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Sample records for spirit urgence planete

  1. Democracy is a historical urgency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Survival of human society on this planet depends heavily on coping with advanced nuclear technological development. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of intercontinental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a miscalculating, suicidal and very powerful dictator, producing a global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy should help humanity to approach the contemporary situation.

  2. Sagan Lecture: Spirit, Opportunity, and the Exploration of the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2004, twin robotic explorers named Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars. Expected to last for 90 days, the two rovers have now been exploring the martian surface for more than a year and a half. Their objective is to search for evidence of past water on Mars, and to determine if Mars ever had conditions that would have been suitable for life. Spirit landed in Gusev Crater, a large impact crater in the southern highlands of Mars. Finding only basaltic lava on the crater floor, Spirit drove almost three kilometers to the base of the Columbia Hills, a small mountain range to the east of the landing site. There Spirit has ascended Husband Hill, the highest summit in the range, and has found strong evidence that the rocks there were modified long ago by water. Opportunity landed on Meridiani Planum, a smooth plateau near the martian equator, coming to rest in a small impact feature named Eagle Crater. Within Eagle Crater, Opportunity found compelling evidence for long-ago water on Mars. This evidence included 'blueberries': small concretions rich in hematite that precipitated from liquid water. It also included rocks that are made largely of sulfate salts, deposited when water evaporated away, and rocks that preserve ancient ripples that formed billions of years ago as water flowed over sand on Mars. The conditions long ago at Eagle Crater may have been suitable for some simple forms of life. Whether life could have developed there, however, is a much more difficult question. After leaving Eagle Crater, Opportunity drove eastward to Endurance Crater, a much larger crater that allowed access to deeper and older rocks which also proved to be blueberry-laden sulfate-rich sediments. Since leaving Endurance Crater, Opportunity has explored southward, driving more than five kilometers across the martian surface. The talk will provide an up-to-date summary of the mission of Spirit and Opportunity, from their initial conception through their launch, landing, and

  3. Spirit's Travels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview map made from Mars Orbiter camera images illustrates the path that the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has taken from its first sol on the red planet through its 107th sol. As of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), Spirit has passed 'Missoula' crater and sits approximately 1,900 meters (1.18 miles) away from its destination at the western base of the 'Columbia Hills.' While most of Spirit's journey has been over the very angular rocks that make up the ejecta fields surrounding 'Bonneville' crater, the rover's next 50 or so sols will be spent traversing over martian plains that are dominated by rounder, vesicle-filled rocks.

  4. Democracy is a historical urgency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  5. Les urgences infectieuses ORL

    PubMed Central

    Sereme, Moustapha; Tarnagda, Souleymane; Guiguimde, Patrice; Gyebre, Yvette Marie Chantal; Ouedraogo, Bertin; Céline, Bambara; Ouattara, Maimouna; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

    2016-01-01

    Affections gravissimes à pronostic très réservé particulièrement dans notre contexte de sous médicalisation et de pauvreté. Notre but en initiant ce travail est de déterminer les étiologies de ces urgences et discuter de leur prise en charge thérapeutique. Étude de type rétrospective et descriptive sur 05 ans, au total 52 dossiers cliniques ont été inclus. Ces infections ont représenté 0,33% de nos consultations. La moyenne d'âge de nos patients a été 23 ans. Le jeune âge, les traitements inappropriés et certaines affections ORL ont été retrouvés comme facteurs favorisants. Les motifs de consultation ont été variés en fonction du siège de l'infection, cependant deux signes cliniques ont été constants: la douleur et la fièvre. L'adénophlegmon, le phlegmon péri-amygdalien, les cellulites ont été nos principales étiologies avec le streptocoque et le staphylocoque comme principaux germes en cause. L'antibiothérapie probabiliste a été utilisée en première intention notamment l'association céphalosporine de 3ème génération + aminoside + imidazolé. L'évolution clinique de nos patients a été marquée par la survenue de complications locales et générales. Urgence diagnostic et thérapeutique leur évolution reste encore émaillée de complication en raison de la consultation tardive de nos patients. PMID:28154719

  6. [Hypertensive emergency and urgence].

    PubMed

    Gegenhuber, Alfons; Lenz, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    DEFINITION, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, THERAPY: The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a massive, acute rise in blood pressure. Patients with underlying hypertensive disease usually have an increase in systolic blood pressure values > 220 mmHg and diastolic values > 120 mmHg. The severity of the condition, however, is not determined by the absolute blood pressure level but by the magnitude of the acute increase in blood pressure. Thus, in the presence of primarily normotensive baseline values (such as those in eclampsia), even a systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg may lead to a life-threatening condition. The most important causes are non-compliance (reduction or interruption of therapy), inadequate therapy, endocrine disease, renal (vessel) disease, pregnancy and intoxication (drugs). The management of this condition greatly depends on whether the patient has a hypertensive crisis with organ manifestation (hypertensive emergency) or a crisis without organ manifestation (hypertensive urgency). By documenting the medical history, the medical status and by simple diagnostic procedures, the differential diagnosis can be established at the emergency site within a very short period of time. In the absence of organ manifestations (hypertensive urgency) the patient may have non-specific symptoms such as palpitations, headache, malaise and a general feeling of illness in addition to the increase in blood pressure. In a hypertensive urgency the patient's blood pressure should not be reduced within a few minutes but within a period of 24 to 48 hours. Such adjustment can be achieved on an out-patient basis, however, only if the patient can be followed up adequately for early detection of a renewed attack. In the absence of follow-up facilities, the patient's blood pressure should be reduced over a period of 4 to 6 hours, if necessary in an out-patient emergency service. While intravenous medication is given preference when a rapid effect is desired, oral medication may be used for

  7. Why 'spiritism'?

    PubMed

    Gyimesi, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    Some of the early representatives of psychoanalysis had a lifelong interest in certain 'occult' phenomena. Although several theories were born for the purpose of understanding the interest of Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung or Sándor Ferenczi in spiritualism and related phenomena, interpreters usually ignore the changing cultural meaning and significance of modern occult practices like spiritualism. The aim of the present essay is to outline the cultural and historical aspects of spiritualism and spiritism in Hungary, and thus to shed new light on the involvement of Ferenczi - and other Hungarian psychoanalysts like Géza Róheim, István Hollós, and Mihály Bálint - in spiritualism and spiritism. The connections between spiritualism and the Budapest School of Psychoanalysis will be discussed, highlighting the cultural and scientific significance of Hungarian spiritualism and spiritism in the evolution of psychoanalysis. Taking into account the relative lack of the scientific research in the field of spiritism in Hungary, it can be pointed out that Ferenczi undertook a pioneering role in Hungarian psychical research.

  8. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer / Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  9. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer/Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  10. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  11. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Mineral Spirits Purification Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2- propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous decomposition produces, and then distill the mineral spirits from the remaining contaminants.

  13. [Hypertensive crisis: urgency and hypertensive emergency].

    PubMed

    Sobrino Martínez, Javier; Doménech Feria-Carot, Mónica; Morales Salinas, Alberto; Coca Payeras, Antonia

    2016-11-18

    Hypertensive crises lumped several clinical situations with different seriousness and prognosis. The differences between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency depends on if this situation involves a vital risk for the patient. This risk is defined more by the severity of the organ damage than for the higher values of blood pressure. The hypertensive urgency not involves an immediately risk for the patient, for these reason, the treatment can be completed after discharged. Otherwise, the hypertensive emergency is a critical clinical condition that requires hospital assistance. Faced with a patient, with severe hypertension, asymptomatic or with unspecific symptoms we must be careful. First, we need to confirm the values of blood pressure, with several measures of blood pressure and investigate and treat factors, which triggered this situation. The objective of medical treatment for hypertensive urgency is to reduce blood pressure values (at least 20% of baseline values) but to avoid sudden reduction of these values. In hypertensive urgencies rapid acting drug should not be used because of the risk of ischemic stroke and use drugs with longer half-life. The cardiovascular risk of these patients is higher than that do not suffer hypertensive crisis. The treatment must be personalized in each hypertensive emergency and intravenous it’s the best route to treat these patients.

  14. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  15. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  16. Relationships between trait urgency, smoking reinforcement expectancies, and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Hom, Marianne S; Geary, Bree A; Doran, Neal; Spillane, Nichea S; Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Urgency (i.e., the tendency to act rashly during negative/positive affect) may increase vulnerability to a variety of risky behaviors. This cross-sectional study of nontreatment-seeking smokers examined the relationship between urgency, level of nicotine dependence, and smoking reinforcement expectancies. Both positive and negative urgency were associated with nicotine dependence. Mediational analyses illustrated that smoking reinforcement expectancies significantly accounted for urgency-dependence relations, with negative reinforcement expectancies displaying incremental mediational effects. If replicated and extended, these findings may support the use of treatments that modify beliefs regarding smoking reinforcement outcomes as a means of buffering the risk of nicotine dependence carried by urgency.

  17. Spirit Wiggles into Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit completed a difficult, rocky ascent en route to reaching a captivating rock outcrop nicknamed 'Hillary' at the summit of 'Husband Hill.' At the end of the climb the robotic geologist was tilted almost 30 degrees. To get the rover on more solid footing for deploying the instrument arm, rover drivers told Spirit to wiggle its wheels one at a time. This animation shows Spirit's position before and after completing the wheel wiggle, during which the rover slid approximately 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) downhill. Rover drivers decided this position was too hazardous for deploying the instrument arm and subsequently directed Spirit to a more stable position before conducting analyses with instruments on the rover's arm.

    Spirit took these images with its front hazard-avoidance camera on martian day, or sol, 625 (Oct. 6, 2005).

  18. [Hypertensive urgency or high blood pressure variability?

    PubMed

    Rodionov, A V

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive urgency (HU) is a common reason particularly for elderly patients to seek medical advice. Severe asymptomatic hypertension and situational high blood pressure (BP) in patients with its high variability is frequently taken as HU. The use of short-acting antihypertensive drugs is not only indicated in these situations, but it may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE). Over the past decade, increased BP variability is an independent predictor for a higher risk of CVE. Among the major groups of antihypertensive drugs, there are calcium antagonists, mainly amlodipine, which has the greatest potential to reduce BP variability. Thus, calcium antagonists can be considered as first-line drugs for patients with high BP variability.

  19. Changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking across adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Stevens, Angela K.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; King, Kevin M.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n = 1018; ages 11–16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined. The three facets showed similar trajectories across time (i.e., increasing during early adolescence before leveling off). Across all facets, there was strong evidence of correlated change, suggesting these traits are, developmentally, strongly related phenomena. PMID:26949280

  20. Changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Stevens, Angela K; Ellingson, Jarrod M; King, Kevin M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2016-02-01

    The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n = 1018; ages 11-16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined. The three facets showed similar trajectories across time (i.e., increasing during early adolescence before leveling off). Across all facets, there was strong evidence of correlated change, suggesting these traits are, developmentally, strongly related phenomena.

  1. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Urgency signals and messages. 80.327 Section 80.327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  2. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Urgency signals and messages. 80.327 Section 80.327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  3. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Urgency signals and messages. 80.327 Section 80.327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  4. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Urgency signals and messages. 80.327 Section 80.327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  5. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Urgency signals and messages. 80.327 Section 80.327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  6. Create a Sense of Urgency to Spark Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While recent state and federal education policies convey a sense of urgency in regard to the need for education reforms, there are teachers for whom this sense of urgency has long been woven into the fabric of their practice. Fortified by their high expectations for their students, these teachers utilize strategies that convey the message that the…

  7. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  12. Associations between nicotine dependence, anhedonia, urgency and smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Roys, Melanie; Weed, Keri; Carrigan, Maureen; MacKillop, James

    2016-11-01

    Models of nicotine dependence have suggested that the association between urgency, a subconstruct of impulsivity, and smoking behaviors may be mediated by motivations. Motives that are driven by expectations that smoking will relieve negative affect or increase positive affect may be especially salient in persons who have depression symptoms such as anhedonia. Support for associations between symptoms of depression, urgency, and addiction has been found for alcohol dependence, but empirical analysis is lacking for an interactive effect of urgency and depression symptoms on nicotine dependence. The current study investigated relationships among the urgency facet of impulsivity, anhedonia, smoking motives, and nicotine dependence with secondary analyses of a sample of 1084 daily smokers using simultaneous moderation and multiple mediation analyses. The moderation analysis revealed that although urgency was significantly associated with smoking at average or higher levels of anhedonia, it was unrelated to smoking when few anhedonia symptoms were endorsed. Further, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the smoking motives of craving, cue exposure, positive reinforcement, and tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between urgency and nicotine dependence. Results suggest that models of alcohol addiction that include an interactive effect of urgency and certain symptoms of depression may be applied to nicotine dependence. Examination of the multiple mediational pathways between urgency and nicotine dependence suggests directions for intervention efforts.

  13. The First Field Geologic Maps on Another Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Field geologic maps have been prepared from in situ ("field") observations during the traverse of Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity. These maps are the first tests of field geologic mapping methods at the human scale on another planet.

  14. Perceived urgency mapping across modalities within a driving context.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Lewis, Bridget A

    2014-09-01

    Hazard mapping is essential to effective driver-vehicle interface (DVI) design. Determining which modality to use for situations of different criticality requires an understanding of the relative impact of signal parameters within each modality on perceptions of urgency and annoyance. Towards this goal we obtained psychometric functions for visual, auditory and tactile interpulse interval (IPI), visual color, signal word, and auditory fundamental frequency on perceptions of urgency, annoyance, and acceptability. Results indicate that manipulation of IPI in the tactile modality, relative to visual and auditory, has greater utility (greater impact on urgency than annoyance). Manipulations of color were generally rated as less annoying and more acceptable than auditory and tactile stimuli; but they were also rated as lower in urgency relative to other modality manipulations. Manipulation of auditory fundamental frequency resulted in high ratings of both urgency and annoyance. Results of the current investigation can be used to guide DVI design and evaluation.

  15. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Social Rejection Magnifies Impulsive Behavior Among Individuals With Greater Negative Urgency: An Experimental Test of Urgency Theory.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; DeWall, C Nathan

    2017-04-03

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted trait with substantial implications for human well-being. One facet of impulsivity is negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect. Correlational evidence suggests that negative affect magnifies impulsive behavior among individuals with greater negative urgency, yet causal evidence for this core pillar of urgency theory is lacking. To fill this gap in the literature, participants (N = 363) were randomly assigned to experience social rejection (a situation shown to induce negative affect) or acceptance. Participants then reported their subjective negative affect, completed a behavioral measure of impulsivity, and reported their negative urgency. Among individuals with relatively high and average negative urgency, social rejection increased their impulsive behavior through greater experiences of negative affect. These indirect effects were not observed among individuals relatively low in negative urgency. These findings suggest that negative urgency exists at the nexus of urgent dispositions and situations that elicit negative affect, which offers novel support for urgency theory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  19. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  20. Reconciling Urgency and Variable Abstraction in a Hybrid Compositional Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, D. A.; Cuijpers, P. J. L.; Markovski, J.; Nadales Agut, D. E.; Rooda, J. E.

    The extension of timed formalisms to a hybrid setting with urgency, has been carried out in a rather straightforward manner, seemingly without difficulty. However, in this paper, we show that the combination of urgency with abstraction from continuous variables leads to undesired behavior. Abstraction from continuous variables ultimately leads to a timed system again, but with a much richer set of possible branching behaviors than a timed system that comprises only clocks. As it turns out, the formal definition of urgency, as defined for timed systems with clocks, does not fit our intuition of urgency anymore when applied to a timed system that is an abstraction of a hybrid system. Therefore, we propose to extend the formal semantics of timed and hybrid systems with guard trajectories. In this way, the continuous branching behavior introduced by hybrid systems remains visible even after abstraction from continuous variables. The practical applicability of the introduction of guard trajectories is illustrated by our revision of the structured operational semantics of the CIF language. The interplay between urgency and abstraction now adheres to our intuition, while compositionality with respect to urgency, variable abstraction, and parallel composition, is retained. In the future, symbolic elimination of urgency can be used to ensure that guard trajectories do not need to be actually calculated.

  1. Spirit Digs a Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A view from the front hazard avoidance camera of NASA's Spirit rover on its 47th sol shows a trench excavated by the rover's left front wheel within the 'Laguna Hollow' area. The trench, dubbed 'Road Cut,' is 7 centimeters (3 inches) deep. The soil at this location is more cohesive than the material where Spirit's twin, Opportunity, dug its first trench at Meridiani. Spirit made 11 back-and-forth passes to dig this trench, and still did not produce as deep a hole as Opportunity dug in 6 passes. Scientists and engineers plan to begin up-close inspection of the soil in this trench on sol 48 by placing the microscopic imager on the floor and the walls before conducting Moessbauer and alpha particle x-ray spectrometer readings on some of the same points.

  2. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006), using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  3. Spirit Self-motivates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove itself 1 meter (3 feet) out of 6.4 meters (21 feet) at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Feb. 8, 2004, the 36th sol of its mission. This image shows the tracks it created in the martian soil as it drove straight ahead, then to the left. The rover also drove over Adirondack (seen in image bottom center), the bright rock that was targeted by Spirit's rock abrasion tool, on its way to a rock target called White Boat. This was the first test of the rover's autonomous system, which will be used many times in the days to come.

  4. Spirit Lightens the Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The history of Spirit's descent and landing on the surface of Mars is recorded in this image taken more than two weeks later on Jan. 19, 2004, by the camera on the orbiting Mars Global Surveyor. Spirit landed on Jan. 3, 2004. The two dots in the upper left are the spacecraft's backshell and parachute, which were shed as Spirit's bridle was cut, allowing the lander to bounce to a rest while safely encased in airbags. To the far right of the image, a dark streak above a large crater is believed to be the location where the heat shield impacted. The heat shield had protected the spacecraft during its descent through the martian atmosphere and was jettisoned several kilometers above the surface. A trail of bounce marks made by the airbags as Spirit bounced to a stop can be seen in the middle of the image. To the left of the second bounce mark is a square showing the location where engineers had calculated Spirit's airbags first hit the martian surface, based on data from the descent image motion estimation system located on the bottom of the rover's lander. The white dot near the bottom of the image is the lander, also known as the Columbia Memorial Station, at the Gusev Crater landing site. Beside it is a dot marked 'surface feature location,' showing the location of the lander estimated by the Spirit team using sight lines to landmarks in the lander's panoramic images. This image was taken in the early martian afternoon.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Wind Gusts: No Longer a Rover's Achilles Heel This image shows the path (blue line) taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during its descent to Gusev Crater, Mars. Just seconds before landing, the rover fired its lateral rocket, called the Tranverse Impulse Rocket System, to protect against a horizontal gust of wind. The turquoise and yellow arrows show the actual speed and direction of Spirit; the purple arrow indicates what the rover

  5. A Planet for Goldilocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, N.

    2014-07-01

    The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

  6. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  7. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  8. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  9. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  10. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  11. Spirits & Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Frank Waabu

    This paper offers translations for about 300 names for spirits, relations, and kinships taken from the extinct American Indian languages of southeastern New England, Narragansett and Massachusett. Each section contains tables of three columns. On the left is the term being defined, as defined in the middle column, with useful comments on the right…

  12. Spirit Digs In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this navigation camera image on the 72nd martian day, or sol, of its mission (March 15, 2004), after digging its wheel into the drift dubbed 'Serpent.' Creating the commands that would generate this 'scar' was not an easy task for rover controllers. Essentially, they had to choreograph an intricate dance for Spirit, maneuvering it up the side of the dune, shimmying its left front wheel a number of times to create the scuff, and then reversing to attain proper positioning for miniature thermal emission spectrometer observations. Before the task was finished, Spirit moved forward to put the scuff within proper reach of the rover's arm.

    This scar allows the rover's instruments to see below the drift surface, to determine the composition of the materials. Initial results indicate that the drift material is similar to the basaltic sands that have been seen throughout Spirit's journey to the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The material does not seem to be the same as that inside the crater.

    Scientists are now looking to answer two questions: Why is the dark sand in the crater not the same as the dark sand in the drift? And why are there two different dark soil-type deposits in such a small place?

  13. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operations; other urgency and safety messages and communications relating to the navigation, movements and...) Intership navigation safety communications are those VHF radiotelephone communications conducted between... for intership navigation safety communications (see § 80.1077)....

  14. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operations; other urgency and safety messages and communications relating to the navigation, movements and...) Intership navigation safety communications are those VHF radiotelephone communications conducted between... for intership navigation safety communications (see § 80.1077)....

  15. Nemachtilli: The Spirit of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    2005-01-01

    Luis J. Rodriguez believes that the spirit of learning is not nurtured or encouraged in schools because the spirit of teaching is absent. Learning is not just about books but it happens in all kind of ways that should be nurtured with spirit.

  16. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  17. Migrating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Hansen, B.; Holman, M.; Tremaine, S.

    1998-01-01

    A planet orbiting in a disk of planetesimals can experience an instability in which it migrates to smaller orbital radii. Resonant interactions between the planet and planetesimals remove angular momentum from the planetesimals, increasing their eccentricities. Subsequently, the planetesimals either collide with or are ejected by the planet, reducing the semimajor axis of the planet. If the surface density of planetesimals exceeds a critical value, corresponding to 0.03 solar masses of gas inside the orbit of Jupiter, the planet will migrate inward a large distance. This instability may explain the presence of Jupiter-mass objects in small orbits around nearby stars.

  18. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  19. Negative Urgency, Mood Induction, and Alcohol Seeking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin H.; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative urgency, defined as impulsive risk-taking during extreme negative emotional states, is the most important impulsivity-related trait for alcohol-related problems and alcohol dependence. However, how negative urgency imparts risk for alcohol-related problems is not yet well understood. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine how negative urgency relates to separable aspects of the emotional experience and alcohol-seeking behaviors. METHODS A total of 34 (19 women) community-dwelling, alcohol-using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian) completed two counterbalanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one during a neutral mood condition and one during a negative mood condition. RESULTS Negative urgency was associated with 1) greater mood change following negative mood induction (F=4.38, df=15, p=.002, η2=0.87), but was unrelated to changes in craving or cortisol release in response to mood induction; 2) greater alcohol craving prior to and after an alcohol prime (F=3.27, p=.02, η2=0.86), but only in the negative and not the neutral mood condition; and 3) higher peak BrAC (F=2.13, df=42, p=.02, η2=0.48), continuing to increase intoxication level over a longer period (F=3.77, df=42, p<.001, η2=0.62), and more alcohol seeking (F=21.73, df=22, p<.001, η2=0.94) throughout the negative session. Negative urgency was associated with overall lower cortisol release. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the importance of assessing behavioral indicators of negative urgency under mood condition, and suggest that negative urgency may amplify alcohol self-administration through increased negative emotional reactivity to mood events and increased alcohol craving after initial alcohol exposure, leading to maintenance of alcohol related behavior. PMID:27291583

  20. System Engineering the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristram T.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was designed to accomplish three scientific objectives: (1) learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks and how they acquire their inhomogeneous chemical composition; (2) characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. SPIRIT will accomplish these objectives through infrared observations with a two aperture interferometric instrument. This paper gives an overview of SPIRIT design and operation, and how the three design cycle concept study was completed. The error budget for several key performance values allocates tolerances to all contributing factors, and a performance model of the spacecraft plus instrument system demonstrates meeting those allocations with margin.

  1. Using Our Voices, Losing Our Bodies: Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, and the Spirit Murders of Black Male Professors in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lamar; Bryan, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    The recent deaths of Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, and other Black males have generated new civil rights urgencies in Black communities and spirited academic discourses in higher education regarding the educational and social plight of Black males in America. Connecting the deaths of Black males to our lived experiences in the academy, we use a…

  2. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  3. Extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

    2000-11-07

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems.

  4. Spirit Shadow over Laguna Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit casts a shadow over the trench that the rover is examining with tools on its robotic arm. Spirit took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera on Feb. 21, 2004, during the rover's 48th martian day, or sol. It dug the trench with its left front wheel the preceding sol. Plans call for Spirit to finish examining the trench on sol 50.

  5. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  6. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  7. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  8. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  9. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits...

  10. 48 CFR 18.104 - Unusual and compelling urgency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unusual and compelling urgency. 18.104 Section 18.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  11. 48 CFR 18.104 - Unusual and compelling urgency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unusual and compelling urgency. 18.104 Section 18.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  12. 48 CFR 18.104 - Unusual and compelling urgency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unusual and compelling urgency. 18.104 Section 18.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  13. 48 CFR 18.104 - Unusual and compelling urgency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual and compelling urgency. 18.104 Section 18.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  14. 48 CFR 18.104 - Unusual and compelling urgency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unusual and compelling urgency. 18.104 Section 18.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  15. Categorical evidence, confidence, and urgency during probabilistic categorization

    PubMed Central

    Braunlich, Kurt; Seger, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    We used a temporally-extended categorization task to investigate the neural substrates underlying our ability to integrate information over time and across multiple stimulus features. Using model-based fMRI, we tracked the temporal evolution of two important variables as participants deliberated about impending choices: 1) categorical evidence, and 2) confidence (the total amount of evidence provided by the stimuli, irrespective of the particular category favored). Importantly, in each model, we also included a covariate which allowed us to differentiate signals related to information accumulation from other, evidence-independent functions that increased monotonically with time (such as urgency or cognitive load). We found that somatomotor regions tracked the temporal evolution of categorical evidence, while regions in both medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the striatum tracked decision confidence. As both theory and experimental work suggest that patterns of activity thought to be related to information-accumulation may reflect, in whole or in part, an interaction between sensory evidence and urgency, we additionally investigated whether urgency might modulate the slopes of the two evidence-dependent functions. We found that the slopes of both functions were likely modulated by urgency such that the difference between the high and low evidence states increased as the response deadline loomed. PMID:26564532

  16. Circadian Activity Rhythms, Time Urgency, and Achievement Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Barbara L.

    Many physiological and psychological processes fluctuate throughout the day in fairly stable, rhythmic patterns. The relationship between individual differences in circadian activity rhythms and a sense of time urgency were explored as well as a number of achievement-related variables. Undergraduates (N=308), whose circadian activity rhythms were…

  17. Spirit Movie of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Spirit Phobos Eclipse Animation

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This clip is a sequence of the 16 images showing the eclipse at about 10 times normal speed. It shows the movement of Phobos from left to right as the moon enters the shadow. Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  18. Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This view is a time-lapse composite of images taken 20 seconds apart, showing the movement of Phobos from left to right. (At 10 seconds apart, the images of the moon overlap each other.) Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  19. Outer Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Did you know that through NASA’s various satellite missions we have learned more about these planetary bodies in recent years than we knew collectively since we started to study our planets? Throu...

  20. Spirit Sol 154, Driving By

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's front hazard avoidance camera during Spirit's 154th martian day, or sol, on June 9, 2004. The 'Columbia Hills' appear against the horizon. Directly in front of the rover is the highest of the hills, 'Husband Hill,' approximately 90 meters (295 feet) tall. The rock in the foreground is larger than other surrounding rocks, approximately 35 centimeters (14 inches) across, but was not an observation target for Spirit. The tread marks in front of the rock are not a trench, but simply evidence that the rover passed by as it continued its journey toward the Columbia Hills.

  1. Testing Spirit on Five Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture shows a model of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit being tested for performance on five wheels at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Spirit's right front wheel, now operating at six times its design life, has been showing signs of age, so rover planners devised a creative approach to keep the rover moving. They will drive Spirit backwards on five wheels, engaging the sixth wheel only sparingly to ensure its availability for tougher terrain. Tests performed at JPL allowed the rover planners to come up with this roundabout solution, and to develop commands that will help the five-wheeled rover steer.

  2. Spirit Traverse Map, Sol 680

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Spirit Traverse Map

    This image shows the route that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven inside Gusev Crater from its first Martian day (sol 1) to its 680th sol (Dec. 1, 2005), more than a complete Martian year. The underlying image (previously released as PIA07849) is a mosaic of images from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The scale bar at lower left is 500 meters (0.31 mile). As of sol 680, Spirit had driven a total of 5,495 meters (3.41 miles).

  3. 47 CFR 80.369 - Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply..., urgency, safety, call and reply frequencies. This section describes the general uses and frequencies assignable to maritime stations for distress, urgency, safety, call and reply radiotelephony...

  4. 47 CFR 80.355 - Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse... Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies. This section describes the distress, urgency, safety, call and reply carrier frequencies assignable to stations for Morse code...

  5. Positive Urgency Predicts Illegal Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n = 407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  6. Spirit, Too, Finds Hematite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These graphs, or spectra, shows evidence for the mineral hematite in the rock dubbed 'Pot of Gold,' located at Gusev Crater. The data was taken from the surface of the rock with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer on sols 161 and 163 (June 16 and 18, 2004). The top red line is the spectrum for Pot of Gold, and the bottom blue line is for a typical basaltic, or volcanic, rock in Gusev Crater. The two large peaks in the center represent non-hematite, iron-containing minerals, while the smaller set of six peaks (two are hidden in the larger peaks) in the top spectrum is the signature of hematite. Hematite, which is found on Earth, can be formed in three different ways: in standing water; in small amounts of hot fluids (hydrothermal processes); and in volcanic rock. Scientists are planning further observations of this and other rocks in the area, which they hope will yield more insight into the hematite's origins.

  7. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  8. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA03062

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA03062

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Mars Gusts Blow Toward Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows several gusts and whirlwinds carrying dust as they move toward NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. It consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on Spirit during the afternoon of the rover's 501st martian day, or sol (May 31, 2005). The camera was facing into the wind. Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  10. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  11. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  12. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  13. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  14. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  15. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  16. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  17. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  18. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  19. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  20. Spirit Hits a Home Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This week, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit arrived at 'Home Plate,' a feature that, when seen from orbit, looks like the home plate of a baseball diamond. Home Plate is a roughly circular feature about 80 meters (260 feet) in diameter that might be an old impact crater or volcanic feature. The Spirit team has been eager to get to Home Plate and has been enjoying distant views of the feature and a curious 'bathtub ring' of light-colored materials along its edges. The team has pushed the rover hard to get here before the deep Martian winter sets in.

    After scientists had identified Home Plate from orbit, they had many theories about what it could be and what they might see. But when Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took this and other images, the science team was stunned. This Pancam image is of an outcrop nicknamed 'Barnhill' and surrounding rocks on the north side of Home Plate, showing the most spectacular layering that Spirit has seen.

    Pancam and microscopic imager views of the layers in the rocks reveal a range of grain sizes and textures that change from the lower to the upper part of the outcrop. This may help scientists figure out how the material was emplaced. Spirit is also conducting work with its arm instruments to figure out the chemistry and mineralogy of the rocks. Scientists have several hypotheses about what Home Plate could be, including features made by volcanoes and impact craters, and ways that water could have played a role. They are busy trying to figure out what the data from Spirit is really telling us.

    As Spirit works at Home Plate during February, the science team is choosing informal names for rocks from the great players and managers of the Negro Leagues of baseball. This outcrop, 'Barnhill,' is informally named for David Barnhill, the ace of the New York Cubans' pitching staff during the early 1940s. He compiled an 18-3 record in 1941 and defeated Satchel Paige in the 1942 East-West all-star game. Other rocks in

  1. Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate' (QTVR)

    On Feb. 19, 2006, the 758th Martian day of exploration of the red planet by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the rover acquired this panoramic view of the interior of 'Home Plate,' a circular topographic feature amid the 'Columbia Hills.' This view, called the 'Paige' panorama, is from the top of Home Plate. It shows layered rocks exposed at the edge as well as dark rocks exhibiting both smooth and sponge-like 'scoriaceous' textures. To the east from this vantage point, 'McCool Hill' looms on the horizon. At the base of McCool Hill is a reddish outcrop called 'Oberth,' which Spirit may explore during the rapidly approaching Martian winter. 'Von Braun' and 'Goddard' hills are partially visible beyond the opposite rim of Home Plate.

    The limited spatial coverage of this panorama is the result of steadily decreasing power available to the rover for science activities as the Martian winter arrives and the sun traces a lower path across the sky. The rover team anticipates that the north-facing slopes of McCool Hill should sufficiently tilt the rover's solar panels toward the sun to allow Spirit to survive the winter.

    The view covers about 230 degrees of terrain around the rover. Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took 72 separate images of this scene with four different Pancam filters. This is an approximately true-color rendering using the Pancam's 75-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  2. Spirit's Surroundings on Sol 337

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view was assembled from images taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 337th martian day, or sol (Dec. 14, 2004). Spirit's position, catalogued as Site 100 for the mission, was on the slope of 'Husband Hill.' The rover had driven 6 meters (20 feet) on Sol 337 after examining a rock called 'Wishstone' for several sols. That rock is just to the left of the top of the arch traced by the rover tracks in this view. Spirit experienced slippage of up to 80 percent on uphill portions of the day's drive. The view is presented here in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Advanced units: quality measures in urgency and emergency care

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Dan Carai Maia; Cordioli, Eduardo; Pedrotti, Carlos Henrique Sartorato; Iervolino, Mauro; Bastos, Antonio da Silva; de Almeida, Luis Roberto Natel; Neves, Henrique Sutton de Sousa; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, through care indicators, the quality of services rendered to patients considered urgency and emergency cases at an advanced emergency care unit. Methods We analyzed data from managerial reports of 64,891 medical visits performed in the Emergency Care Unit of the Ibirapuera Unit at Care during the period from June 1st, 2012 through May 31st, 2013. The proposed indicators for the assessment of care were rate of death in the emergency care unit; average length of stay of patients in the unit; rate of unplanned return visits; admission rate for patients screened as level 1 according to the Emergency Severity Index; rate of non-finalized medical consultations; rate of complaints; and door-to-electrocardiogram time. Results The rate of death in the emergency care unit was zero. Five of the 22 patients classified as Emergency Severity Index 1 (22.7%) arrived presenting cardiac arrest. All were treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and reestablishment of vital functions. The average length of stay of patients in the unit was 3 hours, 33 minutes, and 7 seconds. The rate of unscheduled return visits at the emergency care unit of the Ibirapuera unit was 13.64%. Rate of complaints was 2.8/1,000 patients seen during the period Conclusion The model of urgency and emergency care in advanced units provides an efficient and efficaious service to patients. Both critically ill patients and those considered less complex can receive proper treatment for their needs. PMID:25628203

  4. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): Recent Study Results and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, David; SPIRIT Mission Study Team

    2007-12-01

    SPIRIT was recommended in the 2002 "Community Plan for Far-IR/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.” A structurally connected interferometer, SPIRIT provides sensitive sub-arcsecond angular resolution images and integral field spectroscopy in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. SPIRIT was designed to revolutionize our understanding of planetary system formation, reveal otherwise-undetectable planets through the disk perturbations they induce, spectroscopically probe the atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets in orbits typical of most of the planets in our solar system, and yield significant new insight into the processes associated with galaxy formation and development. This paper updates previously presented study results and describes future study plans. Our SPIRIT mission concept study proposal was peer reviewed and selected by NASA for support under the Origins Probe Mission Concept Study program. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and four industry partners - Ball Aerospace, Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, and Northrop-Grumman - contributed generously the study. The Origins Probe study results were reviewed by an Advisory Review Panel.

  5. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  6. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  7. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  8. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  9. The Spirit of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Olynda

    2013-01-01

    "The real preparation for education is a study of one's self. The training of the teacher who is to help life is something far more than a learning of ideas. It includes the training of character, it is a preparation of the spirit."--Maria Montessori". It is common knowledge among Montessorians that spiritual preparation was…

  10. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  11. Spirit Rover on 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Location of Spirit

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. Shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location at that time in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    'Husband Hill,' the tallest in the range, is just below the center of the image. The image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

    The image was acquired on Nov. 2, 2005. A white box (see Figure 1) indicates the location of an excerpted portion on which the location of Spirit on that date is marked. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the image. The region toward the bottom of the image shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches are accumulations of windblown sand and granules.

  12. Spirit-ness at Work: Connections between Workplace Spirituality, Transformative Learning, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Derise E.

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is a place where we show up as human beings, subject to human experience. People are no longer willing to leave their spirit-ness at the door. In reality, spirit-ness shows up "without permission" as a revolutionary, powerful, and transformative way of being in a world that too often supports status quo activities that are…

  13. Negative Affect Mediates the Relation Between Trait Urgency and Behavioral Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Borges, Allison M; Dahne, Jennifer; Lim, Aaron C; MacPherson, Laura

    2017-01-12

    Distress tolerance is associated with a range of psychopathology and risk-taking behavior. Current research suggests that the behavioral ability to persist at goal-directed behavior when distressed may be malleable. However, little is known about the contributing factors that underlie individual differences in distress tolerance. Trait urgency, or the tendency to act impulsively in the context of acute changes in affect, may predict distress tolerance because the prepotent response to avoid or remove an aversive state may undermine persistence. To date, most research has examined the role of negative urgency, a valenced subfactor of urgency, in relation to distress tolerance. However, the broad trait of urgency may be associated with a greater change in affect that precedes the inability to tolerate distress. The current study examined whether greater changes in negative affect was indeed a mediator in the relationship between trait urgency and behavioral distress tolerance. The effects of both positive and negative urgency on affect change were examined to investigate the potential contribution of the broader urgency trait. The results suggest that a greater change in negative affect over the course of a stressor mediated the association between both subfactors of urgency and distress tolerance. These findings suggest that trait urgency, regardless of valence, may be associated with experiencing greater changes in affect that ultimately undermine the ability to tolerate distress. These findings also highlight important components of distress tolerance that could inform behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2004-06-01

    Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth--mass planets remain undetectable, but space--based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade. The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter--mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth--mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun--like stars commonly harbor earth--sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non--circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter--like planets may reside at 5--10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sun--like star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4--10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward. To date, 10 multiple--planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are ``hierarchical'', consisting

  15. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  16. Takayasu's arteritis and primary antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as hypertensive urgency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew; Nayeemuddin, Mohammed; Prasad, Bhanu

    2016-01-18

    A 33-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the hospital with chest pain and hypertensive urgency. Physical examination revealed widespread arterial bruits and marked difference in blood pressure between the upper limbs. Vascular imaging showed widespread narrowing in multiple vascular territories. He met the established American College of Rheumatology criteria for Takayasu's arteritis. His resistant hypertension was considered to be a consequence of bilateral renal artery stenosis and he subsequently underwent sequential stenting of his renal arteries leading to improvement in blood pressure and reduction in the number of antihypertensive medications. Subsequent imaging revealed progression of aortic thrombus in the setting of an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and persistently elevated antiphospholipid antibodies fulfilling diagnostic criteria for primary antiphospholipid syndrome, requiring initiation of immunosuppression and anticoagulation.

  17. Rumpel-Leede phenomenon presenting as a hypertensive urgency.

    PubMed

    Varela, Daniel; Tran, Dat; Ngamdu, Kyari Sumayin; Trullender, Brett; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-04-01

    Rumpel-Leede (R-L) phenomenon is the rare event in which the small dermal capillaries of an extremity rupture in response to application of a compressive device to that extremity, such as when inflating a cuff during noninvasive blood pressure monitoring or when applying a tourniquet to draw blood. This capillary rupture results in formation of a petechial rash distal to the compressive device. R-L phenomenon is believed to occur most often in patients with underlying vascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus or thrombocytopenia. R-L phenomenon is most often benign, though it may rarely be associated with pain and discomfort. There is no treatment for this condition apart from treatment of the underlying vascular disease or thrombocytopenia. We report a 57-year-old woman who presented with hypertensive urgency and experienced R-L phenomenon during blood pressure cuff inflation.

  18. 27 CFR 19.41 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond. 19.41 Section 19.41 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Claims § 19.41 Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost..., relating to the destruction or loss of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines in bond, shall...

  19. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars.

    The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel.

    The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  20. Total urgency and frequency score as a measure of urgency and frequency in overactive bladder and storage lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Christopher R; Drake, Marcus J; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Cardozo, Linda; Drogendijk, Ted; Klaver, Monique; Van Charldorp, Karin; Hakimi, Zalmai; Compion, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    The term lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) encompasses a range of urinary symptoms, including storage symptoms (e.g. overactive bladder [OAB]) as well as voiding and post-micturition symptoms. Although treatment of male LUTS tends to focus on voiding symptoms, patients typically find storage symptoms the most bothersome. The core storage symptom is urgency, which drives the other main storage symptoms of increased daytime frequency, nocturia and incontinence. Although several validated questionnaires have been widely used to study urgency, few measure the two important storage parameters, urgency and frequency, in a single assessment. The total urgency and frequency score (TUFS) is a new validated tool that captures both variables and is derived from the Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale, which has been validated in patients with OAB and LUTS. The TUFS was first validated in OAB in the phase IIa BLOSSOM study, which was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of mirabegron, a β3 -adrenoceptor agonist, in 260 patients. The responsiveness of the TUFS to treatment has been confirmed in a further three large-scale randomized controlled trials of solifenacin in patients with OAB or LUTS. Changes in TUFS from baseline to end of treatment were consistent with changes in micturition diary variables in all four studies. Furthermore, the TUFS was significantly correlated with several health-related quality-of-life variables in the phase III NEPTUNE study. Thus, the TUFS appears to be useful for assessing improvements in major storage symptoms (urgency and frequency) in clinical trials.

  1. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  2. 27 CFR 19.685 - Return of recovered tax-free spirits, and spirits and denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 28 for exportation or for deposit in a foreign-trade zone, and spirits or denatured spirits withdrawn...-free spirits, and spirits and denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  3. Dust Devils Whip by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1120 (February 26, 2007), the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured one of the best dust devils it's seen in its three-plus year mission. The series of navigation camera images were put together to make a dust devil movie.

    The dust devil column is clearly defined and is clearly bent in the down wind direction. Near the end of the movie, the base of the dust devil becomes much wider. The atmospheric science team thinks that this is because the dust devil encountered some sand and therefore produced a 'saltation skirt,' an apron of material that is thrown out of the dust devil because it is too large to be carried up into suspension.

    Also near the end of the movie the dust devil seems to move faster across the surface. This is because Spirit began taking pictures less frequently, and not because the dust devil sped up.

  4. Gender-Moderated Links between Urgency, Binge Drinking, and Excessive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin E.; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by…

  5. A psychophysiological evaluation of the perceived urgency of auditory warning signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, J. L.; Bartolome, D. S.; Burdette, D. W.; Comstock, J. R. Jr

    1995-01-01

    One significant concern that pilots have about cockpit auditory warnings is that the signals presently used lack a sense of priority. The relationship between auditory warning sound parameters and perceived urgency is, therefore, an important topic of enquiry in aviation psychology. The present investigation examined the relationship among subjective assessments of urgency, reaction time, and brainwave activity with three auditory warning signals. Subjects performed a tracking task involving automated and manual conditions, and were presented with auditory warnings having various levels of perceived and situational urgency. Subjective assessments revealed that subjects were able to rank warnings on an urgency scale, but rankings were altered after warnings were mapped to a situational urgency scale. Reaction times differed between automated and manual tracking task conditions, and physiological data showed attentional differences in response to perceived and situational warning urgency levels. This study shows that the use of physiological measures sensitive to attention and arousal, in conjunction with behavioural and subjective measures, may lead to the design of auditory warnings that produce a sense of urgency in an operator that matches the urgency of the situation.

  6. Dust Devils Seen by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Annotated

    At the Gusev site recently, skies have been very dusty, and on its 421st sol (March 10, 2005) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit spied two dust devils in action. This pair of images is from the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Views of the Gusev landing region from orbit show many dark streaks across the landscape -- tracks where dust devils have removed surface dust to show relatively darker soil below -- but this is the first time Spirit has photographed an active dust devil.

    Scientists are considering several causes of these small phenomena. Dust devils often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars. Warmed soil and rocks heat the layer of atmosphere closest to the surface, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. Another possibility is that a flow structure might develop over craters as wind speeds increase. As winds pick up, turbulence eddies and rotating columns of air form. As these columns grow in diameter they become taller and gain rotational speed. Eventually they become self-sustaining and the wind blows them down range.

    One sol before this image was taken, power output from Spirit's solar panels went up by about 50 percent when the amount of dust on the panels decreased. Was this a coincidence, or did a helpful dust devil pass over Spirit and lift off some of the dust?

    By comparing the separate images from the rover's different cameras, team members estimate that the dust devils moved about 500 meters (1,640 feet) in the 155 seconds between the navigation camera and hazard-avoidance camera frames; that equates to about 3 meters per second (7 miles per hour). The dust devils appear to be about 1,100 meters (almost three-quarters of a mile) from the rover.

  7. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): High-resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy in the Far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, D,; Baker, G.; Barger, A.; Benford, D.; Blain, A; Boyle, R.; Broderick, R.; Budinoff, J.; Carpenter, J.; Caverly, R.; Chen, P.; Cooley, S.; Cottingham, C.; Crooke, J.; DiPietro, D.; Femiano, M.; Ferrer, A.; Fischer, J.; Gardner, J.; Hallock, L.; Harris, K.; Hartman, K.; Harwit, M.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hyde, T.

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a recently-completed study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets form, and why some planets are ice giants and others are rocky; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. Observations with SPIRIT will be complementary to those of the James Webb Space Telescope and the ground-based Atacama Large Millimeter Array. All three observatories could be operational contemporaneously. SPIRIT will pave the way to the 1 km maximum baseline interferometer known as the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). In addition to the SPIRIT mission concept, this talk will emphasize the importance of dense u-v plane coverage and describe some of the practical considerations associated with alternative interferometric baseline sampling schemes.

  8. Spirit's Surroundings on Sol 337

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This stereo view was assembled from images taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 337th martian day, or sol (Dec. 14, 2004). Spirit's position, catalogued as Site 100 for the mission, was on the slope of 'Husband Hill.' The rover had driven 6 meters (20 feet) on Sol 337 after examining a rock called 'Wishstone' for several sols. That rock is just to the left of the top of the arch traced by the rover tracks in this view. Spirit experienced slippage of up to 80 percent on uphill portions of the day's drive. The view is presented here in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  9. Spirit's Tracks around 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. The rover is visible. So is the 'Low Ridge' feature where Spirit was parked with an 11-degree northerly tilt to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Tracks made by Spirit on the way to 'Home Plate' and to and from 'Tyrone,' an area of light-toned soils exposed by rover wheel motions, are also evident. The original image is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  10. The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. PMID:24826366

  11. Negative Urgency: A Personality Predictor of Externalizing Behavior Characterized by Neuroticism, Low Conscientiousness, and Disagreeableness

    PubMed Central

    Settles, Regan E.; Fischer, Sarah; Cyders, Melissa A.; Combs, Jessica L.; Gunn, Rachel L.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Negative urgency, the tendency to act rashly when distressed, is characterized by high Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and low Agreeableness. Because of this set of characteristics, the authors hypothesized that (1) negative urgency (NU) is a particularly important predictor of externalizing dysfunction; (2) traits that reflect primarily high Neuroticism predict internalizing dysfunction and (3) traits that reflect primarily low Conscientiousness predict those types of externalizing dysfunction that include intense affect less strongly than does NU. In three studies, the authors showed that negative urgency concurrently predicted alcohol dependence symptoms in disordered women, drinking problems and smoker status in pre-adolescents, and aggression, risky sex, illegal drug use, drinking problems, and conduct disordered behavior in college students. High Neuroticism traits predicted internalizing dysfunction but predicted none of these externalizing criteria beyond negative urgency. Low Conscientiousness did not add to prediction from negative urgency, except in a few cases. The tendency toward affect-driven rash action may underlie many externalizing behaviors. PMID:21859164

  12. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  13. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

  14. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  15. Spirit Drive Animation, Sols 365 to 390

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This animation is built from images taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit from the rover's 365th martian day, or sol (Jan. 11, 2005), through sol 390 (Feb. 6, 2005). During this period, Spirit covered about 80 meters (262 feet) in its climb toward 'Cumberland Ridge' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The sequence includes images from all of the sols on which Spirit drove during this period: sols 365, 366, 371, 381, 382, 386, 388 and 390.

  16. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/spirit/20040311a.html, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets.

    The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on

  17. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/spirit/20040311a.html, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets.

    The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on

  18. Investigating the moderating role of emotional awareness in the association between urgency and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Manjrekar, Eishita; Berenbaum, Howard; Bhayani, Natasha

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating has been found to be associated with urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect) and emotional awareness (i.e., attention to emotions, clarity of emotions). The present study tested the hypothesis that the relation between binge eating and urgency would be moderated by emotional awareness, over and above negative affect. Participants were 249 female college students. Items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), the Urgency subscale of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Bulimia (B) subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3) were administered. As predicted, emotional awareness moderated the link between urgency and binge eating. Both Urgency×Attention to emotions and Urgency×Clarity of emotions significantly predicted binge eating scores, even after taking into account negative affect. Consistent with past research, higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of binge eating, even after taking negative affect into account. However, the associations were particularly strong among individuals with low levels of attention to emotions and low levels of clarity of emotions. The findings from this study have implications for future research examining binge eating.

  19. Spirit Ascent Movie, Rover's-Eye View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A movie assembled from frames taken by the rear hazard-identification camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the last few days of the rover's ascent to the crest of 'Husband Hill' inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover was going in reverse. Rover planners often drive Spirit backwards to keep wheel lubrication well distributed. The images in this clip span a timeframe from Spirit's 573rd martian day, or sol (Aug, 13, 2005) to sol 582 (Aug. 22, 2005), the day after the rover reached the crest. During that period, Spirit drove 136 meters (446 feet),

  20. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  1. Exploring divergent trajectories: Disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and dysregulated eating.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Martin, Shelby J

    2016-08-01

    Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a well-established risk factor for dysregulated eating (e.g., binge eating, loss of control eating, emotional eating). However, negative urgency is transdiagnostic, in that it is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology. It is currently unclear why some individuals with high negative urgency develop dysregulated eating while others experience depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Investigating disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and psychopathology may help elucidate these divergent trajectories. The current study examined interactions among negative urgency and eating disorder-specific risk factors specified in the well-established dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint). We hypothesized that these interactions would predict dysregulated eating, but not depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to test this hypothesis in a large (N = 313) sample of female college students. Negative urgency was significantly associated with dysregulated eating, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. However, interactions among negative urgency and dual-pathway model variables were specific to dysregulated eating and accounted for an additional 3-5% of the variance beyond main effects. Findings suggest that eating disorder-specific risk factors may shape negative urgency into manifesting as dysregulated eating versus another form of psychopathology. Future research should use longitudinal designs to further test the impact of interactions among disorder-specific risk factors and negative urgency on divergent psychopathology trajectories.

  2. SPIRIT 1 Final Flight Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-15

    If _ PL-TR-91-2226 Environmental Research Papers, No.1094 AD-A257 088" S PI R IT I llll l ii l li l IilI FINAL FLIGHT REPORT Donald R. Smith Michael...24213• :_• ./1111111111 II/ ll/ I111ll /i l ! 1111 I~lll’ "This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication" ,’TP" D. PRICE...the 500- to 2000-cm-1 (5- to 20-jim) region. This report provides a detailed overview of the SPIRIT 1 flight and mission and the analysis of the flight

  3. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. The view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

  4. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... Spirits § 19.348 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot shall be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the lot. (Sec. 201, Pub. L....

  5. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  6. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  7. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  8. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  9. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  10. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  11. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  12. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  13. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  14. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  15. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  16. The Effects of Drug and Behavior Therapy on Urgency and Voiding Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Borello-France, Diane; Chai, Toby C.; Kenton, Kimberly; Goode, Patricia S.; Xu, Yan; Kusek, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and Hypotheses The objective of this study was to examine the effects of drug therapy alone and combined with behavioral therapy on urgency and 24-voiding frequency in women with urge-predominant incontinence and to identify predictors of change. Methods A planned analysis of data from a multi-site, randomized, controlled trial (N=307). Bladder diaries were used to document voids, incontinence, and urgency severity. Results Urgency scores decreased significantly within both treatment groups, but changes did not differ between groups (p=0.30). Improvement in urgency was associated with greater baseline urgency (p<0.0001) and black ethnicity (p=0.03). Voiding frequency increased with drug alone and decreased slightly with combined therapy (p=0.009), and improvement was associated with combined treatment (p<0.0001), higher baseline frequency (p<0.0001), and lower baseline incontinence episode frequency (p=0.001). Conclusions Although combined drug and behavioral therapy does not appear to improve urgency more than drug alone, it resulted in better outcomes on voiding frequency. PMID:20143047

  17. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Powell, David K; Andersen, Anders H; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-05-15

    Self-control often fails when people experience negative emotions. Negative urgency represents the dispositional tendency to experience such self-control failure in response to negative affect. Neither the neural underpinnings of negative urgency nor the more general phenomenon of self-control failure in response to negative emotions are fully understood. Previous theorizing suggests that an insufficient, inhibitory response from the prefrontal cortex may be the culprit behind such self-control failure. However, we entertained an alternative hypothesis: negative emotions lead to self-control failure because they excessively tax inhibitory regions of the prefrontal cortex. Using fMRI, we compared the neural activity of people high in negative urgency with controls on an emotional, inhibitory Go/No-Go task. While experiencing negative (but not positive or neutral) emotions, participants high in negative urgency showed greater recruitment of inhibitory brain regions than controls. Suggesting a compensatory function, inhibitory accuracy among participants high in negative urgency was associated with greater prefrontal recruitment. Greater activity in the anterior insula on negatively-valenced, inhibitory trials predicted greater substance abuse one month and one year after the MRI scan among individuals high in negative urgency. These results suggest that, among people whose negative emotions often lead to self-control failure, excessive reactivity of the brain's regulatory resources may be the culprit.

  18. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states.

  19. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  20. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  1. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009).

    Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. SPIRIT: An Evolutionally Designed Intelligent Tutoring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    RD-A±44 638 SPIRIT: AN EVOLUTIONALLY DESIGNED INTELLIGENT TUTORING i/i SYSTEM(U) PITTSBURGH UNIV PA LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER H E...Of STANDARDS-I963-A Unesty of Pittsburgh LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SPIRIT: AN EVOLUTIONALLY DESIGNED P INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM Amos...NUMBER T GOVTACS . II "NT’S CATALOG NUMmERUI, TLD/NRASl A 1i. 06VT T4 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) -7TYk OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED SPIRIT: An Evolutionally

  4. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC.

  5. Dissociable Roles of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Function in a Rat Model of Negative Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Justin R.; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [3H]DA and [3H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. PMID:26005123

  6. Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno C; Benz, Willy; Mayor, Michel

    2005-10-14

    Since 1995, more than 150 extrasolar planets have been discovered, most of them in orbits quite different from those of the giant planets in our own solar system. The number of discovered extrasolar planets demonstrates that planetary systems are common but also that they may possess a large variety of properties. As the number of detections grows, statistical studies of the properties of exoplanets and their host stars can be conducted to unravel some of the key physical and chemical processes leading to the formation of planetary systems.

  7. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  8. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin...

  9. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially...

  10. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in...

  11. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  12. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  13. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  14. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  15. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  16. 27 CFR 19.710 - Inventory of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory of spirits. 19... Spirits § 19.710 Inventory of spirits. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must take a physical inventory of all spirits and fuel alcohol on the bonded premises at the end of each calendar year....

  17. Spirit Hibernating, May Not Call Home

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA mission controllers have not heard from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since March 22, and the rover is facing its toughest challenge yet -- trying to survive the harsh Martian winter. Duri...

  18. Reinvigorating the Entrepreneurial Spirit of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.

  19. Spirit Lake Water Resource Management NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  20. 'Algonquin' Outcrop on Spirit's Sol 680

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view combines four frames from Spirit's panoramic camera, looking in the drive direction on the rover's 680th Martian day, or sol (Dec. 1, 2005). The outcrop of apparently layered bedrock has the informal name 'Algonquin.'

  1. Raves, psychosis, and spirit healing.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2010-07-01

    This paper reflects the intersection of three cultures: the rave (all night dance party and use of the drug, Ecstasy) culture; the ward culture of an inpatient psychiatric program for First Episode Psychosis; the spirit healing culture of the Philippines. All three intersected in Toronto, Canada in the mid 1990s, as illustrated by the clinical case of a 19-year-old university student who was hospitalized with symptoms of drug-induced psychosis. Her initial treatment was not successful and presented dilemmas for the treating staff. Transfer to a second psychiatric facility that permitted attendance at a traditional Filipino healing ceremony resulted in a cure, with no recurrence 10 years later. According to James Dow's 1986 formulation, the components of the key spiritual healing session paralleled the very elements the young woman had sought by participating in raves, an activity that was problematic because it led to family displeasure. Whereas attendance at a rave triggered illness, the healing session, sanctioned by her family and taking place in their midst, resulted in healing.

  2. The effects of urgency to reach agreement on the process and outcome of multi-party natural resource negotiations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.; Burkardt, N.; Gillette, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied seven hydropower license consultations to examine the role of a sense of urgency to reach agreement. Hydropower licensing consultations were studied because the statutory requirement for consultation encourages negotiation, all such consultations are similar, and a negotiated settlement is not a foregone result. Cases selected for analysis met screening criteria. Structured interviews were conducted with participants after the negotiations had been concluded. Respondent recollections were checked against the documentary record. A sense of urgency to reach agreement was a significant factor in the completion of these negotiations; where there was no shared sense of urgency, purposeful delay adversely affected the negotiations. Although a sense of urgency was experienced by at least one party in each case, only a shared sense of urgency at the end of the process proved significant. Delay did not prevent ultimate agreement but a shared sense of urgency brought speedier agreement and greater satisfaction with the negotiation.

  3. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  4. Wave of a Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This plot tells astronomers that a fifth planet is in orbit around the star 55 Cancri, making the star the record-holder for hosting the most known exoplanets.

    As planets circle around their stars, they cause the stars to wobble back and forth in a regular pattern. By looking for this motion in a star, scientists can find planets that can't be seen with telescopes.

    The wobble caused by the fifth planet discovered around 55 Cancri is represented here by the sinuous line in blue. The actual data points are yellow and error bars are the lines above and below the yellow dots. The cycle of the wobble indicates that the planet circles around its star about every 260 days. The amplitude of the wobble indicates that the planet is a giant at least 45 times the mass of Earth.

    The wobbles caused by the other four planets has been removed from this plot, to reveal that caused by the fifth. The departure from a perfect sine wave suggests the planet's orbit is not perfectly circular.

    Because 55 Cancri has multiple planets, the star had to be observed for a long time before astronomers could find and confirm its fifth planet. These data were collected over a period of 18 years using both the Lick Observatory near San Jose, Calif., and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

  5. Influence of Parental Expressed Emotions on Children's Emotional Eating via Children's Negative Urgency.

    PubMed

    Munsch, Simone; Dremmel, Daniela; Kurz, Susanne; De Albuquerque, Jiske; Meyer, Andrea H; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether parental expressed emotion (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) is related to children's emotional eating and whether this relationship is mediated by children's negative urgency. One hundred children, aged 8 to 13 years, either healthy or have binge-eating disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, completed the questionnaires, along with their parents. Parental criticism and, to a lesser extent, parental emotional overinvolvement were both positively related to children's emotional eating, and this relationship was mediated by children's negative urgency. Further exploratory analyses revealed that the mediating role of children's negative urgency in the relationship between parental criticism and children's emotional eating was pronounced in the clinical group of children with binge-eating disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but almost absent in the healthy control group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  7. Calendars in the Gregorian Spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Heiner; Richter, Peter H.

    The Gregorian Calendar is an adaptable cyclic, lunisolar time-reckoning system [1]. It assumes the following equations: atrop &=& 1461/4 - s/(100 × P1) quad days msyn &=& atrop / (235/19 + e/(3000 × P2))quad day s for the average tropical year atrop and the average synodical month msyn, respectively [2]. s is the number of leap years reverting to common years at the secular boundaries of the period P1, measured in centuries. e is the number of (net) adjustments of the epact at the secular boundaries of the period P2, measured in centuries. The particular form of this rational approximation characterizes the Gregorian spirit; the standard integers s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -43, P2 = 100 are open for adjustment. Truncated continued fraction expansions should be used to successively improve the accuracy. For atrop = 365.2422 d and msyn = 29.530588 d, we find that s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -19, P2 = 44 is slightly better than the standard values. Its fundamental equation 2,508,000 atrop = 31,019,639 msyn = 916,028,190 d defines a period about half as long as for the usual Gregorian calendar, 5,700,000 atrop = 70,499,183 msyn = 2,081,882,250 d [3]. [1] Clavius, Chr., Rom. Cal. Explic., Rome 1603, (= Op. math., tom. V, Mainz 1612). [2] Lichtenberg, H., The Gregorian Calendar: An Adaptable Cyclic Lunisolar Time-reckoning System for the Millennia, Hum. Welf. Stud., vol. 2 (1999), pp. 137 - 148. [3] Explan. Suppl. Astron. Almanac, ed. P. K. Seidelmann, Mill Valley, Ca.,

  8. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  9. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  10. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  12. Planet Formation - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2005-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System, exoplanets &round normal stars and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path.

  13. Detecting Extrasolar Planets Directly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Neuhäuser, R.; Huélamo, N.; Ott, T.; Brandner, W.; Alves, J.; Comerón, F.; Eckart, A.; Hatzes, A.

    Up to now, all extrasolar planets have been found by means of indirect methods. Direct detection of planets orbiting even the nearest stars seems at first glance to be impossible with present day equipment, because of the enormous difference in brightness between the star and the planet, and the small angular separation between them. However, young planets which are still in the contraction phase of evolution are comparatively bright in the infrared, and since many of the extrasolar planets detected have excentric orbits, where they are most of the time at a relatively large distance from the stars, the prospect of detecting young planets directly is much better. In fact, it is principle be possible to detect an extrasolar giant planet, if the planet is younger than 100 millon years, and if the distance is less than 100 pc. Three years ago we thus have embarked on a survey to observe more than one-hundred young, nearby stars in the near infrared. In this talk, we will review the status of the survey. In order to find out whether these stars have additionally a planet at a small distance from the star, we also carried out sensitive radial velocity observation of a subsample using an iodine-cell and the Echelle spectrograph of the Alfred-Jensch Telescope in Tautenburg.

  14. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  15. Predictors of urgency improvement after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Won Sok; Kim, Joon Chul; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the change in urinary urgency and predictors of urgency improvement after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who were treated with HoLEP for BPH and had preoperative urgency measuring ≥3 on a 5-point urinary sensation scale. Those with prostate cancer diagnosed prior to or after HoLEP, a history of other prostatic and/or urethral surgery, moderate to severe postoperative complications, and neurogenic causes were excluded. Patients who had improved urgency with antimuscarinic medication after HoLEP were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups based on urgency symptoms 3 months after HoLEP: improved and unimproved urgency. Improved urgency was defined as a reduction of 2 or more points on the 5-point urinary sensation scale. Preoperative clinical and urodynamic factors as well as perioperative factors were compared between groups. Results In total, 139 patients were included in this study. Voiding parameters in all patients improved significantly after HoLEP. Seventy-one patients (51.1%) had improved urgency, while 68 (48.9%) did not show any improvement. A history of acute urinary retention (AUR) and postvoid residual were associated with postoperative urgency improvement in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, a history of AUR was an independent factor affecting urgency improvement. Conclusions A preoperative history of AUR could influence the change in urgency after HoLEP surgery in patients with BPH. PMID:27847917

  16. [Contraindications of spirit (shen) in acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-Han; Yan, Ji-Lan; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zu, Na

    2014-07-01

    ABSTRACT The taboos of man-spirit (RenShen) and bottom-spirit (KaoShen) are two kinds of time-related contraindications that are more commonly seen in the literature of acupuncture and moxibustion. The meaning of man-spirit is often extended to qi-blood or mind, or else directly equals to heaven-spirit (TianShen). It is highly possible that the bottom-spirit is subordinate to man-spirit, and both Taoist philosophy and the SanCai theory declare the importance of bottom in human body. The violation of contraindications could lead to diseases in the neighborhood where man-spirit travels. However, the results are generally recorded as ulcer, lingering disease and death in most medical texts. From Ming dynasty, more and more doctors have expressed disapproval of man-spirit and bottom-spirit.

  17. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could

  18. Digital Elevation Map of Spirit's Trek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This digital elevation map, produced from satellite data overlain on an image taken by the Mars Orbital Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, shows changes in elevation along the trek of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 328th martian day, or sol (Dec. 4, 2004). To that point, Spirit had driven a total of 3.89 kilometers (2.42 miles).

    The blue area represents the basaltic plains on the floor of Gusev Crater, about 20 meters (66 feet) below the rover's present location. Spirit crossed those plains for several months after landing to the west, off the left edge of this image. The greenish-blue area is the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills,' which Spirit reached on sol 156 (June 11, 2004). Since then, Spirit has been gradually ascending the slopes of the 'West Spur' in an east-northeasterly direction. Southeast of the rover's current position is a brighter green area that represents an abrupt increase in slope where the 'West Spur' meets the steeper flanks of the 'Columbia Hills.' The yellow and red areas represent the highest slopes and peaks. A steep valley east of the rover's location appears, from orbiter images, to have layered outcrops. Scientists are directing the rover to a ridge overlooking the valley to get a better look at what lies ahead.

  19. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009).

    On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image.

    In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  20. The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

    2009-03-01

    A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant.

  1. Emotion-Based Dispositions to Rash Action: Positive and Negative Urgency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Under heightened emotional states, individuals are more inclined to engage in ill-considered or rash actions than at other times. The authors present evidence for the existence of 2 related traits called positive and negative urgency. The traits refer to individual differences in the disposition to engage in rash action when experiencing extreme…

  2. Positive urgency and emotional reactivity: Evidence for altered responding to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Sanchez, Amy H; Tharp, Jordan A; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi

    2017-04-01

    Positive urgency, defined as a tendency to become impulsive during positive affective states, has gained support as a form of impulsivity that is particularly important for understanding psychopathology. Despite this, little is known about the emotional mechanisms and correlates of this form of impulsivity. We hypothesized that positive urgency would be related to greater emotional reactivity in response to a positive film clip. Seventy-five undergraduates watched a positive film clip, and a multimodal assessment of emotion was conducted, including subjective emotional experience, physiological activation (i.e., heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, skin conductance), and facial emotional behavior (i.e., objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Positive urgency was not significantly related to greater positive emotional reactivity but rather a more complex array of emotions expressed in facial behavior, as indexed by similar levels of positive yet greater levels of negative behavior. These findings show that positive urgency may be linked to altered emotionality, but does not appear related to heightened positive emotional reactivity. Potential implications for functional outcomes are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Name That Planet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

  4. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  5. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  6. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  7. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  8. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  9. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the horizon, the

  10. Verbal collision avoidance messages during simulated driving: perceived urgency, alerting effectiveness and annoyance.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carryl L

    2011-04-01

    Matching the perceived urgency of an alert with the relative hazard level of the situation is critical for effective alarm response. Two experiments describe the impact of acoustic and semantic parameters on ratings of perceived urgency, annoyance and alerting effectiveness and on alarm response speed. Within a simulated driving context, participants rated and responded to collision avoidance system (CAS) messages spoken by a female or male voice (experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Results indicated greater perceived urgency and faster alarm response times as intensity increased from -2 dB signal to noise (S/N) ratio to +10 dB S/N, although annoyance ratings increased as well. CAS semantic content interacted with alarm intensity, indicating that at lower intensity levels participants paid more attention to the semantic content. Results indicate that both acoustic and semantic parameters independently and interactively impact CAS alert perceptions in divided attention conditions and this work can inform auditory alarm design for effective hazard matching. Matching the perceived urgency of an alert with the relative hazard level of the situation is critical for effective alarm response. Here, both acoustic and semantic parameters independently and interactively impacted CAS alert perceptions in divided attention conditions. This work can inform auditory alarm design for effective hazard matching. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Results indicate that both acoustic parameters and semantic content can be used to design collision warnings with a range of urgency levels. Further, these results indicate that verbal warnings tailored to a specific hazard situation may improve hazard-matching capabilities without substantial trade-offs in perceived annoyance.

  11. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This stereo, 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    The view combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    Spirit took the first of the images that are combined into this view during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the

  12. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  13. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  14. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  15. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  16. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  17. 27 CFR 19.487 - Kind of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designate as “Alcohol” spirits distilled at more than 160 proof, which lack the taste, aroma, and other... produced, those distilled spirits that are distilled at less than 190 proof which lack the taste,...

  18. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  19. From Disks to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    This pedagogical chapter covers the theory of planet formation, with an emphasis on the physical processes relevant to current research. After summarizing empirical constraints from astronomical and geophysical data, we describe the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks. We consider the growth of planetesimals and of larger solid protoplanets, followed by the accretion of planetary atmospheres, including the core accretion instability. We also examine the possibility that gas disks fragment directly into giant planets and/or brown dwarfs. We defer a detailed description of planet migration and dynamical evolution to other work, such as the complementary chapter in this series by Morbidelli.

  20. Challenges in planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are the following: (1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; (2) the growth of the first planetesimals; (3) orbital migration driven by interactions between protoplanets and gaseous disk; (4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and (5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  1. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  2. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  3. Planets under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2009-04-01

    Deep inside the planet Jupiter, diamonds hail down from hydrocarbon clouds as intense atmospheric pressures break methane into its atomic components. Further in - but still only 15% of the way to the planet's centre - the pressure reaches a million times that of the Earth's atmosphere. This is enough to transform hydrogen from the transparent, insulating gas we know at our planet's surface into a metallic fluid that sustains Jupiter's huge magnetic field. Even diamond is not forever: at pressures of 8-10 million atmospheres it is transformed into an opaque, metallic form of carbon, rather than the familiar transparent crystal.

  4. Our Changing Planet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Our Changing Planet 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Budget Erin Wuchte Office of Management and Budget Margaret R. McCalla Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology OUR CHANGING PLANET THE FISCAL...you a copy of Our Changing Planet : The FY 2003 U.S. Global Change Research Program and Climate Change Research Initiative. The report describes the

  5. Loftin Collection (Spirit of St. Louis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Ryan NYP 'Spirit of St. Louis' equipped with 220 HP Wright Whirlwind engine. Charles A. Lindbergh flew this aircraft non-stop from New York to Paris in the period May 20-21 1927. Photographed in San Diego, California. This photo was used in a report, NACA TN, written by Donald Hall who designed the aircraft.

  6. The Teacher as an Archetype of Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Many images of the teacher in the current literature on teaching and teacher reflectivity can be seen as aspects of the Jungian image of the teacher as an archetype of spirit. These images--the teacher as philosopher, prophet, Zen master, and priest--correspond to what I call dialogical, civic, ontological and incarnational spirituality,…

  7. 27 CFR 17.168 - Recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovered spirits. 17.168 Section 17.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... separate alcohol is subject to the registration requirements of 26 U.S.C. 5179 and subpart C of part 29...

  8. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  9. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  10. 27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined by weighing it and then dividing its weight by the weight per gallon of the formula concerned, as... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.42... spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and...

  11. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to…

  12. George Peabody and the Spirit of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One of a collection of articles on philanthropist George Peabody tells the story of two bronze doors made by sculptor Louis Amateis for the U.S. Capitol. The doors include a panel entitled Apotheosis of America that captures Amateis' vision of the spirit of America and includes the figures of George Peabody and other historic personages. (SM)

  13. Spirit on 'Husband Hill,' with 2004 Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. On Nov. 2, 2005, shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image centered on the rover's location in the 'Columbia Hills.' The location of Spirit on that date is circled on the image on the right. On the left, for comparison, is an image from Jan. 10, 2004, when few dreamed that the Spirit would ever reach the hills from its landing site about three kilometers (two miles) away.

    The newer image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the 2005 image. The scale bar is 50 meters (164 feet).

  14. View Northward from Spirit's Winter Roost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    One part of the research program that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is conducting while sitting at a favorable location for wintertime solar energy is the most detailed panorama yet taken on the surface of Mars. This view is a partial preliminary product from the continuing work on the full image, which will be called the 'McMurdo Panorama.'

    Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) began taking exposures for the McMurdo Panorama on the rover's 814th Martian day (April 18, 2006). The rover has accumulated more than 900 exposures for this panorama so far, through all of the Pancam mineralogy filters and using little or no image compression. Even with a tilt toward the winter sun, the amount of energy available daily is small, so the job will still take one to two more months to complete.

    This portion of the work in progress looks toward the north. 'Husband Hill,' which Spirit was climbing a year ago, is on the horizon near the center. 'Home Plate' is a between that hill and the rover's current position. Wheel tracks imprinted when Spirit drove south from Home Plate can be seen crossing the middle distance of the image from the center to the right.

    This is an approximate true-color rendering combining exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters. The filters used are centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  15. Measuring School Spirit: A National Teaching Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching of Psychology, 2004

    2004-01-01

    We developed a novel variation on classroom data collection by having students conduct a national research project. Students at 20 different colleges and universities measured "school spirit" at their institutions according to several operational criteria (school apparel wearing, car stickers, alumni donation rate, ratings by a major sports…

  16. "Just some spirits": the erosion of spirit possession and the rise of "tension" in South India.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Murphy

    2005-01-01

    Based on research among possessed and mentally ill patients and an examination of depictions of mental health issues in the popular media in the state of Kerala, India, this article examines apparent changes in the incidence and form of spirit possession and the proliferation of psychological idioms such as "tension" and "depression." These changes involve a decline in the incidence of possession as well as the homogenization of the identities of spirits: spirits that were described as having names and personalities a few decades earlier are now presented as more anonymous. The homogenization of spirits and the use of psychological idioms are interpreted as signaling an erosion of context and the ascendance of universal categories, which, according to some theorists, is a characteristic of "modernity." It will also be shown that at the same time the "modern" can appear as simply another context, as when the idiom of possession permeates a psychological advice column in the print media.

  17. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends.

    This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from

  18. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  19. 76 FR 19908 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION... published a final rule revising its distilled spirits plant regulations in the Federal Register of February... distilled spirits plant regulations as contained in 27 CFR part 19. TTB published this final rule as...

  20. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  1. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Taxes § 19.669 Distilled spirits taxes. (a) Proprietors may withdraw distilled spirits free of tax...

  2. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  3. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  4. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  5. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  6. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  7. 27 CFR 19.355 - Labels describing the spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labels describing the spirits. 19.355 Section 19.355 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits...

  8. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules...

  9. 27 CFR 19.355 - Labels describing the spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labels describing the spirits. 19.355 Section 19.355 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits...

  10. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules...

  11. 27 CFR 19.355 - Labels describing the spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labels describing the spirits. 19.355 Section 19.355 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits...

  12. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules...

  13. 27 CFR 19.355 - Labels describing the spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labels describing the spirits. 19.355 Section 19.355 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits...

  14. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules...

  15. "My spirit in my heart": identity experiences and challenges among American Indian two-spirit women.

    PubMed

    Walters, Karina L; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Simoni, Jane M; Ronquillo, Theresa; Bhuyan, Rupaleem

    2006-01-01

    Many Native women embrace the term two-spirit to capture their sexuality and gender expression. By analyzing the narratives of five two-spirit women who are Native activists, we explored contemporary understandings of the concept and what it means for Native communities. The incorporation of the identity within indigenous worldviews, its manifestation in terms of (be)coming out, and the triple stressors of heterosexism, racism, and sexism emerged as key themes.

  16. Spirit View of 'Wishstone' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit decided to examine this rock, dubbed 'Wishstone,' based on data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. That instrument's data indicated that the mineralogy of the rocks in this area is different from that of rocks encountered either on the plains of Gusev Crater or in bedrock outcrops examined so far in the 'Columbia Hills' inside the crater. Spirit used its rock abrasion tool first to scour a patch of the rock's surface with a wire brush, then to grind away the surface to reveal interior material. Placement of the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer on the exposed circle of interior material revealed that the rock is rich in phosphorus. Spirit used its panoramic camera during the rover's 342nd martian day, or sol, (Dec. 18, 2004) to take the three individual images that were combined to produce this false-color view emphasizing the freshly ground dust around the hole cut by the rock abrasion tool.

    Unusually Rich in Phosophorus The graph in figure 1 compares the elemental makeup of a rock dubbed 'Wishstone' with the average composition of rocks that Spirit examined on the western spur of the 'Columbia Hills.' Wishstone lies farther into the hills than that spur. It is richer in phosphorus than any other Mars rock ever examined. Scientists plan to examine other rocks near Wishstone to help explain the significance of the high phosphorus concentration. The vertical scale is the ratio of the concentration of an element in the hills rocks to the concentration of the same element in a typical volcanic rock from the plains that Spirit crossed to reach the hills.

  17. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  18. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  19. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  20. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  1. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  2. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  3. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  4. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  5. The planet Mercury (1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  6. 27 CFR 19.322 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.322 Section 19.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Distilled Spirits Receipt and Storage of Spirits and Wines § 19.322 Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit of spirits into storage account. A proprietor may receive bulk spirits into...

  7. 27 CFR 19.322 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.322 Section 19.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Distilled Spirits Receipt and Storage of Spirits and Wines § 19.322 Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit of spirits into storage account. A proprietor may receive bulk spirits into...

  8. 27 CFR 19.322 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.322 Section 19.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Distilled Spirits Receipt and Storage of Spirits and Wines § 19.322 Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit of spirits into storage account. A proprietor may receive bulk spirits into...

  9. 27 CFR 19.322 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.322 Section 19.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Distilled Spirits Receipt and Storage of Spirits and Wines § 19.322 Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit of spirits into storage account. A proprietor may receive bulk spirits into...

  10. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  11. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  12. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  13. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  14. Urodynamic studies in acupuncture for women with frequency, urgency and dysuria.

    PubMed

    Chang, P L

    1988-09-01

    Urodynamic measurements were performed before and after acupuncture at 2 different points in 52 women who presented with frequency, urgency and dysuria. Measurements included cystometry, anal sphincter electromyography, urethral pressure profilometry and uroflowmetry. The results of this study showed a significant increase in maximum cystometric capacity and a decrease in peak urinary flow rate after acupuncture at the Sp. 6 point, which has traditionally been used for the treatment of urinary problems. During acupuncture at the Sp. 6 point there were periodic increases in intraurethral pressure at the distal urethra, which were measured with a microtip transducer. Acupuncture-induced detrusor inhibition and external sphincteric contractions were demonstrated. Clinically symptomatic improvement was noted in 22 of the 26 patients who were treated by acupuncture at the Sp. 6 point. Our studies indicated that acupuncture could be used as a simple and effective method to treat female patients with frequency, urgency and dysuria.

  15. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is

  16. [Users' perceptions of urgency and reasons for using the mobile pre-hospital care service].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Kelly Piacheski; Pelegrini, Alisia Helena Weis; Marques, Giselda Quintana; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2012-06-01

    The Mobile Emergency Care Services handle urgent situations of various types, and demand for this service occurs according to the perception of the user regarding what is urgent. The aim of the study was to analyze the perceptions of urgency by users who demand care from a Mobile Emergency Care Service in Porto Alegre and to identify the reasons for these requests. In this explomratory-descriptive study, with qualitative approach, data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted by telephone, during theperiod from February to April 2009. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the information. Users consider urgent life-threatening conditions, which require a quick response, and visible situations, such as bleeding, chronic diseases, and difficulties in transportation. Users themselves feel motivated to call the service due to it being rapid and free, and for transportation. The perceptions of users regarding urgency were diverse, sometimes consistent with the biomedical perspective of health providers and sometimes with their own social context.

  17. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  18. Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

  19. Delirium following fesoterodine treatment for urgency incontinence in an 89-year old man

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Jeannie Medeiros; Bisset, Rania; Nguyen, Patrick Viet-Quoc

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of an 89-year-old man who developed delirium following the introduction of fesoterodine to treat his urgency incontinence. The patient started experiencing visual hallucinations approximately five days after starting fesoterodine 4 mg once daily. Delirium resolved after fesoterodine was stopped. Despite the apparent safe cognitive profile due to its pharmacodynamic properties, fesoterodine should be used with caution in the elderly, frail population. PMID:28255419

  20. Emotion-based Dispositions to Rash Action: Positive and Negative Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Under heightened emotional states, individuals are more inclined to engage in ill-considered or rash actions than at other times. The authors present evidence for the existence of two related traits called positive and negative urgency. The traits refer to individual differences in the disposition to engage in rash action when experiencing extreme positive and negative affect, respectively. The authors provide evidence that these traits are distinct from other dispositions toward rash action, and that they play distinct roles in predicting problem levels of involvement in behaviors such as alcohol consumption, binge eating, drug use, and risky sexual behavior. The authors identify facilitative conditions for the emergence of the urgency traits from neuroscience. Certain gene polymorphisms are associated with low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine; that pattern of neurotransmitter activity in a brain system linking the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala appears to facilitate development of positive and negative urgency. The authors discuss the implications of this theory. PMID:18954158

  1. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  2. Reinflating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  3. Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On Feb. 19, 2006, the 758th Martian day of exploration of the red planet by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the rover acquired this panoramic view of the interior of 'Home Plate,' a circular topographic feature amid the 'Columbia Hills.' This view, called the 'Paige' panorama, is from the top of Home Plate. It shows layered rocks exposed at the edge as well as dark rocks exhibiting both smooth and sponge-like 'scoriaceous' textures. To the east from this vantage point, 'McCool Hill' looms on the horizon. At the base of McCool Hill is a reddish outcrop called 'Oberth,' which Spirit may explore during the rapidly approaching Martian winter. 'Von Braun' and 'Goddard' hills are partially visible beyond the opposite rim of Home Plate.

    The limited spatial coverage of this panorama is the result of steadily decreasing power available to the rover for science activities as the Martian winter arrives and the sun traces a lower path across the sky. The rover team anticipates that the north-facing slopes of McCool Hill should sufficiently tilt the rover's solar panels toward the sun to allow Spirit to survive the winter.

    The view covers about 230 degrees of terrain around the rover. Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took 72 separate images of this scene with four different Pancam filters. This is a false-color rendering using the Pancam's 75-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters, enhanced to show many subtle color differences in rocks, soils, and hills in the scene. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  4. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the

  5. A Flyby Tour of Spirit's Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Telemetry sent down to Earth from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been reconstructed to create a reenactment of the rover's final 30 seconds before landing at Gusev Crater, Mars. This image is a still from that movie. Just seconds before the rover touched down and its airbags were inflated, a gust of wind threatened to significantly increase the rover's horizontal speed. But the firing of a lateral rocket, called the Tranverse Impulse Rocket System (blue), kept the rover on course, orienting the main retrorockets (white) to the their correct upright position. Subsequent igniting of these rockets reduced the rover's speed to near zero, 23 feet (7 meters) above the martian surface. The colored bars to the right indicate Spirit's north, east and downward velocities. The telemetry was acquired through the Mars Global Surveyor.

  6. View from Spirit's Overwintering Position (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has this view northward from the position at the north edge of the 'Home Plate' plateau where the rover will spend its third Martian winter.

    Husband Hill is on the horizon. The dark area in the middle distance is 'El Dorado' sand dune field.

    Spirit used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image during the rover's 1,448th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 29, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  7. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures.

  9. Dust on Mars: Before and After (Spirit)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since landing on Mars a year ago, NASA's pair of six-wheeled geologists have been constantly exposed to martian winds and dust. Both rovers have been coated by some dust falling out of the atmosphere during that time, with estimates of the dust thickness ranging from 1 to 10 micrometers, or between 1/100th and 1/10th the width of a single human hair. Of the two, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is definitely the more dust-laden. As a result, Spirit has gradually experienced a decline in power as the thin layer of dust has accumulated on the solar panels, blocking some of the sunlight that is converted to electricity. Spirit took the left image on martian day, or sol, 9 (Jan. 11, 2004), and took the right image nearly a year later, on sol 357 (Jan. 3, 2005), using the panoramic camera. The images show the camera's calibration target, which is used as a reference point for calibrating the colors on Mars. In the later image a semi-transparent layer of reddish martian dust coats the surfaces. The panoramic camera team's analysis indicates that the layer of dust on Spirit's calibration target is about 70 percent thicker than that on Opportunity's. Both images represent the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating true color views of what these scenes would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. They were each generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye Pancam images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths. The diameter of the outer ring of the calibration target is 8 centimeters (3.15 inches).

  10. Spirit Says Goodbye to 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For the past several weeks, Spirit has been examining spectacular layered rocks exposed at 'Home Plate.' The rover has been driving around the northern and eastern edges of Home Plate, on the way to 'McCool Hill.' Before departing, Spirit took this image showing some of the most complex layering patterns seen so far at this location.

    The layered nature of these rocks presents new questions for the rover team. In addition to their chemical properties, which scientists can study using Spirit's spectrometers, these rocks record a detailed history of the physical properties that formed them. In the center of this image, one group of layers slopes downward to the right. The layers above and below this group are more nearly horizontal. Where layers of different orientations intersect, other layers are truncated. This indicates that there were complex patterns of alternating erosion and deposition occurring when these layers were being deposited. Similar patterns can be found in some sedimentary rocks on Earth. Physical relationships among the various layers exposed at Home Plate are crucial evidence in understanding how these Martian rocks formed. Scientists suspect that the rocks at Home Plate were formed in the aftermath of a volcanic explosion or impact event, and they are investigating the possibility that wind may also have played a role in redistributing materials after such an event.

    Images like this one from panoramic camera (Pancam), which shows larger-scale layering, as well as those from the microscopic imager, which reveal the individual sand-sized grains that make up these rocks, are essential to understanding the geologic history of Home Plate.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters during Spirit's 774th Martian day (March 8, 2006).

  11. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering.

  12. Primordial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Gibson, Carl H.

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion at the time of plasma neutralization 380,000 years after the big bang. Most have been frozen and invisible, but are now manifesting themselves in numerous ways as sensitive modern space telescopes become operational. Their key detection signature is their thermal emission spectrum, pegged at the 13.8 degrees Kelvin triple point of hydrogen, the baryonic dark matter (Staplefeldt et al. 1999).

  13. Interesting Features in Spirit's Uphill View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Planetary scientists got excited when they saw this imagery coming in from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit because they could see hints of rock strata and other interesting geologic features ahead. In the middle of this image, from upper left to the lower right, lies a trough that resembles a small ravine. To the right of that and a little way up the hill, beyond a rock-strewn surface, sits a small rounded ridge. Fine horizontal streaks, just perceptible in this image, suggest possible layering in the bedrock. Above that are rock features that appear to drape across the slopes. Scientists are discussing whether to take the rover closer or select other interesting targets for further study. This view looks eastward from the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills,' where Spirit has been conducting scientific investigations. It is a mosaic of several frames Spirit took with its panoramic camera on the rover's 229th martian day, or sol, (Aug. 24, 2004). The field of view is 48 degrees from left to right. The image is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  14. 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate' (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this high-resolution view of intricately layered exposures of rock while parked on the northwest edge of the bright, semi-circular feature known as 'Home Plate.' The rover was perched at a 27-degree upward tilt while creating the panorama, resulting in the 'U' shape of the mosaic. In reality, the features along the 1-meter to 2-meter (1-foot to 6.5-foot) vertical exposure of the rim of Home Plate in this vicinity are relatively level. Rocks near the rover in this view, known as the 'Gibson' panorama, include 'Barnhill,' 'Rogan,' and 'Mackey.'

    Spirit acquired 246 separate images of this scene using 6 different filters on the panoramic camera (Pancam) during the rover's Martian days, or sols, 748 through 751 (Feb. 9 through Feb. 12, 2006). The field of view covers 160 degrees of terrain around the rover. This image is an approximately true-color rendering using Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  15. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009).

    The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right.

    The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate.

    In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009).

    By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Spirit's Neighborhood in 'Columbia Hills,' in Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. On Nov. 2, 2005, shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    The tinted portion of this image gives a stereo, three-dimensional view when observed through 3-D glasses with a red left eye and blue right eye. The tallest peak is 'Husband Hill,' which was climbed by Spirit during much of 2005. The region south (toward the bottom) of these images shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches in these images are accumulations of windblown sand and granules. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

  18. Chasing spirits: Clarifying the spirit child phenomenon and infanticide in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Denham, Aaron R; Adongo, Philip B; Freydberg, Nicole; Hodgson, Abraham

    2010-08-01

    In the Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana, researchers and health interventionists describe a phenomenon wherein some children are subject to infanticide because they are regarded as spirit children sent "from the bush" to cause misfortune and destroy the family. This phenomenon remains largely misunderstood and misrepresented. Based upon both ethnographic research and verbal autopsy data from 2006 to 2007 and 2009, this paper clarifies the characteristics of and circumstances surrounding the spirit child phenomenon, the role it plays within community understandings of childhood illness and mortality, and the variations present within the discourse and practice. The spirit child is a complex explanatory model closely connected to the Nankani sociocultural world and understandings surrounding causes of illness, disability, and misfortune, and is best understood within the context of the larger economic, social, and health concerns within the region. The identification of a child as a spirit child does not necessarily indicate that the child was a victim of infanticide. The spirit child best describes why a child died, rather than how the death occurred. In addition to shaping maternal and child health interventions, these findings have implications for verbal autopsy assessments and the accuracy of demographic data concerning the causes of child mortality.

  19. Recipes for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  20. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  1. Negative Urgency Mediates the Relationship between Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex Activation to Negative Emotional Stimuli and General Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Eiler, William J.; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Karyadi, Kenny A.; Kareken, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The tendency toward impulsive behavior under emotional duress (negative and positive urgency) predicts a wide range of maladaptive risk-taking and behavioral disorders. However, it remains unclear how urgency relates to limbic system activity as induced from emotional provocation. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between brain responses to visual emotional stimuli and urgency traits. Twenty-seven social drinkers (mean age = 25.2, 14 males) viewed negative (Neg), neutral (Neu), and positive (Pos) images during 6 fMRI scans. Brain activation was extracted from a priori limbic regions previously identified in studies of emotional provocation. The right posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left amygdala were activated in the [Neg>Neu] contrast, whereas the left posterior OFC was activated in the [Pos>Neu] contrast. Negative urgency was related to the right lateral OFC (r = 0.43, P = 0.03) and the left amygdala (r = 0.39, P = 0.04) [Neg>Neu] activation. Negative urgency also mediated the relationship between [Neg>Neu] activation and general risk-taking (regression weights = 3.42 for right OFC and 2.75 for the left amygdala). Emotional cue-induced activation in right lateral OFC and left amygdala might relate to emotion-based risk-taking through negative urgency. PMID:24904065

  2. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  3. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  4. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  5. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  7. Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M

    2009-07-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women.

  8. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  9. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  10. Twist planet drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

  11. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  12. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  13. Mercury: the forgotten planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1997-11-01

    Mercury is the neglected child of the planetary system. Only one spacecraft has every ventured near it, whereas scores have probed the moon, Venus and Mars. The scant facts available show this strange, blazingly hot planet is full of surprises: its anomalous density and magnetic field suggest that Mercury may be where to seek clues to the origin of the solar system.

  14. Making and Differentiating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The rocky planets formed by progressive aggregation of dust to make planetesimals which joined to make large objects called planetary embryos that finally accumulated into planets, one of which we live on. This chaotic process is complicated further by chemical changes with distance from the Sun, including differences in oxidation conditions and water concentration. Once the inner planets began to form, metallic iron sank to form cores, reacting with the rocky portions in the process. David C. Rubie (University of Bayreuth, Germany) and colleagues in Germany, France, and the United States put all this planetary action into an impressively thorough computer model of planet formation and differentiation. They show that the observed compositions of the Earth can be matched by simulations that include the Grand Tack (Jupiter and Saturn migrate inwards towards the Sun and then back out), and chemical gradients in the Solar System, with more reducing conditions near the Sun, more oxidizing farther from the Sun, and oxidizing and hydrated conditions even farther from the Sun. The study identifies other important variables, such as the extent to which metallic iron chemically equilibrated with the silicate making up the Earth's mantle, the pressure at which it happened, and the likelihood that Earth accreted heterogeneously.

  15. Accumulation of the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to increase understanding of planet forming processes that are likely to have occurred in the Solar System during its early evolution. This was accomplished by development of computer models that are compatible with the present state of the Solar System as well as with observational and theoretical data attained from astrophysical observations and theory.

  16. NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand...

  17. Finding Planets around other stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Just as the Earth revolves around the sun, our closest star, other planets might orbit the stars you see in the night sky. Think of all the planets in the universe that may be just the right distan...

  18. The female urinary microbiome: a comparison of women with and without urgency urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Meghan M; Hilt, Evann E; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Zilliox, Michael J; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J

    2014-07-08

    Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. Importance: New evidence indicates that the human urinary tract contains microbial communities; however, the role of these communities in urinary health remains to be elucidated. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a highly prevalent yet poorly understood urinary condition characterized by

  19. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  20. Spirit Self-Portrait, Sols 329-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take the images combined into this mosaic view of the rover. The downward-looking view omits the mast on which the camera is mounted. It shows dust accumulation on Spirit's solar panels. The images were taken through the camera's 600-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters during Spirit's 329th and 330th martian days, or sols (Dec. 7 and 8, 2004).

  1. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  2. Polarimetry of gas planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Franco

    The quest for new worlds was not only an adventure at the times of Columbus. Also nowadays mankind searches for new, undiscovered territories. But today they lie no longer only on our Earth, but also well outside the solar system. There, new planets are sought and found. One of the challenges of modern astrophysics is the direct detection of extra- solar planets. To reach this goal, the largest available telescopes and most sophisticated detection techniques are required. A promising method to "see" and analyse extra-solar planets is based on the fact, that light reflected by a planet can be polarised. For its detection, accurate polarisation measurements are needed. This is one of the methods ESO intends to make use of to find new planets outside the solar system. The Institute of Astronomy of ETH Zürich contributes ZIMPOL to this planet-finder project. ZIMPOL is a very sensitive imaging polarimeter. This thesis is situated within the ESO-planet-finder project. It deals with two problems that are crucial for a successful mission: (1) Instrumental polarisation can seriously hamper the performance of the instrument. It is therefore essential, to keep instrumental polarisation very low. (2) A knowledge of the polarisation properties of our targets would be very helpful. For this reason the polarisation properties of our solar system planets are investigated. Promising candidates for a detection with ZIMPOL are large planets with atmospheres similar to those of our giant gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the first part of the thesis the planet-finder project is presented and the role of ZIMPOL is explained. To obtain the instrumental polarisation, the polarimetric properties of mirrors and other optical components of our planet- finder instrument are analysed. The instrumental polarisation for the wavelength range of 600 to 1000 nm and for all zenith distances is calculated with Mueller matrices. Methods for reducing the instrumental polarisation

  3. Obstetric Sphincter Injury Interacts with Diarrhea and Urgency to Increase the Risk of Fecal Incontinence in Women with IBS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Matthews, Catherine A.; Palsson, Olafur S; Geller, Elizabeth; Turner, Marsha; Parnell, Brent; Crane, Andrea; Jannelli, Mary; Wells, Ellen; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Lin, Feng-Chang; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To confirm that fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI), to identify obstetrical risk factors associated with FI in women with IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), and to determine whether obstetric anal sphincter injuries interact with diarrhea or urgency to explain the occurrence of FI. Methods The study is a supplement to a diary study of bowel symptoms in 164 female patients with IBS. Subjects completed daily bowel symptom diaries for 90 consecutive days and rated each bowel movement (BM) for stool consistency and presence of urgency, pain, and FI. All female participants from the parent study were invited to complete a telephone-administered 33-item bowel symptom and obstetric history questionnaire which included the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Results Out of 164 women in the parent study, 115 (70.1%) completed the interview. Seventy-four (45.1%) reported FI on their diary including 34 (29.6%) who reported at least one episode per month, 112 (97.4%) reported episodes of urgency, and 106 (92.2%) reported episodes of diarrhea. The mean FISI score was 13.9±9.7. Upon multivariable analysis, FI was significantly associated with parity (p=0.007), operative vaginal delivery (p=0.049), obstetrical sphincter lacerations (p=0.007), fecal urgency (p=0.005), diarrhea (p=0.008), and hysterectomy (p=0.004), but was not associated with episiotomy, pelvic organ prolapse, or urinary incontinence. The synergistic interactions of obstetric anal sphincter laceration with urgency (p=0.002) and diarrhea (p=0.004) were significant risk factors for FI. Conclusion Fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for FI, and they interact with obstetric anal sphincter laceration to amplify the risk of FI. PMID:23321658

  4. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  5. [Spirit, pivot and the way for holding pivot in acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2008-04-01

    To probe into the relation between spirit, pivot and the way for holding pivot. Find out the discussion about spirit, pivot and holding pivot in acupuncture from ancient books, including literature, history and philosophy, and analyze, check and compare with the theory of controlling spirit in acupuncture, and find out the internal relations. Controlling spirit is applied to hold pivot, the way for holding pivot includes finding fine evidence of diseases, holding chance for needling, seizing opportunity, using circumstances and considering the coming-and-going of evil, constitution of patients and reinforcing-reducing methods of acupuncture. The way of holding pivot generalizes the main thought of acupuncture treatment.

  6. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  7. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  8. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. A warm and dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow stands out to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  9. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks can be seen to the left and center. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  10. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle

  11. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline.

  12. The Science from Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation shows views from the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Included are views of the takeoff, and descent on to Mars. The science objective of these missions are to determine the water, climate, and geologic history of two sites on Mars where evidence has been preserved for past and persistent liquid water activity that may have supported biotic or pre-biotic processes. There are also shots of the Athena Science Payload with views of the instrumentation. Also presented are graphs showing Mossbauer Spectra of varions martian rocks.

  13. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines or spirits of less than 190° of proof are mingled in a tank, the proprietor must gauge the spirits or...

  14. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines or spirits of less than 190° of proof are mingled in a tank, the proprietor must gauge the spirits or...

  15. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines or spirits of less than 190° of proof are mingled in a tank, the proprietor must gauge the spirits or...

  16. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines or spirits of less than 190° of proof are mingled in a tank, the proprietor must gauge the spirits or...

  17. 27 CFR 19.349 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... of Spirits § 19.349 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof or wines are mingled in a tank, the proprietor shall gauge the spirits or wines in the tank...

  18. Finding the Spirit Within: A Critical Analysis of Film Techniques in "Spirited Away"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Damon

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the New South Wales Board of Studies included Hayao Miyazaki's film "Spirited Away" as the prescribed text for the Higher School Certificate Japanese Extension course. A study of the film in this context requires students to engage with the text in three distinct ways: through language, cultural symbolism and relevance, and…

  19. The Spirit that Strengthens Me: Merging the "Life of the Mind" with "Life in the Spirit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Katherine Grace

    2009-01-01

    Wholeness brings to mind the soul/spirit and, quite naturally, a discussion of what constitutes spirituality. In general, the definition of spirituality is associated with an attitude or way of life that may or may not be connected to Christian, Buddhist, Hindi, Jewish, or Muslim religions. Whether the approach to the topic is religious or…

  20. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  1. How Giant Planets Shape the Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2016-01-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are not ubiquitous. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times and the delivery of volitiles. This work has important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets.

  2. Trojan twin planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Loibnegger, B.; Schwarz, R.

    2017-03-01

    The Trojan asteroids are moving in the vicinity of the stable Lagrange points L_4 and L_5 of the gas giants Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. Their motion can be described and understood with the aid of the restricted three-body problem. As an extension of this problem we investigate how stable motion close to the Lagrange points of two massive bodies can exist. This configuration can be described as the Trojan Twin Problem when we regard the two additional bodies as having a mass significantly smaller than the the two primary bodies: a star in the center (m_1) and an additional Jupiter-like mass (m_2). Using this 4-body problem we have undertaken numerical investigations concerning possible stable "twin orbits". However, these two bodies (m_3 and m_4) in Trojan-like orbits may have quite different masses. We decided to choose 6 different scenaria for this problem: as primary body, m2, we have taken a Jupiter-like planet, a Saturn-like one, and a super-Earth with 10 Earthmasses (m_{Earth}) respectively. As quasi twin planets, we have used different mass ratios namely objects for m3 and m4 from 10m_{Earth} to Moon like ones. We found different stable configurations depending on the involved masses and the initial distances between the twins (always close to the Lagrange point). Although the formation of such a configuration seems to be not very probable we should not exclude that it exists regarding the huge number of planets even in our own galaxy. This model is of special interest when the most massive planet (m_2) is moving on an orbit in the habitable zone around a main sequence star. One can use our results of stable orbits of Trojan Twin Planets (or asteroids) for extrasolar systems having as second primary a Jupiter-like, a Saturn-like or a super-Earth like planet around a star similar to our Sun.

  3. Global gain modulation generates time-dependent urgency during perceptual choice in humans

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Boonstra, Evert; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches. In the brain, this effect is reflected in evidence-independent urgency that pushes decision-related motor preparation signals closer to a fixed threshold. Moreover, we show that global modulation of neural gain, as indexed by task-related fluctuations in pupil diameter, is a plausible biophysical mechanism for the generation of this urgency. These findings establish context-sensitive time-dependency as a critical feature of human decision-making. PMID:27882927

  4. Long-term outcome of acupuncture in women with frequency, urgency and dysuria.

    PubMed

    Chang, P L; Wu, C J; Huang, M H

    1993-01-01

    Urodynamic measurements including cystometry, anal sphincter electromyography, urethral pressure profilometry and uroflowmetry were carried out on 21 female patients before acupuncture and at 1 and 3 years during follow-up. Follow-up ranged from 60 to 72 months (average 66.2 months). There was no significant difference in all urodynamic measurements before acupuncture and at the 1 year or 3 years follow-up. During follow-up, acupuncture at the Sp-6 point was performed in patients who had recurrence of symptoms of frequency, urgency and dysuria. The number of acupuncture treatments ranged from 2 to 8 times, with an average number of 4.8 times. A decrease of acupuncture treatments after 30 months was noted on 8 patients, but it was not statistically significant. We concluded that the long-term outcome of acupuncture at the Sp-6 point for women with frequency, urgency and dysuria was positive, but that the effect was temporary and repeated acupuncture was necessary to maintain beneficial effects.

  5. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  6. [Correlation between spirit-qi acupuncture and lifting-thrusting twirling method for spirit in Huangdi Neijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuge; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei

    2016-03-01

    By analyzing the articles in Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor), combined with the verification of consciousness in vitro in clinic and modern science, it is found Huangdi Neijing has made special requirements of treating spirit for physicians using spirit-qi acupuncture. The physicians consciously use different methods to motivate the spirit of physician and patients, especially patients, to transform it to the physiological effect of patients, which could minimize the psychological factors that make negative influence on treatment; also the psychotherapy is considered as the most important principle of treating spirit. The reinforcing and reducing methods in later generations, mainly lifting-thrusting twirling method, unintentionally lead patients into a basic or strong status of treating spirit or keeping spirit during the process of achieving stimulation and needle sensation. To partially perform the special role of treating spirit for physicians in Huangdi Neijing on patients could cause the chages including patient-based using spirit to move qi. It not only inspires the body's natural resistance to disease and self-healing, but also motivates the self-protection mechanism of keeping spirit.

  7. Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: etiologic associations and the role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2013-05-01

    Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in rash action in response to negative affect) has emerged as a critical personality trait contributing to individual differences in binge eating. However, studies investigating the extent to which genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the effects of negative urgency on binge eating are lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether negative urgency-binge eating associations are simply a result of the well-established role of negative affect in the development/maintenance of binge eating. The current study addresses these gaps by examining phenotypic and etiologic associations between negative urgency, negative affect, and dysregulated eating (i.e., binge eating, emotional eating) in a sample of 222 same-sex female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Negative urgency was significantly associated with both dysregulated eating symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of negative affect. Genetic factors accounted for the majority (62-77%) of this phenotypic association, although a significant proportion of this genetic covariation was due to genetic influences in common with negative affect. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for a relatively smaller (23-38%) proportion of the association, but these nonshared environmental effects were independent of negative affect. Findings suggest that the presence of emotion-based rash action, combined with high levels of negative affect, may significantly increase genetic risk for dysregulated eating.

  8. Spirit Studies Rock Outcrop at 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this false-color image at 11:48 local true solar time on Mars on the rover's 746th Martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2006), after using the rock abrasion tool to brush the surfaces of rock targets informally named 'Stars' (left) and 'Crawfords' (right). Small streaks of dust extend for several centimeters behind the small rock chips and pebbles in the dusty, red soils. Because the rover was looking southwest when this image was taken, the wind streaks indicate that the dominant wind direction was from the southeast.

    The targets Stars and Crawfords are on a rock outcrop located on top of 'Home Plate.' The outcrop is informally named 'James 'Cool Papa' Bell,' after a Negro Leagues Hall of Famer who played for both the Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Kansas City Stars. To some science team members, the two brushed spots resemble the eyes of a face, with rocks below and between the eyes as a nose and layered rocks at the bottom of the image as a mouth.

    The image combines frames taken by Spirit's panoramic camera through the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters. It is enhanced to emphasize color differences among the rocks, soils and brushed areas. The blue circular area on the left, Stars, was brushed on 761 (Feb. 22, 2006). The one on the right, Crawfords, was brushed on sol 763 (Feb. 25, 2006).

  9. Terraforming planet Dune: Climate-vegetation interactions on a sandy planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, F.; Baudena, M.; D'Andrea, F.; Provenzale, A.

    2012-04-01

    The climate and the biosphere of planet Earth interact in multiple, complicated ways and on many spatial and temporal scales. Some of these processes can be studied with the help of simple mathematical models, as done for the effects of vegetation on albedo in desert areas and for the mechanisms by which terrestrial vegetation affects water fluxes in arid environments. Conceptual models of this kind do not attempt at providing quantitative descriptions of the climate-biosphere interaction, but rather to explore avenues and mechanisms which can play a role in the real system, providing inspiration for further research. In this work, we develop a simple conceptual box model in the spirit illustrated above, to explore whether and how vegetation affects the planetary hydrologic cycle. We imagine a planet with no oceans and whose surface is entirely covered with sand, quite similar to planet Dune of the science-fiction series by Frank Herbert (1965). We suppose that water is entirely in the sand, below the surface. Without vegetation, only evaporation takes place, affecting the upper sand layer for a maximum depth of a few cm. The amount of water that is evaporated in the atmosphere is relatively small, and not sufficient to trigger a full hydrologic cycle. The question is what happens to this planet when vegetation is introduced: the root depth can reach a meter or more, and plant transpiration can then transfer a much larger amount of water to the atmosphere. One may wonder whether the presence of vegetation is sufficient to trigger a hydrologic cycle with enough precipitation to sustain the vegetation itself and, if the answer is positive, what is the minimum vegetation cover that is required to maintain the cycle active. In more precise terms, we want to know whether the introduction of vegetation and of the evapotranspiration feedback allows for the existence of multiple equilibria (or solutions) in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Although the box model

  10. Validating Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Torres, G.; Marcy, G.; Brown, T.; Gilliland, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Isaacson, H.; Dupree, A.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Science Team has identified more than 700 transit-like signatures in the first 43 days of data returned from the spacecraft (Borucki et al. 2010, arXiv1006.2799B). However, only 7 of these candidates have been confirmed as planets as of late September 2010. The number of true planets in this sample is clearly far larger than 7, but the sample is also 'contaminated' with false-positives, including many from eclipsing binary stars. Separating the wheat from the chaff requires a careful study of individual candidates using both Kepler photometry and spectroscopic and imaging data from the ground. Techniques that the Science Team is developing to address these issues, which include detailed analysis of the photometric data and follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes, will be presented. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  12. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt

  13. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  14. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-03

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance.

  15. Pluto: Dwarf planet 134340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, investigations of Pluto with up-to-date astronomical instruments yielded results that have been generally confirmed by the New Horizons mission. In 2006, in Prague, the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) reclassified Pluto as a member of the dwarf planet category according to the criteria defined by the IAU for the term "planet". At the same time, interest in studies of Pluto was increasing, while the space investigations of Pluto were delayed. In 2006, the New Horizons Pluto spacecraft started its journey to Pluto. On July 14, 2015, the spacecraft, being in fly-by mode, made its closest approach to Pluto. The heterogeneities and properties of the surface and rarified atmosphere were investigated thoroughly. Due to the extreme remoteness of the spacecraft and the energy limitations, it will take 18 months to transmit the whole data volume. Along with the preliminary results of the New Horizons Pluto mission, this paper reviews the basics on Pluto and its moons acquired from the ground-based observations and with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). There are only a few meteorite craters on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, which distinctly marks them apart from such satellites of the giant planets as Ganymede and Callisto. The explanation is that the surface of Pluto is young: its age is estimated at less than 100 Myr. Ice glaciers of apparently a nitrogen nature were found. Nitrogen is also the main component of the atmosphere of Pluto. The planet demonstrates the signs of strong geologic activity, though the energy sources of these processes are unknown.

  16. Planet Forming Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The project achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young binary stars with surrounding protostellar disks. A secondary objective was the interaction of young planets with their central stars and surrounding disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by coinvestigators and visitors: Pawel Artymowicz, James Pringle, and Gordon Ogilvie. Funds were also used to support travel to meetings by Lubow and to provide partial salary support.

  17. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  18. Formation of Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Under the support of NASA Origins grant, we studied the formation of gaps in protoplanetary disks due the tidal interaction between a fully grown protoplanet and protostellar disk. The result of this study is published in the Astrophysical Journal, (vol 514, 344-367, 1999) and in several conference proceedings. The main focus of this work is to analyze planet-disk interaction during the final stages of protoplanetary formation.

  19. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  20. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  1. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  2. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  3. The Rocky Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 < Msini < 30 MEARTH for orbital periods up to 50 days, (2) to determine the fraction of low mass planets in multi-planet architectures, and (3) detect planets with Msini < 3 MEARTH in orbital periods shorter than ~20 days. In addition to the science objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of

  4. Identification of carbonate-rich outcrops on Mars by the Spirit rover.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard V; Ruff, Steven W; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas W; Arvidson, Raymond E; Clark, Benton C; Golden, D C; Siebach, Kirsten; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Schröder, Christian; Fleischer, Iris; Yen, Albert S; Squyres, Steven W

    2010-07-23

    Decades of speculation about a warmer, wetter Mars climate in the planet's first billion years postulate a denser CO2-rich atmosphere than at present. Such an atmosphere should have led to the formation of outcrops rich in carbonate minerals, for which evidence has been sparse. Using the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, we have now identified outcrops rich in magnesium-iron carbonate (16 to 34 weight percent) in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Its composition approximates the average composition of the carbonate globules in martian meteorite ALH 84001. The Gusev carbonate probably precipitated from carbonate-bearing solutions under hydrothermal conditions at near-neutral pH in association with volcanic activity during the Noachian era.

  5. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  6. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  7. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  8. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  9. Mars Exploration Rover surface operations: driving spirit at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Chris; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Wright, John; Maxwell, Scott; Bonitz, Bob; Biesiadecki, Jeff; Hartman, Frank; Cooper, Brian; Baumgartner, Eric; Maimone, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Spirit is one of two rovers, that landed on Mars in January 2004 as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers mission. Since then, Spirit has traveled over 4 kilometers accross the Martian surface while investigating rocks and soils, digging trenches to examine the subsurface environment, and climbing hills to reach outcrops of bedrock.

  10. The American Spirit in Education. Bulletin, 1919, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, C. R.

    1919-01-01

    America inherited most of the content, form, and spirit of the education of its schools from Europe; but from Colonial times until now there has been an ever-increasing tendency to adapt these more closely to the needs of life in America and to the American spirit of service. This tendency has been given unusual impetus by the exigencies of war…

  11. 27 CFR 28.117 - Responsibility for return of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibility for return of spirits. 28.117 Section 28.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Spirits to Bonded Premises § 28.117...

  12. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  13. 27 CFR 19.326 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.326 Section 19.326 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.326 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals produced, including chemical...

  14. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  15. 27 CFR 31.47 - Warehouse receipts covering spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.47 Warehouse receipts covering spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  16. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  17. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  18. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...In this document, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau adopts as a final rule, with some changes, a proposed revision of its distilled spirits plant regulations. The revision modernizes the requirements for operating distilled spirits plants and includes a number of organizational changes to improve the layout of the regulatory texts. These changes make the regulations easier to apply,......

  19. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  20. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  1. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  2. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  3. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  4. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and...

  5. 27 CFR 19.701 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or wine spirits or brandy free of tax, to the proprietor's... other market analysis) to determine the quality or character of the finished product. The quantity of... for quality testing (other than consumer testing or other market analysis) only if a bona fide...

  6. 27 CFR 19.434 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Laboratory samples. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or may withdraw wine spirits or... samples must be used only for testing or analysis to determine the quality or character of the finished... bona fide purchase agreement exists that is contingent upon quality approval, a proprietor may...

  7. Spirit and Its Now-Empty Mother Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead polar image was captured after the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took a few baby rolls away from the spacecraft that bore it millions of miles to Mars. The empty lander, now named the Columbia Memorial Station, can be seen to the right of the rover. This image was taken by Spirit's navigation camera.

  8. Negative urgency and ventromedial prefrontal cortex responses to alcohol cues: fMRI evidence of emotion-based impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Eiler, William J.; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Karyadi, Kenny; Kareken, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the role of emotion-based impulsivity (negative and positive urgency personality traits) for alcohol use and abuse, but has yet to examine how these personality traits interact with the brain’s motivational systems. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested if urgency traits and mood induction affected medial prefrontal responses to alcohol odors (AcO). Methods Twenty seven social drinkers (mean age = 25.2, 14 males) had six fMRI scans while viewing negative, neutral, or positive mood images (3 mood conditions) during intermittent exposure to AcO and appetitive control (AppCo) aromas. Results Voxel-wise analyses (p < 0.001) confirmed [AcO > AppCo] activation throughout medial (mPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal regions (vmPFC). Extracted from a priori mPFC and vmPFC regions, and analyzed in Odor (AcO, AppCo) × Mood factorial models, AcO activation was greater than AppCo in left vmPFC (p < 0.001), left mPFC (p = 0.002), and right vmPFC (p = 0.01) regions. Mood did not interact significantly with activation but the covariate of trait negative urgency accounted for significant variance in left vmPFC (p = 0.01) and right vmPFC (p = 0.01) [AcO > AppCo] activation. Negative urgency also mediated the relationship between vmPFC activation and both (1) subjective craving and (2) problematic drinking. Conclusion The trait of negative urgency is associated with neural responses to alcohol cues in the vmPFC, a region involved in reward value and emotion-guided decision-making. This suggests that negative urgency might alter subjective craving and brain regions involved in coding reward value. PMID:24164291

  9. Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

  10. The Search for Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael E.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We use an extensive suite of numerical simulations to constrain the mass and orbit of Planet Nine, and we use these constraints to begin the search for this newly proposed planet in new and in archival data. Here, we compare our simulations to the observed population of aligned eccentric high semimajor axis Kuiper belt objects and determine which simulation parameters are statistically compatible with the observations. We find that only a narrow range of orbital elements can reproduce the observations. In particular, the combination of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and mass of Planet Nine strongly dictates the semimajor axis range of the orbital confinement of the distant eccentric Kuiper belt objects. Allowed orbits, which confine Kuiper belt objects with semimajor axis beyond 380 AU, have perihelia roughly between 150 and 350 AU, semimajor axes between 380 and 980 AU, and masses between 5 and 20 Earth masses. Orbitally confined objects also generally have orbital planes similar to that of the planet, suggesting that the planet is inclined approximately 30 degrees to the ecliptic. We compare the allowed orbital positions and estimated brightness of Planet Nine to previous and ongoing surveys which would be sensitive to the planet's detection and use these surveys to rule out approximately two-thirds of the planet's orbit. Planet Nine is likely near aphelion with an approximate brightness of 22planet.

  11. Formation of Outer Planets: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2003-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observation of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believe to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk disspates. The primary questions regarding the core instability model is whether planets with small cores can accrete gaseous enveloples within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks. The main alternative giant planet formation model is the disk instability model, in which gaseous planets form directly via gravitational instabilities within protoplanetary disks. Formation of giant planets via gas instability has never been demonstrated for realistic disk conditions. Moreover, this model has difficulty explaining the supersolar abundances of heavy elements in Jupiter and Saturn, and it does not explain the orgin of planets like Uranus and Neptune.

  12. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  13. [Jean Fernel and the humanist spirit].

    PubMed

    Cordier, Jean-François

    2011-06-01

    Jean Fernel (1497-1558) embodied the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. He studied philosophy (especially Aristotle), astrology, arithmetic, mathematics and Latin literature before devoting his life to medicine. He conducted a comprehensive synthesis of the medical system of Galen, and invented the terms "physiology" and "pathology". His taste for teaching, his extensive clinical practice, his benevolent attitude to the sick, and his consideration for individuals and for human nature all contribute to Jean Fernel's image as a humanist. He was the most famous physician of his time, although his work relying on philosophy and galenic dogmatism eventually became obsolete. Forgotten for half a millennium, this distant precursor of holistic medicine is worthy of renewed interest.

  14. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks stand out to the left, and a warm, dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow can be seen to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  15. Atmospheric Profiles from Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, P.

    2005-05-01

    Spirit and Opportunity each carried two 3-axis accelerometers and two 3-axis gyroscopes to trigger events, such as parachute deployment, during atmospheric entry. These instruments were designed and operated for engineering and operational purposes; they were not science instruments. However, their measurements can be used to derive vertical profiles of atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature. These are the first entry profiles obtained simultaneously with remote sensing measurements, from MGS TES in this case, of the same atmospheric properties, which enables independent testing of the accuracy of this measurement technique. I will discuss the positive and negative features of these instruments, the quality and availability of their datasets, preliminary atmospheric results, and the prospects for wider use of these results.

  16. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species’ flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548

  17. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    PubMed

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  18. Debris Disks and Hidden Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    When a planet orbits inside a debris disk like the disk around Vega or Beta Pictoris, the planet may be invisible, but the patterns it creates in the disk may give it away. Observing and decoding these patterns may be the only way we can detect exo-Neptunes orbiting more than 20 AU from their stars, and the only way we can spot planets in systems undergoing the late stages of planet formation. Fortunately, every few months, a new image of a debris disk appears with curious structures begging for explanation. I'll describe some new ideas in the theory of these planet-disk interactions and provide a buyers guide to the latest models (and the planets they predict).

  19. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  20. Planet X - Fact or fiction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John

    1988-01-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  1. Planet X - ract or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1988-08-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  2. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  3. Starting a Planet Protectors Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

  4. We Make Spirit By Walking: An Application of Kovel's Spirituality to the Life and Work of Committed Environmentalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Barbara

    An analytical framework based on Joel Kovel's five meditations on spirit (spirit power, spirit being, spirit meaning, spirit and desire, and divine spirit) was used to explore the spirituality of committed environmental activists. A purposeful and snowball sampling method was used to interview 18 individuals with a strong commitment to…

  5. The ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  6. Stars and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  7. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  8. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder: The Search for (Habitable) Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the primary goals of NASA's Origins program is the search for habitable planets. I will describe how the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will revolutionize our understanding of the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and possibly even find signs of life beyond the Earth.

  9. NASA's terrestial planet finder: the search for (habitable) planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary goals of NASA's Origins program is the search for hospitable planets. I will describe how the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will revolutionize our understanding of the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and possibly even find signs of life beyond Earth.

  10. The TUPA Scale: A Self-Report Measure for the Type A Subcomponent of Time Urgency and Perpetual Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A self-report measure for the Type A subcomponent of time urgency and perpetual activation (TUPA) was developed using 10 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and validated with another 48 CHD patients. The internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities indicate that the instrument has clinical and research applications. (SLD)

  11. Predictors of alcohol-related outcomes in college athletes: the roles of trait urgency and drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Martens, Matthew P; Pedersen, Eric R; Smith, Ashley E; Stewart, Sherry H; O'Brien, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown that college students participating in athletics drink more than other students, yet relatively few studies have examined variables that are associated with alcohol-related outcomes among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among trait urgency, general drinking motives and sport-related drinking motives, and both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from 198 college students participating in either intercollegiate or recreational athletics at three U.S. universities. Structural equation modeling was used to examine a series of theoretically derived explanatory models. All variables included in the model were directly associated with alcohol use and/or alcohol-related problems. The specific patterns of relationships differed across the motives and trait urgency variables. Sport-related coping motives, sport-related positive reinforcement motives, and general enhancement motives had direct relationships with alcohol use, while trait urgency, general coping motives, and sport-related positive reinforcement motives had direct relationships with alcohol-related problems. Several indirect effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were also found. This study suggests that general drinking motives, sport-related drinking motives, and trait urgency all serve as important predictors of alcohol-related outcomes in college athletes.

  12. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Inside-out planet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors ≳ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (∼cm-m size) 'pebbles', drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ('dead zone') region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ∼1 M {sub ⊕} planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  15. Topics in Extrasolar Planet Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Alex Ryan

    I present four papers exploring different topics in the area of characterizing the atmospheric and bulk properties of extrasolar planets. In these papers, I present two new codes, in various forms, for modeling these objects. A code to generate theoretical models of transit spectra of exoplanets is featured in the first paper and is refined and expanded into the APOLLO code for spectral modeling and parameter retrieval in the fourth paper. Another code to model the internal structure and evolution of planets is featured in the second and third papers. The first paper presents transit spectra models of GJ 1214b and other super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets--planets with a "solid", terrestrial composition and relatively small planets with a thick hydrogen-helium atmosphere, respectively--and fit them to observational data to estimate the atmospheric compositions and cloud properties of these planets. The second paper presents structural models of super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets and estimates their bulk compositions from mass and radius estimates. The third paper refines these models with evolutionary calculations of thermal contraction and ultraviolet-driven mass loss. Here, we estimate the boundaries of the parameter space in which planets lose their initial hydrogen-helium atmospheres completely, and we also present formation and evolution scenarios for the planets in the Kepler-11 system. The fourth paper uses more refined transit spectra models, this time for hot jupiter type planets, to explore the methods to design optimal observing programs for the James Webb Space Telescope to quantitatively measure the atmospheric compositions and other properties of these planets.

  16. Planning and Execution: The Spirit of Opportunity for Robust Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting endeavors pursued by human kind is the search for life in the Solar System and the Universe at large. NASA is leading this effort by designing, deploying and operating robotic systems that will reach planets, planet moons, asteroids and comets searching for water, organic building blocks and signs of past or present microbial life. None of these missions will be achievable without substantial advances in.the design, implementation and validation of autonomous control agents. These agents must be capable of robustly controlling a robotic explorer in a hostile environment with very limited or no communication with Earth. The talk focuses on work pursued at the NASA Ames Research center ranging from basic research on algorithm to deployed mission support systems. We will start by discussing how planning and scheduling technology derived from the Remote Agent experiment is being used daily in the operations of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Planning and scheduling is also used as the fundamental paradigm at the core of our research in real-time autonomous agents. In particular, we will describe our efforts in the Intelligent Distributed Execution Architecture (IDEA), a multi-agent real-time architecture that exploits artificial intelligence planning as the core reasoning engine of an autonomous agent. We will also describe how the issue of plan robustness at execution can be addressed by novel constraint propagation algorithms capable of giving the tightest exact bounds on resource consumption or all possible executions of a flexible plan.

  17. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  18. Migration of accreting giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Raibaldi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of 2D hydro simulations of giant planets in proto-planetary discs, which accrete gas at a more or less high rate. First, starting from a solid core of 20 Earth masses, we show that as soon as the runaway accretion of gas turns on, the planet is saved from type I migration : the gap opening mass is reached before the planet is lost into its host star. Furthermore, gas accretion helps opening the gap in low mass discs. Consequently, if the accretion rate is limited to the disc supply, then the planet is already inside a gap and in type II migration. We further show that the type II migration of a Jupiter mass planet actually depends on its accretion rate. Only when the accretion is high do we retrieve the classical picture where no gas crosses the gap and the planet follows the disc spreading. These results impact our understanding of planet migration and planet population synthesis models. The e-poster presenting these results in French can be found here: L'e-poster présentant ces résultats en français est disponible à cette adresse: http://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2016/posterpdfs/156_179_49.pdf.

  19. The fate of scattered planets

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-12-01

    As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ∼100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

  20. Pluto: The Farthest Planet (Usually).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universe in the Classroom, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides background information about the planet Pluto. Includes the history of Pluto and discusses some of the common misconceptions about the planets. Addresses some of the recent discoveries about Pluto and contains a resource list of books, articles, and a videotape. (TW)

  1. THREE PLANETS ORBITING WOLF 1061

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  2. Far-Infrared Space Interferometers: Future Windows on Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2004-01-01

    Far-IR space interferometers will provide observational access to a spectral region containing many important cooling and diagnostic spectral lines and the bulk of the thermal emission from dust at angular scales critical to advancing our understanding of the star and planet formation process. We will describe concepts for the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). Both of these candidate NASA missions are imaging and spectral Michelson interferometers operating in the wavelength range -40 - 800 microns. SPIRIT, which could be launched in a decade as a NASA Origins Probe, is built on a deployable boom and has a maximum baseline length of -30 - 50 m, yielding sub-arcsecond resolution in the far-IR. SPIRIT will thus provide far-IR/sub-mm measurements complementary to the near- and mid-IR measurements obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and well matched to JWST observations in angular resolution. Ultimately SPECS, a NASA Vision Mission, will use formation flying to attain baseline lengths up to 1 km, and thus angular resolution comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We will report preliminary results of the NASA-sponsored SPIRIT and SPECS mission studies, which are now underway.

  3. Searching for Planets Around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Did you know that the very first exoplanets ever confirmed were found around a pulsar? The precise timing measurements of pulsar PSR 1257+12 were what made the discovery of its planetary companions possible. Yet surprisingly, though weve discovered thousands of exoplanets since then, only one other planet has ever been confirmed around a pulsar. Now, a team of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science researchers are trying to figure out why.Formation ChallengesThe lack of detected pulsar planets may simply reflect the fact that getting a pulsar-planet system is challenging! There are three main pathways:The planet formed before the host star became a pulsar which means it somehow survived its star going supernova (yikes!).The planet formed elsewhere and was captured by the pulsar.The planet formed out of the debris of the supernova explosion.The first two options, if even possible, are likely to be rare occurrences but the third option shows some promise. In this scenario, after the supernova explosion, a small fraction of the material falls back toward the stellar remnant and is recaptured, forming what is known as a supernova fallback disk. According to this model, planets could potentially form out of this disk.Disk ImplicationsLed by Matthew Kerr, the CSIRO astronomers set out to systematically look for these potential planets that might have formed in situ around pulsars. They searched a sample of 151 young, energetic pulsars, scouring seven years of pulse time-of-arrival data for periodic variation that could signal the presence of planetary companions. Their methods to mitigate pulsar timing noise and model realistic orbits allowed them to have good sensitivity to low-mass planets.The results? They found no conclusive evidence that any of these pulsars have planets.This outcome carries with it some significant implications. The pulsar sample spans 2 Myr in age, in which planets should have had enough time to form in debris disks. The fact that none were detected

  4. Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2006-05-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution. The most promising models invoke rotational disruption for the smallest, shortest-lived objects (the asteroids nearest to Earth), consistent with the observed fast rotation of these bodies; impacts for the larger, longer-lived asteroids in the main belt, consistent with the range of size ratios of their components and slower rotation rates; and mutual capture for the distant, icy, trans-Neptunian objects, consistent with their large component separations and near-equal sizes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced key features of the binaries in the first two categories; the third remains to be investigated in detail.

  5. Mission to planet earth

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    Plans for environmental monitoring using remote-sensing satellites in the era of the International Space Station are reviewed. The role of international cooperation is stressed, considering the present Landsat, SPOT, and Marine Observation Satellite programs; ERS-1 and Topex/Poseidon; and plans for the Italian Lageos-2, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, and the Japanese Advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The NASA Mission to Planet Earth proposal calls for four polar-orbit and five GEO platforms (five NASA, two ESA, and two NASDA), to be in place by the year 2000, as well as dedicated spacecraft of the Earth System Explorer series in the 1990s. Payloads will monitor the geomagnetic field, atmospheric temperature and water vapor, O3 and aerosols, outgoing radiation, precipitation, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ocean chlorophyll, surface winds, wave height, ocean circulation, snow cover, land use, vegetation, crops, volcanic activity, and the hydrologic cycle.

  6. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  7. Observational Constraints on Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Matthew John; Holman, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Recent publications from Batygin & Brown have rekindled interest in the possibility that there is a large (~10 Earth-Mass) planet lurking unseen in a distant (a~500 AU) orbit at the edge of the Solar System. Such a massive planet would tidally distort the orbits of the other planets in the Solar System.These distortions can potentially be measured and/or constrained through precise observations of the orbits of the outer planets and distant trans-Neptunian objects. I will discuss our recent (and ongoing) attempts to observationally constrain the possible location of Planet Nine via (a) measurements of the orbit of Pluto, and (b) measurements of the orbit of Saturn derived from the Cassini spacecraft.

  8. Why are Pulsar Planets Rare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario; Palaniswamy, Divya

    2016-12-01

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed planets around only a few pulsars. We suggest that the rarity of these planets is due mainly to two effects. First, we show that the most likely formation mechanism requires the destruction of a companion star. Only pulsars with a suitable companion (with an extreme mass ratio) are able to form planets. Second, while a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) in the disk is generally thought to be essential for planet formation, it is most probably rare in disks around pulsars, because of the irradiation from the pulsar. The irradiation strongly heats the inner parts of the disk, thus pushing the inner boundary of the dead zone out. We suggest that the rarity of pulsar planets can be explained by the low probability for these two requirements to be satisfied: a very low-mass companion and a dead zone.

  9. Formation of Planets around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banit, M.; Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.; Applegate, J. H.

    1993-10-01

    Pulse arrival-time delays PSR 1257+ 12 suggest the existence of at least two planets in nearly circular orbits around it. In this paper we discuss different scenarios for the formation of planets in circular orbits around pulsars. Among other topics, we look in some detail at wind emission mechanisms that are particularly relevant to the process of evaporation of planets around pulsars and discuss their possible role in orbit circularization. We conclude that the formation of such planets may occur in a very late phase of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or binary millisecond pulsar (BMP) evolution. Evaporation of the companion star in these phases supplies matter to a circumbinary "excretion" disk in which the physical conditions, similar to those appropriate for the BMP 1957+20 system, may allow the formation of planets like those observed in PSR 1257+12.

  10. Highly inclined and eccentric massive planets. II. Planet-planet interactions during the disc phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadis, Sotiris; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Bitsch, Bertram; Crida, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Context. Observational evidence indicates that the orbits of extrasolar planets are more various than the circular and coplanar ones of the solar system. Planet-planet interactions during migration in the protoplanetary disc have been invoked to explain the formation of these eccentric and inclined orbits. However, our companion paper (Paper I) on the planet-disc interactions of highly inclined and eccentric massive planets has shown that the damping induced by the disc is significant for a massive planet, leading the planet back to the midplane with its eccentricity possibly increasing over time. Aims: We aim to investigate the influence of the eccentricity and inclination damping due to planet-disc interactions on the final configurations of the systems, generalizing previous studies on the combined action of the gas disc and planet-planet scattering during the disc phase. Methods: Instead of the simplistic K-prescription, our N-body simulations adopt the damping formulae for eccentricity and inclination provided by the hydrodynamical simulations of our companion paper. We follow the orbital evolution of 11 000 numerical experiments of three giant planets in the late stage of the gas disc, exploring different initial configurations, planetary mass ratios and disc masses. Results: The dynamical evolutions of the planetary systems are studied along the simulations, with a particular emphasis on the resonance captures and inclination-growth mechanisms. Most of the systems are found with small inclinations (≤ 10°) at the dispersal of the disc. Even though many systems enter an inclination-type resonance during the migration, the disc usually damps the inclinations on a short timescale. Although the majority of the multiple systems in our simulations are quasi-coplanar, 5% of them end up with high mutual inclinations (≥ 10°). Half of these highly mutually inclined systems result from two- or three-body mean-motion resonance captures, the other half being

  11. From Pixels to Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  12. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  13. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... issue. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits at rates that differ depending on the product from which the spirit is distilled. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits made from certain materials that...

  14. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  15. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  16. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  17. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  18. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  19. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.342 Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing....

  20. 27 CFR 19.343 - Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines, and... Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.343 Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor must prepare a...

  1. 27 CFR 19.343 - Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines, and... Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.343 Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor must prepare a...

  2. 27 CFR 19.343 - Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines, and... Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.343 Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor must prepare a...

  3. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  4. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded...

  5. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.342 Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing....

  6. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  7. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  8. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  9. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.342 Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing....

  10. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.342 Receipt of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing....

  11. 27 CFR 19.343 - Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines, and... Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.343 Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor must prepare a...

  12. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  13. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  14. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  15. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within...

  16. Which Ringed Planet...!?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere

  17. SPIRITS Discoveries of New Infrared Transients and Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Khan, R.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report several recently discovered mid-infrared transients/strong variables found in the course of the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS), using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688).

  18. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  19. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  20. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  1. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  2. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  3. Spirit's Travels During its First 238 Martian Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map shows the complete traverse of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit through the rover's 238th martian day, or sol (Sept. 3, 2004). This was shortly before the rover stopped driving for about two weeks while Mars was nearly behind the Sun from Earth's perspective. The background image consists of frames from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Inset images along the route are from Spirit's navigation camera. From its landing site, Spirit drove up to the rim of 'Bonneville' crater on the far left and to the north rim of 'Missoula' crater. Then it commenced a long drive across the plains, deviating to avoid large hollows. Upon arrival at the base of the 'Columbia Hills,' Spirit drove north for a short distance before beginning its ascent onto the 'West Spur,' where it is currently located. The scale bar at lower left is 500 meters (1,640 feet). North is up.

  4. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2015-12-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  5. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  6. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  7. Job transition assistance for managers and executives: rekindling entrepreneurial spirit.

    PubMed

    Johason, S H

    1995-06-01

    Management and executive positions are being combined or changed during restructuring. Although stressful, the transition offers opportunities for some managers and executives to look for new opportunities. Developing entrepreneurial spirit helps managers and executives make the transition.

  8. Healing words: becoming a spirit-host in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Mack, John

    2011-08-01

    In discussion of healing processes in sub-Saharan Africa, emphasis is characteristically placed on the role of performance. Yet in spirit mediumship, speech is also an important element in therapeutic practices. In Madagascar, the spirits (tromba) are often of exotic origins (frequently in time as well as space) and the language used is likewise exotic. A complex of techniques of enchantment is employed: amongst them, music, changes of dress, the burning of perfumes and incense, rum, putting matches in the mouth, or the use of herbal medicines. Sometimes artefacts, such as - in the case discussed - a large model ship, are employed. Although the setting is shrine-like, the techniques are at once both dynamic and eclectic, collapsing time and space into a single embodied moment when the spirit speaks through the vehicle of the medium. Such 'spirit-speech' is itself empowered and empowering, cathartic and curative.

  9. Photocopy of a photograph (original from Kansas City Spirit, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of a photograph (original from Kansas City Spirit, Vol. III, no. 5, April 1910) View to the west toward front arcade entrance - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  10. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  11. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  12. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  13. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  14. SPIRIT 2013 statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Doré, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2013-02-05

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol.The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  15. The Chemistry of Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, Karin I.

    2017-01-01

    Exo-planets are common, and they span a large range of compositions. The origins of the observed diversity of planetary compositions is largely unconstrained, but must be linked to the planet formation physics and chemistry. Among planets that are Earth-like, a second question is how often such planets form hospitable to life. A fraction of exo-planets are observed to be ‘physically habitable’, i.e. of the right temperature and bulk composition to sustain a water-based prebiotic chemistry, but this does not automatically imply that they are rich in the building blocks of life, in organic molecules of different sizes and kinds, i.e. that they are chemically habitable. In this talk I will argue that characterizing the chemistry of protoplanetary disks, the formation sites of planets, is key to address both the origins of planetary bulk compositions and the likelihood of finding organic matter on planets. The most direct path to constrain the chemistry in disks is to directly observe it. In the age of ALMA it is for the first time possible to image the chemistry of planet formation, to determine locations of disk snowlines, and to map the distributions of different organic molecules. Recent ALMA highlights include constraints on CO snowline locations, the discovery of spectacular chemical ring systems, and first detections of more complex organic molecules. Observations can only provide chemical snapshots, however, and even ALMA is blind to the majority of the chemistry that shapes planet formation. To interpret observations and address the full chemical complexity in disks requires models, both toy models and astrochemical simulations. These models in turn must be informed by laboratory experiments, some of which will be shown in this talk. It is thus only when we combine observational, theoretical and experimental constraints that we can hope to characterize the chemistry of disks, and further, the chemical compositions of nascent planets.

  16. Planet Classification: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, David A.

    2009-05-01

    As philosopher George Santayana famously said, "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." The professional astronomy community, as embodied in the IAU, now suffers from Santayana's malady. Ceres was expelled from the community of planets because it apparently was not a planet; yet, no working, scientifically reasonable definition of the word planet existed in the early nineteenth century and so no rational basis existed for excluding or including Ceres or, for that matter, Uranus or the soon-to-be-discovered Neptune from the family of planets. Instead, William Herschel disparaged Ceres as only an "asteroid," a term he invented specifically to separate Ceres and Pallas and Vesta from the true planets. Clearly, in Herschel's view, Ceres was not big enough, and apparently, to Herschel, size mattered. So how big is big enough and by what method was size put in place as the critical scientific metric for assessing planethood? Certainly, as members of the newly discovered asteroid belt, the newly identified asteroids were members of a previously unknown family of objects in the solar system. But why did that make these non-classically known objects asteroids but not planets rather than asteroids and planets? Uranus and Neptune were also members of a newly identified and previously unknown family of solar system objects that we now call "ice giants." On what basis were these two objects embraced as planets and why have these two non-classical objects become known as ice giants and planets rather than ice giants but not planets? Perhaps our scientific predecessors were too quick to render judgment, as they lacked the scientific context in which to understand the many new objects discovered during the years 1781 to 1846. Is that a lesson from the past that we might remember today?

  17. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  18. Overview of Spirit's Mars Winter Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    2006-12-01

    On sol 805 (April 2006) the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reached its Low Ridge winter campaign site within Gusev Crater's Columbia Hills. The site, with its 11.5 degree tilt to the north, was chosen to maximize the probability that the rover would receive enough solar energy to be able to continue operations through the martian winter (southern winter solstice occurred in August 2006) and be able to drive away to explore additional terrains during the ensuing spring. Winter campaign experiments were designed to monitor atmospheric and surface (i.e., aeolian) dynamics and to survey the surrounding rocks and soils using the Pancam multispectral (0.44 to 1 micrometer) and Mini-TES hyperspectral (5 to 29 micrometers) capabilities. This included the collection of a Pancam 360 degree 13 filter McMurdo Panorama of the surface and rover deck over a period of several months. Further, a number of long-duration observations were conducted using the Alpha Particle X-Ray and Moessbauer Spectrometers on rock and soil targets within the work volume of the Instrument Deployment Device. Operations associated with the campaign will be updated during the presentation, and selected scientific highlights will be summarized and placed in an overall context for understanding the evolution of Mars and the role of water.

  19. Design and construction of the spirit TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangwancharoen, Suwat

    The nuclear symmetry energy, the density dependent term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS), governs important properties of neutron stars and dense nuclear matter. At present, it is largely unconstrained in the supra-saturation density region. This dissertation concerns the design and construction of the SpiRIT Time Projection Chamber (SpiRIT-TPC) at Michigan State University as part of an international collaborations to constrain the symmetry energy at supra-saturation density. The SpiRIT-TPC has been constructed during the dissertation and transported to Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, Japan where it will be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI Spectrometer. The detector will measure yield ratios for pions and other light charged particles produced in central collisions of neutron-rich heavy ions such as 132Sn + 124Sn. The dissertation describes the design and solutions to the problem presented by the measurement. This also compares some of the initial fast measurement of the TPC to calculation of the performance characteristics.

  20. The Effect of Giant Planets on Habitable Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a large role in shaping the properties of the Earth during its formation. To explore their effects, we numerically model the growth of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars with and without Jupiter and Saturn analog companions. Employing state-of-the-art dynamical formation models that allow both accretion and collisional fragmentation, we perform hundreds of simulations and quantify the specific impact energies of all collisions that lead to the formation of an Earth-analog. Our model tracks the bulk compositions and water abundances in the cores and mantles of the growing protoplanets to constrain the types of giant planet configurations that allow the formation of habitable planets. We find significant differences in the collisional histories and bulk compositions of the final planets formed in the presence of different giant planet configurations. Exoplanet surveys like Kepler hint at a paucity of Jupiter analogs, thus these analyses have important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets and also support target selection for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  1. Timeline: exorcizing the animal spirits: Jan Swammerdam on nerve function.

    PubMed

    Cobb, M

    2002-05-01

    For more than 1,500 years, nerves were thought to function through the action of 'animal spirits'. In the seventeenth century, René Descartes conceived of these 'spirits' as liquids or gases, and used the idea to explain reflex action. But he was rapidly proven wrong by a young Dutchman, Jan Swammerdam. Swammerdam's elegant experiments pioneered the frog nerve muscle preparation and laid the foundation of our modern understanding of nerve function.

  2. An Update on Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the search for Planet Nine? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.Artists illustration of Planet Nine, a hypothesized Neptune-sized planet orbiting in the distant reaches of our solar system. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]What is Planet Nine?In January of this year, Caltech researchers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented evidence of a distant ninth planet in our solar system. They predicted this planet to be of a mass and volume consistent with a super-Earth, orbiting on a highly eccentric pathwith a period of tens of thousands of years.Since Batygin and Browns prediction, scientists have been hunting for further signs of Planet Nine. Though we havent yet discovered an object matching its description, we have come up with new strategies for finding it, we set some constraints on where it might be, and we made some interesting theoretical predictions about its properties.Visualizations of the resonant orbits of the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects, depicted in a frame rotating with the mean angular velocity of Planet Nine. Planet Nines position is on the right (with the trace of possible eccentric orbits e=0.17 and e=0.4 indicated in red). [Malhotra et al 2016]Here are some of the newest constraints on Planet Nine from studies published just within the past two weeks.Resonant OrbitsRenu Malhotra (University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Laboratory) and collaborators present further evidence of the shaping of solar system orbits by the hypothetical Planet Nine. The authors point out that the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. Could it be that these outer KBOs have become locked into resonant orbits with a distant, massive body?The authors find that a distant planet orbiting with a period of ~17,117 years and a semimajor axis ~665 AU would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. If this is correct, it

  3. THE FIRST PLANETS: THE CRITICAL METALLICITY FOR PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Li Hui

    2012-06-01

    A rapidly growing body of observational results suggests that planet formation takes place preferentially at high metallicity. In the core accretion model of planet formation this is expected because heavy elements are needed to form the dust grains which settle into the midplane of the protoplanetary disk and coagulate to form the planetesimals from which planetary cores are assembled. As well, there is observational evidence that the lifetimes of circumstellar disks are shorter at lower metallicities, likely due to greater susceptibility to photoevaporation. Here we estimate the minimum metallicity for planet formation, by comparing the timescale for dust grain growth and settling to that for disk photoevaporation. For a wide range of circumstellar disk models and dust grain properties, we find that the critical metallicity above which planets can form is a function of the distance r at which the planet orbits its host star. With the iron abundance relative to that of the Sun [Fe/H] as a proxy for the metallicity, we estimate a lower limit for the critical abundance for planet formation of [Fe/H]{sub crit} {approx_equal} -1.5 + log (r/1 AU), where an astronomical unit (AU) is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This prediction is in agreement with the available observational data, and carries implications for the properties of the first planets and for the emergence of life in the early universe. In particular, it implies that the first Earth-like planets likely formed from circumstellar disks with metallicities Z {approx}> 0.1 Z{sub Sun }. If planets are found to orbit stars with metallicities below the critical metallicity, this may be a strong challenge to the core accretion model.

  4. Spirit Nears North-Tilting Site for Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit made daily progress in early December 2007 toward the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there (indicated by the blue-outlined rectangle) as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian winter.

    As indicated by the yellow line tracing the path Spirit has driven, the rover was near the western edge of the plateau on Sol (Martian day) 1,390 of the mission (Nov. 30, 2007), but nearing the northern edge by Sol 1,397 (Dec. 8, 2007).

    A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during winter months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during winter. For the third winter, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second winter.

    The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. Phylogeny, extinction and conservation: embracing uncertainties in a time of urgency

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Félix; Crandall, Keith A.; Chase, Mark W.; Faith, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary studies have played a fundamental role in our understanding of life, but until recently, they had only a relatively modest involvement in addressing conservation issues. The main goal of the present discussion meeting issue is to offer a platform to present the available methods allowing the integration of phylogenetic and extinction risk data in conservation planning. Here, we identify the main knowledge gaps in biodiversity science, which include incomplete sampling, reconstruction biases in phylogenetic analyses, partly known species distribution ranges, and the difficulty in producing conservation assessments for all known species, not to mention that much of the effective biological diversity remains to be discovered. Given the impact that human activities have on biodiversity and the urgency with which we need to address these issues, imperfect assumptions need to be sanctioned and surrogates used in the race to salvage as much as possible of our natural and evolutionary heritage. We discuss some aspects of the uncertainties found in biodiversity science, such as the ideal surrogates for biodiversity, the gaps in our knowledge and the numerous available phylogenetic diversity-based methods. We also introduce a series of cases studies that demonstrate how evolutionary biology can effectively contribute to biodiversity conservation science. PMID:25561663

  6. Phylogeny, extinction and conservation: embracing uncertainties in a time of urgency.

    PubMed

    Forest, Félix; Crandall, Keith A; Chase, Mark W; Faith, Daniel P

    2015-02-19

    Evolutionary studies have played a fundamental role in our understanding of life, but until recently, they had only a relatively modest involvement in addressing conservation issues. The main goal of the present discussion meeting issue is to offer a platform to present the available methods allowing the integration of phylogenetic and extinction risk data in conservation planning. Here, we identify the main knowledge gaps in biodiversity science, which include incomplete sampling, reconstruction biases in phylogenetic analyses, partly known species distribution ranges, and the difficulty in producing conservation assessments for all known species, not to mention that much of the effective biological diversity remains to be discovered. Given the impact that human activities have on biodiversity and the urgency with which we need to address these issues, imperfect assumptions need to be sanctioned and surrogates used in the race to salvage as much as possible of our natural and evolutionary heritage. We discuss some aspects of the uncertainties found in biodiversity science, such as the ideal surrogates for biodiversity, the gaps in our knowledge and the numerous available phylogenetic diversity-based methods. We also introduce a series of cases studies that demonstrate how evolutionary biology can effectively contribute to biodiversity conservation science.

  7. Diagnosis of emergencies/urgencies in gynecology and during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Marra, Elena

    2014-03-01

    Several surgical and/or medical emergencies/urgencies may occur in gynecologic patients and in pregnant women during the first trimester. Particularly, ectopic pregnancies, ruptured or hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, ovarian or adnexal torsions, threatened or inevitable miscarriages, phlogistic gynecological disorders, complications involving the uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and spontaneous uterine rupture are possible acute complications. The diagnosis is suspected on the basis of symptoms (acute pelvic and/or abdominal pain, with or without vaginal bleeding or discharge, until acute abdomen with peritonitis), by means physical evaluation (abdominal, pelvic, and bimanual gynecological examinations), by means of transabdominal (TAS) and/or transvaginal (TVS) sonography, and laboratory tests. However, the diagnosis is often not that simple, especially when the symptoms and clinical signs are minimal, and ultrasound (US) examination is not diriment. The differential diagnosis of abdominal/pelvic pain is broad and includes primarily gastrointestinal and urogenital disorders. Generally, TAS should usually be used in conjunction with TVS for evaluation of the female pelvis. If the US examination is not conclusive, CT or MRI, especially in pregnant patients, should be considered.

  8. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%–5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period. PMID:27147865

  9. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU.

  10. Examining Associations between Negative Urgency and Key Components of Objective Binge Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a risk factor for binge eating, although few studies have examined interviewer-assessed objective binge episodes (OBEs). Moreover, research has not investigated how NU relates to the core components of OBEs: loss of control (LOC) eating and objective overeating (OO). Understanding the relationship between NU and these core components will enhance etiologic models of eating disorder development. Thus, the current study examined associations between NU, OBEs, and the components of OBEs by comparing levels of NU in women with OBEs, LOC eating only, and OO only to women with no pathological eating. Method Participants were 612 women who endorsed lifetime OBEs (5.4%), LOC eating outside of OBEs (5.7%), OO only (2.8%), or none of these eating episodes (85.9%). Results Women with OBEs, LOC only, and OO only had significantly higher levels of NU than women without these episodes, suggesting that NU is associated with both the LOC and OO components of OBEs. Discussion NU relates to the spectrum of pathology present in women with OBEs. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying these associations, including impaired behavioral/psychological control and/or increased reward sensitivity in response to negative affect. PMID:25865091

  11. Planet Hunters: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  12. Planet-Planet Scattering and White Dwarf Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joasil, Arielle; Payne, Matthew John; Veras, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    About one-quarter to one-half of white dwarfs are observed to have polluted atmospheres. White dwarfs (WD) are expected to be chemically stratified, with heavy elements rapidly sinking. The frequent observation of heavy element pollution in WD atmospheres indicates that there must be a copious and frequent supply of rocky material from remnant planetary systems acting as a pollutant. Recently, the white dwarf WD 1145+017 has been observed to have been transited by a rocky body apparently in the process of disintegrating (Vanderburg et al. 2015).Post-main sequence expansion may render the planetary system unstable (Veras 2016). Planets orbiting the white dwarf may perturb and scatter one another. If this scattering happens, any moons can be scattered about the system. As such, one possible source of the material polluting WDs is destabilized exomoons (Payne et al. 2016a, 2016b). Moons offer a plausible source of pollution due to their large total mass (in the Solar system), and their generally rocky composition that matches that found in the atmospheric pollution of WDs. During a planet-planet scattering event, the probability that a moon will be ejected from its parent planet is a function of the velocity of the perturbing planet and the distance between the perturbed moon and the perturbing planet (as well as the initial orbit of the moon). We review the results of Payne et al. (2016a, 2016b) and present new results illustrating the probability of moon ejection as a function of these key parameters. We demonstrate the utility of these results for (a) the pollution and WDs, and for (b) general planet-planet scattering scenarios around main-sequence stars.

  13. Comparative ionospheres. I - The inner planets. II - The outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given first of the fundamental physical and chemical processes controlling the thermospheres and ionospheres of the inner planets, Venus and Mars. A comparison is made between the neutral composition and temperature structure of Venus and Mars and those of the earth. Consideration is then given to the chemical and diffusion processes in the ionosphere. After a brief treatment of the ionospheric energetics and heat sources, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the nightside ionosphere of Venus are reviewed. A description is then given of the upper atmospheres and ionospheres of the major planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The treatment of the temperature structure and composition of the thermospheres of the major planets includes a description of the physical and chemical processes controlling the hydrocarbons and atomic hydrogen. A comparison is then made between the ionospheres of the major planets and those of the inner planets. It is noted that Io and Titan also have atmospheres and ionospheres, and these are treated briefly. Even though comets cannot be classed as planets, they have atmospheres and ionospheres that are not gravitationally confined.

  14. Habitable planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  15. PLANETS ON THE EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2014-05-20

    Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations a exceeding twice that of their Roche limit a {sub R}. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit (a {sub R} < a < 2 a {sub R}), with one coming as close as 1.2 a {sub R}. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2 a {sub R}) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn and verified by recent numerical simulations, but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich and Nicholson. Additionally, we find that WASP-19-like systems could potentially provide direct empirical constraints on tidal dissipation, as we could soon be able to measure their orbital decay through high precision transit timing measurements.

  16. Extrasolar planet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve

    2004-10-01

    The coronagraphic techniques serving to reject most light from a star, when trying to image a nearby planet, can be pushed with an adaptive holographic element. Located after the coronagraph, it can in principle remove most of the residual star light by adding a phase-shifted holographic reconstruction of it . The scheme is also usable within each sub-aperture of a diluted hypertelescope array, sufficiently large to resolve details of an exo-Earth. A possible panoramic version of the previously mentioned Exo-Earth Imager is shaped as a virtual bubble of 400 km diameter , consisting of thousands of 3-meter mirrors, free-flying and arranged co-spherically. The half-size focal sphere is explored by beam combiners, one for each exo-Earth observed within tens of parsecs. Each beam-combiner includes a kilometer-sized corrector of spherical aberration at F/2, which is also diluted and consisting of small free-flyers. The instrument is expected to provide direct coronagraphic images of exo-Earths, resolved in 50×50 resels, with enough dynamic range obtained in 30mn exposures to search colored features and their seasonal variations, indicative of photosynthetic life .

  17. Abuse, Mastery, and Health Among Lesbian, Bisexual, and Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or “two-spirit” appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women. PMID:19594256

  18. Negative Urgency Accounts for the Association Between Borderline Personality Features and Intimate Partner Violence in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jessica R; Derefinko, Karen J; Lynam, Donald R

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with aggression and, in particular, intimate partner violence; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have been less clearly identified. The present study examines the hypothesis that negative urgency (impulsive behavior in response to intense, negative emotions) may explain the specific association between BPD and intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional self-report measures of BPD, violent behavior, and multiple dimensions of impulsivity were administered to 193 undergraduate men. BPD profile scores were associated with both general violence behaviors and intimate partner violence; however, an indirect path via negative urgency existed only with intimate partner violence. No indirect paths from BPD scores were demonstrated via any other factors of impulsivity, although sensation seeking was an independent predictor of general violence. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences (RTO-MP-IST-086...contre-terrorisme, de sécurité nationale/publique et de réponse collective face aux situations d’urgence (à la fois gestion des crises et gestion de leurs

  20. Voyager to the Seventh Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)