13. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host’s immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S4–S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Results Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Conclusion Our data shows that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:25263093

  14. Irradiation of Pediatric High-Grade Spinal Cord Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Wu Shengjie; Kun, Larry E.; Broniscer, Alberto; Sanford, Robert A.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To report the outcome using radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric patients with high-grade spinal cord tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted that included 17 children with high-grade spinal cord tumors treated with RT at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1981 and 2007. Three patients had gross total resection, 11 had subtotal resection, and 3 underwent biopsy. The tumor diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (n = 7), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 2). Seven patients received craniospinal irradiation (34.2-48.6 Gy). The median dose to the primary site was 52.2 Gy (range, 38-66 Gy). Results: The median progression-free and overall survivals were 10.8 and 13.8 months, respectively. Local tumor progression at 12 months (79% vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and median survival (13.1 vs. 27.2 months, p = 0.09) were worse for patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. The median overall survival was shorter for patients when failure included neuraxis dissemination (n = 8) compared with local failure alone (n = 5), 9.6 vs. 13.8 months, p = 0.08. Three long-term survivors with World Health Organization Grade III tumors were alive with follow-up, ranging from 88-239 months. Conclusions: High-grade spinal cord primary tumors in children have a poor prognosis. The propensity for neuraxis metastases as a component of progression after RT suggests the need for more aggressive therapy.

  15. Partial heat acclimation of athletes with spinal cord lesion.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul C; Kularatne, B Pasan; Brewer, John; Mauger, Alexis R; Austen, Ross A; Tuttle, James A; Sculthorpe, Nick; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil S; Webborn, Anthony D J

    2013-01-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) can improve thermoregulatory stability in able-bodied athletes in part by an enhanced sweat response. Athletes with spinal cord lesion are unable to sweat below the lesion and it is unknown if they can HA. Five paralympic shooting athletes with spinal cord lesion completed seven consecutive days HA in hot conditions (33.4 ± 0.6 °C, 64.8 ± 3.7 %rh). Each HA session consisted of 20 min arm crank exercise at 50 % [Formula: see text] followed by 40 min rest, or simulated shooting. Aural temperature (T (aur)) was recorded throughout. Body mass was assessed before and after each session and a sweat collection swab was fixed to T12 of the spine. Fingertip whole blood was sampled at rest on days 1 and 7 for estimation of the change in plasma volume. Resting T (aur) declined from 36.3 ± 0.2 °C on day 1 to 36.0 ± 0.2 °C by day 6 (P < 0.05). During the HA sessions mean, T (aur) declined from 37.2 ± 0.2 °C on day 1, to 36.7 ± 0.3 °C on day 7 (P < 0.05). Plasma volume increased from day 1 by 1.5 ± 0.6 % on day 7 (P < 0.05). No sweat secretion was detected or changes in body mass observed from any participant. Repeated hyperthermia combined with limited evaporative heat loss was sufficient to increase plasma volume, probably by alterations in fluid regulatory hormones. In conclusion, we found that although no sweat response was observed, athletes with spinal cord lesion could partially HA.

  16. Scapular Stabilization in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pahys, Joshua M; Mulcahey, M.J; Hutchinson, David; Betz, Randal R

    2009-01-01

    Background: Severe scapular instability can be a considerable problem for people with high-level cervical spinal cord injury. Scapular instability reduces the effectiveness of the already weakened shoulder flexors and abductors, thereby limiting hand-to-mouth and hand-to-head activities. The winged scapula may cause inferior pole skin breakdown, as well as neck and shoulder pain. Objective: To report the efficacy of a fusionless scapular stabilization procedure as a means to enhance function in a consecutive group of patients with high-level cervical spinal cord injury. Methods: Four people with spinal cord injury at C4–C5 (2 male, 2 female; mean age  =  17.3 years, range  =  14–20 years) underwent scapular stabilization via scapulothoracic fusion (N  =  2) or by tethering the scapula to the rib cage with Mersilene tape as a fusionless stabilization (N  =  2). One patient died of unrelated causes 18 months after surgery, and the remaining 3 were followed for 26, 39, and 41 months, respectively. Data collection included radiographic analysis, active range of motion measures, and functional assessment. Results: Active shoulder flexion and abduction remained unchanged in 2 patients, but functional scores improved with regard to feeding and grooming capability. All patients reported satisfaction with postoperative appearance, and 3 patients reported considerable reduction in shoulder pain after surgery. Radiographs demonstrated maintenance of stable scapular alignment in all patients at final follow up. Wound breakdown, requiring removal of instrumentation, occurred in 2 patients. Conclusion: Scapular stabilization with or without fusion is a viable option to improve appearance, pain, and upper extremity function in people with high-level tetraplegia and scapular instability. PMID:19777859

  17. Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ellen M; Rekand, Tiina

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord that leads to varying degrees of motor and/or sensory deficits and paralysis. Chronic pain of both neuropathic and nociceptive type is common and contributes to reduced quality of life. The aim of the review is to provide current clinical understanding as well as discuss and evaluate efficacy of pharmacological interventions demonstrated in the clinical studies. The review was based on literature search in PubMed and Medline with words "neuropathic pain" and "spinal cord injury". The review included clinical studies and not experimental data nor case reports. A limited number of randomized and placebo-controlled studies concerning treatment options of neuropathic pain after SCI were identified. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant and the antiepileptic drugs, gabapentin and pregabalin, are most studied with demonstrated efficacy, and considered to be the primary choice. Opioids have demonstrated conflicting results in the clinical studies. In addition, administration route used in the studies as well as reported side effects restrict everyday use of opioids as well as ketamine and lidocaine. Topical applications of capsaicin or lidocaine as well as intradermal injections of Botulinum toxin are new treatment modalities that are so far not studied on SCI population and need further studies. Non-pharmacological approaches may have additional effect on neuropathic pain. Management of pain should always be preceded by thorough clinical assessment of the type of pain. Patients need a follow-up to evaluate individual effect of applied measures. However, the applied management does not necessarily achieve satisfactory pain reduction. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the effect of both established and novel management options.

  18. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  19. Macrophage activation and its role in repair and pathology after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gensel, John C; Zhang, Bei

    2015-09-04

    The injured spinal cord does not heal properly. In contrast, tissue repair and functional recovery occur after skin or muscle injuries. The reason for this dichotomy in wound repair is unclear but inflammation, and specifically macrophage activation, likely plays a key role. Macrophages have the ability to promote the repair of injured tissue by regulating transitions through different phase of the healing response. In the current review we compare and contrast the healing and inflammatory responses between spinal cord injuries and tissues that undergo complete wound resolution. Through this comparison, we identify key macrophage phenotypes that are inaptly triggered or absent after spinal cord injury and discuss spinal cord stimuli that contribute to this maladaptive response. Sequential activation of classic, pro-inflammatory, M1 macrophages and alternatively activated, M2a, M2b, and M2c macrophages occurs during normal healing and facilitates transitions through the inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases of repair. In contrast, in the injured spinal cord, pro-inflammatory macrophages potentiate a prolonged inflammatory phase and remodeling is not properly initiated. The desynchronized macrophage activation after spinal cord injury is reminiscent of the inflammation present in chronic, non-healing wounds. By refining the role macrophages play in spinal cord injury repair we bring to light important areas for future neuroinflammation and neurotrauma research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury.

  20. Spinal cord regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles proceeds through activation of Sox2-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammals, amphibians, such as adult urodeles (for example, newts) and anuran larvae (for example, Xenopus) can regenerate their spinal cord after injury. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. Results Here, we report that tail amputation results in a global increase of Sox2 levels and proliferation of Sox2+ cells. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 diminished proliferation of spinal cord resident cells affecting tail regeneration after amputation, suggesting that spinal cord regeneration is crucial for the whole process. After spinal cord transection, Sox2+ cells are found in the ablation gap forming aggregates. Furthermore, Sox2 levels correlated with regenerative capabilities during metamorphosis, observing a decrease in Sox2 levels at non-regenerative stages. Conclusions Sox2+ cells contribute to the regeneration of spinal cord after tail amputation and transection. Sox2 levels decreases during metamorphosis concomitantly with the lost of regenerative capabilities. Our results lead to a working hypothesis in which spinal cord damage activates proliferation and/or migration of Sox2+ cells, thus allowing regeneration of the spinal cord after tail amputation or reconstitution of the ependymal epithelium after spinal cord transection. PMID:22537391

  1. Modeling of spontaneous zero-lag synchronization and wave propagation in cat spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.; Cuellar, C. A.; Delgado-Lezama, R.; Rudomin, P.; Jiménez, I.; Manjarrez, E.; Mirasso, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a simple but physiologically plausible network model that can reproduce both the sinusoidal electrical wave propagation and the spontaneous zero-lag synchronization experimentally observed in the cat spinal cord. Our model enhances the hypothesis of the coexistence of two alternative assemblies in the cat spinal cord.

  2. Religiosity and Spirituality among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…

  3. Intracranial Somatosensory Responses with Direct Spinal Cord Stimulation in Anesthetized Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Flouty, Oliver E.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Reddy, Chandan G.; Fredericks, Douglas C.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Jeffery, Nicholas D.; Gillies, George T.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of spinal cord stimulators is dependent on the ability of the device to functionally activate targeted structures within the spinal cord, while avoiding activation of near-by non-targeted structures. In theory, these objectives can best be achieved by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the surface of the spinal cord. The current experiments were performed to study the influence of different stimulating electrode positions on patterns of spinal cord electrophysiological activation. A custom-designed spinal cord neurostimulator was used to investigate the effects of lead position and stimulus amplitude on cortical electrophysiological responses to spinal cord stimulation. Brain recordings were obtained from subdural grids placed in four adult sheep. We systematically varied the position of the stimulating lead relative to the spinal cord and the voltage delivered by the device at each position, and then examined how these variables influenced cortical responses. A clear relationship was observed between voltage and electrode position, and the magnitude of high gamma-band oscillations. Direct stimulation of the dorsal column contralateral to the grid required the lowest voltage to evoke brain responses to spinal cord stimulation. Given the lower voltage thresholds associated with direct stimulation of the dorsal column, and its possible impact on the therapeutic window, this intradural modality may have particular clinical advantages over standard epidural techniques now in routine use. PMID:23457542

  4. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Contributes to Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Nogueira, Eva; López-Serrano, Clara; Hernández, Joaquim; Lago, Natalia; Astudillo, Alma M.; Balsinde, Jesús; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions that signals through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–LPA6). A wide range of LPA effects have been identified in the CNS, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and development of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of LPA in CNS pathologies. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that LPA signaling via LPA1 contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury. LPA levels increase in the contused spinal cord parenchyma during the first 14 d. To model this potential contribution of LPA in the spinal cord, we injected LPA into the normal spinal cord, revealing that LPA induces microglia/macrophage activation and demyelination. Use of a selective LPA1 antagonist or mice lacking LPA1 linked receptor-mediated signaling to demyelination, which was in part mediated by microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that selective blockade of LPA1 after spinal cord injury results in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery. Overall, these results support LPA–LPA1 signaling as a novel pathway that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord contusion in mice and suggest that LPA1 antagonism might be useful for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that LPA signaling via LPA receptor type 1 activation causes demyelination and functional deficits after spinal cord injury. PMID:26180199

  5. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  6. A 20-year Longitudinal Perspective on the Vocational Experiences of Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crewe, Nancy M.

    2000-01-01

    Uses interviews conducted in 1974 and 1994 to investigate the vocational experiences of individuals with spinal cord injuries. Participants had received a spinal cord injury 22-45 years previously. Results revealed that all but seven of the participants had been in remunerative employment. Work experiences, comprehensive rehabilitation service,…

  7. Influence of Alcohol Intake on the Course and Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiwerski, J. E.; Krasuski, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the neurological state and results of treatment for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury who were intoxicated (n=424) or sober (n=769) on admission to a Warsaw (Poland) hospital. In the intoxicated group, the number of patients with symptoms of complete spinal cord injury was much greater than that of the sober group. (DB)

  8. Posterior spinal cord infarction due to fibrocartilaginous embolization in a 16-year-old athlete.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Seema; Brown, Wendy; Dayal, Anuradha; Carpenter, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Spinal cord infarction is extremely rare in children, and, similar to cerebrovascular infarcts, the pathogenesis is different from adults. Spinal cord infarcts are most commonly reported in adults in the context of aortic surgery; in children, the etiology is frequently unknown. Fibrocartilaginous embolization is a potential cause of spinal cord infarct in both populations. It is a process that occurs when spinal injury has resulted in disc disease, and subsequently disc fragments embolize to the cord, resulting in ischemia and/or infarction. In this report, we present a 16-year-old athlete who presented with symptoms of acute myelopathy after a period of intense exercise. Our original concern was for an inflammatory process of the spinal cord; however, given her history of competitive tumbling and degenerative disc changes on her initial spine magnetic resonance imaging scan, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed, which demonstrated acute spinal cord infarction. Unlike many cases of spinal cord infarction, our patient was fortunate to make a near-complete recovery. This case highlights the importance of recognizing rare causes of spinal cord pathology and considering infarction in the differential diagnosis of acute myelopathy because management and prognosis varies.

  9. Functional Regeneration Following Spinal Transection Demonstrated in the Isolated Spinal Cord of the Larval Sea Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. H.; Mackler, S. A.; Selzer, M. E.

    1986-04-01

    Axons in the larval sea lamprey can regenerate across the site of a spinal cord transection and form functioning synapses with some of their normal target neurons. The animals recover normal-appearing locomotion, but whether the regenerating axons and their synaptic connections are capable of playing a functional role during this behavior is unknown. To test this, ``fictive'' swimming was induced in the isolated spinal cord by the addition of D-glutamate to the bathing solution. Ventral root discharges of segments above and below a healed transection showed a high degree of phase-locking. This strongly suggests that the behavioral recovery is mediated by regenerated functional synaptic connections subserving intersegmental coordination of the central pattern generator for locomotion.

  10. Spinal cord and bone metastasizing renal tumor of childhood.

    PubMed

    Arrotegui, J I; Barrios, C

    1995-01-01

    In recent reports on renal tumors of childhood with bone involvement neoplasms originally considered to be Wilms tumor have been assigned to new groups. After reviewing the literature, we knew that Wilms tumor rarely metastasizes in this way. Our case illustrates the unique biological feature of the rare, unfavorable histology Wilms tumor variant know as 'clear cell sarcoma of the kidney' (CCSK). Metastases to the spinal cord, as observed in our patient are distinctly unusual. To our knowledge, only two previous cases have been reported in the world literature.

  11. Acute Pharmacological DVT Prophylaxis after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Deep vein thromboses are a common occurrence following SCI. Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) within 72 h of injury is recommended to minimize the occurrence of DVT. Furthermore, when surgical intervention is required, LMWH should be held the morning of surgery, and resumed within 24 h post-operatively. PMID:20795870

  12. Acute spinal cord injury: tetraplegia and paraplegia in small animals.

    PubMed

    Granger, Nicolas; Carwardine, Darren

    2014-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common problem in animals for which definitive treatment is lacking, and information gained from its study has benefit for both companion animals and humans in developing new therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the main concepts that are useful for clinicians in assessing companion animals with severe acute SCI. Current available advanced ancillary tests and those in development are reviewed. In addition, the current standard of care for companion animals following SCI and recent advances in the development of new therapies are presented, and new predictors of recovery discussed.

  13. Spinal cord ischemia resulting in paraplegia following extrapleural pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Ural, Kelly; Jakob, Kyle; Lato, Scott; Gilly, George; Landreneau, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    A patient undergoing radical extrapleural pneumonectomy for epithelioid malignant mesothelioma developed acute paraplegia postoperatively related to long-segment spinal cord ischemia. The usual area of concern for this complication is the T9 to T12 area where the artery of Adamkiewicz is most likely to originate. In this patient, there was ligation of only upper thoracic, ipsilateral segmental arteries from the T3 to T6 level, yet he still developed paraplegia. Our hypothesis is variant mid-thoracic vascular anatomy. Previously unreported, to our knowledge, this should be understood as a rare complication of this surgery.

  14. Spinal cord injury--scientific challenges for the unknown future.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Leif; Aldskogius, Håkan; Holtz, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The history of spinal cord injuries starts with the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus known as the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. The papyrus written about 2500 B.C.by the physician and architect of the Sakkara pyramids Imhotep, describes "crushed vertebra in his neck" as well as symptoms of neurological deterioration. An ailment not to be treated was the massage to the patients at that time. This fatalistic attitude remained until the end of World War II when the first rehabilitation centre focused on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients was opened. Our knowledge of the pathophysiological processes, both the primary as well as the secondary, has increased tremendously. However, all this knowledge has only led to improved medical care but not to any therapeutic method to restore, even partially, the neurological function. Neuroprotection is defined as measures to counteract secondary injury mechanisms and/or limit the extent of damage caused by self-destructive cellular and tissue processes. The co-existence of several distinctly different injury mechanisms after trauma has provided opportunities to explore a large number of potentially neuroprotective agents in animal experiments such as methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The results of this research have been very discouraging and pharmacological neuroprotection for patients with spinal cord injury has fallen short of the expectations created by the extensive research and promising observations in animal experiments. The focus of research has now, instead, been transformed to the field of neural regeneration. This field includes the discovery of regenerating obstacles in the nerve cell and/or environmental factors but also various regeneration strategies such as bridging the gap at the site of injury as well as transplantation of foetal tissue and stem cells. The purpose of this review is to highlight selected experimental and clinical studies that form the basis for undertaking future challenges in

  15. Giant multinucleated macrophages occur in acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Leskovar, A; Turek, J; Borgens, R B

    2001-05-01

    Using a cell-isolation and -culture procedure specific for macrophages, we report the existence of giant (more than 50 microm diameter), multinucleated macrophages within an acute, 5-day-old adult rat spinal cord injury. The size and multinuclearity of these isolated giant cells was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Giant macrophages are markers for long-term infection, disease, and chronic injury in other soft tissues and are unexpected in the acute inflammatory stage of central nervous system injury. To our knowledge, this descriptive report is the first confirming the existence of giant macrophages in any injured nervous tissue, with additional data suggesting some of these cells to be multinucleated.

  16. Ludwig Guttmann: emerging concept of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Schültke, E

    2001-12-01

    Ludwig Guttmann was a pioneer of the idea of rehabilitation for victims of spinal cord injury. He looked beyond the physical survival of his patients, to their re-integration into a social life worth living. While the International Stoke Mandeville Games are fairly well known to the general public as a gathering for physically handicapped athletes, less is known about the man who helped start the movement. On the occasion of the recent Sydney 2000 Paralympics, this paper reviews the contribution of Ludwig Guttmann, who introduced sport into the life of paralyzed patients.

  17. Spinal cord injury secondary to electrocution in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ros, C; de la Fuente, C; Pumarola, M; Añor, S

    2015-10-01

    A 13-year-old, female spayed, crossbreed dog of 32 kg was presented for evaluation of peracute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis after chewing an electrical wire. Neurological examination was consistent with a C1-C5 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a focal intramedullary lesion over the C2-C3 vertebral bodies, which was confirmed to be an acute focal necrotising poliomyelopathy with subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhages on postmortem examination. This report describes the clinical, imaging and histopathological findings of this unusual type of spinal cord injury, and the effects of electrocution in the central nervous system of dogs.

  18. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini; Jallo, George I.; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Wharam, Moody D.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy

  19. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  20. Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tator, C H; Fehlings, M G

    1991-07-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury, the primary or mechanical trauma seldom causes total transection, even though the functional loss may be complete. In addition, biochemical and pathological changes in the cord may worsen after injury. To explain these phenomena, the concept of the secondary injury has evolved for which numerous pathophysiological mechanisms have been postulated. This paper reviews the concept of secondary injury with special emphasis on vascular mechanisms. Evidence is presented to support the theory of secondary injury and the hypothesis that a key mechanism is posttraumatic ischemia with resultant infarction of the spinal cord. Evidence for the role of vascular mechanisms has been obtained from a variety of models of acute spinal cord injury in several species. Many different angiographic methods have been used for assessing microcirculation of the cord and for measuring spinal cord blood flow after trauma. With these techniques, the major systemic and local vascular effects of acute spinal cord injury have been identified and implicated in the etiology of secondary injury. The systemic effects of acute spinal cord injury include hypotension and reduced cardiac output. The local effects include loss of autoregulation in the injured segment of the spinal cord and a marked reduction of the microcirculation in both gray and white matter, especially in hemorrhagic regions and in adjacent zones. The microcirculatory loss extends for a considerable distance proximal and distal to the site of injury. Many studies have shown a dose-dependent reduction of spinal cord blood flow varying with the severity of injury, and a reduction of spinal cord blood flow which worsens with time after injury. The functional deficits due to acute spinal cord injury have been measured electrophysiologically with techniques such as motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and have been found proportional to the degree of posttraumatic ischemia. The histological effects

  1. 34 CFR 359.1 - What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spinal Cord Injuries Program? 359.1 Section 359.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH: SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURIES General § 359.1 What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries...

  2. 34 CFR 359.1 - What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Spinal Cord Injuries Program? 359.1 Section 359.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH: SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURIES General § 359.1 What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries...

  3. 34 CFR 359.1 - What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Spinal Cord Injuries Program? 359.1 Section 359.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH: SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURIES General § 359.1 What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries...

  4. Reflex conditioning: A new strategy for improving motor function after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang Yang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Thompson, Aiko; Carp, Jonathan S.; Segal, Richard L.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal reflex conditioning changes reflex size, induces spinal cord plasticity, and modifies locomotion. Appropriate reflex conditioning can improve walking in rats after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reflex conditioning offers a new therapeutic strategy for restoring function in people with SCI. This approach can address the specific deficits of individuals with SCI by targeting specific reflex pathways for increased or decreased responsiveness. In addition, once clinically significant regeneration can be achieved, reflex conditioning could provide a means of re-educating the newly (and probably imperfectly) reconnected spinal cord. PMID:20590534

  5. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Regulation of Axon Regeneration by MicroRNAs after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Teng, Zhao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury. This article reviews the role and mechanism of differentially expressed microRNAs in regulating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury, as well as their therapeutic potential for promoting axonal regeneration and repair of the injured spinal cord. PMID:27818801

  6. Reversal of TRESK Downregulation Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Activation of Gliocytes in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Chengxiang; Zhong, Jiying; He, Wanyou; Xiong, Qingming

    2017-02-03

    Despite the consensus that activation of TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, the specific mechanisms underlying the transfer and development of pain signals still remain obscure. In the present study, we validated that TRESK was expressed in neurons instead of glial cells. Furthermore, in the SNI model of neuropathic pain (NP), downregulation of TRESK in spinal cord neurons resulted in upregulation of connexin 36 (Cx36) and connexin 43 (Cx43), both being subtypes of gap junctions in the spinal cord, with gliocytes in the spinal cord activated ultimately. Compared with SNI rats, intrathecal injection of TRESK gene recombinant adenovirus significantly downregulated the expression levels of Cx36 and Cx43 and suppressed the activation of gliocytes in the spinal cord, with hyperalgesia significantly reduced. In conclusion, TRESK contributes to the pathogenesis of NP by upregulation of synaptic transmission and activation of gliocytes.

  7. [Cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid in dogs with brain tumors and spinal cord compression. Part 4].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Machus, B; Steeb, C

    1992-08-01

    The results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology of 9 dogs with brain tumors and 50 dogs with spinal cord compression are discussed. Of the 50 dogs with spinal cord compression, disc protrusion was diagnosed in 31, myelomalacia in 7, discospondylitis in 3 and spinal cord tumors in 9 dogs. In 4 of 9 dogs with brain tumors, tumor cells could be found by the sedimentation apparatus of Kölmel. Pleocytosis existed in 6 patients. In about 70% (29 of 41) of cases with disc protrusion, more than 200 cells could be evaluated in the CSF sediment, consisting mostly of transformed lymphocytes and activated monocytes. As the neurologic deficits increased, the amount of cells and especially cell complexes increased. This was especially evident in cases with myelomalacia of the spinal cord. Only in cases with discospondylitis or spinal cord neoplasia was the CSF cytology unchanged.

  8. The validity of administrative data to classify patients with spinal column and cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Thorogood, Nancy P; Fingas, Matthew; Batke, Juliet; Bélanger, Lise; Kwon, Brian K; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2013-02-01

    International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes are used to document patient morbidity in administrative databases. Although administrative data are used for research purposes, the validity of the data to accurately describe clinical diagnostic information is uncertain. We compared the clinical diagnoses for spinal cord and column injuries from a longitudinal patient registry, the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR), to the ICD-10 spinal injury codes from the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) at one institution. There were 603 RHSCIR participants with data describing the spinal cord injury, and 341 had data on the spinal column injury. The validity of DAD data to describe spinal injuries was evaluated using the sensitivity and positive predictive values of specific ICD-10 codes; 5.3% of the spinal column injuries and 10.9% of the spinal cord injuries documented in RHSCIR were missed in data from the DAD using ICD-10 codes. The most problematic spinal column ICD-10 code was the dislocation of the cervical vertebra (S13.1); only 14.0% of the dislocations of the cervical vertebrae in RHSCIR were correctly coded in the DAD. The most problematic spinal cord injury ICD-10 code was the incomplete lesion of the lumbar spinal cord (S34.1X); 66.7% of incomplete lesions of the lumbar spinal cord in RHSCIR were correctly coded in the DAD. The validity of DAD data to code spinal injuries is variable, and cannot be reliably used to classify all types of spinal injuries. Patient registries, such as RHSCIR, should be used if accurate detailed diagnostic data are required.

  9. CCL-1 in the spinal cord contributes to neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, N; Honda, K; Uta, D; Beppu, K; Ushijima, Y; Matsuzaki, Y; Nakashima, S; Kido, M A; Imoto, K; Takano, Y; Noda, M

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines such as interleukins are known to be involved in the development of neuropathic pain through activation of neuroglia. However, the role of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL-1), a well-characterized chemokine secreted by activated T cells, in the nociceptive transmission remains unclear. We found that CCL-1 was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn after partial sciatic nerve ligation. Therefore, we examined actions of recombinant CCL-1 on behavioural pain score, synaptic transmission, glial cell function and cytokine production in the spinal dorsal horn. Here we show that CCL-1 is one of the key mediators involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of CCL-1 mRNA was mainly detected in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion, and the expression of specific CCL-1 receptor CCR-8 was upregulated in the superficial dorsal horn. Increased expression of CCR-8 was observed not only in neurons but also in microglia and astrocytes in the ipsilateral side. Recombinant CCL-1 injected intrathecally (i.t.) to naive mice induced allodynia, which was prevented by the supplemental addition of N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices revealed that application of CCL-1 transiently enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). In the long term, i.t. injection of CCL-1 induced phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit, NR1 and NR2B, in the spinal cord. Injection of CCL-1 also upregulated mRNA level of glial cell markers and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6). The tactile allodynia induced by nerve ligation was attenuated by prophylactic and chronic administration of neutralizing antibody against CCL-1 and by knocking down of CCR-8. Our results indicate that CCL-1 is one of the key molecules in pathogenesis, and CCL-1/CCR-8 signaling system can be a potential target for drug development in the treatment for neuropathic pain. PMID:23788036

  10. Evaluation of lateral spinal hemisection as a preclinical model of spinal cord injury pain.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Charles J; Cannon, Richard L; Acosta-Rua, Antonio J

    2013-07-01

    Operant escape from nociceptive thermal stimulation of 13 Long-Evans rats was compared before and after lateral spinal hemisection, to determine whether this lesion configuration provides an appropriate preclinical model of the hyperalgesia that can be associated with human spinal cord injury. Escape from 44 °C and from 47 °C stimulation was not affected following sham spinal surgery but was significantly reduced over 20 weeks of postoperative testing following lateral spinal hemisection. This result is opposite to previous reports of enhanced reflex withdrawal in response to thermal stimulation of rats following lateral spinal hemisection. In addition, the latency of reflexive lick/guard responses to 44 °C was increased and the duration of lick/guard responding was decreased in the present study (hyporeflexia). Thus, previous assessments of simple withdrawal reflexes have described a hyperreflexia following lateral spinal hemisection that was not replicated by lick/guard testing, and postoperative escape responding revealed hypoalgesia rather than the increased pain sensitivity expected in a model of chronic pain.

  11. High-resolution MRI of intact and transected rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Fraidakis, M; Klason, T; Cheng, H; Olson, L; Spenger, C

    1998-10-01

    Spinal cord transection at midthoracic level leads to an immediate loss of hindlimb motor function as well as to a progressive degeneration of descending and ascending spinal cord pathways. Thoracic spinal cord in unlesioned control rats and in rats 2 to 6 months after complete midthoracic transection were imaged in vivo using an ultrahigh-field (4.7 T) magnetic resonance spectrometer. High-resolution spin-echo and inversion-recovery pulse sequences were employed. In addition, the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in longitudinal and transverse directions of the spinal cord were determined. Anatomical MRI findings were confirmed in histological spinal cord tissue preparations. In healthy spinal cord, gray and white matter were easily discerned in proton density-weighted images. An infield resolution of max. 76 micrometers per pixel was achieved. In animals with chronic spinal cord transection changes in gray-white matter structure and contrast were observed toward the cut end. The spinal cord stumps showed a tapering off. This coincided with changes in the longitudinal/transverse ADC ratio. Fluid-filled cysts were found in most cases at the distal end of the rostral stump. The gap between the stumps contained richly vascularized scar tissue. Additional pathologic changes included intramedullary microcysts, vertebral dislocations, and in one animal compression of the spinal cord. In conclusion, MRI was found to be a useful method for in vivo investigation of anatomical and physiological changes following spinal cord transection and to estimate the degree of neural degeneration. In addition, MRI allows the description of the accurate extension of fluid spaces (e.g., cysts) and of water diffusion characteristics which cannot be achieved by other means in vivo.

  12. Effects of iloprost on vasospasm after experimental spinal cord injury: an electron and light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Attar, A; Tuna, H; Ugur, H C; Sargon, M F; Egemen, N

    2001-12-01

    It has been increasingly reported that traumatic and ischemic insults to the spinal cord may produce tissue damage through both direct and indirect mechanisms. In spite of many theories about post-traumatic spinal cord injury, there is still no satisfactory account of the exact mechanism. Vasospasm may be related to the trauma and release of vasoconstrictor or vasoactive amines. This study aims at studying the possible protective mechanisms of iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, after spinal cord injury on the rabbit. Forty-two adult male rabbits (New Zealand albino) were inflicted injuries by epidural application of an aneurysm clip to the spinal cord. Twenty-one rabbits received an i.v. infusion of 25 microg kg(-1) x h(-1) iloprost. The remaining twenty-one rabbits received an i.v. infusion of saline as the control group. Intravenous treatment started immediately after the infliction of the spinal cord injury and lasted for 1 h. Iloprost treatment had no side effects on the general physiological parameters in the rabbits. Control and iloprost treatment groups were divided into three sub-groups. The first group of animals was deeply anesthetized and spinal cords were removed 15 min after treatment. Second and third group animals were sacrificed in the 3rd and 24th hours respectively. All spinal cords were removed for light and electron microscopic examination. The width of anteriolar smooth muscle cells and the ultrastructural analysis of sulcal arterioles and venules in the ventral median fissure of spinal cords treated by iloprost revealed less thickening in all groups especially on the 24th hour group (p < 0.01), but less thickening was observed on the 3rd hour group. Iloprost-treated groups had limited edema and moderate protection of myelin and axons. These results suggest that iloprost treatment after spinal cord injury has a highly protective effect, and the possible protective effect of iloprost is resolution of vasospasm due to spinal cord injury.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated alternative activation of microglia is protective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stirling, David P; Cummins, Karen; Mishra, Manoj; Teo, Wulin; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Improving neurological outcome after spinal cord injury is a major clinical challenge because axons, once severed, do not regenerate but 'dieback' from the lesion site. Although microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the brain and spinal cord respond rapidly to spinal cord injury, their role in subsequent injury or repair remains unclear. To assess the role of microglia in spinal cord white matter injury we used time-lapse two-photon and spectral confocal imaging of green fluorescent protein-labelled microglia, yellow fluorescent protein-labelled axons, and Nile Red-labelled myelin of living murine spinal cord and revealed dynamic changes in white matter elements after laser-induced spinal cord injury in real time. Importantly, our model of acute axonal injury closely mimics the axonopathy described in well-characterized clinically relevant models of spinal cord injury including contusive-, compressive- and transection-based models. Time-lapse recordings revealed that microglia were associated with some acute pathophysiological changes in axons and myelin acutely after laser-induced spinal cord injury. These pathophysiological changes included myelin and axonal spheroid formation, spectral shifts in Nile Red emission spectra in axonal endbulbs detected with spectral microscopy, and 'bystander' degeneration of axons that survived the initial injury, but then succumbed to secondary degeneration. Surprisingly, modulation of microglial-mediated release of neurotoxic molecules failed to protect axons and myelin. In contrast, sterile stimulation of microglia with the specific toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam2CSK4 robustly increased the microglial response to ablation, reduced secondary degeneration of central myelinated fibres, and induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. Conversely, Tlr2 knock out: Thy1 yellow fluorescent protein double transgenic mice experienced greater axonal dieback than littermate controls. Thus, promoting an alternative

  14. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianhe C.; Janik, John J.; Peters, Ryan V.; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. PMID:25972582

  15. Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Huie, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family of signaling molecules. Since its discovery over three decades ago, BDNF has been identified as an important regulator of neuronal development, synaptic transmission, and cellular and synaptic plasticity and has been shown to function in the formation and maintenance of certain forms of memory. Neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory in the hippocampus shares distinct characteristics with spinal cord nociceptive plasticity. Research examining the role BDNF plays in spinal nociception and pain overwhelmingly suggests that BDNF promotes pronociceptive effects. BDNF induces synaptic facilitation and engages central sensitization-like mechanisms. Also, peripheral injury-induced neuropathic pain is often accompanied with increased spinal expression of BDNF. Research has extended to examine how spinal cord injury (SCI) influences BDNF plasticity and the effects BDNF has on sensory and motor functions after SCI. Functional recovery and adaptive plasticity after SCI are typically associated with upregulation of BDNF. Although neuropathic pain is a common consequence of SCI, the relation between BDNF and pain after SCI remains elusive. This article reviews recent literature and discusses the diverse actions of BDNF. We also highlight similarities and differences in BDNF-induced nociceptive plasticity in naïve and SCI conditions. PMID:27721996

  16. Connexin-43 induces chemokine release from spinal cord astrocytes to maintain late-phase neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Park, Chul-Kyu; Xie, Rou-Gang; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    synaptic transmission (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) in spinal lamina IIo nociceptive synapses in the late phase, and this increase was suppressed by carbenoxolone and Gap27, and recapitulated by CXCL1. Together, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of astrocytic connexin-43 to enhance spinal cord synaptic transmission and maintain neuropathic pain in the late-phase via releasing chemokines. PMID:24919967

  17. The Impact of Surgical Timing in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0396 TITLE: The impact of surgical timing in acute traumatic spinal ...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 – 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The impact of surgical timing in acute traumatic spinal cord...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The optimal surgical timing following a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) remains controversial

  18. Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    nociceptive stimuli culminates in profound debilitating pain that serves no adaptive purpose for the sufferer. It is now established that spinal...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0806 TITLE: Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain Treatment...Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain

  19. Development of an Animal Model of Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture Induced Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0013 TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURE - INDUCED ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURE -INDUCED ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY 5b...leads to permanent disability following traumatic spine injury. A dramatic increase in blast related spinal burst fracture has been observed in

  20. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  1. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Joelle C; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-07-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma.

  2. Thoracic rat spinal cord contusion injury induces remote spinal gliogenesis but not neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Franz, Steffen; Ciatipis, Mareva; Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement.

  3. Thoracic Rat Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Induces Remote Spinal Gliogenesis but Not Neurogenesis or Gliogenesis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement. PMID:25050623

  4. Development of catecholaminergic systems in the spinal cord of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Elasmobranchs).

    PubMed

    Sueiro, Catalina; Carrera, Iván; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Molist, Pilar; Anadón, Ramón

    2003-05-14

    The development of catecholamine-synthesizing cells and fibers in the spinal cord of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.) was studied by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The only TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells already present in the spinal cord of stage 26 embryos were of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) type. These cells were the first catecholaminergic neurons of the dogfish CNS. The number of these TH-ir cells increased very considerably in later embryos and adult dogfish. In later embryos (stage 33; prehatching), faintly TH-ir non-CSF-contacting neurons were observed in the ventral horn throughout most of the spinal cord. In adult dogfish, some non-CSF-contacting TH-ir cells were observed ventral or lateral to the central canal. In the rostral spinal cord, the catecholaminergic neurons observed in dorsal regions were continuous with caudal rhombencephalic populations. Numerous TH-ir fibers were observed in the spinal cord of later embryos and in adults, both intrinsic and descending from the brain, innervating many regions of the cord including the dorsal and ventral horns. In addition, some TH-ir fibers innervated the marginal nucleus of the spinal cord. The early appearance of catecholaminergic cells and fibers in the embryonic spinal cord of the dogfish, and the large number of these elements observed in adults, suggests an important role for catecholamines through development and adulthood in sensory and motor functions.

  5. Fluoro-jade B stains quiescent and reactive astrocytes in the rodent spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin J; Fugaccia, Isabella; Scheff, Stephen W

    2003-11-01

    In an attempt to label dying neurons in the injured spinal cord, we used the novel fluorescein derivative Fluoro-Jade B, which has been reported to specifically label dead or dying neurons in the brain. Rats and mice were subjected to a moderate level of spinal cord injury using an IH impact device and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days post injury. Spinal cord tissue was processed for Fluoro-Jade B histochemistry and included sections throughout the injured region of the cord. No Fluoro-Jade positive neurons were observed in sections from any time point postinjury at any level of the spinal cord. Instead, Fluoro-Jade labeled astrocytes in uninjured control animals and injured animals. The specificity of astrocytic staining was confirmed by co-localizaton of Fluoro-Jade with glial fibrillary acidic protein. We also subjected a group of rats to a sequential cortical contusion injury and spinal cord injury. Sections from these animals showed numerous Fluoro-Jade positive neurons in the hippocampal formation and thalamus underlying the cortical contusion; however, the staining pattern in the spinal cord was identical to those animals that had received spinal cord injury alone.

  6. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy.

  7. Training a Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Team in Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Background. An acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is a severe condition that requires extensive and very specialized management of both physical and psychological dimensions of injured patients. Objective. The aim of the part of the study reported here was twofold: (1) to describe burnout, empathy, and satisfaction at work of these professionals and (2) to explore whether a tailored program based on motivational interviewing (MI) techniques modifies and improves such features. Methods. This paper presents findings from an intervention study into a tailored training for professionals (N = 45) working in a spinal cord injury (SCI) unit from a general hospital. Rehabilitation professionals' empathy skills were measured with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and additional numeric scales were used to assess the perceived job-related stress and perceived satisfaction with job. Results. Findings suggest that professionals are performing quite well and they refer to satisfactory empathy, satisfaction at work, and no signs of burnout or significant stress both before and after the training. Conclusions. No training effect was observed in the variables considered in the study. Some possible explanations for these results and future research directions are discussed in depth in this paper. The full protocol of this study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01889940). PMID:26770827

  8. Spatiotemporal expression of Ski after rat spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaisheng; Nan, Wei; Feng, Dongliang; Yi, Zhigang; Zhu, Yandong; Long, Zaiyun; Li, Sen; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Yamin

    2017-02-08

    Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats. Western Blot analysis indicated that Ski was expressed in both normal and injured spinal cord, and showed a significant upregulation after SCI compared with the sham group. Double-labeled immunofluorescence staining showed that Ski was significantly expressed in astrocytes, but not in the neurons. Western Blot analyses of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and BBB scores were carried out and correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between them. In addition, the relative expression level of Ski was also positively correlated with the relative expression level of GFAP. Moreover, the conspicuous co-expression band of Ski and GFAP at the lesion border was found in the results of immunofluorescence staining combined with the pattern of glial scar formation reflected by H&E staining; in addition, it was found that Ski was also highly associated with glial scar. On the basis of our data, we speculated that Ski might play an important role in the process of reactive astrogliosis after SCI and our study might provide a basis for further study on the detailed role of Ski in astrocytes.

  9. Cytologic diagnosis of spinal cord ependymoma in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, A; Tamiolakis, D; Sinatkas, V; Xekalou, A; Papadakis, M; Stathopoulos, E N

    2012-12-01

    Ependymoma cells are known to rarely exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the author's knowledge the cytomorphologic features of tumour cells have not been well described to date. In this study, the CSF findings in a patient with ependymoma and the cytopathological features of this tumor are reported. The patient presented at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, suffering from a chest to back pain. Computed tomography, scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and a mass of 3x2 cm in the thoracic aspect of the spinal cord was found. A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sent for cytologic examination and a diagnosis of ependymoma was made. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of ependymoma grade II (WHO). Exfoliated cells from ependymomas of spinal cord are rarely recognizable in CSF samples. Except in patients with myxopapillary tumours and anaplastic tumours, cytomorphologic features of ependymoma have been described only in case reports of intraoperative imprinting or fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) and not in CSF cytology.

  10. Astrocyte transplantation for spinal cord injury: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianci; Zhou, Hengxing; Li, Fuyuan; Wang, Tianyi; Lu, Lu; Feng, Shiqing

    2014-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes incurable neurological dysfunction because axonal regeneration in adult spinal cord is rare. Astrocytes are gradually recognized as being necessary for the regeneration after SCI as they promote axonal growth under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Heterogeneous populations of astrocytes have been explored for structural and functional restoration. The results range from the early variable and modest effects of immature astrocyte transplantation to the later significant, but controversial, outcomes of glial-restricted precursor (GRP)-derived astrocyte (GDA) transplantation. However, the traditional neuron-centric view and the concerns about the inhibitory roles of astrocytes after SCI, along with the sporadic studies and the lack of a comprehensive review, have led to some confusion over the usefulness of astrocytes in SCI. It is the purpose of the review to discuss the current status of astrocyte transplantation for SCI based on a dialectical view of the context-dependent manner of astrocyte behavior and the time-associated characteristics of glial scarring. Critical issues are then analyzed to reveal the potential direction of future research.

  11. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  12. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  13. Musculoskeletal Deterioration and Hemicorporectomy After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The long-term management following an hemicorporectomy (HCP) is not well documented in the scientific literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the 25-year history of a man with a spinal cord injury who experienced severe musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy. Case Description The client sustained T10 complete paraplegia at age 18 years, developed severe decubitus ulcers, and required an HCP as a lifesaving measure 13 years later. The authors describe the chronology of several rehabilitation and prosthetic strategies and speculate on factors that may have contributed to their successes and failures. Outcomes The client survived 12 years after the HCP and returned to independent mobility, self-care, and schooling despite complications with continued skin breakdown. Over the 12 years following discharge from the hospital after the spinal cord injury, he spent 749 days in the hospital. During the 12 years he lived after discharge from the hospital following the HCP, he was hospitalized 190 days. Discussion The authors discuss factors contributing to the client’s musculoskeletal deterioration including chronic wounds, postural deviations, and incomplete adherence to pressure-relief recommendations and raise considerations for physical therapists who treat patients after HCP. PMID:12620090

  14. Respiratory problems and management in people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Brooke; Ross, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterised by profound respiratory compromise secondary to the level of loss of motor, sensory and autonomic control associated with the injury. This review aims to detail these anatomical and physiological changes after SCI, and outline their impact on respiratory function. Injury-related impairments in strength substantially alter pulmonary mechanics, which in turn affect respiratory management and care. Options for treatments must therefore be considered in light of these limitations. Key points Respiratory impairment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is more severe in high cervical injuries, and is characterised by low lung volumes and a weak cough secondary to respiratory muscle weakness. Autonomic dysfunction and early-onset sleep disordered breathing compound this respiratory compromise. The mainstays of management following acute high cervical SCI are tracheostomy and ventilation, with noninvasive ventilation and assisted coughing techniques being important in lower cervical and thoracic level injuries. Prompt investigation to ascertain the extent of the SCI and associated injuries, and appropriate subsequent management are important to improve outcomes. Educational aims To describe the anatomical and physiological changes after SCI and their impact on respiratory function. To describe the changes in respiratory mechanics seen in cervical SCI and how these changes affect treatments. To discuss the relationship between injury level and respiratory compromise following SCI, and describe those at increased risk of respiratory complications. To present the current treatment options available and their supporting evidence. PMID:28270863

  15. Emerging Role of Spinal Cord TRPV1 in Pain Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-In; Lim, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Sungjae; Kim, Hyun; Hwang, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is well known as a sensor ion channel that transduces a potentially harmful environment into electrical depolarization of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptive primary afferents. Although TRPV1 is also expressed in central regions of the nervous system, its roles in the area remain unclear. A series of recent reports on the spinal cord synapses have provided evidence that TRPV1 plays an important role in synaptic transmission in the pain pathway. Particularly, in pathologic pain states, TRPV1 in the central terminal of sensory neurons and interneurons is suggested to commonly contribute to pain exacerbation. These observations may lead to insights regarding novel synaptic mechanisms revealing veiled roles of spinal cord TRPV1 and may offer another opportunity to modulate pathological pain by controlling TRPV1. In this review, we introduce historical perspectives of this view and details of the recent promising results. We also focus on extended issues and unsolved problems to fully understand the role of TRPV1 in pathological pain. Together with recent findings, further efforts for fine analysis of TRPV1's plastic roles in pain synapses at different levels in the central nervous system will promote a better understanding of pathologic pain mechanisms and assist in developing novel analgesic strategies. PMID:26885404

  16. Hydrogels and Cell Based Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Assunção-Silva, Rita C.; Gomes, Eduardo D.; Silva, Nuno A.; Salgado, António J.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a central nervous system- (CNS-) related disorder for which there is yet no successful treatment. Within the past several years, cell-based therapies have been explored for SCI repair, including the use of pluripotent human stem cells, and a number of adult-derived stem and mature cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and Schwann cells. Although promising, cell transplantation is often overturned by the poor cell survival in the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Alternatively, the therapeutic role of different cells has been used in tissue engineering approaches by engrafting cells with biomaterials. The latter have the advantages of physically mimicking the CNS tissue, while promoting a more permissive environment for cell survival, growth, and differentiation. The roles of both cell- and biomaterial-based therapies as single therapeutic approaches for SCI repair will be discussed in this review. Moreover, as the multifactorial inhibitory environment of a SCI suggests that combinatorial approaches would be more effective, the importance of using biomaterials as cell carriers will be herein highlighted, as well as the recent advances and achievements of these promising tools for neural tissue regeneration. PMID:26124844

  17. Clinical assessment of spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tancredo, Janaina Roland; Maria, Renata Manzano; de Azevedo, Eliza Regina Ferreira Braga Machado; Alonso, Karina Cristina; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Methods The study included eleven subjects with spinal cord injuries (C4 to T5). The modified Ashworth scale and pendulum test, which is accomplished through the Pendular Test Device - PTD (equipment which has a quartz crystal transducer accelerometer and optic fiber flexible electrogoniometer measuring the tensions and angular displacements). Patients underwent neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to the quadriceps muscle from fibular nerve, and the tests were administered before and after therapy. Results The data show a decrease in spasticity after NMES, with features such as increased variation between maximum and minimum peaks, i.e. increased amplitude of the curves. Furthermore, data from the subjective scale, and modified Ashworth scale after neuromuscular electrical stimulation also showed a reduction in the values of spasticity. Conclusion The data suggest that NMES is effective in reducing spasticity immediately after completion. Level of Evidence II, Therapeutic Studies-Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:24453687

  18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doulames, Vanessa M.; Plant, Giles W.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical-level injuries account for the majority of presented spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to date. Despite the increase in survival rates due to emergency medicine improvements, overall quality of life remains poor, with patients facing variable deficits in respiratory and motor function. Therapies aiming to ameliorate symptoms and restore function, even partially, are urgently needed. Current therapeutic avenues in SCI seek to increase regenerative capacities through trophic and immunomodulatory factors, provide scaffolding to bridge the lesion site and promote regeneration of native axons, and to replace SCI-lost neurons and glia via intraspinal transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a clinically viable means to accomplish this; they have no major ethical barriers, sources can be patient-matched and collected using non-invasive methods. In addition, the patient’s own cells can be used to establish a starter population capable of producing multiple cell types. To date, there is only a limited pool of research examining iPSC-derived transplants in SCI—even less research that is specific to cervical injury. The purpose of the review herein is to explore both preclinical and clinical recent advances in iPSC therapies with a detailed focus on cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:27070598

  19. Developmental expression of glycine immunoreactivity and its colocalization with GABA in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Berki, A C; O'Donovan, M J; Antal, M

    1995-11-27

    The development of immunoreactivity for the putative inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter glycine was investigated in the embryonic and posthatched chick lumbosacral spinal cord by using postembedding immunocytochemical methods. Glycine immunoreactive perikarya were first observed at embryonic day 8 (E8) both in the dorsal and ventral gray matters. The number of immunostained neurons sharply increased by E10 and was gradually augmented further at later developmental stages. The general pattern of glycine immunoreactivity characteristic of mature animals had been achieved by E12 and was only slightly altered afterward. Most of the immunostained neurons were located in the presumptive deep dorsal horn (laminae IV-VI) and lamina VII, although glycine-immunoreactive neurons were scattered throughout the entire extent of the spinal gray matter. By using some of our previously obtained and published data concerning the development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord, we have compared the numbers, sizes, and distribution of glycine- and GABA-immunoreactive spinal neurons at various developmental stages and found the following marked differences in the developmental characteristics of these two populations of putative inhibitory interneurons. (i) GABA immunoreactivity was expressed very early (E4), whereas immunoreactivity for glycine appeared relatively late (E8) in embryonic development. (ii) In the ventral horn, GABA immunoreactivity declined, whereas immunoreactivity for glycine gradually increased from E8 onward in such a manner that the sum of glycinergic and GABAergic perikarya remained constant during the second half of embryonic development. (iii) Glycinergic and GABAergic neurons showed different distribution patterns in the spinal gray matter throughout the entire course of embryogenesis as well as in the posthatched animal. When investigating the colocalization of glycine and GABA immunoreactivities

  20. Inhibition of spinal c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) improves locomotor activity of spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Martini, Alessandra C; Forner, Stefânia; Koepp, Janice; Rae, Giles Alexander

    2016-05-16

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated in central nervous system injuries, yet the roles within neurodegeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) still remain partially elucidated. We aimed to investigate the changes in expression of the three MAPKs following SCI and the role of spinal c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in motor impairment following the lesion. SCI induced at the T9 level resulted in enhanced expression of phosphorylated MAPKs shortly after trauma. SCI increased spinal cord myeloperoxidase levels, indicating a local neutrophil infiltration, and elevated the number of spinal apoptotic cells. Intrathecal administration of a specific inhibitor of JNK phosphorylation, SP600125, given at 1 and 4h after SCI, reduced the p-JNK expression, the number of spinal apoptotic cells and many of the histological signs of spinal injury. Notably, restoration of locomotor performance was clearly ameliorated by SP600125 treatment. Altogether, the results demonstrate that SCI induces activation of spinal MAPKs and that JNK plays a major role in mediating the deleterious consequences of spinal injury, not only at the spinal level, but also those regarding locomotor function. Therefore, inhibition of JNK activation in the spinal cord shortly after trauma might constitute a feasible therapeutic strategy for the functional recovery from SCI.

  1. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel.

  2. Effects of diet and/or exercise in enhancing spinal cord sensorimotor learning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Selvan; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Aiguo; Bhatia, Harsharan S; Cruz, Rusvelda; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Given that the spinal cord is capable of learning sensorimotor tasks and that dietary interventions can influence learning involving supraspinal centers, we asked whether the presence of omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the curry spice curcumin (Cur) by themselves or in combination with voluntary exercise could affect spinal cord learning in adult spinal mice. Using an instrumental learning paradigm to assess spinal learning we observed that mice fed a diet containing DHA/Cur performed better in the spinal learning paradigm than mice fed a diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The enhanced performance was accompanied by increases in the mRNA levels of molecular markers of learning, i.e., BDNF, CREB, CaMKII, and syntaxin 3. Concurrent exposure to exercise was complementary to the dietary treatment effects on spinal learning. The diet containing DHA/Cur resulted in higher levels of DHA and lower levels of omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) in the spinal cord than the diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The level of spinal learning was inversely related to the ratio of AA:DHA. These results emphasize the capacity of select dietary factors and exercise to foster spinal cord learning. Given the non-invasiveness and safety of the modulation of diet and exercise, these interventions should be considered in light of their potential to enhance relearning of sensorimotor tasks during rehabilitative training paradigms after a spinal cord injury.

  3. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in rats that have undergone fetal spinal cord transplantation following spinal hemisection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Changsong; Cai, Juan; Sun, Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury is the main cause of paraplegia, but effective therapies for it are lacking. Embryonic spinal cord transplantation is able to repair spinal cord injury, albeit with a large amount of neuronal apoptosis remaining in the spinal cord. MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is able to reduce cell death by decreasing the concentration of excitatory amino acids and preventing extracellular calcium ion influx. In this study, the effect of MK-801 on the apoptosis of spinal cord neurons in rats that have received a fetal spinal cord (FSC) transplant following spinal hemisection was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Spinal cord hemisection injury with a combination of FSC transplantation and MK-801 treatment (group A); spinal cord hemisection injury with FSC transplantation (group B); and spinal cord injury with insertion of a Gelfoam pledget (group C). The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery. Apoptosis in spinal slices from the injured spinal cord was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction, and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were quantitatively analyzed using a computer image analysis system. The rate of apoptosis and the positive expression of Bcl-2 protein in the spinal cord neurons in the three groups decreased in the following order: C>B>A (P<0.05) and A>B>C (P<0.05), respectively. This indicates that treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in the spinal cord neurons of rats that have undergone FSC transplantation following spinal hemisection.

  4. Development and characterization of pathways descending to the spinal cord in the embryonic chick.

    PubMed

    Sholomenko, G N; O'Donovan, M J

    1995-03-01

    1. We used an isolated preparation of the embryonic chick brain stem and spinal cord to examine the origin, trajectory, and effects of descending supraspinal pathways on lumbosacral motor activity. The in vitro preparation remained viable for < or 24 h and was sufficiently stable for electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomic examination. In this preparation, as in the isolated spinal cord, spontaneous episodes of both forelimb and hindlimb motor activity occur in the absence of phasic afferent input. Motor activity can also be evoked by brain stem electrical stimulation or modulated by the introduction of neurochemicals to the independently perfused brain stem. 2. At embryonic day (E)6, lumbosacral motor activity could be evoked by brain stem electrical stimulation. At E5, neither brain stem nor spinal cord stimulation evoked activity in the lumbosacral spinal cord, although motoneurons did express spontaneous activity. 3. Lesion and electrophysiological studies indicated that axons traveling in the ventral cord mediated the activation of lumbosacral networks by brain stem stimulation. 4. Partition of the preparation into three separately perfused baths, using a zero-Ca2+ middle bath that encompassed the cervical spinal cord, demonstrated that the brain stem activation of spinal networks could be mediated by long-axoned pathways connecting the brain stem and lumbosacral spinal cord. 5. Using retrograde tracing from the spinal cord combined with brain stem stimulation, we found that the brain stem regions from which spinal activity could be evoked lie in the embryonic reticular formation close to neurons that send long descending axons to the lumbosacral spinal cord. The cells giving rise to these descending pathways are found in the ventral pontine and medullary reticular formation, a region that is the source of reticulospinal neurons important for motor activity in adult vertebrates. 6. Electrical recordings from this region revealed that the

  5. Spinal cord infarction in giant cell arteritis associated with scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Khader N; Hadidy, Azmy; Joudeh, Anwar; Obeidat, Fatima Nouri; Abdulfattah, Khalid W

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord infarction is extremely rare in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). There are only four case reports in the literature. We describe a 65-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia and back pain of 4-days duration with sensory loss below the umbilicus and bilateral scalp necrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging finding was consistent with dorsal spinal cord infarction. Biopsy of the temporal artery confirmed the diagnosis of GCA. The patient was treated with high dose of corticosteroids, which resulted in healing of the scalp ulcerations in 3 weeks, but the paraplegia was irreversible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal cord infarction and simultaneous occurrence of bilateral scalp necrosis in a histopathologically proven GCA. Although literature about spinal cord involvement in GCA is very limited, cord infarction is associated with high mortality and therapeutic challenges since little is understood regarding the pathogenesis that leads to infarction.

  6. Spinal cord reconstitution with homologous neural grafts enables robust corticospinal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ken; Lu, Paul; Nguyen, Kenny; Lee-Kubli, Corinne; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Yao, Lin; Knackert, Joshua; Poplawski, Gunnar; Dulin, Jennifer; Strobl, Hans; Takashima, Yoshio; Biane, Jeremy; Conner, James; Zhang, Su-Chun; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor system in humans, yet robust regeneration of this projection after spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been accomplished. In rodent models of SCI, we report robust corticospinal axon regeneration, functional synapse formation and improved skilled forelimb function after grafting multipotent neural progenitor cells into sites of spinal cord injury. Corticospinal regeneration requires that grafts are driven toward caudalized (spinal cord), rather than rostralized, fates. Fully mature caudalized neural grafts also support corticospinal regeneration. Moreover, corticospinal axons can emerge from neural grafts and regenerate beyond the lesion, potentially related to attenuation of the glial scar. Rodent corticospinal axons also regenerate into human donor grafts of caudal spinal cord identity. Collectively, these findings indicate that spinal cord “replacement” with homologous neural stem cells enables robust regeneration of the corticospinal projection within and beyond spinal cord lesion sites, achieving a major unmet goal of spinal cord injury research and opening new possibilities for translation. PMID:27019328

  7. Implanted electro-acupuncture electric stimulation improves outcome of stem cells' transplantation in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haichun; Yang, Kaiyun; Xin, Tao; Wu, Wenliang; Chen, Yunzhen

    2012-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most serious disorders in clinics, and the high disability rate and functional deficits are common issues in patients. Transplantation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) into the injured spinal cord is emerging as a novel method in the therapeutics of SCI; however, its application is limited by the poor survival rate of the transplanted cells and low differentiation rate into neurons. Our laboratory recently reported that electrical stimulation (ES) dramatically improves the survival rate of transplanted BMSCs and increases spinal cord functions in animals with spinal cord injury. In this paper, we asked whether implanted electro-acupuncture (iEA) can advance the beneficial effects from the ES treatment in animals with spinal cord injury. We showed that BMSCs transplantation alone resulted in significant functional recovery in animals. Interestingly, iEA with BMSCs treatment induced a significantly higher functional improvement in locomotor functions and SSEP compared to the BMSCs treatment alone. Additionally, we used molecular biology techniques and showed that BMSCs transplantation with iEA treatment significantly increased the number of surviving BMSCs compared to the BMSCs alone group. In conclusion, our experiment showed that the approach of coupling iEA electric stimulation and BMSCs transplantation remarkably promotes functional improvements in animals with spinal cord injury and holds promising potential to treat spinal cord injury in humans.

  8. Imaging Serotonergic Fibers in the Mouse Spinal Cord Using the CLARITY/CUBIC Technique.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Schofield, Emma; Paxinos, George

    2016-02-26

    Long descending fibers to the spinal cord are essential for locomotion, pain perception, and other behaviors. The fiber termination pattern in the spinal cord of the majority of these fiber systems have not been thoroughly investigated in any species. Serotonergic fibers, which project to the spinal cord, have been studied in rats and opossums on histological sections and their functional significance has been deduced based on their fiber termination pattern in the spinal cord. With the development of CLARITY and CUBIC techniques, it is possible to investigate this fiber system and its distribution in the spinal cord, which is likely to reveal previously unknown features of serotonergic supraspinal pathways. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for imaging the serotonergic fibers in the mouse spinal cord using the combined CLARITY and CUBIC techniques. The method involves perfusion of a mouse with a hydrogel solution and clarification of the tissue with a combination of clearing reagents. Spinal cord tissue was cleared in just under two weeks, and the subsequent immunofluorescent staining against serotonin was completed in less than ten days. With a multi-photon fluorescent microscope, the tissue was scanned and a 3D image was reconstructed using Osirix software.

  9. Spinal cord injuries in older children: is there a role for high-dose methylprednisolone?

    PubMed

    Arora, Bhawana; Suresh, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    We present a retrospective case series of 15 children (aged 8-16 years) with blunt traumatic spinal cord injury who were treated with methylprednisolone as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of all patients, 12 (80%) were male. Causes were sports injuries (n = 9), motor vehicle crashes (n = 2), and falls (n = 4). Most injuries were nonskeletal (n = 14), and all patients had incomplete injury of the spinal cord. The most common location of tenderness was cervical (n = 7). Of the 15 patients, methylprednisolone was initiated within 3 hours in 13 patients and between 3 and 8 hours in 2 patients. All patients received the medication for 23 hours as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of the 15 patients, 13 recovered completely by 24 hours and were discharged with a diagnosis of spinal cord concussion. One patient had compression fracture of T5 and T3-T5 spinal contusion but no long-term neurological deficit. One patient was discharged with diagnosis of C1-C3 spinal cord contusion (by magnetic resonance imaging) and had partial recovery at 2 years after injury. All patients with a diagnosis of cord concussion had normal plain films of the spine and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. None of the patients had any associated major traumatic injuries to other organ systems. The high-dose steroid therapy did not result in any serious bacterial infections.

  10. Coupling between the spinal cord and cervical vertebral column under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Ching, Randal P

    2013-02-22

    Current neck injury criteria are based on structural failure of the spinal (vertebral) column without consideration of injury to the spinal cord. Since one of the primary functions of the vertebral column is to protect the cord, it stands to reason that a more refined measure of neck injury threshold would be the onset of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the relationship between axial strains in the cervical vertebral column and the spinal cord using an in vitro primate model (n=10) under continuous tensile loading. Mean failure loads occurred at 1951.5±396N with failure strains in the vertebral column of 16±5% at the level of failure. Average tensile strains in the spinal cord at failure were 11±5% resulting in a mean coupling ratio of 0.54±0.17 between C1 and C7. The level of peak strain measured in the spinal cord did not always occur at the location of vertebral column failure. Spinal cord strains were less than spine strains and coupling ratios were not significantly different along the length of the spine. The largest coupling ratio was measured in the atlanto-occipital joint whereas the smallest coupling ratio occurred at the adjacent C1-C2 joint.

  11. Functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection in rats.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, J G; Humanes-Valera, D; Aguilar, J; Foffani, G

    2014-07-01

    Spinal cord injury may produce long-term reorganization of cortical circuits. Little is known, however, about the early neurophysiological changes occurring immediately after injury. On the one hand, complete thoracic spinal cord transection of the spinal cord immediately decreases the level of cortical spontaneous activity and increases the cortical responses to stimuli delivered to the forepaw, above the level of the lesion. On the other hand, a thoracic spinal cord hemisection produces an immediate cortical hyperexcitability in response to preserved spinothalamic inputs from stimuli delivered to the hindpaw, below the level of the lesion. Here we show that a thoracic spinal cord hemisection also produces a bilateral increase of the responses evoked in the forepaw cortex by forepaw stimuli, associated with a bilateral decrease of cortical spontaneous activity. Importantly, the increased cortical forepaw responses are immediate in the cortex contralateral to the hemisection (significant within 30min after injury), but they are progressive in the cortex ipsilateral to the hemisection (reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). Conversely, the decreased cortical spontaneous activity is progressive both ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the hemisection (again reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). In synthesis, the present work reports a functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection, which is likely important to fully understand the mechanisms underlying long-term cortical reorganization after incomplete spinal cord injuries.

  12. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials. PMID:27736748

  13. Expression of adrenomedullin in rats after spinal cord injury and intervention effect of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Jing, Yu; Qu, Lin; Meng, Xiangwei; Cao, Yang; Tan, Huibing

    2016-12-01

    The expression of adrenomedullin (ADM) in injured tissue of rat spinal cord was observed and the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin was analyzed. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided into 3 equal groups including, a sham-operation group in which rats received an excision of vertebral plate; a spinal cord injury model group and a recombinant human erythropoietin group in which rats with spinal cord injury received a caudal vein injection of 300 units recombinant human erythropoietin after injury. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe the spinal cord injury conditions. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of ADM. Pathologic changes in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin at various times were significantly less severe than those in the group of spinal cord injury model. The expression of ADM was increased particularly in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin (P<0.01). The improved Tarlov scores of the group of spinal cord injury model and the group of recombinant human erythropoietin were lower than those of the sham-operation group at 3, 6 and 9 days (P<0.01). Thus, the recombinant human erythropoietin is capable of alleviating the secondary injury of spinal cord. One of the mechanisms may be achieved by promoting the increase of ADM expression.

  14. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies.

    PubMed

    Kjell, Jacob; Olson, Lars

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials.