This article explores the concept of embodied spirituality from early Celtic traditions through the British medieval mystic Julian of Norwich to the present day. A "high theology" of the body in early Christianity and early Christian understandings of the relation among body, soul and spirit gave way to the influences of Greek thought with its…
Rogers, Melanie; Wattis, John
Spirituality is an important aspect of holistic care that is frequently overlooked. This is because of difficulties in conceptualising spirituality and confusion about how it should be integrated into nursing care. This article explores what is meant by spirituality and spiritually competent practice. It examines attitudes to spirituality, describes factors that might affect the integration of spirituality into nursing care and offers practical guidance to equip nurses to incorporate spirituality into their practice.
Reviews mistaken approaches to spirituality and the relationship between modern spirituality and life styles prevalent in industrialized societies. Seeks to establish a connection between spirituality and justice, especially for those struggling toward discipleship in a consumer society. (GEA)
Hogan, Michael J.
It is a mistake to ignore the scientific study of spirituality. Research examining the structure and function of concepts such as "spirit" and "spirituality" is likely to reveal new insights into the relationship between a functional spirituality and other thinking skills, including creativity. The study of spirituality should not stand alone as a…
Unruh, Anita M
Understanding the relationships between spirituality and health has become increasingly important in health research, including nursing research. Very little of the research thus far has focused on spirituality, religion, and pain even though spiritual views have been intertwined with beliefs about pain and suffering throughout history. Spiritual views can have a substantial impact on patients' understanding of pain and decisions about pain management. The author reviews the research literature on spirituality and pain from a historical perspective. The analysis is concerned with how spirituality and religion have been used to construct a meaning of pain that shapes appraisal, coping, and pain management. The clinical implications include respectful communication with patients about spirituality and pain, inclusion of spirituality in education and support programs, integration of spiritual preferences in pain management where feasible and appropriate, consultation with pastoral care teams, and reflection by nurses about spirituality in their own lives. A discussion of research implications is included.
Robertson, Linda A.
This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…
Ponds, Kenneth T.
Research on positive psychology indicates that spiritual strengths can be important in helping individuals overcome crisis and loss. Encounters with difficult challenges of life inspire people to think more deeply about their spiritual and religious beliefs and the meaning of life. Spirituality, faith, and religious roots have been shown to be…
As influential as spirituality might be, it is an aspect of human life that has not been well researched as such. Related aspects of religion and values have been researched a great deal, and these studies help counselors understand the probable effects of spirituality. The probable impact of spirituality on school counseling is not yet a subject…
Nurturing a child's spirituality should be an integral part of holistic care. The concept of spirituality is linked to the child's cognitive, social, psycho-sexual and moral development. Knowledge of childhood spirituality can help to support children coping with traumatic life-events. The expression of beliefs and feelings that encompass spirituality can be facilitated through literature and music and through other strategies. Educators need to empower professionals to have the awareness, emotional resources and skills to ensure that they can be spiritually supportive
Those matters that are judged to be spiritual are seen as especially valuable and important. For this reason it is claimed that nurses need to be able to offer spiritual care when appropriate and, to aid them in this, nurse theorists have discussed the nature of spirituality. In a recent debate John Paley has argued that nurses should adopt a naturalistic stance which would enable them to employ the insights of modern science. Barbara Pesut has criticized this thesis, especially as it is applied to palliative care. This paper re-examines this debate with particular attention to the meaning of 'spirituality' and the justification for accepting spiritual and religious theories. It is argued that when we take into consideration the great diversity among religious and spiritual ideas, the lack of rational means of deciding between them when they conflict, and the practicalities of nursing, we find that a spiritual viewpoint is less useful than a naturalistic one, when offering palliative care.
Wong, Ka Fai; Yau, Sui Yu
Nurses emphasize spiritual care in maintaining patients' holistic health; however, the provision for spiritual care is found to be inadequate. The limited study in exploring the nurses' perception on applying spiritual care in Hong Kong has been noted. This descriptive phenomenological study investigated the experiences of spirituality and spiritual care in Hong Kong from the nurses' perspective. Ten nurses were purposively invited for an unstructured interview. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis, and three themes emerged: the meaning of spirituality, benefits of applying spiritual care, and difficulties in applying spiritual care. This study provided preliminary insights into the development of spiritual care in Hong Kong.
Dangwal, Kiran Lata; Singh, Shireesh Pal
Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in…
Shaw, Jon A
The phenomenology of mystical experiences has been described throughout all the ages and in all religions. All mystical traditions identify some sense of union with the absolute as the ultimate spiritual goal. I assume that the pathway to both theistic and secular spirituality and our readiness to seek a solution in a psychological merger with something beyond the self evolves out of our human experience. Spirituality is one of man's strategies for dealing with the limitations of the life cycle, separation and loss, biological fragility, transience, and non-existence. Spirituality may serve as the affective component to a belief system or myth that is not rooted in scientific evidence but is lived as if it is true. Spirituality may take many forms, but I will suggest that in some instances it may serve as a reparative process in which one creates in the external world, through symbolic form, a nuance or facet of an internalized mental representation which has become lost or is no longer available to the self; or it may represent the continuity of the self-representation after death through a self-object merger. Lastly I will illustrate from the writings of two of our greatest poets, Dante Alighieri and William Wordsworth, how their poetry became interwoven with a profound spirituality. In Dante we will see the elaboration of a religious spirituality, while in the writings of Wordsworth a secular spirituality emerges interwoven with nature and belatedly his identification with "tragic man" as his mythos.
Wheatley, Margaret J.
Discusses the importance of spiritual leadership in turbulent, uncertain times. Describes several spiritual principles--for example, life is cyclical; all life is interconnected. Offers six suggestions for personal health: Start day peacefully, learn to be mindful, slow things down, create own measures, expect surprise, practice gratefulness. (PKP)
Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.
This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…
Tonigan, J Scott
What can be confidently said about AA in general and about the role of spirituality in AA in particular? First, there is convincing evidence that alcoholism severity predicts later AA attendance. Second, atheists are less likely to attend AA, relative to individuals who already hold spiritual and/or religious beliefs. However, belief in God before AA attendance does not offer any advantage in AA-related benefits, and atheists, once involved, are at no apparent disadvantage in deriving AA-related benefits. Third, the spiritually-based principles of AA appear to be endorsed in AA meetings regardless of the perceived social dynamics or climate of a particular meeting, eg, highly cohesive or aggressive. Fourth, significant increases in spiritual and religious beliefs and practices seem to occur among AA-exposed individuals. Fifth, in spite of much discussion to the contrary there is little evidence that spirituality directly accounts for later abstinence. We are finding, however, that spirituality has an important indirect effect in predicting later drinking reductions. Specifically, in the past 20 years a number of effective methods have been developed to facilitate initial AA attendance (AA dropout is high, with some estimates ranging as high as 80%). Interventions that lead to initial increases in spirituality appear to lead to sustained AA affiliation, which, in turn, produces sustained recovery over time.
The natural science base of modern medicine influences the way in which medicine is delivered and may ignore the spiritual factors associated with illness. The history of spirituality in healing presented here reflects the growth of scientific knowledge, demands for religious renewal, and the shift in the understanding of the concept of health within a broader cultural context. General practitioners have been willing to entertain the idea of spiritual healing and include it in their daily practice, or referral network. Recognizing patients' beliefs in the face of suffering is an important factor in health care practice. PMID:1777299
Menezes, Adair; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander
This review discusses the relationships between religion, spirituality, and psychosis. Based on the DSM-IV, we comment on the concept of spiritual and religious problems, which, although they may seem to be psychotic episodes, are actually manifestations of nonpathological spiritual and religious experiences. Studies reporting that hallucinations also occur in the nonclinical population and thus are not exclusive to the diagnosed population are presented. Then, other studies pointing to the strong presence of religious content in psychotic patients are also presented. Finally, the criteria that could be used to make a differential diagnosis between healthy spiritual experiences and mental disorders of religious content are discussed. We conclude that the importance of this theme and the lack of quality investigations point to the necessity of further investigation.
Balk, D E
The thesis of this article is that bereavement is a life crisis that challenges one's assumptions about human existence and provides the grounds for spiritual change. Construing a new understanding of the meaning of human existence and revising assumptions about one's place in the universe is a singular form that indicates spiritual change at work. Three aspects must be present for a life crisis to produce spiritual change: The situation must create a psychological imbalance or disequilibrium that resists readily being stabilized; there must be time for reflection; and the person's life must forever afterwards be colored by the crisis. The premise of this article links spiritual change to what J.W. Fowler (1981) termed transformed faith consciousness and argues that the dual process model of coping with loss (M.S. Stroebe & H. Schut, 1995; M.S. Stroebe, H. Schut, & W.A. Stroebe, 1995; M.S. Stroebe, H. Schut, & J. Van Den Bout, 1994) provides a means to understand how dealing with grief can evoke spiritual change. Some brief case examples are used to examine the thesis that bereavement triggers spiritual change.
Miller, Lisa; Athan, Aurelie
Our theoretical orientation as educators is to teach with a spiritual foundation. Central to our perspective is that the classroom as an academic space is poised to facilitate profound spiritual evolution for students. A graduate course in psychotherapy using a Spiritual Awareness Pedagogy (SAP) offers students an opportunity to understand…
O'Reilly, Mary Linda
Spirituality is an important part of human existence but is often overlooked in the conceptualization of the person as a biopsychosocial entity. This article examines spirituality as a concept, relates it to the experience of mental health clients, proposes spiritual assessments and interventions within the role of advanced practice mental health nurses, and discusses the necessity of including spiritual interventions to support healing and wholeness for mental health clients.
Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree
The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
Lovecky, Deirdre V.
Explores the concept of spiritual sensitivity in children, noting that some gifted children show early evidence of an understanding of spiritual concepts. It examines the role of asynchrony in the development of spiritual concerns and offers examples of how gifted children experience these concerns in their everyday lives. (DB)
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
This article aims to provide an account of "spiritual prosperity," whereby various related mental capacities may be developed through an expanded range of learning processes. This account will be secular and humanistic, thereby circumnavigating the theology of spirituality in favour of psychological models. As spirituality remains "a slippery…
This paper shows how palliative care developed as a reaction to the compartimentalized technical approach of modern medicine. But what does it mean if we say palliative care wants to treat patients as whole persons? A few pitfalls need to avoided. All disciplines involved in palliative care should act within the limits of their own specific professional role. Physicians and nurses should certainly not force patients into spiritual or religious discussions or practices. They should understand that religion and spirituality also influence the ethical (and thus medical) choices people make, respect their own conscience and worldview too and cultivate conscious compassion. PMID:21811369
Providing spiritual care is an important foundation of nursing and is a requirement mandated by accreditation organizations. Spiritual care is essential in all clinical areas but particularly in home care and hospice. Clinicians may be unable to respond to spiritual needs because of inadequate education or the assumption that spiritual needs should be addressed by clergy, chaplains, or other "spiritual" care providers. In reality, clinicians in the home may be in the best position to offer spiritual support when caring for patients at home at end of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine relationships between spirituality and nurses' providing spiritual care. Professional nurses (n = 69) working in 2 large healthcare organizations completed the Perceptions of Spiritual Care Questionnaire. Approximately, 33% of the nurses worked in home care. Significant correlations were found among those nurses whose reported nursing education programs adequately prepared them to meet spiritual needs and taught ways to incorporate spiritual care into practice and those who did not.
Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Achaso, Romeo H; Cachero, Geifsonne S; Mohammad, Mary Rose A
This study was to explore the perceptions of Filipino nurses' spirituality and the provision of spiritual nursing care. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study was adopted for this study. The study was conducted in the Philippines utilizing a convenience sample of 245 nurses. Nurses' Spirituality and Delivery of Spiritual Care (NSDSC) was used as the main instrument. The items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to nurses' perception of spirituality were Item 7, "I believe that God loves me and cares for me," and Item 8, "Prayer is an important part of my life," with mean scores of 4.87 (SD = 1.36) and 4.88 (SD = 1.34), respectively. Items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to the practice of spiritual care were Item 26, "I usually comfort clients spiritually (e.g., reading books, prayers, music, etc.)," and Item 25, "I refer the client to his/her spiritual counselor (e.g., hospital chaplain) if needed," with mean scores of 3.16 (SD = 1.54) and 2.92 (SD = 1.59). Nurse's spirituality correlated significantly with their understanding of spiritual nursing care (r = .3376, p ≤ .05) and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3980, p ≤ .05). Positive significant correlations were found between understanding of spiritual nursing care and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3289, p ≤ .05). For nurses to better provide spiritual nursing care, they must care for themselves through self-awareness, self-reflection, and developing a sense of satisfaction and contentment.
Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I
Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.
Timmins, Fiona; Caldeira, Sílvia
Assessing spirituality and the spiritual needs of patients is fundamental to providing effective spiritual care. This article, the second in a series of three, discusses the assessment of patients' spirituality and spiritual needs in healthcare settings. Several formal spiritual assessment tools are available to assist nurses to identify patients' spiritual needs and to determine whether they are experiencing spiritual distress. However, it may be more appropriate to assess patients' spirituality informally, by asking open questions about their spiritual beliefs and needs. It is important for nurses to be aware of the limits of their competence in undertaking spiritual assessment and providing spiritual care, and to refer patients to the healthcare chaplain or other spiritual support personnel where necessary. The third and final article in this series will discuss spiritual care nursing interventions.
Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie
Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar  offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…
School leaders do work that is both demanding and draining. Amid the day-to-day pressures of managing their school districts, many are seeking inspiration and deeper meaning. As a result, some are increasingly looking to integrate their spirituality and their work. In this article, the author describes three individuals interviewed as part of the…
Donaldson, E. Lisbeth
Examines various films that use visual imagery to provoke heightened awareness of women-centered spirituality. Considers the Goddess metaphor as evoking women's history, empowering women, demonstrating the links between women and the Earth, and illuminating sources of women's creativity. Discusses implications for women's education and…
Hellman, Ann N; Williams, Wesley E; Hurley, Shelia
Healthcare literature suggests that many nurses fail to address patients' spiritual needs and/or identify signs of spiritual distress. A study was conducted to explore whether nurses in a medical center possessed the knowledge to assess patients' spirituality and design and implement a plan of spiritual care. The Spiritual Care Competence Scale was used to assess competence in spiritual care assessment and implementation; professionalization and improving quality; personal support and patient counseling; referral; attitude toward patient spirituality; and communication of spiritual needs.
Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J
Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities.
Delaney, Harold D; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Campbell, William P; Smith, Bruce W
Spirituality is presumed by millions of Americans to be directly relevant to problems of alcohol abuse. We summarize findings regarding the role of religion and spirituality in the prevention and treatment of substance abuse and present a case illustration. We also consider mechanisms responsible for these effects. We offer advice about why, by whom, and how religion and spirituality should be discussed with clients with substance use disorders. In a recent clinical trial, therapists trained in a client-centered approach to facilitate exploration of spirituality fostered clients' use of spiritual practices. We suggest that the therapist's ability to skillfully engage clients in a discussion of spirituality is largely determined by how the therapist balances the dual roles of authoritative expert and evocative facilitator.
This exemplar, relaying an unexpected lesson in meeting the spiritual needs of an acutely ill patient, is written to encourage nurses in providing holistic care of patients. The author assessed spiritual distress and made a plan for spiritual care, but implementation and outcome were not favorable. An inductive Christian nursing theory by Elizabeth Ann Davis Lee, as reported in the Journal of Christian Nursing, is used to analyze this poignant memory of nursing care.
Jaberi, Azita; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ebadi, Abbas; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali
Spiritual health has attracted a lot of attention in health-related and nursing sciences and numerous researches. Yet, this concept has remained complex and ambiguous, and there is no consensus in this regard. This ambiguity can be challenging for holistic nursing; therefore, clarification of the concept is required for development of nursing knowledge. The present study aimed to explore the concept of spiritual health in health-related and nursing literature. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, 1995) concept analysis method was used in this study. The results were categorized as antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of spiritual health. The critical attributes extracted for spiritual health included transcendence, purposefulness and meaningfulness, faithfulness, harmonious interconnectedness, integrative power, multidimensionality, and holistic being. Besides, the antecedents of spiritual health included capability and potentiality for transcendence, and spiritual awareness. Finally, well-being and moral development were the outcomes of spiritual health. Spiritual health is one of the basic aspects of health and providing a clear theoretical definition can result in a common understanding of this concept for nurses. Clarifying this concept would also be useful for provision of spiritual care interventions and development of nursing theories.
Nowadays, issues of religiosity and spirituality are viewed differently than 50 years ago. Social upheaval, migration and secularization have changed the interpretation of religious meaning but have not made religion obsolete. This article describes the differences between a religious and a secular global view and defines spirituality as attachment to a larger entirety. The resources of spirituality are described and the dangers of fanaticism and fundamentalism should not be neglected. Criteria for healthy belief are compared to religious delusion. In the context of attachment theory and the concept of self-transcendence, the value of spirituality is explained by connectedness and relationship.
Christman, Sharon K; Mueller, Julia R
Spiritual care has been associated with positive patient outcomes. Although nurses want to provide spiritual care, many have difficulty conceptualizing spiritual care outside of religion and religious activities. The Faith-Hope-Love Model of Spiritual Wellness, a theoretical model of spirituality and spiritual well-being, grounded in Christian theology and biblical text, can help nurses provide spiritual support to patients and families from multiple faith traditions or those without a faith background. Spirituality concepts are discussed, and description of how spirituality is related to finding meaning and purpose in life along with a summary of the spiritual needs identified from healthcare literature and the Bible, are provided.
Witherspoon, Noelle; Taylor, Dianne L.
The historic connection of religion and spirituality to women, education, advocacy, and leadership is prevalent in Black American histories in general and the role of the religion and spirit in promoting education and socialisation. Important in this history is the intersection of spirituality and leadership for Black American women. This research…
Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.
This case study explored the spiritual journey and spaces of one Black gay male college student. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, field observations, and photovoice. Findings indicate that the student experienced tension during his spiritual journey because of his racial and sexual orientation identities but was able to…
Walker, Monica Windley; McPhail, Christine Johnson
The purpose of this study was to explore community college president and chancellor perceptions of the phenomenon of spirituality and the role of spirituality in their leadership style. A hermeneutic phenomenological research design guided this study. A total of 14 community college presidents and chancellors were purposely selected and…
Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.
"Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Wilson, Ruth A.
A misconception about spirituality is that it is tied to religion (i.e., belief in and reverence for a supernatural power). Yet, the term "spirituality" is derived from the word "spirit"--often defined as the vital principle or animating force within living things. This definition may reflect some overlap with what is generally covered in…
Sulmasy, Daniel P
Interest in the relationship between spirituality, religion, and clinical care has increased in the last 15 years, but clinicians need more concrete guidance about this topic. This article defines spirituality and religion, identifies the fundamental spiritual issues that serious illness raises for patients, and argues that physicians have a moral obligation to address patients' spiritual concerns. Religions often provide patients with specific moral guidance about a variety of medical issues and prescribe rituals that are important to patients. Religious coping can be both positive and negative, and it can impact patient care. This article provides concrete advice about taking a spiritual history, ethical boundaries, whether to pray with patients, and when to refer patients to chaplains or to their own personal clergy.
Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Bhugra, Dinesh
Sikhism has millions of followers in India and among the Indian diaspora. As a religion it is relatively young but carries with it unique perspectives which are often not well known. The holy book of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib, is not only the last Guru, but also remained a key text for this religion. Using descriptions of the religion and its followers we attempt to understand the context of spirituality within this religion and attempt to apply it to clinical settings. We explored various texts to understand the notions of spirituality and ethics and directions for living one's life. We studied both the Gurumukhi version as well as the English translation of the Sikh holy text. In the context of history of the Sikhs, various descriptions related to mental well being were identified. In this paper we describe the history, development and the core values of the religion and we also review their role on psychiatric and mental health settings for managing Sikh patients. Guru Granth Sahib offers a very useful insight into what is understood by the term equivalent to depression and its phenomenology. The notions of dukh (loosely translated as pain, but can also mean sadness or suffering) and maya (illusion) and their role in daily living are also discussed. In this paper these descriptions are explored further and their importance explained.
This paper describes the overview of Ku's spiritual literature on nursing through five stages in Taiwan: the development of a spiritual framework, a scale of spiritual distress, a spiritual care model, a spiritual nursing course, and a spiritual care book in nursing. The article demonstrates the process of building spiritual care in nursing from constructing theoretical frameworks, measurements, and applying to education. The integrative overview of Ku's spiritual studies developed in this article could be an example in clinical and education fields for nurse administrators to develop spiritual capabilities.
Curry, Jennifer R.
The imperative to integrate spirituality in counseling has been well documented in the counseling literature. Developing spiritual timelines is one creative technique that may help clients with spiritual concerns. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review spirituality in counseling, describe the use of spiritual timelines as a creative…
Stoyles, Gerard John; Stanford, Bonnie; Caputi, Peter; Keating, Alysha-Leigh; Hyde, Brendan
Spirituality is an essential influence in a child's development. However, an age-appropriate measure of child's spiritual sensitivity is not currently available in the literature. This paper describes the development of a measure of children's spiritual sensitivity, the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale for Children (SSSC). Statistical analyses…
Jankowski, Peter J.; Vaughn, Marsha
This study explored the relationships between an individual's interpersonal functioning, perceived spirituality, and selected spiritual practices. Using Bowen's family systems theory, the authors proposed that an individual's level of spiritual development and level of differentiation are correlated and that certain spiritual practices are…
Current models of spiritual development suggest that adolescents have limited capacity for spirituality and spiritual experiences. Adolescents are seen to have immature moral and ethical judgment and be incapable of deep spiritual experience due to lack of cognitive development. This mixed-methods study explored the existence of spiritual…
Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…
Snell, Robin; And Others
Includes "Joining Forces" (Lindamood); "Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation" (Hawkins); "Management--A 'Spiritual' Foundation?" (Nevard); "Hermit in Organisations" (Murray); "Towards a Spiritual Perspective on Behavior at Work" (Henson); "On Uncertainty" (Adlam); "Spirituality in Organisations" (Lee); "Ecological Organisation" (Conn);…
Berntson, Gary G.; Norman, Greg J.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.
Background Spirituality has been suggested to be associated with positive health, but potential biological mediators have not been well characterized. Purpose and Methods The present study examined, in a population based sample of middle-aged and older adults, the potential relationship between spirituality and patterns of cardiac autonomic control, which may have health significance. Measures of parasympathetic (high-frequency heart rate variability) and sympathetic (pre-ejection period) cardiac control were obtained from a representative sample of 229 participants. Participants completed questionnaires to assess spirituality (closeness to and satisfactory relation with God). Personality, demographic, anthropometric, health behavior, and health status information was also obtained. A series of multivariate regression models was used to examine the relations between spirituality, the autonomic measures, and two derived indexes-- cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, reflecting parasympathetic to sympathetic balance) and cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR, reflecting total autonomic control). Results Spirituality, net of demographics or other variables, was found to be associated with enhanced parasympathetic as well as sympathetic cardiac control (yielding a higher CAR); but was not associated with CAB. Although the number of cases was small (N=11), both spirituality and CAR were significant negative predictors of the prior occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Conclusions In a population based sample, spirituality appears to be associated with a specific pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation, characterized by a high level of cardiac autonomic control, irrespective of the relative contribution of the two autonomic branches. This pattern of autonomic control may have health significance. PMID:18357497
Hufford, David J
This article presents an overview of the sleep paralysis experience from both a cultural and a historical perspective. The robust, complex phenomenological pattern that represents the subjective experience of sleep paralysis is documented and illustrated. Examples are given showing that, for a majority of subjects, sleep paralysis is taken to be a kind of spiritual experience. This is, in part, because of the very common perception of a non-physical 'threatening presence' that is part of the event. Examples from various cultures, including mainstream contemporary America which has no widely known tradition about sleep paralysis, are used to show that the complex pattern and spiritual interpretation are not dependent on cultural models or prior learning. This is dramatically contrary to conventional explanations of apparently 'direct' spiritual experiences, explanations that are summed up as the 'Cultural Source Hypothesis.' This aspect of sleep paralysis was not recognized through most of the twentieth century. The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled 'direct' spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society. These views have resulted in confusion in the scientific literature on sleep paralysis with regard to its prevalence and core features. The article also places sleep paralysis in the context of other 'direct' spiritual experiences and offers an 'Experiential Theory' of cross-culturally distributed spiritual experiences.
Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Bakir, Ercan; Samancioglu, Sevgin; Kilic, Serap Parlar
The purpose of this study was to determine the experiences and perceptions of intensive care nurses (ICNs) about spirituality and spiritual care, as well as the effective factors, and increase the sensitivity to the subject. In this study, we examined spiritual experiences, using McSherry et al. (Int J Nurs Stud 39:723-734, 2002) Spirituality and spiritual care rating scale (SSCRS), among 145 ICNs. 44.8% of the nurses stated that they received spiritual care training and 64.1% provided spiritual care to their patients. ICNs had a total score average of 57.62 ± 12.00 in SSCRS. As a consequence, it was determined that intensive care nurses participating in the study had insufficient knowledge about spirituality and spiritual care, but only the nurses with sufficient knowledge provided the spiritual care to their patients.
... with Your Spouse or Partner Talking to Children Support Groups Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Daily ... Refer the patient to a hospital chaplain or support group that can help with spiritual issues during illness. ...
Although meeting patients' spiritual needs is important, many nurses are uncertain about what spiritual care involves and lack confidence in this area. This second article in a two part series on spirituality considers ways of addressing spiritual needs and provides an overview of the principles of assessment and implementation. Part 1 explored definitions of spirituality, the difference between religion and spirituality, and finding meaning in illness.
Chism, Lisa Astalos; Magnan, Morris A
Guided by Chism's Middle-Range Theory of Spiritual Empathy, the overarching purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which nursing students' spiritual care perspectives account for their expressions of spiritual empathy. In this descriptive correlational study, spiritual care perspectives accounted for 8.6% of the variance in nursing students' (N = 223) expressions of spiritual empathy after controlling for relevant demographic and spirituality variables. Findings of the study suggest that the provision of spiritual care in nursing practice depends, in part, on nurses clarifying their own spiritual care perspectives.
With increasing focus on providing spiritual care at the end of life, healthcare professionals and those involved in policy development are questioning how to make a 'good' death the expectation, rather than the exception. However, there is a lack of awareness of the importance of spirituality to patients' lives, and how good spiritual care can enhance quality of life and improve patient outcomes. This article examines the role of spirituality in palliative care, focusing on spiritual assessment, communication and compassion in nursing. The article attempts to provide a working definition of spirituality, focusing on who should provide spiritual care and the difficulties in meeting the spiritual needs of individuals at the end of life. Strategies to promote the spiritual wellbeing of the patient are discussed.
Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M
Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value.
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian
Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the concept of spirituality. There is a recognized connection between spirituality and health, and nurse leaders have acknowledged the importance of the spiritual as well as the physical in providing optimal nursing care. Spirituality goes beyond religious or cultural boundaries. Spirituality is characterized by faith, a search for meaning and purpose in life, a sense of connection with others, and a transcendence of self, resulting in a sense of inner peace and well-being. A strong spiritual connection may improve one's sense of satisfaction with life or enable accommodation to disability.
Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Moreira, Marcial Moreno; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula
To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS]) was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people’s welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers have been increasingly attentive to this dimension of care. However, it is necessary to improve their knowledge regarding the subject. The search highlighted that spirituality is considered a source of comfort and hope, contributing to a better acceptance of his/her chronic condition by the child with cancer, as well as by the family. Further up-to-date studies facing the subject are, thus, needed. It is also necessary to better train health care practitioners, so as to provide humanized care to the child with cancer. PMID:24133371
Haasz, Christine A.
This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…
This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…
... ages. Although spirituality has been shown to reduce depression, improve blood pressure, and boost the immune system, religious beliefs should not interfere with the medical care kids receive. So what exactly is spirituality and ...
Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul
Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model.
Greenstreet, Wendy M.
This literature review addresses the following questions: "What is spirituality?"; How is it defined in a nursing context?"; and "What should be taught in nursing and how?" It emphasizes spirituality as a broad concept, not equated with any religion. (SK)
Cheng, Ju-Fen; Lin, Ya-Ching; Huang, Pai-Ho; Wei, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Jia-Ling
Providing spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer may improve the quality of life of these patients and help them experience a good death. Cancer patients are eager for additional spiritual care and for a sense of peace at the end of their life. However, spirituality is an abstract concept. The literature on spiritual care focuses primarily on elaborations of spirituality theory. Thus, first-line medical care professionals lack clear guidelines for managing the spiritual needs of terminal cancer patients. The purposes of this article were to: 1) introduce a spiritual care model based on the concept of repair and recovery of relationships that addresses the relationship between the self and God, others, id, and objects and 2) set out a four-step strategy for this model that consists of understanding, empathizing, guiding, and growing. This article provides operational guidelines for the spiritual care of terminal cancer patients.
The paper discusses the effectiveness of Islamic spiritual and religious care based on the ethnographic research with 15 Muslim spiritual caregivers. Six themes emerged from the interviews with fifteen Muslim spiritual caregivers. These six themes describe what the spiritual care providers see as effective Muslim spiritual care: (1) The most effective Muslim spiritual care is rooted in the Qur'an and the Hadith; (2) Effective Muslim spiritual care also means creating a caring relationship with the patient; (3) Muslim scholars are one of the important sources of effective Islamic spiritual care; (4) The insights of psychology and the social sciences are a necessary part of effective Islamic spiritual care; (5) There is a need for continuing education; (6). Styles of effective Muslim spiritual care are varied.
Purdy, Melanie; Dupey, Peggy
The Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness is a conceptualization of spiritual health and well-being that has implications for clinical practice and research. The model is unique in its placement of the spirit at the center of Life and in its fluid vision of the spirit. The authors present the model after a discussion of spirituality and the…
The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.
Evans, Marcheta; Atkins, Martha J.
This article describes two creative techniques utilized when working with clients. With the increased attention on issues of spirituality, multiculturalism, and creativity, the "Give Away Ceremony" and "Spiritual Symbolism" is demonstrated via a case study approach. Additionally, a brief history of the immersion of spirituality in the counseling…
Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.
This paper describes a comprehensive set of 12 new measures for studying undergraduate students' spiritual and religious development. The three measures of spirituality, four measures of "spiritually related" qualities, and five measures of religiousness demonstrate satisfactory reliability, robustness, and both concurrent and predictive validity.…
Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women leaders in Kenya. The paper seeks to connect African data with existing literature on spiritual leadership, to demonstrate where African spiritual leadership is similar…
Warfield, Robert D.; Goldstein, Marc B.
Suggests that a condition of "negative spirituality" underlies and sustains alcoholism and perhaps all addictions. Argues that a secure recovery is not possible unless a "spiritual awakening," such as envisioned by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), is achieved. A broadly applicable conceptual model of spirituality is inferred from the…
Prezioso, Frederick Alan
This document attempts to give some shape and definition to the term spirituality as it relates to the addiction and recovery of chemically dependent persons and co-dependents. Positive and negative spirituality are discussed and addiction and "hitting bottom" are described. A variety of spiritual issues that are a part of the recovery…
Yob, Iris M.
The basic thesis explored in this paper is that rather than seeing spirituality as a byproduct of music, the other arts, and religion, music, the other arts, and religion might be seen as a byproduct of spirituality--hence, the proposition that music is a language of spirituality. If that is the case, there are twin dangers: talk of "wholism" can…
Otto, Patrick; Harrington, Michael
The Christian university has a distinct responsibility to provide an environment devoted to the spiritual formation of students. Spiritual formation is not to be viewed as the only important goal of the university, thereby sacrificing intellectual or relational development, but rather spiritual formation is the aggregate "product" of the…
This article describes the use of Fowler's (1981) faith development theory (FDT) in counseling. FDT is a stage model of spiritual and religious development that allows counselors to identify both adaptive qualities and potential encumbrances in spiritual or religious expression. FDT offers a nonsectarian model of spiritual growth that permits…
Holden, Janice Miner; VanPelt-Tess, Pamela; Warren, Scott
Reviews the professional literature on spiritual emergency, including history of the concept; etiology, features, and course of phenomenon; differential diagnosis; and professional response to clients in spiritual emergency. A verbatim transcript of a client describing a spiritual emergency illustrates aspects of the phenomenon and evaluates…
Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra
Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…
Beauvais, Audrey; Stewart, Julie G; DeNisco, Susan
Understanding factors that influence spiritual well-being may improve nurses' spiritual caregiving. This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual well-being (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed.
Niño, Andrés G
Confessions, the narrative of Augustine's spiritual journey, has been a source of inspiration to readers through many centuries. It addresses the universal striving of the individual towards a 'way of living' characterized by internal coherence and an experience of the transcendent. Augustine, using a method of inquiry and engagement, guides the reader through some fundamental exercises: remembering one's story; facing inner restlessness; entering into dialogue with God; ordering of human love; centering in Christ; participating in a community of faith; living as a pilgrim. Together, they constitute a didactic instrument for the spiritual development of his readers. This paper reconstructs that central purpose in a coherent and practical model.
Bellous, Joyce E.; Csinos, David M.
Children need to sense that their way of being spiritual is honoured within learning environments that nurture the human spirit. This assertion rests on two assumptions: that children have different ways to express a desire to make the world a better place and that there are patterns to these ways that can be identified, understood and involved in…
This article describes the author's attempt to highlight the problem areas associated with providing spiritual care for patients. The focus of this work is to discuss the following areas of interest: What is spirituality? The issue of spirituality in nursing. The impact of spirituality for the patient. The relevance or irrelevance of religion. The concept of serenity as a goal for nursing practice. The author provides examples, specifically regarding older people, explaining why spiritual care of patients is decidedly problematic in the British healthcare system and provides suggestions as to how to reintegrate this essential part of caregiving back into daily practice.
This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.
Waggoner, Michael D.
Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…
Toke, Arun Narayan, Ed; Brandt, Amy E., Ed
This collection of articles describes various religious traditions in pieces written by students. Students and adults from diverse cultural and religious backgrounds reflect on what role religion and spirituality play in their lives, including how they relate to the Earth. (LZ)
Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth
A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…
Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter
This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…
This paper considers the often overlooked religious and educational works of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After outlining Tolstoy's life, religious and educational views, it is argued that Tolstoy has much to offer spiritual educators today. In particular, it suggests Tolstoy's insistence on the absolute and eternal nature of…
A patient has to cope with an illness on a physical, mental and spiritual level. There exists a difference between religiousness and spirituality even though the approach has a common foundation. Nonreligious spirituality relates to an inner experience, transcendent states of consciousness, meaningfulness, responsibility, sympathy, ethics, humanisation, faith. We encounter the spiritual point of view in humanistic psychotherapy, pastoral medicine, work of hospital chaplains, New Age, psychotherapies with religious and alternative aspects, transpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-spiritual crises, unusual states of consciousness, in meditation, Yoga, relaxation, kinesiology, ethicotherapy, reincarnation therapy, positive motivation, holotropic breathing, etc. There is description of different degrees of spiritual development, rational and irrational feeling of spirituality, Quantum Physics, spiritual intelligence, neuro-theology, physiological change, effects on improving adaptation during stress, drugs addiction, etc. Spirituality in relation with ethics is discussed in terms of socio-biology, evolution, emotions, aggressivity, genetics and social influence. The work analyses the effect of stressful situations on the deterioration of moral attitudes: during lack of time, obedience to authority and order. It is described how temperament and personality disorders can affect perception of spirituality, guilt feeling and conscience. Stressful situations, lack of time, relying only on the auxiliary objective methods leads to alienation of physician with a patient. Spirituality can partially improve the doctor-patient relationship, communication and sense of responsibility.
This article discusses the spiritual lives of children who are facing severe illness or bereavement. Initially, it describes a children's story which had some impact on the author's spiritual views during childhood. The concept of children as spiritual beings is discussed and questions are raised as to why relatively little attention has been given to this as opposed to their religious affiliation. Asserting that children do have a spiritual dimension, the importance of addressing children's spirituality is considered. Discussion is given to ways of assessing and attending to children's spirituality, illustrated with case studies. It is identified that for carers, a degree of self-awareness is crucial in order to develop an open and flexible working definition of what spirituality is and means.
Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak
Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient's needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality should be addressed in standard clinical care. Ongoing research in medical education and curriculum design points towards the inclusion of competence, communication and training in spirituality. There are structured and reliable instruments available for assessing the relationship between spirituality, religion and health in research settings. Intervention based scientific studies in the arena of spirituality and modern medicine are needed. Further research should be directed towards making modern medicine more holistic.
Shek, Daniel T L
The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed. PMID:22654611
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural 'top-down' effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness.
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141
Willow, Rebecca A.; Tobin, David J.; Toner, Susan
Spiritual genograms collect and organize family information of a religious or spiritual nature. The authors explored the use of the spiritual genogram in counselor education. Graduate counseling students were assigned to construct and present a spiritual genogram within a course titled "Counseling and Spirituality." An assessment of the quality of…
Discusses the nature of spirituality and the resources people use in responding to spirituality based on Robert Coles' book, "The Spiritual Life of Children." Answers questions as to how to use the camp experience to afford campers opportunities for spiritual growth while respecting the many expressions of spirituality in society. (LP)
Garen, David C.
I would like to continue the discussion ofpoints raised in William Carter's response toRobert Frodeman's Eos Forum article Carter,2006; Frodeman, 2005. I have appreciatedFrodeman's work and feel that perspectiveson science deriving from humanities, philosophy,and religion can add depth, insight,and meaning to our endeavors. I would liketo broaden the discussion beyond just spacepolicy to include the relationship betweenscience in general and these, what I wouldcall, spiritual issues.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay
The current study used data from reliability testing of the Christian Inventory of Spirituality (CIS) to (1) assess the utility of CIS in detecting differences in level of spirituality in residents of residential Christian faith-based substance abuse programs (RCFBSAPs); (2) test the hypothesis that residents who have been in the program for longer periods of time will have significantly higher levels of spirituality after controlling for relevant demographic characteristics; and (3) test the hypothesis that residents of programs that only use unlicensed staff and place higher importance on spirituality will have significantly higher levels of spirituality. A purposive sample of the cross-sectional data from the reliability testing of the CIS was used (n = 253). Analysis supported the hypothesis. Demographic characteristics were not associated with level of spirituality. The CIS proved to be useful in discriminating levels of spirituality. Further research is needed to examine spiritual change using randomized pre-post test designs.
Tirgari, Batool; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Ali Cheraghi, Mohammad; Arefi, Ali
Spiritual care is an essential component in nursing practice and strongly influenced by the sociocultural context. This article aimed to elucidate the meaning of nurses' experiences of giving spiritual care in southeast of Iran. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach influenced by Ricoeur was used. Eleven staff nurses who were currently working in the 3 major hospitals under the umbrella of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences were interviewed. The meaning of spiritual care was comprehensively understood as meeting patient as a unique being. This can be divided into 3 themes: meeting patient as a being in relationship, meeting patient as a cultural being, and meeting patient as a religious being. The results in this study suggest that education about spirituality and spiritual care should be included in the continuous and in-service education of registered nurses. Spiritual and cultural assessment criteria should be included in this education to improve the provision of holistic care.
Walton, Martin Neal
A previous article focused on an analysis of prominent conceptualizations of spirituality in health care. The encompassing character of those approaches was viewed as problematic because too little attention is paid to the distinctiveness and particularities of spiritual experience. This article argues that the criteria gleaned from the prior analysis provide an impetus for a constructive discernment proposal of lived spirituality. The experience of otherness is provides a central clue to an understanding of spirituality particularly by two key terms, receptivity and transformation, as central characterizations of lived spirituality. These terms are investigated as they embrace operational potential for chaplaincy care. The article concludes with a reflection on chaplaincy care as it relates to spiritual practice.
Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa
This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.
Nurse educators are challenged to find meaningful methods to teach spirituality throughout the curriculum. Simulation is one teaching strategy that offers real-life situations in a less threatening environment. This article offers a simulation of a client in spiritual distress and describes student responses using the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) tool. Simulation can be used to help students develop critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills for spiritual care.
Despite spirituality being an important aspect of patient care, few nurses feel they meet patients' needs in this area. This first in a two part series examines definitions of spirituality and the difference between this concept and religion. It also discusses spirituality at certain points in t hepatient pathway, such as at the end of life, and finding meaning in illness.
In a survey of 35 first-year and 18 fourth-year nursing students, most expressed strong awareness of personal spirituality and spiritual health and were able to identify behaviors that facilitated spiritual nursing care. Fourth-year students were more patient centered, focusing on supporting patients' beliefs. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)
Historically underpinning principles of the English curriculum framework for children from birth to five years explicitly acknowledged a spiritual dimension to children's uniqueness and well-being. Yet spirituality receives scant reference in the discourse of creative learning and teaching. This paper considers the relationship of spirituality to…
Daaleman, Timothy P.
Aims To introduce a health services framework of spiritual care that addresses the empirical and applied issues surrounding spirituality and nursing practice. Background Despite over 20 years of study, the concept of spirituality is still under development, which limits application to nursing practice. Methods Three studies using a health services framework are reviewed: (1) a survey study of dying patients and family that describes the providers, types, and outcomes of spiritual care; (2) an exploratory study of the process of spiritual care; and (3) a multi-level study of the structure and outcomes of spiritual care in long-term care facilities. Results Spiritual care recipients identify family or friends (41%), clergy (17%), and health care providers (29%) as spiritual care providers. The most frequently reported type of spiritual care was help in coping with illness (87%). Just over half (55%) of spiritual care recipients were very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the care that they received. The processes of spiritual care involved: (1) presence, or the deliberate ideation and purposeful action of providing care that went beyond medical treatment; (2) opening eyes, or the process by which providers became aware of their patient’s storied humanity and the individualized experience of their current illness, and; (3) co-creating, which was a mutual and fluid activity between patients, family members, and care providers that began with an affirmation of the patient’s life experience and led to the generation of a holistic care plan that focused on maintaining the patient’s humanity and dignity. In long term care facilities, decedents who received spiritual care were perceived as receiving better overall care in the last month of life, when compared with those decedents who did not receive spiritual care. In addition, among those receiving support for their spiritual needs, care was rated more highly among those who received support from facility staff
Walker, Robert; Godlaski, Theodore M; Staton-Tindall, Michele
Spirituality has long been associated with recovery from the socially constructed "addictive disease." Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its analogs have enjoyed widespread acceptance as a spiritual approach for achieving recovery. AA or its derivatives are the predominant approaches in treatment programs even though a wide array of evidence-based approaches are now promoted by governmental sources in the United States. This philosophical analysis contrasts the state of science about addictive disorders with the reliance on a spiritual approach that is heavily grounded in Christian theology. We present four problems that need consideration before accepting the applicability of 12-step spiritual practices as the backbone of addiction treatment or recovery.
Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086
Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.
Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social behaviour, academic achievement, alcohol abuse and cessation, substance abuse, externalizing behaviours, and depressive symptoms. Instruments for measuring enculturation generally have three components: traditional activities, cultural identification, and traditional spirituality. A second conceptual framework is cultural spiritual orientation which distinguishes between cultural spiritual orientations and tribal spiritual beliefs. Enculturation and cultural orientations are protective against alcohol abuse, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. New tools are emerging for measuring the multidimensional nature of culturally rooted spirituality in Indigenous communities, tools that are context-specific and often the product of collaborative design processes. As the ability of researchers to measure these complex processes advances and Indigenous communities take increasing charge of their own research, it should become easier to design interventions that take advantage of the cultural/spiritual dimension of Indigenous traditions to promote individual, family, and community resilience. PMID:20963185
Pittroff, Gail E
This interpretive phenomenological study explored how inpatient palliative care nurse consultants provide spiritual care and how they acquired these skills. Humbled experts describes the nurses' personhood and spiritual care practices, offering insight for skilled spiritual care in any setting.
MacKinlay, Elizabeth B; Trevitt, Corinne
Providing spiritual care is about tapping into the concept of spirituality: core meaning, deepest life meaning, hope and connectedness. The search for meaning, connectedness and hope becomes more significant as older people are faced with the possibilities of frailty, disability and dementia. Spirituality, ageing and meaning in life can be discussed in the context of an alternative view of "successful ageing". A model of spiritual tasks in older age can help explain the spiritual dimension and provide a starting point for spiritual assessment.
Cole, Brenda S; Hopkins, Clare M; Tisak, John; Steel, Jennifer L; Carr, Brian I
This study assessed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an instrument designed to assess spiritual transformations following a diagnosis of cancer-the Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS). The instrument was administering to 253 people diagnosed with cancer within the previous 2 years. Two underlying factors emerged (spiritual growth (SG) and spiritual decline (SD)) with adequate internal reliability (alpha = 0.98 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85 and 0.73, respectively). Validity was supported by correlations between SG and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) Positive Affect Subscale (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). SD was associated with higher scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and PANAS-Negative Affect Subscale (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and lower scores on the PANAS-Positive Affect Subscale (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subscales uniquely predicted adjustment beyond related constructs (intrinsic religiousness, spiritual coping, and general post-traumatic growth). The results indicate that the STS is psychometrically sound, with SG predicting better, and SD predicting poorer, mental and spiritual well-being following a diagnosis of cancer.
Webb, Jon R; Toussaint, Loren; Dula, Chris S
An expanded model to conceptualize sacred human experiences is discussed wherein the term Spirituality is broadened to include: (1) Ritualistic Spirituality, (2) Theistic Spirituality, and (3) Existential Spirituality. However, a measure incorporating this expanded model does not yet exist. A 67-item self-report questionnaire was developed and data were collected from 1,301 undergraduate students. A series of factor analytic procedures yielded a three-factor structure consistent with the guiding theoretical model and refinement produced three 10-item subscales. Evidence for construct validity and sound psychometric properties was indicative of a reliable, valid, and unique tool to assess the multidimensional nature of spirituality.
Cooper, Katherine L; Chang, Esther; Sheehan, Athena; Johnson, Amanda
Spiritual care is an important component of holistic care. In Australia competency statements relating to nursing practice emphasise the need to provide care that addresses the spiritual as well as other aspects of being. However, many nurses feel they are poorly prepared to provide spiritual care. This is attributed largely to lack a of spiritual care education provided in undergraduate nursing programmes. A few higher education providers have responded to this lack of spiritual care education by incorporating specific content related to this area into their undergraduate nursing programme. Minimal international studies have investigated the impact of spiritual care education on undergraduate nursing students and no Australian studies were identified. This review explores spiritual care education in undergraduate nursing programmes and identifies the need for an Australian study.
Rudolfsson, Gudrun; Berggren, Ingela; da Silva, António Barbosa
Spirituality is often mistakenly equated with religion but is in fact a far broader concept. The aim of this integrative review was to describe experiences of the positive impact of spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing. The analysis was guided by Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method. The findings revealed seven themes: 'Being part of a greater wholeness', 'Togetherness - value based relationships', 'Developing inner strength', 'Ministering to patients', 'Maintaining one's sense of humanity', 'Viewing life as a gift evokes a desire to 'give back'' and 'Achieving closure - life goes on'. It is difficult to draw definite conclusions, as spirituality involves many perspectives on various levels of awareness. However, spirituality was considered more inclusive, fluid and personal. Furthermore, it emerged that spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing are closely intertwined with the concept of caring.
Research has shown an increase in suicides by military veterans and law enforcement officers in the United States. Etiologic research elucidates warrior culture and subculture as contributing factors of this pathology. This paper examines the idiosyncratic nature and influence of warrior culture and subculture and offers recommendations to promote culture change. Faith-based spirituality and prayer are examined as adjunct modalities for stress management and emotional healing. Further research is recommended to assess the associated hidden cost factors and long-term financial impact of warrior culture on society.
Sink, Christopher A.; Cleveland, Richard; Stern, Julian
This article makes the case that Christian school counselors should be more directly engaged in student spiritual formation. To accomplish this aim, the historical context for the discussion is first explored, followed by a review of contemporary medical and psychological research associating a positive spirituality with healthy functioning across…
Ibrahim, Farah A.; Dykeman, Cass
In this article, the authors identify the cultural and spiritual assessments needed to conduct counseling with Muslim Americans and Muslim immigrants to the United States. Assessment processes are outlined that include cultural identity (which subsumes several variables); worldview; spiritual assessment along with acculturation level and migration…
Lodewyk, Ken; Lu, Chunlei; Kentel, Jeanne
Spirituality is a fundamental, everyday life process involving a joy of living, sacrifice and love for others, and a connection to self, others, nature, and to a larger meaning or purpose. Distinct from moral or religious beliefs, spirituality engages interactively with the psyche, body, and sociocultural setting to influence human functioning,…
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…
Wachholtz, Amy B; Pargament, Kenneth I
Migraine headaches are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety (Waldie and Poulton Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 72: 86-92, 2002) and feelings of low self-efficacy (French et al. Headache, 40: 647-656, 2000). Previous research suggests that spiritual meditation may ameliorate some of the negative traits associated with migraine headaches (Wachholtz and Pargament Journal of behavioral Medicine, 30: 311-318, 2005). This study examined two primary questions: (1) Is spiritual meditation more effective in enhancing pain tolerance and reducing migraine headache related symptoms than secular meditation and relaxation? and, (2) Does spiritual meditation create better mental, physical, and spiritual health outcomes than secular meditation and relaxation techniques? Eighty-three meditation naïve, frequent migraineurs were taught Spiritual Meditation, Internally Focused Secular Meditation, Externally Focused Secular Meditation, or Muscle Relaxation which participants practiced for 20 min a day for one month. Pre-post tests measured pain tolerance (with a cold pressor task), headache frequency, and mental and spiritual health variables. Compared to the other three groups, those who practiced spiritual meditation had greater decreases in the frequency of migraine headaches, anxiety, and negative affect, as well as greater increases in pain tolerance, headache-related self-efficacy, daily spiritual experiences, and existential well being.
Animal- and bird-becoming is an aspect of play as metamorphosis connected to spirituality in early childhood settings. The reconceptualisation of play presented here is supported by research that explored the spiritual experiences of young children in different early childhood contexts. Qualitative case study research carried out in Aotearoa New…
Johnson, Peggy; Mutschelknaus, Mike
Noting that at Saint Mary's University (where the authors teach) the issue of spirituality is in the forefront of education and is seamlessly woven into required courses throughout four years of college in an attempt to "enhance students' spiritual and personal lives," this paper positions writing centers as a place for student inquiries…
Attempts a redefinition of spirituality and an incorporation of this into art education. Argues that symbolic and spiritual consciousness plays a crucial role in the works of artists as disparate as William Blake and Frida Kahlo. Criticizes the preeminence of scientific theory as a modern belief system. (MJP)
Souldrama[R] is a therapeutic, psychospiritual group action model that leads participants through seven sequential stages of spiritual development with the goal of accessing their spiritual intelligence. It can help group members move past resistance and recognize and move on to their higher purpose. Psychodramatically based, it is intended to be…
Gallo, Laura L.
Spirituality is an area that has not received a great deal of attention in supervision, yet it can have substantial effects on the counseling process. A definition of spirituality that allows for a variety of worldviews can be useful to both counselor and client as it helps strengthen the counseling relationship and lessen differences between…
Markle, D. Thomas
Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…
Hicks, Mona; Tran-Parsons, Uyen
The skill development of equanimity and empathy gained through spiritual growth equips students to examine solutions to complex problems in a diverse, global society. This chapter explores intentional multicultural initiatives designed to foster spiritual development and interfaith engagement as means to navigate difference and social good.
Yang, Chun-Tien; Yen, Shiaw-Yu; Chen, Jui-O
In the context of holistic care, the definition of "unitary human being" incorporates the physical, psychological, social and spiritual. However, patient spiritual well-being is often neglected by nurses. Part of the reason for this is that a majority of clinical nurses have not had adequate training or practical guidance on spiritual caring methods. This paper applied the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of spiritual well-being. Analytical procedures used included a literature review of conceptual definitions of spiritual well-being and identification of defining attributes. We then developed a concept of spiritual well-being by referencing borderline and contrary cases identified in the constructed model and identified antecedents and consequences. Empirical referents were also outlined. Results show the defining attributes of spiritual well-being to be: (1) having a subjective feeling of happiness; (2) Affirming the self worth; (3) managing interpersonal relationships with an open, accepting attitude; and (4) possessing an internal "energy". This analysis is hoped to enhance nurse understanding of spiritual well-being in order to utilize the concept in their professional practice.
Spirituals are religious folk songs that were created and sung by enslaved African Americans to express the emotions and thoughts of a people in bondage. The spiritual conveyed deep religious convictions and the desire for freedom brought on by two centuries' worth of oppression, as slavery was legal in the United States from approximately 1650…
Zweiback, Yoshi; Kaplan, Sandra N.; Manzone, Jessica
This paper addresses the question of spirituality in a religious setting, and prayer as an expression of ultimate values, as a discipline which inspires empathy, as an instrument for connecting us with nature, and as a compass pointing us toward God, meaning, and purpose. Spirituality in the general education setting will also be discussed, as…
Young, J. Scott; Fuller, James O.
By using carefully developed questions during the early stages of counseling, counselors can "open the door" for clients to feel comfortable discussing spiritual or religious themes in counseling. This process of incorporating spirituality into counseling may involve a paradigm shift and additional training for counselors; thus, guidelines are…
Chan, Roxane Raffin
The increased acceptance of integrative care allows nurses to investigate their role as active providers of spiritual care at the bedside. Lack of clear role expectations and interventions support the need for a simple, flexible spiritual bedside intervention. The use of a meditation mantra is discussed.
Oakes, K. Elizabeth; Raphel, Mary M.
Given the widely expanding professional and empirical support for integrating spirituality into counseling, the authors present a practical discussion for raising counselors' general awareness and skill in the critical area of spiritual assessment. A discussion of rationale, measurement, and clinical practice is provided along with case examples.…
Love, Patrick G.
Three spiritual development theories and theorists (i.e., Parks, Fowler, and Helminiak) were compared with traditional cognitive development theory and theorists. The analysis reveals both commonalities between the two sets of theories and unique contributions to an understanding of student development on the part of spiritual development theory.…
Pridmore, Pat; Pridmore, John
This paper considers whether there are aspects of spiritual pedagogy specific to the education of children who are sick and asks how these concerns are to be addressed. The context of the enquiry is England and Wales where the promotion of the spiritual development of children is a legislative requirement. The focus of the study is on sick…
Einolf, Christopher J.
This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…
Japar, Muhammad; Purwati
Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…
Payne Gold, Shaunna
Spiritual development and nonheterosexual identity development are both slippery topics that are individually complex and multifaceted. Scholars from various disciplines have called for a deeper understanding of the intersection of spirituality and nonheterosexual identity (Buchanan, Dzelme, Harris & Hecker, 2001; Love, Bock Jannarone, &…
The paper considers six connections between spirituality and intoxication or addiction. They are: intoxication as a means of communication with a spiritual world; intoxication as destroying spirituality; shared use and intoxication as creating and validating community; spirituality and religion as a means of collective sobering-up; spirituality in individual sobering up; and abstinence as a spiritual practice, a witness, or a badge of membership in a spiritual community. Intoxication can either enhance or impede spirituality, both at individual and collective levels. Spirituality is often important in sobering up, both individually and collectively, and abstinence is a part of spiritual or religious practice in some traditions. But a full account must acknowledge the diversity in the interactions of spirituality and intoxication or addiction.
Grover, Sandeep; Davuluri, Triveni; Chakrabarti, Subho
Religion and spirituality exert a significant role in the lives of many individuals, including people with schizophrenia. However, the contribution of religion and spirituality to various domains (psychopathology, explanatory models, treatment seeking, treatment adherence, outcome, etc.) has not received much attention. In this article, we review the exiting data with regards to the relationship of religion, spirituality, and various domains in patients with schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that for some patients, religion instills hope, purpose, and meaning in their lives, whereas for others, it induces spiritual despair. Patients with schizophrenia also exhibit religious delusions and hallucinations. Further, there is some evidence to suggest that religion influences the level of psychopathology. Religion and religious practices also influence social integration, risk of suicide attempts, and substance use. Religion and spirituality also serves as an effective method of coping with the illness. Religion also influences the treatment compliance and outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24860209
Buck, Harleah G
The concept of spirituality has gained increasing attention over the last decade, as evidenced by the number of conceptual and empirical articles published. Many recommend that continued theory development is essential to understand spirituality and guide practice. The aim of this article is to review the nursing research on spirituality and conduct a concept analysis using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning. A definition of spirituality is presented, and a model constructed from a review of the literature and reflection. Spirituality is defined as: that most human of experiences that seeks to transcend self and find meaning and purpose through connection with others, nature, and/or a Supreme Being, which may or may not involve religious structures or traditions.
Musa, Ahmad S
This study explored the frequency of providing aspects of spiritual care intervention and its association with nurses' own spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of 355 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. The nurses were recruited from different hospitals, representing both public and private health care sectors in northern and central Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design was used. Results indicated that Jordanian Muslim nurses provided religious aspects of spiritual care intervention to their Muslim patients infrequently and that their own spiritual well-being was positively associated with the frequency of provision of spiritual care interventions. The study concluded that Jordanian Muslim nurses most frequently provided spiritual care interventions that were existential, not overtly religious, were commonly used, were more traditional, and did not require direct nurse involvement. Moreover, the findings revealed that spiritual well-being was important to those nurses, which has implications for improving the provision of spiritual care intervention. The study provides information that enables nurses, nursing managers, and nursing educators to evaluate the nurses' provision of various aspects of spiritual care to their Muslim patients, and to identify aspects of spiritual care intervention where nurses might receive training to become competent in providing this care.
Ingersoll, R. Elliott; Bauer, Ann L.
The issue of spirituality in education has received increased attention in the past decade particularly as spirituality has become recognized as a construct distinct from religiosity. This article we discusses integrating spirituality into school counseling using the spiritual wellness construct and the integral model developed by philosopher Ken…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
This article examines how one spiritual, Black, male, first grade teacher and one spiritual, Black first grader name music as a spiritual practice. The data arise from a 1-year multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry. The findings demonstrate how the participants' age, ethnicity, class, and spirituality shape music as a spiritual…
Osborn, Debra; Street, Sue; Bradham-Cousar, Michelle
This study examined the self-reported value of spirituality, types of spiritual practices, and values of 69 counselor education students. It also examined counseling students' ideas for how to increase their comfort with incorporating spirituality into counseling practice. Implications for implementing spirituality training in counselor education…
Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.
This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.
Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…
Davis, Don E; Rice, Kenneth; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Choe, Elise; Worthington, Everett L
Most measures of spirituality privilege religious spirituality, but people may experience spirituality in a variety of ways, including a sense of closeness, oneness, or connection with a theistic being, the transcendent (i.e., something outside space and time), oneself, humanity, or nature. The overall purpose of the present 4 studies was to develop the Sources of Spirituality (SOS) Scale to measure these different elements of spirituality. In Study 1, we created items, had them reviewed by experts, and used data from a sample of undergraduates (N = 218) to evaluate factor structure and inform initial measurement revisions. The factor structure replicated well in another sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 2), and in a sample of community adults (N = 140; Study 3). In a sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 4), we then evaluated evidence of construct validity by examining associations between SOS Scale scores and religious commitment, positive attitudes toward the Sacred, and dispositional connection with nature. Moreover, based on latent profile analyses results, we found 5 distinct patterns of spirituality based on SOS subscales. We consider implications for therapy and relevance of the findings for models of spirituality and future research.
Dougherty, Troy J.
Very little research exists to empirically support a spiritual component to leadership. Most of the literature connecting spirituality to leadership is either theory based or anecdotal. Even less research exists involving college students and the contribution of spirituality to their attitudes and behaviors as leaders. Spiritual intelligence has…
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
To examine the moderating role of spirituality between hopelessness, spirituality, and suicidal ideation, 202 Iranian depressed adolescent inpatients completed measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and core spiritual experience. Structural equation modelling indicated that depressed inpatients high in hopelessness, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal ideation than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness and suicidal ideation.
Chandler, Diane J
This qualitative study addressed two research questions (a) what spiritual practices contribute to pastors' emotional and spiritual well-being?, and (b) what factors contribute to pastoral burnout? Based on an inductive analysis of eight pastoral interviews, the study revealed that these spiritual leaders engage in specific spiritual disciplines that contribute to their sense of well-being. The implications of this study prompt further research into the relationship between leaders' spiritual practices and burnout.
Solomon, Jeffrey; Hunter, Jeremy
Using Howard Gardner's concept of existential intelligence along with others such as Jerome Bruner, explores the psychology of spirituality and leadership. Describes how famous film director uses meditation in his work. Draws implications for educational leadership. (PKP)
Zeph, Catherine P.
Loyola University's Institute for Ministry Education uses such techniques as learning covenants and critical reflection to nourish the development of lay ministers. It demonstrates how adult education principles can contribute to spiritual growth. (SK)
What motivates organizational leaders in their search for spirituality? They seek to integrate their inner journey with their day-to-day professional roles. This article describes how a course in spirituality for executives has provided tools to analyze and clarify intentions, avoid the traps of excessive greed and power, and make decisions that are both compassionate and effective. André L. Delbecq, DBA, the Thomas J. and Kathleen L. McCarthy Professor at the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University in California, offers seminars in spirituality for organizational leadership through the MBA program and the Center for Executive Development. Delbecq is the first to admit his surprise at the number of executives who have repeatedly asked for courses in spirituality. He talks about how his seminars have helped CEOs and other top executives achieve greater effectiveness in leading organizations.
... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...
Vaillant, George E
This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.
Dyson, J; Cobb, M; Forman, D
This paper presents a literature review in relation to the meaning of spirituality. It is proposed that meeting the spiritual needs of patients is a fundamental part of providing holistic nursing care, but that the assessment and meeting of those needs is impeded by inadequate definitions and conceptual frameworks. It should not be assumed that spirituality is either synonymous, or coterminous, with religion, and it is suggested that to adopt this restrictive view is unhelpful in the provision of individualized care. Reflection on the literature reveals that the self, others and 'God' provide the key elements within a definition of spirituality, and that other emerging themes namely meaning, hope, relatedness/connectedness, beliefs/belief systems and expressions of spirituality, can be articulated in the context of those three key elements. In particular, it is proposed that the nature of 'God' may take many forms and, essentially, is whatever an individual takes to be of highest value in his/her life. It is suggested that the themes emerging from the literature can be utilized as a framework to give practitioners and researchers a direction for future exploration of the concept of spirituality.
Pillon, Sandra Cristina; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; de Souza Gonçalves, Angélica Martins; de Araújo, Keila Maria
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate alcohol use and the levels of spirituality among nursing students. The tests used were the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Spirituality Scale. Participants were 191 (80.2%) nursing undergraduates from a city in the state of Minas Gerais, 75.4% of which were female, average age 25 years, and 149 (78%) were Catholic. As for alcohol use per gender, 117 (75%) women used alcoholic beverages and 33 (56.9%) had a drinking problem (p?0.05), against 25 men (431%). Low scores for spirituality levels were found in the sample: in average, women had lower scores compared to men (12.7 against 13.5). Comparing the level of spirituality with having a drinking problem, it was observed that students with low risk alcohol use had lower levels of spirituality. In conclusion, spirituality may not function as a protecting factor for alcohol use, hence this behavior may be under the control of other variables.
Boss, Lisa; Branson, Sandy; Cron, Stanley; Kang, Duck-Hee
Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping) and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β) in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4). Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001), depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01), and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01). Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly. PMID:27417804
Rassoulian, Anahita; Seidman, Charles; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette
Abstract To explore how medical students—the doctors of tomorrow—reflect upon meeting the spiritual needs of their patients, and whether they have reflected on their own religious or spiritual beliefs, or not. The study also investigates to what extent the students feel comfortable with addressing spiritual issues in their patient care, and whether they feel this is beyond their role as medical doctors. A self-administered questionnaire was developed. The survey was administered in teaching classes at the medical university of Vienna. One thousand four hundred (836 women and 564 men) students responded, laying the foundation for a thorough statistical analysis. 59.5% of the students had reflected on their own belief concepts, 21.9% consider themselves religious, and 20.1% see themselves as spiritual individuals. 75.6% of the students agreed with the statement that religious conviction/spirituality might have an effect on how cancer patients cope. 85.9% would consider talking with their patients about religious/spiritual issues if patients wish to do so. 86.3% would involve chaplains if they feel it is necessary. The results of this study suggest that future doctors want to see the patient in a wider scope than the bio-psycho-social one, by including the meta-dimension of transcendence. PMID:27661053
Labbé, Elise E; Fobes, Ashley
Spirituality and the big five personality traits may be risk or protective factors for coping with stress. We hypothesized young adults who reported higher spirituality ratings would demonstrate lower sympathetic nervous system arousal and better emotional coping when exposed to a laboratory stressor compared to those who rated themselves lower in spirituality. We also compared spirituality groups on trait anger, neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and openness to experience. Eighty participants completed trait-state anger, personality and spirituality questionnaires and were grouped into low, average and high spirituality. Participants' physiological responses were monitored before and during a stressful event. Significant differences were found between low, average and high spirituality groups' respiration rate and emotional response to the stressor. Significant differences were also found between spirituality groups in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, trait anger and neuroticism. Females reported higher levels of spirituality and conscientiousness than males.
Daly, Louise; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth
Spirituality is a complex and subjective concept. However, spiritual wellness is an important component in a person's overall well-being and the spiritual support of patients is central to nursing care. People with dementia may not be well-supported in this aspect of care; this may lead to spiritual distress. Spiritual needs may be identified by taking the person's spiritual history or, in the case of advanced dementia, by asking a person's significant others about the important spiritual aspects of the person's life. Spiritual care for people with dementia involves reflective practice and meaningful engagement with the person with dementia, so as to facilitate shared understanding. Furthermore, the support of the spiritual and religious beliefs of the person need to be facilitated within an individualised or person centred approach to care and delivered within a multi-disciplinary collaborative context.
Sinclair, Shane; Pereira, Jose; Raffin, Shelley
Research related to spirituality and health has developed from relative obscurity to a thriving field of study over the last 20 years both within palliative care and within health care in general. This paper provides a descriptive review of the literature related to spirituality and health, with a special focus on spirituality within palliative and end-of-life care. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched under the keywords "spirituality" and "palliative." The review revealed five overarching themes in the general spirituality and health literature: (1) conceptual difficulties related to the term spirituality and proposed solutions; (2) the relationship between spirituality and religion; (3) the effects of spirituality on health; (4) the subjects enrolled in spirituality-related research; and (5) the provision of spiritual care. While the spirituality literature within palliative care shared these overarching characteristics of the broader spirituality and health literature, six specific thematic areas transpired: (1) general discussions of spirituality in palliative care; (2) the spiritual needs of palliative care patients; (3) the nature of hope in palliative care; (4) tools and therapies related to spirituality; (5) effects of religion in palliative care; and (6) spirituality and palliative care professionals. The literature as it relates to these themes is summarized in this review. Spirituality is emerging largely as a concept void of religion, an instrument to be utilized in improving or maintaining health and quality of life, and focussed predominantly on the "self" largely in the form of the patient. While representing an important beginning, the authors suggest that a more integral approach needs to be developed that elicits the experiential nature of spirituality that is shared by patients, family members, and health care professionals alike.
Campbell, Karen P.
The purpose of this heuristic study was to explore the ways in which spirituality informed and impacted educators' own experience of learning as a transformative inner encounter. It inquired into the experience of learning from a spiritual perspective in order to determine the extent to which transformative learning could be described as a…
This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…
Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret
Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over…
Adams, Kate; Bull, Rebecca; Maynes, Mary-Louise
Early years education is a holistic endeavour, with some education policies including spiritual development as part of that approach. However, studies exploring the spirituality of young children are scarce, which limits understanding of the phenomenon and its full application in educational settings. Furthermore, nurturing children's spiritual…
Miller, Vachel W., Ed.; Ryan, Merle M., Ed.
The chapters in this collection explore the religious and spiritual dimensions of college life. They offer innovative approaches for positive change and address legal, organizational, and cultural issues involved in making campuses more hospitable to the human spirit. The chapters in Part 1, Religious Pluralism and Spirituality in Campus Life:…
Promotion of students' spiritual development is one of the goals of pastoral care in schools. The heritage of Chinese calligraphy is traditionally used as a way to enhance an individual's self-reflection and cultivation, and has an educational value in spiritual development. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy…
This article discusses the development of spiritual literacy in relation to a new consciousness of the Earth and what Thomas Berry calls "Earth literacy". It draws on the metaphor of "earthing" to argue for a close link between spiritual literacy and Earth literacy, considered of great importance for both personal spiritual…
Existential and spiritual issues are at the frontier of new clinical and research focus in palliative and supportive care of cancer patients. As concepts of adequate supportive care expand beyond a focus on pain and physical symptom control, existential and spiritual issues such as meaning, hope and spirituality in general have received increased attention from supportive care clinicians and clinical researchers. This paper reviews the topics of spirituality and end-of-life care, defines spirituality, and suggests measures of spirituality that deal with two of its main components: faith/religious beliefs and meaning/spiritual well-being. These two constructs of spirituality are reviewed in terms of their role in supportive care. Finally, a review of existing psychotherapeutic interventions for spiritual suffering are reviewed and a novel meaning-centered group psychotherapy for advanced cancer patients is described.
Günther, Andreas; Baumann, Klaus; Frick, Eckhard; Jacobs, Christoph
Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS). Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies. PMID:23843867
One of the main goals of spiritual care is to elicit the patient's own power. Previously, religious professionals encouraged people to believe in God, Buddha, or spiritual beings and helped those who were suffering. The power to recover was believed to come from outside human beings. For example, the foremost role of hospital chaplains in the past was to pray to a transcendental being (s) with those who were suffering. When resilience was expected, the first thing to do was to rely on the transcendental being (s). In contrast, the priority in contemporary spiritual care is to trust the resilience of those with difficulties, even when the concerned believe in a transcendental power. The emphasis is on human beings and things which can be seen, rather than transcendental beings. Through this kind of expectation, resilience is to be expected and becomes a source of hope. However, there may be cases in which resilience does not grow. On caring for the dying or those with marked grief, just facing spiritual pain may be the prevalent situation. Care workers need to accept the reality that overcoming spiritual pain is not easy. Then, the paradox is that facing weakness itself can become a source of power. This may be experienced in spiritual care, and it helps elucidate an aspect of resilience. The author's position is that there are many cases in which power is elicited from weakness. Examples are found through the activities to provide aid following the Great East Japan Earthquake, in the spiritual care of dying persons at home, as well as in the care of psychiatric patients who are liberated from the obsession that they must be cured.
Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J; Shahin, Francis I
The purpose of this study was to explore associations of spiritual well-being, spiritual perspective, and religiosity with self-rated health in a convenience sample of 340 adult Jordanian Arab Christians. Data were collected through church and community groups. Results indicated that spiritual well-being and religiosity were positively associated with self-rated health, but in the final regression model only spiritual well-being retained a significant association after controlling for the other spiritual and religious measures. In conclusion, spirituality and religiosity are important to Jordanian Arab Christians' health and well-being, and the implications for nursing practice are explored.
Cashwell, Craig S.; Bentley, Paige B.; Yarborough, J. Preston
Given the increased attention to spirituality in the counseling literature, with a primary emphasis on helping clients find their spiritual path, it is important for counselors to be aware of one potential pitfall of the spiritual path, namely spiritual bypass. Spiritual bypass occurs when clients seek to use their spiritual beliefs, practices,…
Kessler, C.; Wischnewsky, M.; Michalsen, A.; Eisenmann, C.; Melzer, J.
Ayurveda is playing a growing part in Europe. Questions regarding the role of religion and spirituality within Ayurveda are discussed widely. Yet, there is little data on the influence of religious and spiritual aspects on its European diffusion. Methods. A survey was conducted with a new questionnaire. It was analysed by calculating frequency variables and testing differences in distributions with the χ2-Test. Principal Component Analyses with Varimax Rotation were performed. Results. 140 questionnaires were analysed. Researchers found that individual religious and spiritual backgrounds influence attitudes and expectations towards Ayurveda. Statistical relationships were found between religious/spiritual backgrounds and decisions to offer/access Ayurveda. Accessing Ayurveda did not exclude the simultaneous use of modern medicine and CAM. From the majority's perspective Ayurveda is simultaneously a science, medicine, and a spiritual approach. Conclusion. Ayurveda seems to be able to satisfy the individual needs of therapists and patients, despite worldview differences. Ayurvedic concepts are based on anthropologic assumptions including different levels of existence in healing approaches. Thereby, Ayurveda can be seen in accordance with the prerequisites for a Whole Medical System. As a result of this, intimate and individual therapist-patient relationships can emerge. Larger surveys involving bigger participant numbers with fully validated questionnaires are warranted to support these results. PMID:24368928
Monareng, Lydia V
Although the concept 'spiritual nursing care' has its roots in the history of the nursing profession, many nurses in practice have difficulty integrating the concept into practice. There is an ongoing debate in the empirical literature about its definition, clarity and application in nursing practice. The study aimed to develop an operational definition of the concept and its application in clinical practice. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe how professional nurses render spiritual nursing care. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the sample. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness was ensured through strategies of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Data were analysed using the NUD*IST power version 4 software, constant comparison, open, axial and selective coding. Tech's eight steps of analysis were also used, which led to the emergence of themes, categories and sub-categories. Concept analysis was conducted through a comprehensive literature review and as a result 'caring presence' was identified as the core variable from which all the other characteristics of spiritual nursing care arise. An operational definition of spiritual nursing care based on the findings was that humane care is demonstrated by showing caring presence, respect and concern for meeting the needs not only of the body and mind of patients, but also their spiritual needs of hope and meaning in the midst of health crisis, which demand equal attention for optimal care from both religious and nonreligious nurses.
Gibson, Lynette M; Hendricks, Constance Smith
This paper reports findings of an integrative review of the literature on spirituality in AA breast cancer survivors, isolates key spiritual themes, and recommends future research. Inclusion criteria are 1994 to 2004 research studies that included AA breast cancer survivors 18 years old and older. Content analysis was used to isolate spiritual themes and spiritual domains/dimensions. Seven studies resulted that used qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. Themes identified were spirituality provided the strength to cope; the need to care for others and receive care; beliefs that God is the healer and in control; God assists in decision-making; and closeness to God. Spiritual domains were beliefs, functions, and social support. Future research should explore the domains/dimensions and meanings of spirituality experienced by diverse groups ofAA breast cancer survivors. Culturally appropriate, evidence-based nursing care should include spiritually based interventions that acknowledge the significance of God.
Rudolfsson, Gudrun; Berggren, Ingela; da Silva, António Barbosa
Spirituality is often mistakenly equated with religion but is in fact a far broader concept. The aim of this integrative review was to describe experiences of the positive impact of spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing. The analysis was guided by Whittemore and Knafl’s integrative review method. The findings revealed seven themes: ‘Being part of a greater wholeness’, ‘Togetherness − value based relationships’, ‘Developing inner strength’, ‘Ministering to patients’, ‘Maintaining one’s sense of humanity’, ‘Viewing life as a gift evokes a desire to ‘give back’’ and ‘Achieving closure − life goes on’. It is difficult to draw definite conclusions, as spirituality involves many perspectives on various levels of awareness. However, spirituality was considered more inclusive, fluid and personal. Furthermore, it emerged that spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing are closely intertwined with the concept of caring. PMID:25598856
Mahmoodishan, Gholamreza; Alhani, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ perception about spirituality and spiritual care. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted on 20 registered nurses interviewed using unstructured strategy in 2009. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: 1) “meaning and purpose of work and life” including ‘spiritualistic view to profession’, ‘commitment and professional responsibility’, and ‘positive attitude’; 2) “religious attitude” including ‘God approval’, ‘spiritual reward’, ‘taking advice’, ‘inner belief in the Supreme Being’, ‘faith-based interactions and altruism’; 3) “transcendence-seeking” including ‘need for respect’ and ‘personal–professional transcendence’. Therefore, the spirituality produces maintenance, harmony and balance in nurses in relation to God. Spiritual care focuses on respecting patients, friendly and sympathetic interactions, sharing in rituals and strengthening patients and nurses’ inner energy. This type of spirituality gives a positive perspective to life and profession, peaceful interactions, a harmonious state of mind, and acts as a motivator among nurses to promote nursing care and spirituality. PMID:23908741
Forcehimes, Alyssa A
The mechanism of change in Alcoholics Anonymous is described as "spiritual transformation." A.A. acknowledges that such transformation can occur gradually; however, nearly all of the examples presented in the Big Book of A.A. involve discrete and sudden experiences that resemble the phenomenon of quantum change. The sequence offered describes how spiritual transformations transpire. The sequence begins with hitting bottom, recognition of inability to control the problem. A feeling of contrition follows, describing not only sorrow for the present state, but also desire for a new way. The final step is the act of surrendering one's will to a higher power. The de profundis sequence sets the process of spiritual transformation in motion, offering stabilization to sobriety.
Puchalski, Christina M; Dorff, Rabbi Elliot; Hendi, Imam Yahya
In end-of-life care, attending to spiritual needs ensures that a dying patient has the opportunity to find meaning in the midst of suffering and to have the opportunity for love, compassion, and partnership in their final journey. This article summarizes some of the beliefs and traditions from Judaism, Islam, and Christianity that affect people as they face their own dying and mortality. People who do not participate in any formal religion also have a drive to find meaning in the midst of suffering and dying. They may find this in personal ways. This article presents some practical tools to help clinicians address and respect spiritual and religious issues of patients. It is crucial that our culture and our systems of care for the dying include a spiritual approach so that dying can be meaningful and even filled with hope.
Pierce, Linda L; Steiner, Victoria; Havens, Heidi; Tormoehlen, Karen
Thirty-six caregivers of stroke survivors who are new to that role participate in a Web-based support and education intervention over the course of a year. The authors use a secondary analysis of a total of 2,148 e-mail messages that these caregivers posted to the intervention's discussion group. Rigorous content analysis is used to analyze the narrative data coded to spirituality (n = 230 e-mails). Four themes emerge and are drawn to Friedemann's (1995) framework of systemic organization: (a) feeling the presence of a greater power, (b) practicing rituals, (c) being one with nature, and (d) interacting with family and friends. Spirituality gives these caregivers hope and sustenance, but it also helps them express themselves more fully during a difficult time of change. The e-mail discussion data presented here highlight the importance of increased awareness of addressing spirituality in nurse-client encounters and designing interventions to support the caregivers.
de Jager Meezenbroek, Eltica; Garssen, Bert; Van den Berg, Machteld; Tuytel, Gerwi; Van Dierendonck, Dirk; Visser, Adriaan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
Many cancer patients experience spirituality as highly supportive while coping with their disease. Most research as well as most questionnaires in this field is religious orientated. The Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List was developed to enable research on spirituality among religious and nonreligious people. It consists of seven subscales that measure connectedness with oneself, with others and nature, and with the transcendent. Among a student, a healthy population, a healthy interested, a curative cancer, and a palliative cancer sample factorial, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated, as well as adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
Numerous popular figures currently espouse the importance of spirituality. Some prominent voices, such as Deepak Chopra, Marianne Williamson, and Eckhart Tolle, advocate a more spiritual existence, warning that the earth and humanity are engaged in a seismic change. The shift of spiritual leaders from fringe to fairly mainline attention is…
Hodge, David R.
Although social work is witnessing growing interest in spiritual and religious issues, little guidance has appeared in the literature to assist practitioners in addressing the unique spirituality of rapidly increasing non-Western populations. This article discusses the significant cultural/spiritual beliefs, practices, and values of Hindus, the…
Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence
Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…
English, Leona M.; Cameron, Paula
This chapter proposes a spiritually relevant and social justice pedagogy that assists learners in making the transition to the workplace. Key elements of this spirituality include religion, cultural diversity, identity, health, and social class. Pedagogical strategies for infusing this spirituality in the curriculum are given.
The purpose of this study was to provide a rich description of what spiritual experiences look like in children in a kindergarten classroom, in which typically, spirituality is not considered a part of the philosophy or curriculum of the school. This study sought to first describe what constitutes a spiritual experience, to then describe how…
Pembroke, Neil Francis
It is argued that when spiritual care by physicians is linked to the empirical research indicating the salutary effect on health of religious beliefs and practices an unintended degradation of religion is involved. It is contended that it is much more desirable to see support for the patient's spirituality as part of holistic care. A proposal for appropriate spiritual care by physicians is offered.
Looks at the spiritual dimensions of nursing at various historical periods: ancient civilizations, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the 18th and 19th centuries. Reviews contemporary perspectives on spirituality and nursing and suggests how nurses can be equipped to deal with patients' spiritual needs. (SK)
Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.
We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…
Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn
In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…
Spirituality is recognised by many to be an inherent property of the human being. Empirical studies and theoretical literature both suggest that spirituality affects one's quality of life in terms of emotional and physical well-being, relationships, and social inclusion. However, the importance of the spiritual dimension of life is rarely…
A co-operative inquiry group consisting of 8 counsellors met for 11 months to explore their experience of spirituality in their training and in their work with clients [Swinton, V. (2010). The spiritual in counselling training (Unpublished Thesis). The University of Manchester; Swinton, V. (2015). The spiritual in counselling training. In G. Nolan…
Yocum, Russell G.; Densmore-James, Susan; Staal, Laura A.; Pinkie, Elyse C.; Yocum, Dana A. E.
This research replicated a previous mixed-methods exploratory study of spirituality and spiritual development (Yocum, 2014). 339 participants at two southeastern United States universities were administered a Likert-scale survey to collect data to explore the correlations between the existing components of the proposed spiritual development…
Marsh, Paul E.
What do people mean when they describe backcountry adventure experiences as being "spiritual"? Spiritual aspects of adventure experiences in the wilderness have been recounted anecdotally and recognized in research. This body of research, however, has left the definition of the term spiritual to the individual participants, and has not…
Friso, Valeria; Caldin, Roberta
In this short article, the authors focus on religious and spiritual education's potential to offer social and spiritual inclusion for students with a disability. They take the view that the religious and spiritual education teacher in such situations is positioned better when seeing such teaching as a special vocation. They use Italy as the case…
We are living in a time of increasing interest in the religious and spiritual aspects of sport and human movement activities. A strict distinction between religion and spirituality is, however, still missing in much of the literature. After delimiting religious and spiritual modes of experience, this article addresses Coubertin's "religio…
Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…
Stloukal, Merit E.; Wickman, Scott A.
The authors present a model for creating spiritual and religious safe zones in school counseling programs that implements the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's (ASERVIC; 2009) "Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling" in a school setting. The authors frame the model within the…
Spirituality is an important aspect of counseling. This paper identifies spirituality as a task that is a journey universal to human beings. It presents a taxonomy of spirituality/consciousness developed by Render and Lemire, postulating five levels of taxonomy: self, others, groups, the world, and cosmic. These levels apply across cultural,…
Palmer, Anthony J.
Spirituality and religion are not synonymous and, in fact, require not only different definitions but also appropriate vocabulary. A deeper discussion of the issues concerning spirituality ensues in several sections: 1) fundamental differences between spirituality and religion; 2) brain operations relative to transcendent states; 3) a definition…
Farias, Miguel; Underwood, Raphael; Claridge, Gordon
Previous research has linked certain types of modern spirituality, including New Age and Pagan, with either benign schizotypy or insecure attachment. While the first view emphasizes a positive aspect of spiritual believers' mental health (benign schizotypy), the second view emphasizes a negative aspect, namely the unhealthy emotional compensation associated with an insecure attachment style. This study addresses these two conflicting views by comparing a sample of modern spiritual individuals (N = 114) with a contrast group of traditional religious believers (N = 86). Measures of schizotypy and attachment style were combined with mental health scales of anxiety and depression. We further assessed death anxiety to determine whether modern spiritual beliefs fulfilled a similar function as traditional religious beliefs in the reduction of existential threat. Our results support a psychological contiguity between traditional and modern spiritual believers and reinforce the need to de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiences. Using hierarchical regression, we showed that unusual experiences and ideas are the major predictor of engagement in modern spiritual practices. Anxiety, depression variables, and insecure attachment were not significant predictors of spirituality or correlated with them; on the other hand, the results show that spiritual believers report high social support satisfaction and this variable predicts involvement in modern spirituality. Further, spiritual practices were negatively correlated with and negatively predicted by death anxiety scores. Overall, the results strengthen the association between modern spirituality, good mental health, and general well-being.
Wong, Ping Ho
Three commonly mentioned aspects of the idea of spirituality are transcendence, raised awareness and spiritualism. The interrelationships among these three "strands" of spirituality are explored. It is argued that each strand expresses itself along a continuum, ranging from the mundane to the profound. The second part of the article focuses on the…
Spirituality is gaining popularity within academics as discussions regarding the importance of spirituality within leadership and education increases. A biblical anthropology embraces human nature as physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual with recognition that adults are capable of learning within each of those realms. Embracing humans are…
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
Until very recently, with the exception of adult religious education, spirituality has been given little attention in mainstream academic adult education. This may be because spirituality is difficult to define and can be confused with religion. The subject of spirituality is currently a theme in workplace and human resource development…
Lili, Tian; Shenghua, Jin
Objective: To explore the characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among junior high school students. Method: 431 junior high school students are measured by Students' Basic Information Questionnaire (SBIQ) and Middle School Students' Spiritual Beliefs Questionnaire (MSSSBQ). Results: (1) The overall characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among…
Bagheri Noaparast, Khosrow
This paper aims at showing the dimensions of spirituality in childhood education by suggesting a new analysis of the concept of "pure life" used in the Qur'an. Putting spirituality in the framework of the pure life provides us with a rich framework in dealing with spirituality as the latter will be extended to all dimensions of a life. In the…
Speaking to the issue of spiritual development from her extensive experience as a youth work practitioner, the author notes several ideas she finds particularly compelling, among them that spiritual development interacts with, yet is distinct from, moral and religious development; that spiritual development is a core construct of identity…
LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.
The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291
Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P
This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.
Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay
Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.
Nakasone, R Y
The spiritual journey of a Buddhist devotee is a continual exploration of the truth of interdependence which Siddhartha Gautama realized to become the Buddha, "the Enlightened One." On the morning of the enlightenment, the Buddha apprehended the truth that all things and all beings are interconnected and mutually dependent in time and space. One measure of the spiritual maturity of the Buddhist devotee is his or her appreciation for the profound responsibilities and gratitude we share for all things. To illustrate the significance of interdependence in our lives, the author turns to the wisdom contained inVital Involvement in Old Age by Erik and Joan Erikson and Helen Q. Kivnick.
Corry, Lisa M.
The question explored in this research from the literature is: Regarding college student identity development, what is known about personal integrative spirituality and relational Christian spirituality, with a particular focus on gender differences? Spirituality is included as an aspect of identity development by theorists Erikson, Marcia,…
On the basis of a comparison of the educational approaches of Andrew Wright and David Hay this paper illustrates the persisting problem of dichotomising cognitive and trans-cognitive aspects of spiritual development and education. Even though both Wright and Hay speak of the same topic--spirituality and spiritual education--they define these terms…
Yaghjian, Lucretia B.
Mentoring is an important but often overlooked resource in theological education and students' academic and spiritual formation. This essay profiles the mentoring practices and postures of the writing tutor and the spiritual director as exemplars of academic and spiritual mentoring. An extended probe of this analogy affirms the integration of…
Lewis, Jeffrey S.; Geroy, Gary D.
Discusses six entry points to initiate discussion of employee spirituality in management education: cross-cultural management, workplace diversity, leadership, team management, organizational culture, and human resource development. (SK)
Mooney, Bróna; Timmins, Fiona
Precise definitions of spirituality can be elusive (McSherry, 2000). This factor together with the increasing class sizes for undergraduate nursing students render the teaching and learning of spirituality in nursing a challenge for both lecturers and students alike (McSherry, 2000). This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative spirituality program for second year nursing students attending a Bachelor of Science degree at a university in the Republic of Ireland. This teaching program was introduced in 2005 to enhance nursing students' engagement with the concept of spirituality. The program consisted of a series of lectures on the topic, followed by a visit to the National Gallery of Ireland. The latter involved a structured visit, whereby the students (n=100) were divided into ten small groups and asked to wander through a section of the gallery and choose a piece of art work that they perceived to be spiritual in nature. Students were then asked to write their subjective impressions and reasons for their choice of painting. A list of themes related to spirituality was provided to the students as a prompt. Students later visited the paintings with both a lecturer and an art gallery guide and their chosen paintings were discussed within the group. Later that day, purposive sampling was used, whereby a selection of nursing students participating in the Gallery visit (n=21) partook in four recorded focus group interviews following the Gallery visit. Themes emerging from the interviews pertained to the universal and individual nature of spirituality. In keeping with Mc Sherry's (2000:27) definition of spirituality as a "universal concept relevant to all individuals", students in the study revealed their surprise at the uniqueness of their colleague's interpretations. The teaching methodology offered them an opportunity to reflect upon their own understandings and develop a deeper awareness of the meaning of spirituality. It also allowed
Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe
Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.
King, Michael B; Koenig, Harold G
The need to take account of spirituality in research and health services provision is assuming ever greater importance. However the field has long been hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity about the nature of spirituality itself. We do not agree with the sceptical claim that it is impossible to conceptualise spirituality within a scientific paradigm. Our aims are to 1) provide a brief over-view of critical thinking that might form the basis for a useful definition of spirituality for research and clinical work and 2) demystify the language of spirituality for clinical practice and research. PMID:19594903
Dobratz, Marjorie C
The purpose of this article is to describe a Roy adaptation model based- research abstraction, the findings of which were synthesized into a middle-range theory (MRT) of adaptive spirituality. The published literature yielded 21 empirical studies that investigated religion/spirituality. Quantitative results supported the influence of spirituality on quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, well-being, adaptive coping, and the self-concept mode. Qualitative findings showed the importance of spiritual expressions, values, and beliefs in adapting to chronic illness, bereavement, death, and other life transitions. These findings were abstracted into six theoretical statements, a conceptual definition of adaptive spirituality, and three hypotheses for future testing.
Ewing, Wayne A
The personal circumstances of dementia caregiving are sometimes experienced as so severely demanding as to be overwhelming. While sustenance within, and recovery from these experiences are increasingly addressed in helpful ways from psychological, emotional, and practical life planning frames of reference, we are still learning how to speak with one another about the spiritual dimensions of this peculiar journey. From a spiritual perspective, the caregiver initially, and frequently perpetually, finds her/himself in a state of spiritual exhaustion. Oddly enough, there are ample resources at hand to address this existential state with wisdom and grace, allowing for the possibility that the caregiver might move from spiritual weariness to enhanced spiritual formation.
Wang, Mei-Hua; Hung, Chich-Hsiu
Facing dramatic change in modern society, people have to keep pace with their work and with competition. They may enter a state of exhaustion after a period of time. Leaders usually apply spiritual management to their organizations, for the direct purpose of reinforcing their employees' states of mind, and the indirect purpose of enhancing the organization's efficiency. Through a review of literature on scholars' views on spiritual management and organizations' achievements with spiritual management, this article offers suggestions for the application of spiritual management in clinical nursing and the nursing education system. The authors hope that it might serve as a reference in the development of spiritual management in our nursing professional organizations.
Sierra García, Marta; Getino Canseco, María
This article is a descriptive literature review on the topic of spirituality, in a palliative care aimed at adult patients with different pathologies that are in an advanced stage of the disease. We analyze the sociocultural construction of spirituality at the end of life in the domiciliary environment, relating it to the disease process, its terminality and death. We describe the attention of the palliative-nurses, caring for the spiritual needs from a holistic point of view. It has to be considered that if the palliative-nurses are aware of the spirituality of patients with terminal illness should have some established strategies in their efforts to provide spiritual comfort.
de Quercize, Anne-Sophie; Pian, Christian
Understanding religious teachings and the religious dimension in our societies is not made any easier with a discourse that is often lacking in rigor for dealing with this reality. Some basic notions need to be clarified to better define the religious and the spiritual.
Easterling, Larry Wayne
Stereotypes of Appalachians can persist in our collective imaginations. This article addresses such stereotypes as unfounded. The historical origin of these stereotypes is identified. Alternate images of positive values and characteristics of Appalachian people are presented. Recommendations for spiritual care are outlined consistent with the characteristics of the Appalachian population.
Arden, Harvey; Wall, Steve
This book documents meetings with Native American elders who shared their tribal stories of origin, sacred traditions, social life and customs, and traditional wisdom. The idea for the book began when a Cherokee medicine man requested that his tribal knowledge be documented for future generations. For the past 10 years, the spiritual elders of…
Sisk, Dorothy A.
This article will share the intellectual journey E. Paul Torrance and I traveled in 2001, in which we explored psychology, science and ancient wisdom and traditions, including Native American and indigenous traditions, to establish a foundation for spiritual intelligence. This section will be followed by ways to develop and nurture spiritual…
This article describes a graduate course in spirituality in counselling with the hopes of encouraging and supporting other counsellor educators in preparing and offering their own courses in this area. Learning objectives, activities and assignments are outlined. Students' personal experiences of the course are shared through excerpts from their…
Falb, Melissa D; Pargament, Kenneth I
Mindfulness training, which emphasizes deliberate non-judgmental attention to present moment experiences, has become increasingly mainstream over the past several decades. With accumulating evidence for the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness, it has been integrated into medical and psychological treatments and is increasingly accepted in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. However, several elements of mindfulness practice which potentially contribute to its benefits have been largely neglected. These include the connections between mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, spirituality, and the psychotherapeutic alliance. The emerging concept of "relational mindfulness" focuses attention on the oft-neglected interpersonal aspects of mindfulness practices. Relational mindfulness is potentially relevant to the psychotherapeutic process, due to its cultivation of the types of qualities that enhance the therapeutic relationship, including warmth, empathy, curiosity, acceptance, self-attunement, and emotional intelligence. In addition, mindfulness practices, especially relational ones, can contribute to the development of spiritual qualities, such as transcendence, boundlessness, ultimacy, and interconnectedness. Several recent studies suggest that meditation/mindfulness interventions may be explained and or enhanced by an emphasis on spiritual components. In this paper, we suggest that focusing on the oft-neglected relational and spiritual aspects of mindfulness practice has the potential to deepen its benefits, especially within the context of the psychotherapeutic relationship.
McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John
For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597
Shea, William M.
This combination of intellectual, spiritual, cultural, and social biography reveals connections between the religious life, theory of religion, and intellect of J. Dewey, a major figure in educational history. In his rejection of traditional religion, Dewey turned to public human good and human service. (SLD)
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham
The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality…
Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara; Valenti, Michael Pickren
Research suggests that spiritual transformation, a change in the way a person considers the sacred, can change medical outcome (Pargament, 2006). Psychometric studies have failed to identify specific factors, but qualitative reports detail an experience that can be reliably shown to have an impact. We report on the development of a rubric for…
Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur
Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned.
Treatment programs promote individual solutions to substance abuse through changing dysfunctional behavior and relying on spiritual beliefs and practices. Root problems are understood to be diseases within the person. However, the social conditions implicated in causing the addiction remain unaddressed. Questions whether social workers can bring…
An essential part of end-of-life medical care, spiritual care allows physicians to recognize problems like meaninglessness, anguish, and hopelessness, for which effective interventions are available. This form of care can be a deeply rewarding area of medical practice.
Church documents, theology, leadership theory, and sociology come together in this article to present a pedagogy for Catholic schools that is deeply rooted in a personal faith and a contemporary understanding of the person. In order to construct a conceptual model of a pedagogy grounded in Christian spirituality, the meaning of the term "pedagogy"…
Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)
Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Sink, Christopher A.; Richmond, Lee J.
Although school counselors recognize that students and school personnel possess some type of spirituality, regrettably, this topic has garnered little attention in the school counseling literature. With the publication of this issue, this noticeable gap in the literature and the much delayed dialogue about this topic begins. By way of introduction…
Evolution of the relationship between counseling and spirituality since 1840 is examined in terms of the number of publications that have appeared over time that include these terms. The author retrieved the data using the American Psychological Association's PsycINFO database. A similar search was done adding the term training. The rise of…
Wachholtz, Amy B; Pargament, Kenneth I
This study compared secular and spiritual forms of meditation to assess the benefits of a spiritual intervention. Participants were taught a meditation or relaxation technique to practice for 20 min a day for two weeks. After two weeks, participants returned to the lab, practiced their technique for 20 min, and placed their hand in a cold-water bath of 2 degrees C for as long as they could endure it. The length of time that individuals kept their hand in the water bath was measured. Pain, anxiety, mood, and the spiritual health were assessed following the two-week intervention. Significant interactions occurred (time x group); the Spiritual Meditation group had greater decreases in anxiety and more positive mood, spiritual health, and spiritual experiences than the other two groups. They also tolerated pain almost twice as long as the other two groups.
Baldacchino, Donia R
This study unit as part of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programme aimed at reviving the spiritual dimension in nursing care. This paper discusses the perceived impact of the study unit Spiritual Coping in Illness and Care on qualified nurses. The paucity of literature demonstrates some benefits perceived by the learners namely, clarification of the concepts of spirituality and spiritual care, self-awareness of personal spirituality and their current clinical practice which neglects the spiritual dimension. The ASSET model [Narayanasamy, A., 1999. ASSET: a model for actioning spirituality and spiritual care education and training in nursing. Nurse Education Today 19, 274-285] guided the teaching of this study unit. The nature of this study unit demanded an exploratory method of teaching to encourage the nurses to be active participants. Qualitative data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire from the three cohort groups of qualified nurses who undertook this study unit in 2003-2004 (A: n=33), 2004-2005 (B: n=35) and 2006-2007 (C: n=35). Learners found the study unit as a resource for updating their knowledge on spirituality in care and increased self-awareness of their own spirituality and nursing care. They acknowledged their role as change agents in order to implement holistic care in collaboration with the multidisciplinary team. Recommendations were proposed to integrate the spiritual dimension in education and patient care.
Chochinov, Harvey Max; Cann, Beverley J
In recent years, medical and allied health publications have begun to address various topics on spirituality. Scholars have posited numerous definitions of spirituality and wrestled with the notion of spiritual pain and suffering. Researchers have examined the relationship between spirituality and health and explored, among other topics, patients' perceptions of their spiritual needs, particularly at the end of life. This paper summarizes salient evidence pertaining to spirituality, dying patients, their health care providers, and family or informal caregivers. We examine the challenging issue of how to define spirituality, and provide a brief overview of the state of evidence addressing interventions that may enhance or bolster spiritual aspects of dying. There are many pressing questions that need to be addressed within the context of spiritual issues and end-of-life care. Efforts to understand more fully the constructs of spiritual well-being, transcendence, hope, meaning, and dignity, and to correlate them with variables and outcomes such as quality of life, pain control, coping with loss, and acceptance are warranted. Researchers should also frame these issues from both faith-based and secular perspectives, differing professional viewpoints, and in diverse cultural settings. In addition, longitudinal studies will enable patients' changing experiences and needs to be assessed over time. Research addressing spiritual dimensions of personhood offers an opportunity to expand the horizons of contemporary palliative care, thereby decreasing suffering and enhancing the quality of time remaining to those who are nearing death.
Brush, B L; Daly, P R
Over the past decade, increased attention has centered on the connection between spirituality and health. While there is general agreement that a balance of mind, body, and soul is necessary for the maintenance of health, many providers express discomfort in spiritual assessment and caregiving, citing lack of time, education, and spiritual self-awareness as key reasons. In response to these identified barriers to spiritual caregiving, faculty at the Boston College School of Nursing Family Nurse Practitioner Program designed a faculty-student practice whose focus is to integrate spiritual care into primary care practice. This article discusses the practice model and the process of preparing nurse practitioner (NP) students to assess patient spirituality within the context of a shifting care environment. It encourages all NPs to include spiritual assessment and care in daily practice.
Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha
Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.
Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita
Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities.
Park, Crystal L; Sacco, Shane J
Little information is available about HF patients' desires regarding having their healthcare providers address their spiritual concerns, feeling constrained in doing so, and the extent to which their spiritual needs go unmet. Nearly half of our sample reported high levels of unmet spiritual needs and reported moderately strong desires to have their doctor or other healthcare professional attend to their spiritual needs, and moderately strong feelings of constraint in doing so. Spiritual constraint and unmet spiritual needs were associated with poorer spiritual, psychological and physical well-being, but these effects varied, depending on patients' desire to discuss spiritual needs. These findings have important implications for clinical management of HF patients.
Increasingly nurses are called upon to meet patients' spiritual needs. However, there is evidence to suggest that nurses are unable to do this adequately because of confusion about the notion of spirituality. This is compounded by the uncertainty surrounding the role of nurses in spiritual care interventions. Emerging research suggests that nurses, as primary carers, may have to initiate spiritual care interventions. This article offers practical guidance to nurses seeking to improve spiritual care for their patients. A working definition of spirituality is offered and spiritual needs are explained in the context of a case scenario. Practical guidance is given on how spiritual care can be put into action, using the Actioning Spirituality and Spiritual care in Education Training (ASSET) model as a framework for assessment of spiritual needs, planning, implementing and evaluation spiritual care, and a spiritual assessment tool for practice is outlined.
Seddigh, Ruohollah; Keshavarz-Akhlaghi, Amir-Abbas; Azarnik, Somayeh
Context The objective of the present review was to collect published spiritual needs questionnaires and to present a clear image of the research condition of this domain. Evidence Acquisition First, an electronic search was conducted with no limits on time span (until June 2015) or language in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, ProQuest and Google Scholar. All derivations of the keywords religion and spiritual alongside need and its synonyms were included in the search. Researches that introduced new tools was then selected and included in the study. Due to the limited quantity of questionnaires in this domain and with no consideration given to the existence or lack of exact standardization information, all of the questionnaires were included in the final report. Results Eight questionnaires were found: patients spiritual needs assessment scale (PSNAS), spiritual needs inventory (SNI), spiritual interests related to illness tool (SpIRIT), spiritual needs questionnaire (SpNQ), spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), spiritual needs scale (SNS), spiritual care needs inventory (SCNI), and spiritual needs questionnaire for palliative care. Conclusions These questionnaires have been designed from a limited medical perspective and often involve cultural concepts which complicate their cross-cultural applicability. PMID:27284281
Spirituality has long been considered a dimension of holistic palliative care. However, conceptualizations of spirituality are in transition in the nursing literature. No longer rooted within religion, spirituality is increasingly being defined by the universal search for meaning, connectedness, energy, and transcendence. To be human is to be spiritual. Some have argued that the concept of spirituality in the nursing literature has become so generic that it is no longer meaningful. A conceptualization that attempts to be all-encompassing of what it means to live a human life has a tendency to render invisible the differences that make life meaningful. For palliative patients in particular, a generic approach may obscure and relativize the important values and beliefs that inform the critical questions that many patients grapple with at end of life. A different approach to conceptualizing spirituality can be achieved through the use of typologies. Rather than obscuring difference, categories are constructed to illuminate how spirituality is understood within a diverse society and how those understandings might influence patient-provider relationships. What follows in this article is a dialogue illustrating one typology of spirituality constructed from a review of selected nursing literature. The hypothetical narrator and three participants, representing the positions of theism, monism, and humanism, discuss their understandings of spirituality and religion, and how those understandings influence the intersections between nursing ontology, epistemology, and spiritual care.
Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Prapa, Efi; Smyrnioti, Marilena; Pagoropoulou, Anna; Lambros, Vlahos
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between spirituality and hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and clinical and disease-related characteristics among patients with advanced cancer, and to investigate predictors of spirituality. Spiritual well-being is thought to have a beneficial effect on patients’ response to illness. DESIGN Patients were asked to complete 4 questionnaires: the Greek version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, the Greek version of the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a questionnaire on demographics. SETTING A palliative care unit in Athens, Greece. PARTICIPANTS A total of 91 patients with advanced cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between scores on the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs scale and scores on the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scale and the Beck Hopelessness scale, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS Statistically significant associations were found between spirituality and sex of patients (P = .001) and spirituality and stronger hopelessness (r = 0.252, P = .016). In multivariate analyses, stronger hopelessness, male sex, younger age, and receiving chemotherapy were found to be the strongest predictors of being spiritual. CONCLUSION Demographic and clinical characteristics and stronger hopelessness appeared to have statistically significant relationships with spirituality. Interventions to improve patients’ spiritual well-being should take these relationships into account. PMID:19074719
Mermann, A. C.
Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377
To be fully healthy is to risk encountering and embracing the complex substrate of mysterious life-giving and life-denying spiritual forces, the hidden wholeness of God. Risky health behavior may paradoxically arise from the psychospiritual need to both probe and avoid probing the deeper understandings of health reflected in the tensions between good and evil. Avoidance of the painful truths of poverty, racism, sexism, and classism among other evils in our society results in the prevalence of high-risk life styles, addictions, and violent behaviors. Spiritual paradigms from holistic community care are needed to enable communities to more fully respond to the health empowering potential of the hidden wholeness rather than hiding from it.
Salladay, Susan A
Aostmodern thinking that embraces tolerance and suggests there is no absolute truth may make Christian nurses feel uncertain or uncomfortable in giving spiritual care, especially care consistent wtih their beliefs. Christian nurses can be guided by the example of Jesus Christ and the Apostles Peter and Paul in the bible, being sensitive to postmodern perceptions without being intimidated by them and feeling neither obliated to share their faith, nor afraid to do so if a patient asks and gives consent.
Offenbaecher, M.; Kohls, N.; Toussaint, L. L.; Sigl, C.; Winkelmann, A.; Hieblinger, R.; Walther, A.; Büssing, A.
The objective of this study was to assess spiritual needs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to evaluate correlations with disease and health associated variables. Using a set of standardized questionnaires (i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36's Quality of Life, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, etc.), we enrolled 141 patients (95% women, mean age 58 ± 10 years). Here, needs for inner peace and giving/generativity scored the highest, while existential needs and religious needs scored lowest. Particularly inner peace needs and existential needs correlated with different domains of reduced mental health, particularly with anxiety, the intention to escape from illness, and psychosocial restrictions. Thirty-eight percent of the patients stated needs to be forgiven and nearly half to forgive someone from their past life. Therefore, the specific spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases should be addressed in clinical care in order to identify potential therapeutic avenues to support and stabilize their psychoemotional situation. PMID:24348691
Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa
Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS); the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire; and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) sub-scale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(1), 30-37.].
Peteet, John R.
Many studies have found an inverse correlation between religious/spiritual involvement and depression. Yet several obstacles impede spiritually integrated treatment of depressed individuals. These include specialization and fragmentation of care, inexperience of clinicians and spiritual care providers, ideological bias, boundary and ethical concerns, and the lack of an accepted conceptual framework for integrated treatment. Here I suggest a framework for approaching these obstacles, constructed from a unified view of human experience (having emotional, existential, and spiritual dimensions); spirituality seen as a response to existential concerns (in domains such as identity, hope, meaning/purpose, morality, and autonomy in relation to authority, which are frequently distorted and amplified in depression); a rationale for locating spiritually oriented approaches within a clinician's assessment, formulation, and treatment plan; and recognition of the challenges and potential pitfalls of integrated treatment. PMID:22577530
Nuzum, Daniel; Meaney, Sarah; O'Donoghue, Keelin
Stillbirth is recognized as one of the most challenging experiences of bereavement raising significant spiritual and theological questions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with bereaved parents cared for in a tertiary maternity hospital to explore the spiritual impact of stillbirth. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Stillbirth was identified as an immensely challenging spiritual and personal experience with enduring impact for parents. The superordinate themes to emerge were searching for meaning, maintaining hope and questioning core beliefs. Most parents reported that their spiritual needs were not adequately addressed while in hospital. The faith of all parents was challenged with only one parent experiencing a stronger faith following stillbirth. This study reveals the depth of spiritual struggle for parents bereaved following stillbirth with a recommendation that spiritual care is provided as part of comprehensive perinatal bereavement care in the obstetric setting.
Morris, Douglas N; Stecher, Jo; Briggs-Peppler, Kayla M; Chittenden, Chelsea M; Rubira, Joseph; Wismer, Lindsay K
This mixed-method study examined the responses of 97 occupational therapists on the subject of spirituality in occupational therapy practice. The inclusion of spirituality into the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (2008) implies that clinicians address spirituality as a component of client-centered practice. This research revealed a gap between education, theory, and practice as evidenced in the quantitative and qualitative data. Although occupational therapy is intended to be holistic, therapists require a more complete understanding of what spirituality is and what the role of the occupational therapist is when addressing spirituality in evaluation or treatment. The discussion of this research provides information for future occupational therapy educators and educational programs as they seek to incorporate the construct of spirituality into curricula.
Janse van Rensburg, A B R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H; Szabo, C P
To define the meaning of "spirituality" in a South African phenomenological, theory-generating qualitative inquiry, theory construction methodology was used. This refers to the tradition of nursing theory development, where a central core concept identified from the integrated data-in this case, interviews and the literature content-had to be defined. A major focus of the study was to distinguish spirituality from religion. The denotative and connotative meanings of "spirituality" were explored to establish the components for a definition. The attributes of this definition included that spirituality constitutes a "quality", a "journey", a "relationship" as well as a "capacity". While these items derived from this local definition of spirituality can be proposed for inclusion in a questionnaire for measuring spirituality in a South African context, the limits of the scope of the explorative qualitative inquiry from which it was derived must be considered.
Cotton, Sian; Zebracki, Kathy; Rosenthal, Susan L; Tsevat, Joel; Drotar, Dennis
Religion/spirituality is important to adolescents, is usually considered a protective factor against a host of negative health outcomes, and is often included in adolescent health outcomes research. Previous reviews of the relationship among spirituality, religion, and adolescent health have been limited by scope, focusing primarily on distal aspects of religion/spirituality (e.g., attendance at religious services). We reviewed the literature examining proximal domains of religion/spirituality (e.g., spiritual coping) in adolescent health outcomes research. Constructs such as spiritual coping and religious decision-making were the ones most often studied and were generally positively associated with health outcomes. Measurement of proximal domains, associations of proximal domains with health outcomes, methodological issues and recommendations for future research were covered in this review.
Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client.
There is an increasing interest in the role of spirituality on the experience of health, wellness and illness, as well as the role of spiritual practice in health care provision. For pregnancy and childbirth, this focus has tended to concentrate on hospital birth settings and care, and religious forms of spirituality. The blessingway ceremony can be described as an alternative baby shower, popular with home-birthing women. Its focus is woman-centred and draws on the power of ritual to evoke a spiritual experience for the pregnant host and her guests. This spirituality is experienced as a strong connection between women, their relationship with 'nature', and forged via the nostalgic imagination of women through time and space. This article will draw on data obtained in 2010 during doctoral fieldwork with 52 home-birthing women across eastern Australia and will examine the blessingway ceremony and its significance as a site of potential spiritual empowerment for pregnant and birthing women.
Spirituality has been the subject of discussion over many years, yet understanding its nature, and usefulness during illness, can be elusive. Nurses and other health-care practitioners can often be in the position to help patients discuss spiritual matters because of their direct contact on a frequent basis, but might not feel confident to do so because the subject can appear to be overly complex. This paper summarizes some of the essential elements of spirituality as synthesized from literature that refers to it. The literature draws attention to spirit as the core of a person's being, and the notion that spirituality comprises multiple dimensions that exist internally or become externally manifest through behaviours. The presence and use of spirituality can lead to such outcomes as peace of mind, self-fulfilment and alleviation of suffering. Underpinning all spirituality is the concept of transcendence where a person can be 'lifted up' above the challenges of illness.
Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J
Spirituality is instrumental to health and wellness in many American Indian (AI) cultures. Although the Joint Commission requires spiritual assessments to identify and address clients' spiritual needs during hospitalization, little is known about the operationalization of this process for American Indians (AIs). To address this gap in the literature, the present study employed a national sample of AIs (N = 1,281) to identify predictors of satisfaction with the manner in which their spiritual needs were addressed. The results suggest the discharge process, physicians, room quality, and nurses play important roles in satisfactorily addressing AIs' spiritual needs. Of these, the discharge process had the largest effect on satisfaction, underscoring the salience of social workers in addressing the spiritual needs of hospitalized AIs.
McGee, E M
Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) is a worldwide, million-member organization that has assisted countless alcoholics to achieve sobriety through a spiritual program of recovery from alcoholism. Based on spiritual principles known as the "Twelve Steps" and "Twelve Traditions," AA has provided a model for other recovery programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous (SLAA). Recovery in AA appears to involve a process of self-transcendence. In recent years, nursing scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of self-transcendence and spirituality as they apply to nursing theory and practice. This article explores the roots and spiritual dimensions of 12-step recovery programs. It further explores the ways in which theoretical and clinical knowledge about the delivery of spiritual care interventions may be gained from an understanding of AA's spiritual approach to recovery.
Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific literature. A number of published empirical studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with better outcomes in physical and mental health. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies do point towards a positive association between religious involvement and better health. When faced with disease, disability and death, many patients would like physicians to address their emotional and spiritual needs, as well. The renewed interest in the interaction of religion and spirituality with health and medicine has significant implications in the Indian context. Although religion is translated as dharma in major Indian languages, dharma and religion are etymologically different and dharma is closer to spirituality than religion as an organized institution. Religion and spirituality play important roles in the lives of millions of Indians and therefore, Indian physicians need to respectfully acknowledge religious issues and address the spiritual needs of their patients. Incorporating religion and spirituality into health and medicine may also go a long way in making the practice of medicine more holistic, ethical and compassionate. It may also offer new opportunities to learn more about Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine and have more enriched understanding and collaborative interaction between different systems of medicine. Indian physicians may also find religion and spirituality significant and fulfilling in their own lives.
Sefa Dei, George J.
(Learning, Culture, Spirituality and Local Knowedge: Implications for African Schooling) - Using a Ghanaian case study, this paper looks at the relevance and implications of local knowledge, culture and spirituality for understanding and implementing educational change in Africa. It examines how teachers, educators, and students use local cultural knowledge about self, personhood and community. Among the critical issues raised are: How do subjects understand the nature, impact and implications of spirituality for schooling and education? What is the role of spirituality, culture, language and social politics in knowledge production? What contribution does the local cultural knowledge base make to the search for genuine educational options in Africa?
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students.
Sagaser, Katelynn G; Shahrukh Hashmi, S; Carter, Rebecca D; Lemons, Jennifer; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Nassef, Salma; Peery, Brent; Singletary, Claire N
Religion and spirituality (R/S) are important components of many individuals' lives, and spirituality is often employed by women coping with pregnancy complications. To characterize how prenatal genetic counselors might address spiritual issues with patients, 283 English and Spanish speaking women receiving prenatal genetic counseling in Houston, Texas were surveyed post-counseling using both the Brief RCope and questions regarding interest in spiritual exploration. Genetic counselors were concurrently surveyed to identify religious/spiritual language used within sessions and perceived importance of R/S. Genetic counselors were significantly more likely to identify R/S as important to a patient when patients used religious/spiritual language (p < 0.001). Conversely, when no religious/spiritual terms were present, the counselor felt uncertain about the importance of R/S 63 % of the time. However, 67 % of patients reported that they felt comfortable sharing their faith as it relates to their pregnancy, and 93 % reported using positive religious coping. Less than 25 % reported a desire for overt religious actions such as prayer or scripture exploration. Therefore, most patients' desires for spiritual exploration center in the decision making and coping processes that are in line with the genetic counseling scope of practice. Thus, counselors should feel empowered to incorporate spiritual exploration into their patient conversations.
Egan, Richard; Wood, Sarah; MacLeod, Rod; Walker, Robert
Chronic kidney disease is marked by a reduced life expectancy and a high symptom burden. For those who reach end-stage renal disease, the prognosis is poor, and this combined with the growing prevalence of the disease necessitates supportive and palliative care programmes that will address people’s psychosocial, cultural and spiritual needs. While there is variation between countries, research reveals that many renal specialist nurses and doctors are reluctant to address spirituality, initiate end-of-life conversations or implement conservative treatment plans early. Yet, other studies indicate that the provision of palliative care services, which includes the spiritual dimension, can reduce symptom burden, assist patients in making advanced directives/plans and improve health-related quality of life. This review brings together the current literature related to renal supportive care and spirituality under the following sections and themes. The introduction and background sections situate spirituality in both healthcare generally and chronic kidney disease. Gaps in the provision of chronic kidney disease spiritual care are then considered, followed by a discussion of the palliative care model related to chronic kidney disease and spirituality. Chronic kidney disease spiritual needs and care approaches are discussed with reference to advanced care planning, hope, grief and relationships. A particular focus on quality of life is developed, with spirituality named as a key dimension. Finally, further challenges, such as culture, training and limitations, are explicated. PMID:27417819
Milner, Kerry A; Foito, Kim; Watson, Sherylyn
Nurse educators need to equip nursing students with suitable resources and education so they can develop their own spiritual care, as well as recognize spiritual care needs in patients. There is a paucity of literature on teaching strategies for spiritual care and prayer in undergraduate nursing programs. This article describes how one faith-based school implemented strategies to facilitate spiritual development in students, which are integrated throughout the curriculum and utilized in the U.S. and a study-abroad program in Ireland.
Shahabi, Leila; Powell, Lynda H; Musick, Marc A; Pargament, Kenneth I; Thoresen, Carl E; Williams, David; Underwood, Lynn; Ory, Marcia A
To advance knowledge in the study of spirituality and physical health, we examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,422 adult respondents to the 1998 General Social Survey. They were asked, among other things, to rate themselves on the depth of their spirituality and the depth of their religiousness. Results indicated that, after adjustment for religiousness, self-perceptions of spirituality were positively correlated with being female (r = .07, p < .01), having a higher education (r = .12, p < .001), and having no religion (r = .10, p < .001) and inversely correlated with age (r = -.06, p < .05) and being Catholic (r = -.08, p < .01). After adjustment for these sociodemographic factors, self-perceptions of spirituality were associated with high levels of religious or spiritual activities (range in correlations = .12-.38, all p < .001), low cynical mistrust, and low political conservatism (both r = -.08, p < .01). The population was divided into 4 groups based on their self-perceptions of degree of spirituality and degree of religiousness. The spiritual and religious group had a higherfrequency of attending services, praying, meditating, reading the Bible, and daily spiritual experience than any of the other 3 groups (all differences p < .05) and had less distress and less mistrust than the religious-only group (p < .05 for both). However, they were also more intolerant than either of the nonreligious groups (p < .05 for both) and similar on intolerance to the religious-only group. We conclude that sociodemographicfactors could confound any observed association between spirituality and health and should be controlled. Moreover, individuals who perceive themselves to be both spiritual and religious may be at particularly low risk for morbidity and mortality based on their good psychological status and ongoing restorative activities.
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Clardy, Casey E.; Ramos, Jenel Sánchez
This qualitative study aimed to develop theory about psychological constructs relevant to spiritual development in diverse adolescents. Exemplar and Consensual Qualitative Research methods were used to explore 30 interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 21 years ("M" = 17.73 years) representing eight religions and six countries from around…
Plumb, Alison M.
An online survey of 341 Registered Clinical Counsellors in British Columbia was used to understand how therapists view and integrate spirituality and religion in their practice. Therapists were asked about their education and training in this realm, and about their perceived abilities, comfort, and competence when working with religious and/or…
Rassouli, Maryam; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Alireza
Background: Although nurses acknowledge that spiritual care is part of their role, in reality, it is performed to a lesser extent. The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ and patients’ experiences about the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in the oncology units of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in the oncology units of hospitals in Tabriz. Data were collected through purposive sampling by conducting unstructured interviews with 10 patients and 7 nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: Three categories emerged from the study: (1) “perceived barriers for providing spiritual care” including “lack of preparation for spiritual care,” “time and space constraints,” “unprofessional view,” and “lack of support”; (2) “communication: A way for Strengthening spirituality despite the limitations” including “manifestation of spirituality in the appearances and communicative behaviors of nurses” and “communication: Transmission of spiritual energy”; and (3) “religion-related spiritual experiences” including “life events as divine will and divine exam,” “death as reincarnation,” “trust in God,” “prayer/recourse to Holy Imams,” and “acceptance of divine providence.” Although nurses had little skills in assessing and responding to the patients’ spiritual needs and did not have the organizational and clergymen's support in dealing with the spiritual distress of patients, they were the source of energy, joy, hope, and power for patients by showing empathy and compassion. The patients and nurses were using religious beliefs mentioned in Islam to strengthen the patients’ spiritual dimension. Conclusions: According to the results, integration of spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing is recommended. Patients and
Jimenez, Rosalinda Ramirez
This is a reflective analysis on the lived experience of a medical mission in a third world country, where young women are abused and trafficked for sex. Practices of Scripture study, Lectio Divina, and contemplative prayer enabled me to deal with the spiritual darkness we encountered. Opening a dialogue with community members to view males and females in a different manner and battling alongside the local mission and ministers against sex trafficking, are not easy tasks. The perseverance found in the Bible gives us hope to be witnesses and healers in our broken world, and a small part in change that can take root with prayer.
In an attempt to schematically illustrate the pastoral care intervention to scientifically minded professionals and colleagues the author developed a model that can be used as an interdisciplinary teaching tool. Within the setting of hospital ministry, the tool also provides insights into the stages of "crisis experience" and illustrates the transformational process involved in The Healing Journey. These change-processes are explained against the background of a multi-level anthropology. This approach births a Healing Journey diagram, a spiritual pain assessment tool, and a seven-phase intervention model that may be helpful in Clinical Pastoral Education.
Marchais, P; Randrup, A
The meaning of the themes with spiritual connotations poses complex problems for psychiatry, because these themes induce the observer to project his own convictions and frames of references on his investigations. A double detachment (objectivation) concerning both the object of study and the observer is implied. This makes it possible to study these phenomena by a more rigorous method, to investigate the conditions of their formation and to demonstrate objectifiable correlates (experienced space and time, the various levels of psychic experience, factors in the environment...). In consequence the appropriate medical behaviour can be more precisely delineated.
This discussion presents a critical and thorough review of spirituality in Religion Education in the South African context. In the democratic South African education system issues such as personal well-being, spirituality and multi-religion education are confronting teachers and learners who have to cope with a new approach to religion in…
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
This paper presents a model of children's spirituality which provided a structure for conducting some recent research and for analysing the findings. The model consisted of four dimensions of spirituality derived from the literature, namely consciousness, relationality, roadmap and identity, with a central integrating concept of worldview. The…
Welch, Ronald D.; Mellberg, Kimberlee
Spiritual maturation processes of internalization and questing were assessed at a Christian university to determine their relationship to year in school and certain religious behaviors. This was a first step toward the development of a new model of Christian higher education that will intentionally facilitate spiritual maturation. A group of 179…
The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices…
Webster, R. Scott
John Dewey's "religious attitude" has great potential for the educative development of children's spirituality. This is because it enables their spiritual understandings to become more intelligently composed--not just in a cognitive or hyper-rational sense, but as a way of being. This paper provides an outline of Dewey's approach, which is…
Pesut, Barbara; Fowler, Marsha; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Sawatzky, Rick
The tremendous growth in nursing literature about spirituality has garnered proportionately little critique. Part of the reason may be that the broad generalizing claims typical of this literature have not been sufficiently explicated so that their particular implications for a practice discipline could be evaluated. Further, conceptualizations that attempt to encompass all possible views are difficult to challenge outside of a particular location. However, once one assumes a particular location in relation to spirituality, then the question becomes how one resolves the tension between what are essentially theological or philosophical commitments and professional commitments. In this study, we discuss the tension between these perspectives using the idea of a responsible nursing response to spiritual pluralism. We then problematize three claims about spirituality in nursing discourse based upon our location as scholars influenced by Christian theological understandings: (i) the claim that all individuals are spiritual; (ii) the claim that human spirituality can be assessed and evaluated; and (iii) the claim that spirituality is a proper domain of nursing's concern and intervention. We conclude by suggesting that the widely shared values of social justice, compassion and human dignity may well serve as a grounding for the critique of spiritual discourses in nursing across particularized positions.
Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.
The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…
Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…
Hanna, Fred J.; Green, Alan
In the current practice of school counseling, little consideration is given to the spiritual background of students of Asian cultures. Although there is a body of literature on Asian culture in counseling, the authors could find remarkably few articles pertaining to counseling students in the context of Asian religious and spiritual traditions. In…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Clarke, Philip B.; Graves, Elizabeth G.
With spirituality as a cornerstone, 12-step groups serve a vital role in the recovery community. It is important for counselors to be mindful, however, of the potential for clients to be in spiritual bypass, which likely will undermine the recovery process.
English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim
Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…
Hermsen, Maaike A; ten Have, Henk A M J
With the growth and development of palliative care, interest in pastoral care, spirituality, and religion also seems to be growing. The aim of this article is to review the topic of pastoral care, spirituality, and religion appearing in the journals of palliative care, between January 1984 and January 2002.
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
This paper considers the role of spirituality in the practice of pastoral welfare and care in English state schools. Set against an educational landscape of increasingly aggressive neoliberal interests combined with growing public disquiet over the mental welfare of young people, the author examines how spirituality might in response contribute to…
Muselman, Dannette M.; Wiggins, Marsha I.
The death of a loved one has serious implications for adolescent growth and development. The authors review relevant research on the grief process and spirituality in adolescence, and they give a rationale for integrating spirituality into adolescent grief work. By way of a case illustration, they draw implications for counselors' use of…
Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Nelson, Larry; Davarya, Sahar; Urry, Shirene
Emerging adults (approximately 18 to 25 years of age) experience heightened self-exploration regarding their beliefs and values, including those concerning religiosity and spirituality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding religiosity and spirituality in emerging adulthood. First, we document developmental advances in…
Morrison, Julie Q.; Clutter, Stacy M.; Pritchett, Elaine M.; Demmitt, Alan
Although current research indicates that psychotherapeutic change both affects and is affected by spiritual concerns, relatively little is known about the degree to which spirituality is used as an intervention in counseling and how it is perceived by clients and mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions…
Overstreet, Dawn V.
Contemporary American college students simultaneously express both increased interest in spirituality and declining interest in traditional religion. Recent research recognizes the trend of young adults separating spirituality from religion, but utilizes varied definitions of each term developed by the researchers. This study asks students…
Ginting, Henndy; Näring, Gérard; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Becker, Eni S
Many individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) experience disease-related anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anger. Spirituality may be helpful to cope with these negative emotions. Research findings on the role of spirituality in dealing with negative emotions are inconsistent. In this study, we examined the associations between 7 dimensions of spirituality (ie, meaningfulness, trust, acceptance, caring for others, connectedness with nature, transcendent experiences, and spiritual activities) and negative emotions among individuals with CHD in Indonesia, controlling for perceived social support as well as demographic and clinical characteristics. In total, 293 individuals with CHD were recruited from the 3 largest hospitals in Bandung, Indonesia. They completed the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Trait Anxiety Scale of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that a higher overall level of spirituality was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, less anxiety, and less anger. Specifically, a higher level of trust was significantly associated with both less depressive symptoms and less anxiety. Higher levels of caring for others and spiritual activities were associated with less anxiety, and a higher level of connectedness with nature was associated with less anger. These findings underscore the importance of specific dimensions of spirituality as a potentially independent buffer against negative emotions in individuals with CHD.
Kim, Sangwon; Esquivel, Giselle B.
Spirituality is a universal phenomenon and an inherent aspect of human nature that unfolds during adolescence as the individual searches for transcendence, meaning, and purpose in life. Recently, spirituality has received attention as a source of resilience for adolescents. Theoretical perspectives and empirical research suggest that spirituality…
Buffington, Angela Cunningham
While science education aims for literacy regarding scientific knowledge and the work of scientists, the separation of scientific knowing from other knowing may misrepresent the knowing of scientists. The majority of science educators K-university are women. Many of these women are spiritual and integrate their scientific and spiritual ways of knowing. Understanding spiritual women of science would inform science education and serve to advance the scientific reason and spirituality debate. Using interviews and grounded theory, this study explores scientific and spiritual ways of knowing in six women of science who hold strong spiritual commitments and portray science to non-scientists. From various lived experiences, each woman comes to know through a Passive knowing of exposure and attendance, an Engaged knowing of choice, commitment and action, an Mindful/Inner knowing of prayer and meaning, a Relational knowing with others, and an Integrated lifeworld knowing where scientific knowing, spiritual knowing, and other ways of knowing are integrated. Consequences of separating ways of knowing are discussed, as are connections to current research, implications to science education, and ideas for future research. Understanding women scientists' scientific/ spiritual ways of knowing may aid science educators in linking academic science to the life-worlds of students.
Smith, Yolanda Y.
The author believes that a deep sense of spirituality together with effective Christian education can be a powerful resource for equipping individuals and communities to play an active role in transforming their lives as well as oppressive systems that have impacted their communities. In her discussion of spirituality, womanist ethicist Emilie…
Migdal, Lori; MacDonald, Douglas A
Koenig (J Nerv Ment Dis 196:349-355, 2008) and others have asserted that measures of spirituality used to investigate its association with health seem to present a misleading picture of the relationship because of evidence suggesting that spirituality has become conceptually confounded with well-being. To evaluate this claim, the present study used a sample of 247 university students to explore the relation of a multidimensional model of spirituality with several different forms of well-being and the association of both with a two-factor model of social desirability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that, although there is some evidence of an association, it is generally of low effect size and seems to differ as a function of how spirituality is defined. More importantly, however, there was the finding that existential well-being, a concept often incorporated into definitions of spirituality and a part of the measurement model used in this study, is virtually uncorrelated with explicitly spiritual and religious variables but shows a pattern of association with measures of well-being and social desirability, which suggests that it would be better conceptualized as a form of well-being and not spirituality. The article concludes with a discussion of the meaning of the findings for understanding the spirituality-health literature and suggestions for future research.
Hawks, Steven R.; Goudy, Marylynn B.; Gast, Julie A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating and spiritual well-being. It was found that among college women lower levels of spiritual well-being correlated with higher levels of emotional eating (r = -0.22, p = 0.0015). In other studies emotional eating has been found to contribute to higher…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Blustein, David L.
The present study examined the relationship between spirituality, religiousness, and career adaptability using a sample of undergraduate students (N=144). We proposed that higher levels of religiousness and spirituality would predict higher levels of career adaptability, defined in this study by career decision self-efficacy and career choice…
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to establish among health educators a consensus in the definition of spirituality and health that would ultimately guide effective development of a curriculum or program in spirituality and health for undergraduate programs in college health science departments. Methodology. This mixed-methods research study…
Tan, Charlene; Wong, Yew-Leong
Against a backdrop of the debates on religious education in public or state schools, we argue for the introduction of "spiritual ideals" into the public school curriculum. We distinguish our notion of spiritual ideals from "religious ideals" as conceptualised by De Ruyter and Merry. While we agree with De Ruyter and Merry that…
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Walker, Coretta Roseboro; Luzader, Jordan
Through in-depth interviews with ten diverse participants, this phenomenological study explored the meaning, dimensions, and processes of spiritual struggle in college students' lives. The findings revealed that encountering contrast was the unifying dimension underlying students' spiritual struggle narratives. Contrast was apparent in students'…
Rozeboom, David; Frohardt, Russell; Carroll, Claudia; Sullivan, Tom; Phelps, Nick; Trevino, Nicole; Blair, David; Brown, Christy; Puglisi, James
Researchers at a regional western university surveyed undergraduate students on the extent to which they identified themselves as spiritual leaders and, in particular, as having the quality of equanimity, one component of spiritual leadership. The results illustrate the role that equanimity plays in the development of a student's leadership…
Langer, Rena Ruth Swango
This document presents a review of the literature that examines the relationship of spiritual centeredness to the development of a positive self-concept and good mental health, emphasizing the Judeo-Christian concept of spirituality, but discussing other concepts as well. The review focuses on three areas: coping skills, self-concept, and values…
Vachon, Mélanie; Fillion, Lise; Achille, Marie
The definition of spirituality is the subject of endless debates in the empirical literature. This content analysis sought to: (1) exhaustively review the empirical literature on end-of-life spirituality to extract definitional elements of this concept and (2) elaborate on these definitional elements to create an integrative and inclusive definition of end-of-life spirituality based on the items retrieved. A search of the literature on spirituality published in the last 10 years was conducted via the the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases. Seventy-one articles were selected based on specific inclusion criteria. A qualitative thematic analysis yielded 11 dimensions for the concept of end-of-life spirituality, namely: (1) meaning and purpose in life, (2) self-transcendence, (3) transcendence with a higher being, (4) feelings of communion and mutuality, (5) beliefs and faith, (6) hope, (7) attitude toward death, (8) appreciation of life, (9) reflection upon fundamental values, (10) the developmental nature of spirituality, and (11) its conscious aspect. The definition derived from this concept analysis, after being tested empirically, may be useful in informing the development of new measures of spirituality and new protocols to assess spirituality in clinical settings.
Bosacki, Sandra Leanne; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon
Research suggests that self-control or self-regulation may play a role in the connections among spirituality, health, well-being, and social behavior. Within the framework of social-cognitive developmental theory, we explore the question of how do children and adolescents learn to think of themselves as gendered and spiritual beings within the…
This article offers one approach to exploring the question of in what sense music educators can speak of music and its moving power as spiritual by inquiring into what might count as a "musical spiritual experience" in emotional terms. The essay's analytic framework employs the distinction between two related concepts which I call the "shiver" and…
Guenther, Zenita; Németh-Torres, Geovani
The concept of spirituality is influenced by culture and the values and mores of Brazil, and though not directly linked to religion it actually grows from the same roots. This paper examines spirituality in education from the perspective of a humanistic psychology framework expressed as an ideal of the adequate personality or healthy personality.…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
It is my thesis that the Child Theology Movement is a new and significant aspect of cultural change within the Christian church that will have resonance with the wider community, affecting parenting behaviour as well as spiritual and religious education. This paper examines some of the aspects of children's spirituality that link to and have value…
Puterbaugh, Dolores T.
This article draws from a phenomenological study on the experience of being a bereavement counselor. Ten bereavement counselors shared their experiences in bereavement counseling. Spiritual and emotional aspects of bereavement counseling with grieving and dying persons are discussed as well as the spiritual effects on and growth processes of the…
Bosacki, Sandra; Elliott, Anne; Akseer, Spogmai; Bajovic, Mira
Drawn from a larger study of Canadian children's sense of self and media habits, this study explores the role of religiosity and/or spirituality within 535 children's (281 girls, 254 boys; 5-13 years of age) self-reported media preferences and habits over a three-year period. Results indicate that the theme of spirituality and/or religiosity…
Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Background: Despite the paramount importance and direct relationship of spirituality and spiritual care with health and well-being, they are relatively neglected aspects of nursing care. Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences of the facilitators of spiritual care delivery. Materials and Methods: For this qualitative content analysis study, a purposive maximum-variation sample of 17 nurses was recruited from teaching and private hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from 19 individual, unstructured interviews. The conventional content-analysis approach was applied in data analysis. Results: The facilitators of spiritual care delivery fall into two main themes: living to achieve cognizance of divinity and adherence to professional ethics. These two main themes are further divided into eight categories: spiritual self-care, active learning, professional belonging, personal and professional competencies, gradual evolution under divine guidance, awareness of the spiritual dimension of human beings, occurrence of awakening flashes and incidents during life, and congruence between patients’ and healthcare providers’ religious beliefs. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that the facilitators of spiritual care delivery are more personal than organizational. Accordingly, strategies to improve the likelihood and quality of spiritual care delivery should be developed and implemented primarily at the personal level. PMID:27247787
Isakson, Richard L; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Dougher, M. Kirk
An attempt was made to determine whether counseling doctoral programs allow or encourage a discussion of religion and spirituality as part of the counselor client relationship. Several arguments are presented that support therapists attending to clients' religious and spiritual beliefs. The types of problems or disorders that can be aided by…
fields of study in medicine , psychology, education, and organizational leadership. Fourth, many great American leaders throughout history have...Spiritual Fitness” requirements complement military medicine and education approaches to addressing mental and physical issues of importance to the U.S...military. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHHPM) maintains a web page regarding Spiritual Health, and the
Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi
The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…
This research investigates teenagers' perceptions of spirituality. The author considers how far teenage ideas mirrored the many academic theories of spirituality-in-education that have influenced policy makers. Comparisons are made particularly with the theories of four scholars who have dominated the debate over the last twenty years: Jack…
Three leadership characteristics are experience, competencies, and spiritual awareness. Eighteen youths spent a week on the remote island of Mull (United Kingdom) to explore their own spirituality away from the noise of 20th-century living. Activities using music, discussion, art, poetry, and outdoor experience acted as catalysts for spiritual…
The "spirituality in the workplace" movement serves a range of interests, including personal fulfillment on the job, a growing need to reconcile personal values with those of the corporation, and corporate desires to help individuals achieve more balanced lives. In addition to being the theme at a growing number of conferences, spirituality has…
Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah
Eight non-Indigenous counsellors who temporarily lived in Nunavut to serve Inuit clients were interviewed regarding what they learned about Inuit spirituality during their cultural immersion experience. They were also asked about how they applied their understandings of the Inuit spiritual worldview in their professional practice. Counsellors'…
Davis, Keith M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.
This article (a) addresses the importance of familial spirituality on students' holistic development; (b) explores professional ethical codes, standards, and counseling competencies relating to students' familial spirituality; (c) introduces educational activities to assist school counselors in increasing their understanding and appreciation of…
Ferch, Shann R.; Ramsey, Marleen I.
Suggests that spiritual questions can be explored in the therapeutic context in order to help the client gain a sense of meaning in their suffering, as well as a measure of peace in their lives. The authors' approach, entitled Sacred Conversation, uses Victor Frankl's work as well as literature on empathy, forgiveness, and spirituality as its…
Background This article examines spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The paper reveals the current extent of available training while defining the target group(s) and teaching aims. In addition to those, we will provide an analysis of delivered competencies, applied teaching and performance assessment methods. Methods In 2013, an anonymous online survey was conducted among the members of the International Society for Health and Spiritual Care. The survey consisted of 10 questions and an open field for best practice advice. SPSS21 was used for statistical data analysis and the MAXQDA2007 for thematic content analysis. Results 33 participants participated in the survey. The main providers of spiritual care training are hospitals (36%, n = 18). 57% (n = 17) of spiritual care training forms part of palliative care education. 43% (n = 13) of spiritual care education is primarily bound to the Christian tradition. 36% (n = 11) of provided trainings have no direct association with any religious conviction. 64% (n = 19) of respondents admitted that they do not use any specific definition for spiritual care. 22% (n = 14) of available spiritual care education leads to some academic degree. 30% (n = 19) of training form part of an education programme leading to a formal qualification. Content analysis revealed that spiritual training for medical students, physicians in paediatrics, and chaplains take place only in the context of palliative care education. Courses provided for multidisciplinary team education may be part of palliative care training. Other themes, such as deep listening, compassionate presence, bedside spirituality or biographical work on the basis of logo-therapy, are discussed within the framework of spiritual care. Conclusions Spiritual care is often approached as an integral part of grief management, communication/interaction training, palliative care, (medical) ethics
Dedeli, Ozden; Kaptan, Gulten
Pain relief is a management problem for many patients, their families, and the medical professionals caring for them. Although everyone experiences pain to some degree, responses to it vary from one person to another. Recognizing and specifying someone else’s pain is clinically a well know challenge. Research on the biology and neurobiology of pain has given us a relationship between spirituality and pain. There is growing recognition that persistent pain is a complex and multidimensional experience stemming from the interrelations among biological, psychological, social, and spiritual factors. Patients with pain use a number of cognitive and behavioral strategies to cope with their pain, including religious/spiritual factors, such as prayers, and seeking spiritual support to manage their pain. This article provides an overview of the complex phenomenon of pain, with a focus on spiritual and religious issues in pain management. PMID:26973914
Miller, W R
Although religions have been far from silent on the use of psychoactive drugs, and spirituality has long been emphasized as an important factor in recovery from addiction, surprisingly little research has explored the relationships between these two phenomena. Current findings indicate that spiritual/religious involvement may be an important protective factor against alcohol/drug abuse. Individuals currently suffering from these problems are found to have a low level of religious involvement, and spiritual (re)engagement appears to be correlated with recovery. Reasons are explored for the lack of studies testing spiritual hypotheses, and promising avenues for future research are discussed. Comprehensive addictions research should include not only biomedical, psychological and socio-cultural factors but spiritual aspects of the individual as well.
Miller, William R; Forcehimes, Alyssa; O'Leary, Mary J; LaNoue, Marnie D
Spirituality has long been regarded as an important component of recovery from addiction. This article reports the findings of two controlled trials of spiritual direction as an adjunct in addiction treatment. In Study 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a 12-session manual-guided spiritual guidance (SG) intervention during and after inpatient treatment, in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). In Study 2, two cohorts of 40 each received TAU without or with SG during their inpatient stay. In both trials, contrary to prediction, SG had no effect on spiritual practices or substance use outcomes at any follow-up point. At the first follow-up in Study 1 only, those randomly assigned to spiritual direction unexpectedly showed significantly less improvement on depression and anxiety, relative to TAU controls. Limitations and implications for treatment are discussed.
James, Anthony G; Fine, Mark A
This study uses a positive youth development (PYD) approach to explore whether differences in youths' conceptions of spirituality were linked to patters of difference regarding 6 domains of PYD. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, findings revealed a consistent trend across 6 domains of positive development. Youth who had coherent conceptions of being spiritual generally scored highest on measures of positive development, whereas youth in the ambiguous spirituality group (i.e., less coherent) scored the lowest. However, follow-up analyses reveal that such relations did not hold over time. Implications of findings include youth development professionals aiming to nurture the spiritual growth of youth should encourage more coherent notions of spirituality among the youth they serve.
Espinha, Daniele Corcioli Mendes; de Camargo, Stéphanie Marques; Silva, Sabrina Piccinelli Zanchettin; Pavelqueires, Shirlene; Lucchetti, Giancarlo
The present study aimed to identify the opinions of nursing students in relation to the interface between health, spirituality and religiosity and the information provided during their undergraduate formation. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 011 (May to October) through interviews on 120 students from a nursing school (82.1%) located at São Paulo State, Brazil. From these, 76% believe that spirituality have an influence on health. However, only 10% consider themselves very prepared to address patients' spiritual aspects and 54% stated that university education does not provide enough information to develop this competence. The fear of imposing religious beliefs is the main barrier related to this issue. Most students (83%) indicated that issues related to health and spirituality should be part of the nursing curricula. Therefore, it's necessary to implement learning scenarios during their academic training to help students in spiritual care.
Miller, William R.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; O'Leary, Mary; LaNoue, Marnie D.
Spirituality has long been regarded as an important component of recovery from addiction. This article reports the findings of two controlled trials of spiritual direction as an adjunct in addiction treatment. In Study 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a 12-session manual-guided spiritual guidance (SG) intervention during and after inpatient treatment, in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). In Study 2, two cohorts of 40 each received TAU without or with SG during their inpatient stay. In both trials, contrary to prediction, SG had no effect on spiritual practices or substance use outcomes at any follow-up point. At the first follow-up in Study 1 only, those randomly assigned to spiritual direction unexpectedly showed significantly less improvement on depression and anxiety, relative to TAU controls. Limitations and implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:18657945
Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.
Black, Helen K.; Hannum, Susan M.
We examined the concepts of aging, time, spirituality, and future care needs in four randomly selected informants from a group of 54 never-married childless older women. Using data from the Generativity and Lifestyles of Older Women (GLOW) study, we questioned how women’s perceptions of these concepts came together in current older age. We employed cultural theory, (our theoretical framework), ethnography, (our methodological framework), and phenomenology, (our philosophical foundation) to produce a portrait of each woman interviewed. Through a three-session interview process, we elicited the women’s life stories, reasons for childlessness, and topics that emerged as significant to the women, including aging, a sense of time remaining, and spirituality. A key finding was that the context of each woman’s life, both biographical and historical, transpired as a foundation for these concepts. That is, a woman’s “place in time” shaped their experiences of aging, as well as her reasons for childlessness and perceptions of finitude. PMID:26539067
Edwards, A; Pang, N; Shiu, V; Chan, C
Spirituality and spiritual care are gaining increasing attention but their potential contribution to palliative care remains unclear. The aim of this study was to synthesize qualitative literature on spirituality and spiritual care at the end of life using a systematic ('meta-study') review. Eleven patient articles and eight with healthcare providers were included, incorporating data from 178 patients and 116 healthcare providers, mainly from elderly White and Judaeo-Christian origin patients with cancer. Spirituality principally focused on relationships, rather than just meaning making, and was given as a relationship. Spirituality was a broader term that may or may not encompass religion. A 'spirit to spirit' framework for spiritual care-giving respects individual personhood. This was achieved in the way physical care was given, by focusing on presence, journeying together, listening, connecting, creating openings, and engaging in reciprocal sharing. Affirmative relationships supported patients, enabling them to respond to their spiritual needs. The engagement of family caregivers in spiritual care appears underutilized. Relationships formed an integral part of spirituality as they were a spiritual need, caused spiritual distress when broken and were the way spiritual care was given. Barriers to spiritual care include lack of time, personal, cultural or institutional factors, and professional educational needs. By addressing these, we may make an important contribution to the improvement of patient care towards the end of life.
Joldersma, Clarence W.
This paper argues for an alternative notion of spirituality for education, based on Theo de Boer's idea of a spirituality of the desert. Rather than depicting an inner, additional region named the spiritual, spirituality here is thought of as a discourse that depicts the everyday world in a particular way. In dialogue with David Purpel's analysis,…
Spirituality has replaced religion in popular culture and its presence is being felt in the therapeutic world. Using a questionnaire completed by 104 people utilising six descriptive definitions of spirituality and 36 categories of spiritual experience, three meta-themes of forms of spirituality emerged through a thematic analysis. These are…
Benjamin, Phyllis; Looby, Joan
Discusses the presence and power of the spiritual content in the counseling process and in the attainment of optimum wellness. Spirituality and spiritual wellness are defined and the intrinsic nature of spirituality is discussed in the context of Rogers's and Maslow's self-actualization theories as well as the importance of optimum psychological…
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Shoffner, Marie F.
Overall spiritual wellness, as well as 4 individual components of spiritual wellness, has been theoretically and empirically linked with depression. Prior to this investigation, no study has examined the relationship between spiritual wellness and depression by using a 4-component measurement model of spiritual wellness. In this study of older…
Counselors and psychotherapists are increasingly expected to provide services that are spiritually competent. Those counseling individuals and families where medical concerns are a focus would do well to consider the implications of spiritual competence in their work. The article defines spiritual competence, describes spiritual competencies, and…
This article examines spiritual giftedness and the spiritual development of a recent high school graduate. The framework of the investigation was to explore teachers' perspectives on spiritual giftedness and what traits students display in the classroom. The concept of spiritual giftedness has gained increasing attention over the years and is…
To study children's spirituality at the beginning of the twenty-first century provides a prime opportunity for exploring the personal, social and global interconnections in the understanding and practice of spirituality. Countless definitions of spirituality have been suggested, yet it has also been said that spirituality escapes definition…
Mellinger, Laurie A.
This dissertation explores the recent work on spiritual practices in the academic discipline of Christian spirituality, gathering together the strengths of various conceptions of practice from the literature and developing a rigorous definition of a Christian spiritual practice: Christian spiritual practices are things God enables Christian people…
Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson; Befort, Christy; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Sollenberger, Sonja; Huser, Laura
The authors investigated the relationships between spirituality, body image, self-esteem, and stress in 204 college freshmen who identified themselves as being highly spiritual. A positive relationship was found between spirituality and self-esteem. Although self-esteem was found to be negatively related to stress, spirituality served as a buffer…
Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.
Describes group work designed to promote spiritual development with drug and alcohol abusers. Provides a definition of spirituality. Discusses research that relates to the spiritual development of members of drug and alcohol groups. Compares the ways that group work and Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual development. (Author/MKA)
Hafner, Madeline M.; Capper, Colleen A.
This essay problematizes the current discourses on spirituality and leadership, particularly in terms of how spirituality is defined. To this end, the authors provide a brief overview of the different definitions of spirituality as explicated in the literature on spirituality and leadership, identify the underlying epistemologies of these…
Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Dale, Jennifer; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Buelna, Christina; Nuñez, Alicia; Espinoza, Rebeca; Talavera, Gregory A.
Purpose Depression is common among patients diagnosed with cancer and may be inversely associated with spiritual well-being. While numerous strategies are employed to manage and cope with illness, spiritual well-being has become increasingly important in cancer survivorship research. This study examined the association between spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized self-report data from 102 diverse cancer survivors recruited from peer-based cancer support groups in San Diego County. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) and spiritual well-being was measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp) comprised of two subscales (Meaning/Peace and Faith). Results Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that Meaning/Peace significantly predicted depressive symptoms after adjusting for socio-demographics, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and Faith (p < .001). Conclusions Findings suggest that spiritual well-being is a valuable coping mechanism and that Meaning/Peace has a unique advantage over Faith in protecting cancer survivors from the effects of depression symptoms; therefore, turning to Meaning/Peace as source of strength may improve psychological well-being during survivorship. Implications Future programs and healthcare providers should be cognizant of the influential role of spiritual well-being in depression symptoms in an effort to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors. PMID:24691887
Spirituality and religion are important to many people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent research has focused on special populations (ethnic-minorities, women, and youth), spirituality/religion measurement, mediating/moderating mechanisms, and individual and community-level interventions. Spirituality/religion in PLWH has been refined as a multidimensional phenomenon which improves health/quality of life directly and through mediating factors (healthy behaviors, optimism, social support). Spirituality/religion helps people to cope with stressors, especially stigma/discrimination. Spiritual interventions utilizing the power of prayer and meditation and addressing spiritual struggle are under way. Faith-based community interventions have focused on stigma and could improve individual outcomes through access to spiritual/social support and care/treatment for PLWA. Community engagement is necessary to design/implement effective and sustainable programs. Future efforts should focus on vulnerable populations; utilize state-of the art methods (randomized clinical trials, community-based participatory research); and, address population-specific interventions at individual and community levels. Clinical and policy implications across geographic settings also need attention. PMID:23996649
Peter Kevern believes that the cognitive science of religion (CSR) provides a justification for the idea of spiritual care in the health services. In this paper, I suggest that he is mistaken on two counts. First, CSR does not entail the conclusions Kevern wants to draw. His treatment of it consists largely of nonsequiturs. I show this by presenting an account of CSR, and then explaining why Kevern's reasons for thinking it rescues 'spirituality' discourse do not work. Second, the debate about spirituality-in-health is about classification: what shall count as a 'spiritual need' and what shall count as 'spiritual care'. It is about the politics of meaning, an exercise in persuasive definition. The function of 'spirituality' talk in health care is to change the denotation of 'spiritual', and attach its indelibly religious connotations to as many health-related concepts and practices as possible. CSR, however plausible it may be as a theory of the origins and pervasiveness of religious belief, is irrelevant to this debate.
Spirituality and religion are important to many people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent research has focused on special populations (ethnic-minorities, women, and youth), spirituality/religion measurement, mediating/moderating mechanisms, and individual and community-level interventions. Spirituality/religion in PLWH has been refined as a multidimensional phenomenon, which improves health/quality of life directly and through mediating factors (healthy behaviors, optimism, social support). Spirituality/religion helps people to cope with stressors, especially stigma/discrimination. Spiritual interventions utilizing the power of prayer and meditation and addressing spiritual struggle are under way. Faith-based community interventions have focused on stigma and could improve individual outcomes through access to spiritual/social support and care/treatment for PLWA. Community engagement is necessary to design/implement effective and sustainable programs. Future efforts should focus on vulnerable populations; utilize state-of-the-art methods (randomized clinical trials, community-based participatory research); and, address population-specific interventions at individual and community levels. Clinical and policy implications across geographic settings also need attention.
Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam
Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies.
Lawson, Erma Jean; Thomas, Cecelia
Hurricane Katrina has drawn increased interest in coping strategies, spirituality, and mental health among low-income Blacks. Given the paucity of information available regarding the role of spirituality in surviving Hurricane Katrina, this qualitative study explores active coping strategies of older Blacks. Older respondents who were evacuated to a Texas retirement apartment complex participated in a series of three in-depth interviews (starting approximately three weeks after their arrival in the host state and continuing weekly). Without exception, the findings indicate that this population coped with Katrina and its aftermath through reliance on a Higher Power. The relationship to a Higher Power did not necessarily translate into church membership. The conclusions of the respondents' spiritual coping mechanisms revealed the following themes: 1) regular communication with a supernatural power; 2) miracles of faith through this source of guidance and protection; 3) daily reading of the Bible and various spiritual and devotional materials; and 4) helping others as a consequence of faith and devotion to a supreme being. This study indicates that spirituality promotes emotional resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events such as Hurricane Katrina. These findings also point to the need for researchers to reconsider expressions of spirituality based solely on church membership/attendance and prayer, and to consider redefining spiritual coping as a form of cultural capital.
Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta
Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system.
Paal, Piret; Helo, Yousef; Frick, Eckhard
This systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes of spiritual care training. It outlines the training outcomes based on participants' oral/written feedback, course evaluation and performance assessment. Intervention was defined as any form of spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals studying/working in an academic and/or clinical setting. An online search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CSA, ATLA and CENTRAL up to Week 27 of 2013 by two independent investigators to reduce errors in inclusion. Only peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on training outcomes were included. A primary keyword-driven search found 4912 articles; 46 articles were identified as relevant for final analysis. The narrative synthesis of findings outlines the following outcomes: (1) acknowledging spirituality on an individual level, (2) success in integrating spirituality in clinical practice, (3) positive changes in communication with patients. This study examines primarily pre/post-effects within a single cohort. Due to an average study quality, the reported findings in this review are to be seen as indicators at most. Nevertheless, this review makes evident that without attending to one'the repeliefs and needs, addressing spirituality in patients will not be forthcoming. It also demonstrates that spiritual care training may help to challenge the spiritual vacuum in healthcare institutions.
Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that “spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah).” Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675
Mahlungulu, S N; Uys, L R
There is scientific evidence that the spiritual well being of a person can affect quality of life and the response to illness, pain, suffering and even death. In spite of this evidence, spirituality in nursing has not been examined within a South African context. The purpose of this study was to describe the phenomenon of spirituality from the perspective of nurses and patients/clients with the aim of generating a middle range theory of spiritual care in nursing. A qualitative mode of inquiry using a grounded theory method was applied. A sample of 56 participants composed of 40 nurses, 14 patients and 2 relatives of patients was recruited by theoretical sampling procedure from one public hospital, one private hospital and one hospice setting. Focus group interviews and one on one in depth interviews were conducted. An audio tape recorder was used to record the interviews. Field notes and memos were also kept. Data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Non numerical Data Qualification Solutions NUDIST software was used to code data into different levels of codes. The results were rich descriptions of the concept of spirituality. This concept was described as a unique individual quest for establishing and, or, maintaining a dynamic transcendent relationship with self, others and with God/supernatural being as understood by the person. Faith, trust and religious belief were reported as antecedents of spirituality, while hope, inner peace and meaningful life were reported to be consequences of spirituality.
Pimentel, Marcelo Gulão; Alberto, Klaus Chaves; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander
In the early nineteenth century, investigations into the nature of psychic/spiritual phenomena, like trances and the supposed acquisition of information unattainable using normal sensory channels, prompted much debate in the scientific arena. This article discusses the main explanations offered by the researchers of psychic phenomena reported between 1811 and 1860, concentrating on the two main movements in the period: magnetic somnambulism and modern spiritualism. While the investigations of these phenomena gave rise to multiple theories, they did not yield any consensus. However, they did have implications for the understanding of the mind and its disorders, especially in the areas of the unconscious and dissociation, constituting an important part of the history of psychology and psychiatry.
One hundred thirty-two randomly selected baccalaureate nursing programs in the Unites States responded to a survey exploring how the spiritual dimension of nursing care currently is being taught. The majority of programs included the concept of the spiritual dimension in curricula, but few programs had definitions of spirituality or spiritual nursing care. Content addressed most consistently by programs included assessment of spiritual needs, the needs of dying individuals, and the spiritual dimension as a component of holism or culture. There appeared to be a lack of clarity in the understanding of the concept of spirituality, as well as uncertainty about levels of faculty knowledge and comfort with teaching this topic.
This article is a sequel to 'Spirituality in palliative care: what language do we need?' (Byrne, 2002). It looks at the language of pastoral care, its place in palliative settings and how it is regarded by patients and carers. Spirituality and spiritual need is multifaceted, and the various beliefs regarding the concept of spirituality and the spiritual needs of terminally ill patients are appraised, and the methods of spiritual assessment reviewed. The role of the chaplain in spiritual care is also assessed, and an ability to move beyond the boundaries of their own denominational position addressed. Several components of the language of pastoral care are identified.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza
Background: Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. Objectives: This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P < 0.05 significance level, by SPSS software version 18. Results: Of 190 study participants, 163 (85.78%) with scores more than five index had sleep disturbances and 27 (14.12%) had no sleep disturbance; 3 (1.52%) had mild, 163 (85.78%) moderate, and 24 (12.30%) good spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P < 0.04, r = 0.149). Through the regression analyses of spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Conclusions: Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended. PMID:25237580
Lee-Poy, Michael; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle
Abstract Objective To examine family physicians’ practices in and opinions on asking patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs, as well as physicians’ comfort levels in asking. Design Cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires. Setting Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont. Participants A total of 155 family physicians with office practices. Main outcome measures Frequency of asking patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs and physicians’ comfort levels in asking. Separate multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for each of these outcomes. Results A total of 139 questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 89.7 %. Of the respondents, 51.8 % stated that they asked patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs sometimes. Physician opinion that it was important to ask patients about religious and spiritual beliefs (P = .001) and physician comfort level with asking (P < .001) were significantly associated with physicians’ frequency of asking patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs. Comfort level with asking patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs was significantly associated with the opinions that it was important to ask (P = .004) and that it was their business to ask (P = .003), as well as with lack of training as the reason for not asking (P = .007). Conclusion This study found that family physicians were more likely to ask patients about their religious and spiritual beliefs if they had higher comfort levels in asking or if they believed that asking was important. Further, this study found that family physicians’ comfort level with asking was higher if they believed that it was important to ask and that it was their business to ask about religious and spiritual beliefs. Physician comfort levels with asking patients about religious and spiritual beliefs can be addressed through adequate training and education. PMID:27629691
Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid
Throughout the history of humanity it has been said that the individual ego, is a very limited form of identity. Spirituality is shaped by larger social circumstances and by the beliefs and values present in the wider culture. In Asia, as compared to other regions, people fall back on spiritualism. Mental health professionals, laymen and patients have great interest in spirituality and religious activities but still it is one of the most neglected fields of life. Spirituality and religion often are used interchangeably and it has also been described as an individual search for meaning. In psychiatry, religion and spirituality play a vital role in an individual's personal and social life. They are part of a very powerful medium to help in the healing process. Spiritual people know the meaning and goal of their life, have strong belief and firm faith in God or themselves, they can easily cope with stress and have the ability to adjust in every situation. They have satisfaction and contentment. They are less anxious and depressed and if they feel so, they try to overcome it through religious activities or rituals. Patients who depend heavily on their religious faith are significantly less depressed than those who don't. Spiritual practices foster an awareness that serves to identify and promote values such as creativity, patience, perseverance, honesty, kindness, compassion, wisdom, equanimity, hope and joy, all of which support good healthcare practice. Spirituality and religion form a bridge of contact between human, a composite of body and soul, and the Creator. Realizing this need, mental health professionals working in this field need to understand the spiritual values of patients and incorporate them in assessment and treatment.
Cobb, Eleanor; Kor, Ariel; Miller, Lisa
Spirituality and the surge of its development in adolescence have been established in the research. To date, however, these studies look at tendencies across full samples of adolescence rather than investigating multiple subgroups or multiple pathways of spiritual development. The current study uses latent class analysis to identify subgroup portraits of spiritual life in adolescence, based upon a range of dimensions of spiritual experience, religious practice, and mindfulness. Mindfulness, as a dispositional trait, is examined alongside the impact of religious practice on the level of spiritual experience (relationship with the Higher Power, spiritual values, and spiritual self). The findings suggest there is a complimentary contribution to spiritual life in adolescence from religious practice and mindfulness, with both as supportive pathways for spiritual development. Adolescents with the highest level of spiritual experience benefit from both religious practice and trait mindfulness, suggesting that taken together, there is an additive and augmenting contribution.
Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah; Jezewski, Mary Ann
Spirituality has become an increasingly popular concept among the nursing and health-related literature. The purpose for conducting this concept analysis, guided by Walker and Avant's methodology, was to (a) examine how spirituality has been used within the current body of nursing and health-related literature, (b) clarify the meaning of spirituality by discovering what this concept's current critical attributes/characteristics are, and (c) propose a definition of spirituality based on the concept analysis findings. A total of 90 references were reviewed, including 73 nursing and health-related references. Concept analysis findings revealed that spirituality was defined within four main themes in the nursing and health-related literature: (a) spirituality as religious systems of beliefs and values (spirituality = religion); (b) spirituality as life meaning, purpose, and connection with others; (c) spirituality as nonreligious systems of beliefs and values; and (d) spirituality as metaphysical or transcendental phenomena.
Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Wegner, Lisa
Spirituality and spiritual care both have received increased attention over the course of this past decade from different disciplines. However, for many years, in the occupational therapy profession, the importance of spirituality and spiritual care seems to be controversial because it is unclear how these concepts are integrated in occupational therapy education. Although occupational therapy students are being educated to consider a holistic and client-centred approach, spirituality is not regarded within this framework which diminishes the integrity of holistic approach. In South African occupational therapy education, it is unclear whether any single course on teaching and learning of spirituality and spiritual care exists. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe occupational therapy students' perceptions and attitudes regarding spirituality and spiritual care in occupational therapy education. A cross-sectional descriptive study design of undergraduate occupational therapy students from one educational institution was used. Data included demographic characteristics, responses on Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (SCGS), Spiritual and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) and Spirituality in Occupational Therapy Scale (SOTS). A response rate of 50.5 % (n = 100 out of 198) was achieved. In the SCGS, among the factors only factor 1 had the highest mean value score showing consistent agreement about spirituality, whereas in the SSCRS only three factors were found to have highest mean score and one with lowest mean score. In SOTS, participants had a highest score mean in relation to formal education and training about spirituality. Thus, in the integration of spirituality and spiritual care a holistic approach needs to be considered in education to enhance students' knowledge of how to address mind, body and spirit needs.
Although many nursing education programs are searching for ways to incorporate spirituality into the curriculum, how this should be done remains a point of debate. A number of models and teaching strategies have been posed in the literature. This article explores how definitions of spirituality can inform the integration of this important concept into the curriculum. Three key themes from definitions of spirituality in the literature are discussed: worldviews, intrapersonal connectedness, and interpersonal connectedness. Strategies are presented for facilitating discussions around worldviews and for fostering a climate that promotes intra- and interpersonal connectedness for students and faculty.
Isgandarova, Nazila; O'Connor, Thomas St James
The criteria for a new definition and model of what constitutes one approach to Canadian Islamic spiritual care is provided. The authors believe that to be an effective profession, Islamic spiritual care givers need to use both the Qur'an and Sunnah and adequate holistic concept from the social sciences. This involves coherent scientific knowledge based on evidence and serving diverse Muslim populations that also could include a multi-faith approach. The model based on a Canadian context is person centered, sensitive to theological and cultural environment, open to female Muslim spiritual caregivers with a concern for Muslim youth at risk.
Zamaniyan, Sakineh; Bolhari, Jafar; Naziri, Ghasem; Akrami, Majid; Hosseini, Sara
Cancer is deemed the century's major health problem, and its increasing growth during the last decades has made experts concerned more than ever. Of all types of cancer, breast cancer is regarded as the second most common disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients suffering from breast cancer. The present research was carried out between March and June 2011. The sample consisted of 24 participants randomly assigned to 2 groups: an experimental group (n, 12) and a control group (n, 12). All the subjects completed questionnaires on quality of life and spiritual well-being in pretest and posttest. The experimental group received 12 sessions of spiritual group therapy. The results demonstrated improvement in quality of life and spiritual well-being in the experimental group. In conclusion, spiritual group therapy can be used to improve quality of life and spiritual well-being (religious health and existential health) among patients with breast cancer.
Zamaniyan, Sakineh; Bolhari, Jafar; Naziri, Ghasem; Akrami, Majid; Hosseini, Sara
Cancer is deemed the century’s major health problem, and its increasing growth during the last decades has made experts concerned more than ever. Of all types of cancer, breast cancer is regarded as the second most common disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients suffering from breast cancer. The present research was carried out between March and June 2011. The sample consisted of 24 participants randomly assigned to 2 groups: an experimental group (n, 12) and a control group (n, 12). All the subjects completed questionnaires on quality of life and spiritual well-being in pretest and posttest. The experimental group received 12 sessions of spiritual group therapy. The results demonstrated improvement in quality of life and spiritual well-being in the experimental group. In conclusion, spiritual group therapy can be used to improve quality of life and spiritual well-being (religious health and existential health) among patients with breast cancer. PMID:26989285
This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.
Mamier, Iris; Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston
To measure nurse-provided spiritual care, robust instrumentation is needed. This study psychometrically evaluated an instrument that operationalizes frequency of nurse-provided spiritual care, the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale (NSCTS). The 17-item NSCTS, with an established content validity index of 0.88, was administered online to registered nurses (RNs) in four hospitals. Responses from 554 RNs (24% response rate), most who identified as Christian, provided evidence for the NSCTS' reliability and validity. Internal reliability was supported by an alpha coefficient of .93. Validity was evidenced by item-total correlations ranging from .40 to .80, low to modest direct correlations between the NSCTS and Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and Duke University Religiosity Index, and strong loadings between 0.41 and 0.84 on one factor (explaining 49.5% of the variance) during exploratory factor analysis.
Miller, William R; Thoresen, Carl E
The investigation of spiritual/religious factors in health is clearly warranted and clinically relevant. This special section explores the persistent predictive relationship between religious variables and health, and its implications for future research and practice. The section reviews epidemiological evidence linking religiousness to morbidity and mortality, possible biological pathways linking spirituality/religiousness to health, and advances in the assessment of spiritual/religious variables in research and practice. This introduction provides an overview of this field of research and addresses 3 related methodological issues: definitions of terms, approaches to statistical control, and criteria used to judge the level of supporting evidence for specific hypotheses. The study of spirituality and health is a true frontier for psychology and one with high public interest.
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.
This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley. The attribute aspects of connecting with others in spiritual ways and with God/higher power were particularly significant. The attribute of transcendence was found less important, and the attributes of value, becoming, and meaning were not found important. The Martsolf and Mickley framework helped organize narrative data for a content analysis of spirituality in survivors of sexual violence. PMID:21850278
Garroutte, Eva Marie; Anderson, Heather Orton; Nez-Henderson, Patricia; Croy, Calvin; Beals, Janette; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Thomas, Jacob; Manson, Spero M
Following a previous investigation of religio-spiritual beliefs in American Indians, this article examined prevalence and correlates of religio-spiritual participation in two tribes in the Southwest and Northern Plains (N = 3,084). Analysis suggested a "religious profile" characterized by strong participation across three traditions: aboriginal, Christian, and Native American Church. However, sociodemographic variables that have reliably predicted participation in the general American population, notably gender and age, frequently failed to achieve significance in multivariate analyses for each tradition. Religio-spiritual participation was strongly and significantly related to belief salience for all traditions. Findings suggest that correlates of religious participation may be unique among American Indians, consistent with their distinctive religious profile. Results promise to inform researchers' efforts to understand and theorize about religio-spiritual behavior. They also provide tribal communities with practical information that might assist them in harnessing social networks to confront collective challenges through community-based participatory research collaborations.
Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Bunt, Gregory; Williams, Caroline; Trujillo, Manuel; Steinke, Paul
The prominence of Twelve-Step programs has led to increased attention on the putative role of spirituality in recovery from addictive disorders. We developed a 6-item Spirituality Self-Rating Scale designed to reflect a global measure of spiritual orientation to life, and we demonstrated here its internal consistency reliability in substance abusers on treatment and in nonsubstance abusers. This scale and the measures related to recovery from addiction and treatment response were applied in three diverse treatment settings: a general hospital inpatient psychiatry service, a residential therapeutic community, and methadone maintenance programs. Findings on these patient groups were compared to responses given by undergraduate college students, medical students, addiction faculty, and chaplaincy trainees. These suggest that, for certain patients, spiritual orientation is an important aspect of their recovery. Furthermore, the relevance of this issue may be underestimated in the way treatment is framed in a range of clinical facilities.
Bakken, Nicholas W; DeCamp, Whitney; Visher, Christy A
Prior research has indicated an inverse relationship between religion and criminal behavior; however, few studies have specifically examined the effect of spirituality on the desistance process among a contemporary and diverse sample of reentering drug-involved offenders. A comprehensive understanding of how spirituality is related to desistance from substance use can lead to more effective and evidence-based preventive and rehabilitative interventions. Using data from a longitudinal study of 920 diverse offenders returning to the community after a period of incarceration, the current study examines three distinct forms of substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) to gauge the effect that spirituality plays in the desistance process. The findings suggest a relatively high importance of spirituality in terms of preventing substance use during reentry, particularly concerning the use of both alcohol and cocaine.
Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S; Armstrong, Tonya D; Goldston, David B; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G
The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of articles reviewed found at least one significant (p < .05) relationship between religiousness and better mental health. Evidence for relationships between greater religiousness and less psychopathology was strongest in the area of teenage substance use. Methods of measuring religion/spirituality were highly heterogeneous. Further research on the relationship of religion/spirituality to delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety is warranted. Measurement recommendations, research priorities, and clinical implications are discussed.
Baldacchino, Donia R; Borg, Josette; Muscat, Charlene; Sturgeon, Cassandra
This descriptive exploratory study explored illness appraisal and spiritual coping of three groups of individuals with life-threatening illness. These were hospice clients with cancer (Ca; n = 10), clients with first myocardial infarction (MI; n = 6), and parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 16). Qualitative data were collected by audiotaped face-to-face interviews (parents) and focus groups (MI and Ca). Similarities in illness appraisal and spiritual coping were found across the three groups except appreciation of crafts, which was found only in clients with Ca and causal meaning of parents (CF). Overall, illness was appraised negatively and positively, whereas spiritual coping incorporated existential and religious coping. These findings confirm the psychological theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and theological theory (Otto, 1950), which guided this study. Recommendations were proposed to integrate spirituality and religiosity in the curricula, clinical practice and to conduct cross-cultural comparative longitudinal research.
Dhamani, Khairunnisa Aziz
This article seeks to describe a professional, personal, and cultural understanding of spirituality in nursing care. It revisits and refines the many concept clarifications of spirituality in our practice discipline, while reflecting on the potential meanings and learnings from Ismaili tenets and principles within a personal nursing practice. Through a review of mainstream literature in conjunction with nontraditional literature, the implicit is made explicit in terms of similarities and differences, as well as opportunities for further exploration. The summary brings forward the persistent gaps and questions on critical areas such as creating the "place" and "operationalizing" of spirituality. These continue to challenge and intrigue nurses seeking spiritual comfort for both themselves and their clients.
Kuchinke, K. Peter
The changing meaning of work calls for care and concern for the spiritual dimension of the workplace. Toward this end, a more liberal form of workforce education and human resource development in response to workplace preparation for managers is needed.
Churchill, Larry R
Genetic diseases often raise issues of profound importance for human self-understanding, such as one's identity, the family or community to which one belongs, and one's future or destiny. These deeper questions have commonly been seen as the purview of religion and spirituality. This essay explores how religion and spirituality are understood in the current US context and defined in the scholarly literature over the past 100 years. It is argued that a pragmatic, functional approach to religion and spirituality is important to understanding how patients respond to genetic diagnoses and participate in genetic therapies. A pragmatic, functional approach requires broadening the inquiry to include anything that provides a framework of transcendent meaning for the fundamental existential questions of human life. This approach also entails suspending questions about the truth claims of any particular religious/spiritual belief or practice. Three implications of adopting this broad working definition will be presented.
Vaillant, George E.
This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love (attachment), trust (faith), compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology; rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions rather than focusing only on negative emotions. PMID:22013350
Garroutte, Eva Marie; Anderson, Heather Orton; Nez-Henderson, Patricia; Croy, Calvin; Beals, Janette; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Jacob; Manson, Spero M.
Following a previous investigation of religio-spiritual beliefs in American Indians, this article examined prevalence and correlates of religio-spiritual participation in two tribes in the Southwest and Northern Plains (N = 3,084). Analysis suggested a “religious profile” characterized by strong participation across three traditions: aboriginal, Christian, and Native American Church. However, sociodemographic variables that have reliably predicted participation in the general American population, notably gender and age, frequently failed to achieve significance in multivariate analyses for each tradition. Religio-spiritual participation was strongly and significantly related to belief salience for all traditions. Findings suggest that correlates of religious participation may be unique among American Indians, consistent with their distinctive religious profile. Results promise to inform researchers’ efforts to understand and theorize about religio-spiritual behavior. They also provide tribal communities with practical information that might assist them in harnessing social networks to confront collective challenges through community-based participatory research collaborations. PMID:26582964
Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi
Context In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. Evidence Acquisition The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed. Conclusions Islam has
Curry, Janel; McCallum, Margaret; Rodriguez V, Jorge Juan
The provision of spiritual care, and the training of spiritual care providers, must be embedded within the larger systems (economic, social, generational, and environmental) and communities within which clients reside. This study analyzes the results of a systems approach to CPE training that focused on the rural context of Swan River, Manitoba. It addresses the need for new approaches to contextualizing CPE training and for understanding the uniqueness of rural contexts in particular.
Babikir, Haydar E
This cross sectional hospital based study, carried out simultaneously in Khartoum and in Wad Madani, Al Gezira State, aimed to study the impact of spiritual beliefs on explanation of the epilepsy etiology and the choices and methods of spiritual and traditional medicine used in the management of epilepsy in Sudan. The study included 180 care givers of whom 165 (91.7%) were mothers. Their ages ranged between 30–40 years. The majority (88.8%) were educated and 60 (33.3%) of them live in rural areas. Fifty eight (32.2%) attributed epilepsy to supernatural causes while 41 (22.8%) and 90 (50%) thought that epilepsy is an untreatable and contagious disorder, respectively. Traditional and spiritual medicine for the treatment of epilepsy was used by 70.5%. The common spiritual technique used was incantations (45.6%), spitting cure (37.2%) and ritual incensing (36.7%). Herbs, black cumin (Nigella sativa), honey and olive oil were mentioned among others as a traditional treatment for epilepsy. About two fifth (42.5%) started traditional or spiritual treatment before seeking any medical advice. Nevertheless, only 2.4% stopped the medical treatment as advised by the traditional healer. Fifty five (43.3%) thought that spiritual and/ or traditional treatment were effective in the management of epilepsy, 60(47.2%) found no difference while 12(9.45) got worse. The majority of patients with epilepsy, although on medical treatment, used traditional and spiritual methods as well. Traditional and spiritual healers may be involved positively in the management of epilepsy and extensive public educational programs are needed. PMID:27493355
Crick, Ruth Deakin; Jelfs, Helen
In this paper we explore the relationship between spirituality and learning how to learn in a faith-based secondary school. The development of a spiritually grounded pedagogy is a way of explicitly attending to spiritual development in teaching, learning and curriculum. The research described here comprises a personalised enquiry project in which…
Brooks, Clifford W., Jr.; Matthews, Charles O.
Examines the impact of counselors' spiritual well-being on the spiritual well-being of patients in their clinical care. Results indicate that the values of wisdom and loving from the Rokeach Value Survey and self-acceptance from the Personal Orientation Inventory account for approximately half of the spiritual well-being variance. Follow-up…
The secular practice of meditation is associated with a range of physiological and cognitive effects, including lower blood pressure, lower cortisol, cortical thickening, and activation of areas of the brain associated with attention and emotion regulation. However, in the context of spiritual practice, these benefits are secondary gains, as the primary aim is spiritual transformation. Despite obvious difficulties in trying to measure a journey without goal, spiritual aspects involved in the practice of meditation should also be addressed by experimental study. This review starts by considering meditation in the form of the relaxation response (a counterpart to the stress response), before contrasting mindfulness research that emphasizes the role of attention and alertness in meditation. This contrast demonstrates how reference to traditional spiritual texts (in this case Buddhist) can be used to guide research questions involving meditation. Further considerations are detailed, along with the proposal that research should triangulate spiritual textual sources, first person accounts (i.e., neurophenomenology), and physiological/cognitive measures in order to aid our understanding of meditation, not only in the secular context of health benefits, but also in the context of spiritual practice. PMID:26137495
Trivedi, Surbhi C; Subramanyam, Alka A; Kamath, Ravindra M; Pinto, Charles
Subjective memory complaints are very common among elderly. They can be due to depression, cognitive decline, or be a part of normal aging process. Spirituality is another important dimension in elderly, and it is believed to help them cope with various adversities. This study was done to find out whether any relation exists between these 2 variables in elderly. A total of 120 elderly individuals, presenting with subjective memory complaints, were divided into 3 groups - controls, elderly with depression, and elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Spirituality in them was studied by dividing it into the subdomains of self-transcendence, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and locus of control. Spirituality was the highest in controls, followed by MCI group, and then depression group. Spirituality had a direct negative relationship with severity of depression, while relationship of spirituality with severity of cognitive decline was more complex. Relationship of spirituality with mental health status in elderly patients seemed bidirectional, that is, cause as well as effect relationship.
Koenig, Laura B
The author investigated the change and stability of different aspects of religiousness and spirituality, as well as whether personality traits may help explain why individuals increase or decrease in religiousness and spirituality during emerging adulthood. Self-report measures of childhood and current religiousness were completed by 224 college-aged participants. A subset of participants also completed a measure of personality and measures of religious and spiritual belief trajectories by rating the importance of each belief at successive age brackets across their lifespan. Analyses of mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level stability and change in religiousness indicated that while average religiousness scores decreased, there was still moderate to high rank-order stability in scores. Additionally, service attendance was less stable and decreased more than importance of religion in daily life. Examination of the trajectories of religiousness and spirituality over time showed similar differences: religiousness decreased, on average, whereas spirituality increased slightly, but significantly, across successive age brackets. Personality traits did not significantly predict change in religiousness over time, although openness predicted change in spirituality. Conclusions include the idea that religiousness in emerging adulthood is comprised on different components that change at different rates.
Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy
BACKGROUND: Conditions with chronic, non-life-threatening pain and fatigue remain a challenge to treat, and are associated with high health care use. Understanding psychological and psychosocial contributing and coping factors, and working with patients to modify them, is one goal of management. An individual’s spirituality and/or religion may be one such factor that can influence the experience of chronic pain or fatigue. METHODS: The Canadian Community Health Survey (2002) obtained data from 37,000 individuals 15 years of age or older. From these data, four conditions with chronic pain and fatigue were analyzed together – fibromyalgia, back pain, migraine headaches and chronic fatigue syndrome. Additional data from the survey were used to determine how religion and spirituality affect psychological well-being, as well as the use of various coping methods. RESULTS: Religious persons were less likely to have chronic pain and fatigue, while those who were spiritual but not affiliated with regular worship attendance were more likely to have those conditions. Individuals with chronic pain and fatigue were more likely to use prayer and seek spiritual support as a coping method than the general population. Furthermore, chronic pain and fatigue sufferers who were both religious and spiritual were more likely to have better psychological well-being and use positive coping strategies. INTERPRETATION: Consideration of an individual’s spirituality and/or religion, and how it may be used in coping may be an additional component to the overall management of chronic pain and fatigue. PMID:18958309
Benawa, A.; Tarigan, N.; Makmun, S.
This article aims to show that today it is very important to consider the spiritual dimension in leadership, because the absence of the spiritual dimension makes it impossible for a human to evolve. As the leader, whoever should be accountable is not only on the horizontal level and at the vertical level as well. Phenomenological studies and literature about the practice of leadership are faced with a number of theories about leadership and then synthesized into more whole leadership rather than just to brand a leadership itself. Based on the assumption a leader is merely a sociological problem that needs to be completed with a spiritual dimension, while in its historical development of leadership, it is never excluded from the spiritual dimension. This article concludes that self-giving as a spiritual dimension in leadership will give more benefit to develop the life system as well as the purpose of leadership itself rather than the apparent leadership, which actually hurts or even manipulate the members for the sake of egoistic the leader and their inner circle. Therefore, it is very important for education to teach self-giving as a spiritual dimension to all students of the World, especially in Asia.
The secular practice of meditation is associated with a range of physiological and cognitive effects, including lower blood pressure, lower cortisol, cortical thickening, and activation of areas of the brain associated with attention and emotion regulation. However, in the context of spiritual practice, these benefits are secondary gains, as the primary aim is spiritual transformation. Despite obvious difficulties in trying to measure a journey without goal, spiritual aspects involved in the practice of meditation should also be addressed by experimental study. This review starts by considering meditation in the form of the relaxation response (a counterpart to the stress response), before contrasting mindfulness research that emphasizes the role of attention and alertness in meditation. This contrast demonstrates how reference to traditional spiritual texts (in this case Buddhist) can be used to guide research questions involving meditation. Further considerations are detailed, along with the proposal that research should triangulate spiritual textual sources, first person accounts (i.e., neurophenomenology), and physiological/cognitive measures in order to aid our understanding of meditation, not only in the secular context of health benefits, but also in the context of spiritual practice.
Spiritual care started worldwide in the late 1960s with the development of the hospice movement and death studies. Why did spiritual care start duringthis time in history ? In some Christian societies, of that time,"pastoral care" evolved into an interfaith "spiritual care" where in the caretaker was the main agent instead of the caregiver. On the other hand, the importance of palliative care for cancer patients was gradually acknowledged. In addition, this progress was accompanied by the academic development of "death studies" which is called "death and life studies" in Japan. The Japanese hospice care and death studies movement started in the late 1970s. In the precedingperiod, the spiritual quest of cancer patients facingdeath was already gaining public attention. A scholar of religious studies, Hideo Kishimoto of the University of Tokyo, was diagnosed with cancer in 1954; he survived many operations until his death in 1964. Duringthose years, he wrote about his personal experience of acceptinghis approachingdeath. Although he did not believe in any specific faith, he had studied various religious teachings. It is important to understand his perception of his own death. His book, On Facing Death, was published immediately after his death. Therefore, it provided a prominent discourse on copingwith spiritual pain of approachingdeath even before the growth of spiritual care in Japan.
Chiu, Lyren; Emblen, Julia D; Van Hofwegen, Lynn; Sawatzky, Rick; Meyerhoff, Heather
Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon, yet confusion and incomprehension of the concept is ever-present. The purpose of this study was to explore how research on the concept of spirituality has been reported in the health literature in the past decade and develop an ontological and theoretical understanding of spirituality. The examination was based on quantitative and qualitative integrative review approaches, which integrated empirical research on spirituality. The sample included 73 spirituality research articles, which were published in English between January 1990 and September 2000. An electronic data-collection tool was designed for use in this project and formatted using Excel software for transfer of coded data into the NVivo software for the data analysis. The results identified essential elements of spirituality, current use of operational definitions and instruments, conceptual frameworks used in spirituality research, and cultural aspects of spirituality. Historical comparison among decades and barriers in researching spirituality are discussed.
Petersen, Cheryl L; Callahan, Margaret Faut; McCarthy, Donna O; Hughes, Ronda G; White-Traut, Rosemary; Bansal, Naveen K
This study evaluated the potential impact of an online spiritual care educational program on pediatric nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase nurses' positive attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and increase nurses' level of perceived spiritual care competence. A positive correlation was expected between change in nurses' perceived attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and change in nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. A prospective, longitudinal design was employed, and analyses included one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, linear regression, and partial correlation. Statistically significant differences were found in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. There was a positive relationship between change scores in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' spiritual care competence. Online spiritual care educational programs may exert a lasting impact on nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. Additional studies are required to evaluate the direct effects of educational interventions patient outcomes.
Frecska, Ede; Luna, Luis Eduardo
The prevailing neuroscientific paradigm considers information processing within the central nervous system as occurring through hierarchically organized and interconnected neural networks. The hierarchy of neural networks doesn't end at the neuroaxonal level; it incorporates subcellular mechanisms as well. When the size of the hierarchical components reaches the nanometer range and the number of elements exceeds that of the neuroaxonal system, an interface emerges for a possible transition between neurochemical and quantum physical events. "Signal nonlocality", accessed by means of quantum entanglement is an essential feature of the quantum physical domain. The presented interface may imply that some manifestations of altered states of consciousness, unconscious/conscious shifts have quantum origin with significant psychosomatic implications. Healing methods based on altered states of consciousness and common in spiritual or shamanic traditions escape neuroscientific explanations based on classical cognition denoted here as "perceptual-cognitive-symbolic" (characteristic of ordinary states of consciousness). Another channel of information processing, called "direct-intuitive-nonlocal" (characteristic of non-ordinary states of consciousness) is required to be introduced for interpretation. The first one is capable of modeling via symbolism and is more culturally bound due to its psycholinguistic features. The second channel lacks the symbolic mediation, therefore it has more transcultural similarity and practically ineffable for the first one, though culture specific transliteration may occur. Different traditional healing rituals pursue the same end: to destroy "profane" sensibility. The ritual use of hallucinogens, the monotonous drumming, the repeated refrains, the fatigue, the fasting, the dancing and so forth, create a sensory condition which is wide open to the so-called "supernatural". According to contemporary anthropological views, the breakdown of ordinary
Williams, Beverly Rosa; Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Shultz, Emily
We explore changes in self-reported religious/spiritual identity in 313 African American adults over an average period of 2.5 years. Changes in religious and spiritual identity were reported by half of the participants and were associated with age, education, and income. The least stability was observed among respondents identifying as religious/not spiritual at baseline but shifting to religious and spiritual at follow-up. This trend was significant for respondents age 55 and over. Faith-based interventions for African Americans should consider viewing religious and spiritual identity as a fluid rather than fixed characteristic assessing changes in spiritual and religious attributes over time. PMID:27103881
Baumsteiger, Rachel; Chenneville, Tiffany
Investigating religiosity and spirituality may help to further elucidate how individuals' worldviews influence their attitudes, behavior, and overall well-being. However, inconsistencies in how these constructs are conceptualized and measured may undercut the potential value of religiosity and spirituality research. Results from a survey of undergraduate students suggest that laypeople define spirituality as independent from social influence and that few people associate religiosity with negative terms. A content analysis of spirituality measures indicates that spirituality measures contain items that do not directly measure the strength of spirituality. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
McSherry, W; Draper, P
This paper explores three debates surrounding the growing concept of spirituality as applied to nursing: 'Spirituality: in pursuit of conceptual and theoretical unity'; 'The demise of spirituality and the rise of secularism within nursing'; and 'Spirituality: a unifying force at the foundation of holistic philosophy'. The debates reveal the complex and diverse nature of spirituality suggesting that there is no single authoritative definition. The debates challenge the nursing profession to develop a definition of spirituality which is broad enough to accommodate the uniqueness of all individuals.
Spiritual nursing care is increasingly being cited in the nursing literature as a fundamental ethical obligation. This obligation is based upon the argument that nurses provide holistic care, spirituality is a universal dimension of the person, and so nurses should care for the spiritual dimension. However, the literature on the spiritual dimension in nursing illustrates widely differing foundational assumptions about this important aspect of care. The philosophic categories of humanism, theism, and monism can be used to illustrate the different understandings of the spiritual dimension, and the implications of these understandings for the competence of the nurse and the nature of the nurse-patient interaction in the context of spiritual care.
Nurses strive to provide holistic care, including spiritual care, for all patients. However, in busy critical care environments, nurses often feel driven to focus on patients’ physical care, possibly at the expense of emotional and spiritual care. This study examined how Palestinian nurses working in intensive care units (ICUs) understand spirituality and the provision of spiritual care at the end of life. In this article, the author presents background studies, encouraging an increased emphasis on spiritual care, and describes the qualitative method used to study 13 ICU Gaza Strip nurses’ understanding of spiritual care. Findings identified the following themes: meaning of spirituality and spiritual care; identifying spiritual needs; and taking actions to meet spiritual needs. The author discusses the difficulty nurses had in differentiating spiritual and religious needs, notes the study limitations, and concludes by recommending increased emphasis on the provision of spiritual care for all patients.
In what light should a scientist regard the assertions of a religion, or of religions in general? One extreme position is the atheistic one of regarding the assertions of religion as falsehoods. Such a position can be sustained only by regarding the experiences which individuals consider as validating their religious beliefs as being explicable in other ways and, in the absence of an adequate research programme to support it, must be considered more as falling within the field of opinion that as within that of science. The alternative to this atheistic position is that there exists an aspect of reality-that one may for convenience call transcendental-which embraces the subject matter of religion (or as some may prefer to term it, the spiritual aspect of life) and which is not at present encompassed by science. The question then arises whether some future science may be able to cope with this aspect of reality, or whether it will remain forever beyond the scope of science. The author attempts to explain the ways in which current scientific orthodoxies are being challenged and to convey some idea of the alternatives presently emerging. A number of important themes here include the questions of the validity of reductionism and the universality of quantum mechanics, as well as that of the relevance of mystical experience.
Background High maternal and perinatal mortalities occur from deliveries conducted in prayer houses in Nigeria. Although some regulatory efforts have been deployed to tackle this problem, less attention has been placed on the possible motivation for seeking prayer house intervention which could be hinged on the spiritual belief of patients about pregnancy and childbirth. This study therefore seeks to determine the perception of booked antenatal patients on spiritual care during pregnancy and their desire for such within hospital setting. Method A total of 397 antenatal attendees from two tertiary health institutions in southwest Nigeria were sampled. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic features of respondents, perception of spiritual care during pregnancy and childbirth; and how they desire that their spiritual needs are addressed. Responses were subsequently collated and analyzed. Results Most of the women, 301 (75.8%), believe there is a need for spiritual help during pregnancy and childbirth. About half (48.5%) were currently seeking for help in prayer/mission houses while another 8.6% still intended to. Overwhelmingly, 281 (70.8%) felt it was needful for health professionals to consider their spiritual needs. Most respondents, 257 (64.7%), desired that their clergy is allowed to pray with them while in labour and sees such collaboration as incentive that will improve hospital patronage. There was association between high family income and desire for collaboration of healthcare providers with one’s clergy (OR 1.82; CI 1.03-3.21; p = 0.04). Conclusion Our women desire spiritual care during pregnancy and childbirth. Its incorporation into maternal health services will improve hospital delivery rates. PMID:24902710
Abstract This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A.; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J.; Redwine, Laura
Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ±10.5). Approximately 32% of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting f ewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p<0.02), less fatigue (p<0.001), better sleep (p<0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p<0.01) (overall model F=26.6, p<0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p<0.01) and peace (p<0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p=0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643
Trichter, Stephen; Klimo, Jon; Krippner, Stanley
Ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic plant brew from the Amazon basin used as part of healing ceremonies by the local indigenous people of the region for centuries, is now being consumed by growing numbers of people throughout the world. Anecdotal evidence and previous research suggest that there are spiritual effects experienced among participants who take part in ayahuasca ceremonies. The current study examined whether novice participants' spirituality was affected through participation in an ayahuasca ceremony, and if so, how. A mixed-design method was used, comparing those participating in an ayahuasca ceremony to those who did not participate. This investigation used the Peak Experience Profile, the Spiritual Well-being Scale, and the Mysticism Scale as quantitative measures. Participant interviews and written accounts of ceremony experiences were analyzed. Results showed that neither the SWB score nor the M-Scale score increased significantly after participating in an ayahuasca ceremony. However, it was found that the higher the PEP score, the greater the positive change in SWB and M-Scale scores. Qualitative data revealed common spiritual themes in many of the participants' interviews and written accounts. Experiential differences were displayed within the ayahuasca ceremony group, warranting continued investigation into, and identification of, various confounding variables that prompt reported changes in spirituality within some participants while not in others.
Koenig, Harold G
This article summarizes research prior to 2010 and more recent research on religion, spirituality, and health, including some of the latest work being done by research teams at Columbia University, Harvard University, Duke University, and other academic medical centers. First, terms such as religion, humanism, and spirituality are defined. Second, based on his research team's previous systematic review of quantitative studies published in the peer-reviewed literature prior to 2010, the author discusses the findings from that research on the effects of religion and spirituality (R/S) on (1) mental health-well-being, purpose in life, hope, optimism, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance abuse; (2) health behaviors-exercise, diet, cigarette smoking, and risky sexual activity; and (3) physical health-coronary artery disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Third, the author examines the latest research on the prevalence of spiritual needs among individuals with serious or terminal medical illnesses, the consequences of ignoring those needs, and the results of clinical trials that have examined the effects of spiritual assessments by physicians. Finally, the author reviews the research currently being conducted at Duke University on the efficacy of religious cognitive-behavioral therapies and on the effects of religious involvement on telomere length in stressed caregivers. Resources are provided that will assist seasoned researchers and clinicians who might be interested in doing research in this novel and expanding area of whole-person medicine.
Müller, Jakob; Frick, Eckhard; Petersen, Yvonne; Mauer, Christine
The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient's needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person's attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one's own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper. PMID:24319482
Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A
Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston
The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative study was to describe the spiritual needs experienced in living with cancer from the perspective of patients with cancer and family caregivers. The sample included 28 African American and Euro-American patients with cancer and family caregivers receiving care from inpatient and outpatient units at two metropolitan hospitals in the southwestern United States. In-depth, tape-recorded, semistructured interviews were analyzed using the process of data reduction, data display, and verification. Seven categories of identified spiritual needs included needs associated with relating to an Ultimate Other; the need for positivity, hope, and gratitude; the need to give and receive love; the need to review beliefs, the need to have meaning; and needs related to religiosity and preparation for death. Informants responded with varying levels of awareness of personal spiritual needs. Caregivers were observed to have spiritual needs similar to those of patients. The findings of this study will inform nurses as they assess and document spiritual needs.
Bergamo, David; White, Dawn
Faith and spirituality are important in the lives of many individuals, and therefore, many patients. This study was performed to determine whether faith and spirituality are active part of the healthcare field and patients' receipt of these sometimes delicate topics. The nuances of the concepts of faith, spirituality, and religion and their implications in the healthcare setting are discussed. Benefits and detriments of faith and spirituality are reviewed in terms of how they relate to the health of the patient and to the healthcare field. With the focus of healthcare shifting to holistic care, this conversation may be more necessary than ever in practice, yet it seems many providers are not discussing these matters with patients. The study analyzes whether healthcare providers are discussing these topics with patients and how the discussion is received or would be received by patients. Findings demonstrate the infrequency of the discussion regardless of the fact that the majority of patients consider themselves faithful or spiritual. This study was approved by the Clarkson University Institutional Review Board on June 18, 2104.
Oluwole, David Adebayo
This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.
Tyler, Indira D; Raynor, James E
The Big Bang theory, a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe, states that the universe was created between ten to twenty billion years ago from a cosmic explosion. Charles Darwin, a 19th century English naturalist, convinced the scientific community through his work that life evolved by natural selection over three and a half million years ago rather than through the influence of a Supreme Being or creator. Although there has been scientific data to support the claims of natural selection, there still remain many unanswered questions suggesting that other mechanisms contributed to the evolution of life. These unresolved findings greatly influenced mysticism and the development of the theological argument, which suggest the existence of a supreme being (God), who is believe to be an omnipotent healer, comforter, provider of salvation, and the center of mysticism spirituality. There has been consistent use of spiritual practices to address health concerns by individuals for thousands of years. There is increasing data that supports the implementation of spirituality in nursing for client care to enhance health outcome and patient wellbeing. Incorporating spiritual care into practice is an integral dimension of holistic care that is the crux of nursing practice in the 21st century. Holistic care of clients requires that nurses use the nursing process to implement spiritual care in practice.
Daniels, Denise; Franz, Randal S.; Wong, Kenman
Attempts to explain spirituality by describing epistemological and metaphysical dimensions of four world views: modern, postmodern, mystical, and theistic. Outlines a Christian approach to management and ways in which spirituality rooted in Christian tradition can influence management education. (SK)
Hanefar, Shamsiah Banu; Sa'ari, Che Zarrina; Siraj, Saedah
Spiritual intelligence is an emerging term that is widely discussed and accepted as one of the main components that addresses and solves many life problems. Nonetheless there is no specific study being done to synthesize the spiritual intelligence themes from Western and Islamic philosophical perspectives. This research aimed to identify common spiritual intelligence themes from these two perspectives and elucidated its contents by the view of two well-known Islamic scholars; al-Ghazali and Hasan Langgulung. Seven spiritual intelligence themes were identified through thematic analysis; meaning/purpose of life, consciousness, transcendence, spiritual resources, self-determination, reflection-soul purification and spiritual coping with obstacles. These findings will be the groundwork for centered theory of spiritual intelligence themes that synthesize the Islamic and Western philosophical perspectives. It is hoped that this study will contribute significantly to the development of valid and reliable spiritual intelligence themes beyond the social and cultural boundaries.
Deng, Di; Deng, Qing; Liu, Xiaofang; Xie, Cong Hua; Wu, Xin
Terms such as spirituality and spiritual needs are abstract and difficult to understand. Realization of spirituality of hospice patients was premise in addressing expression of their spiritual needs. This study investigated expectations expressed during life review and tried to prove that the expectation was intelligible term for spiritual needs in Chinese hospice from May 2011 to June 2013. Among the 107 recruited patients, families were the most frequent emotion-expressing recipients, and 133 expectations related to patients' spiritual needs were identified. The emotion-expressing recipients and the patient's expectations were not affected by demographic characteristics. The expectations in life review with hospice patients and their families had the features of spiritual essence. The identified expectation contents could be used to address spiritual needs in hospice care in Chinese.
Gordon, Tom; Mitchell, David
The delivery of spiritual and religious care has received a high profile in national reports, guidelines and standards since the start of the millennium, yet there is, to date, no recognized definition of spirituality or spiritual care nor a validated assessment tool. This article suggests an alternative to the search for a definition and assessment tool, and seeks to set spiritual care in a practical context by offering a model for spiritual assessment and care based on the individual competence of all healthcare professionals to deliver spiritual and religious care. Through the evaluation of a pilot study to familiarize staff with the Spiritual and Religious Care Competencies for Specialist Palliative Care developed by Marie Curie Cancer Care, the authors conclude that competencies are a viable and crucial first step in 'earthing' spiritual care in practice, and evidencing this illusive area of care.
Ho, Rainbow T H; Wan, Adrian H Y; Chan, Caitlin K P
Medical and behavioral treatments are the predominant types of rehabilitation services for people with schizophrenia. Spirituality in people with schizophrenia remains poorly conceptualized, thereby limiting knowledge advancement in the area of spiritual health care services. To provide a framework for better clinical and research practices, we advocate a holistic approach to investigating spirituality and its application in spiritual health care services of people with schizophrenia.
Gijsberts, Marie-José H E; Echteld, Michael A; van der Steen, Jenny T; Muller, Martien T; Otten, René H J; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc
Although spiritual caregiving is a key domain of palliative care, it lacks a clear definition, which impedes both caregiving and research in this domain. The aim of this study was to conceptualize spirituality by identifying dimensions, based on instruments measuring spirituality in end-of-life populations. A systematic literature review was conducted. Literature published between 1980 and 2009, focussing on instruments measuring spirituality at the end of life was collected from the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and PsycINFO databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) the studies provide empirical data collected with an instrument measuring spirituality or aspects of spirituality at the end of life; (2) the data report on a (subgroup) of an end-of-life population, and (3) the instrument is available in the public domain. Content validity was assessed according to a consensus-based method. From the items of the instruments, three investigators independently derived dimensions of spirituality at the end of life. In 36 articles that met the inclusion criteria we identified 24 instruments. Nine instruments with adequate content validity were used to identify dimensions of spirituality. To adequately represent the items of the instruments and to describe the relationships between the dimensions, a model defining spirituality was constructed. The model distinguishes the dimensions of Spiritual Well-being (e.g., peace), Spiritual Cognitive Behavioral Context (Spiritual Beliefs, Spiritual Activities, and Spiritual Relationships), and Spiritual Coping, and also indicates relationships between the dimensions. This model may help researchers to plan studies and to choose appropriate outcomes, and assist caregivers in planning spiritual care.
Baker, David C
This article defines spirituality and relates the importance of spirituality to understanding quality of life. Spirituality is examined through organizational religious activities, non-organizational activities and/or as an expression of faith. Spirituality as a variable in the study of quality of life is not a new concept; however, it has returned to the scene during recent years, and has gone through an evolutionary process.
Elham, Hedayati; Hazrati, Maryam; Momennasab, Marzieh; Sareh, Keshavarzi
Anxiety and spiritual distress are the most common problems among the patients admitted in intensive care units. The elderly are more vulnerable to this problem due to impairment of their adaptation mechanisms. Hence, helping to reduce anxiety is one of the most effective nursing interventions. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of need-based spiritual/religious interventions on spiritual well-being (SWB) and anxiety of the elderly admitted to coronary care unit (CCU). This quasi-experimental study with pre- and posttest control group design was conducted on 66 patients admitted to CCU of Imam Reza hospital in Lar, southern Iran, in 2014. After obtaining informed consents, the data were collected using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the SWB Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed through interviewing the patients before and after the intervention. The participants of the intervention group underwent 60- to 90-minute sessions of spiritual and religious need-based interventions for 3 consecutive days. The results showed a significant increase in the mean scores of SWB in the intervention group after the intervention (P = .001). Also, a significant decrease was found in mean scores of trait and state anxiety in the intervention group in comparing to control group (P < .001). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the mean scores of SWB and state and trait anxiety. Spiritual/religious interventions could enhance SWB and reduce anxiety in the elderly admitted to CCU.
Martinez, Jennifer S; Smith, Timothy B; Barlow, Sally H
Spiritual and religious interventions in psychotherapy have increasingly received research attention, particularly with highly religious clients. This study examined client opinions about and experiences with religious interventions in psychotherapy. A sample of 152 clients at a counseling center of a university sponsored by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) completed a survey with ratings of specific religious interventions concerning appropriateness, helpfulness, and prevalence. Out-of-session religious interventions were considered more appropriate by clients than in-session religious interventions, but in-session interventions were rated as more helpful. Specific interventions considered both appropriate and helpful by the LDS participants included referencing scriptural passages, teaching spiritual concepts, encouraging forgiveness, involving religious community resources, and conducting assessments of client spirituality. Some religious interventions were perceived as inappropriate or not helpful, and clients provided explanations for why religious interventions can be either effective or ineffective in psychotherapy.
Lyon, Maureen E.; Garvie, Patricia; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; McCarter, Robert; D'Angelo, Lawrence J.
Congruence in spirituality between HIV+ adolescent (n=40)/family (n=40) dyads and psychological adjustment and quality of life were assessed, using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. Adolescents were 60% female and 92% African-American. Congruence in spirituality between adolescent/surrogate dyads remained unchanged at 3-months. High congruence existed for “having a reason for living”; rejection of “life lacks meaning/purpose” and “HIV is a punishment from God.” Adolescents were less likely to forgive the harm others caused them, than their families. PMID:23104266
Polzer Casarez, Rebecca L; Miles, Margaret Shandor
The purpose of this study was to describe how spirituality affected the lives of African American mothers with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the context of coping. This qualitative descriptive study used secondary data of interviews from a larger longitudinal study of parental caregiving of infants seropositive for HIV. Participants were 38 African American mothers with HIV. Data from longitudinal semi-structured interviews were analyzed using content analysis. The women dealt with the stresses of HIV through a relationship with God. Two domains explain this relationship: God in control and God requires participation. The benefits of their relationship with God were a decrease in stress and worry about their own health and that of their infants. It is important for nurses working with mothers with HIV to acknowledge their spirituality and assess how spirituality helps them cope with and manage their illness.
Bluman, Rabbi Olga F.; Klein, Linda; Thomas, Jay; Ferrell, Betty
Providing biopsychosocial/spiritual care for patients facing a life threatening illness can be complex, and this complexity can be amplified when a patient identifies as Jewish. A common but incorrect assumption is that a person who identifies him or herself as Jewish abides by the tenets of the Jewish religion. However, many Jews consider themselves Jewish in an ethnic or cultural sense rather than connected to a religion or belief in God. This case report presents an ethnic/cultural Jew with a life threatening illness of advanced lung cancer. Despite evidence of spiritual/existential suffering, this patient declined spiritual care. From an analysis of this case and clinical experience, we suggest exploratory questions that clinicians can use in response to common questions or statements made by such patients. This exploration may lead to a chaplain referral and we highlight interventions that chaplains and clinicians may find helpful as they come alongside Jewish patients. PMID:23614173
Welch, Marshall; Koth, Kent
This article presents a hybrid metatheory of spiritual formation that can be applied to understanding college students' spiritual development through service-learning experiences. A definition and overview of spirituality is presented and contrasted with religion, followed by a review of various theoretical models from developmental…
Meyer, Dixie D.
Exploring spirituality and religion continues to be an important component when considering multicultural issues. However, understanding how to incorporate spiritual and religious diversity into counseling courses continues to be a challenge for educators. An exercise using drama therapy was developed to explore religion and spirituality.
Kellems, Ian S.; Hill, Clara E.; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Freitas, Gary
University counseling center therapists (N = 220) completed an Internet survey about religion/spirituality in therapy, with 200 of these therapists describing therapy with a recent client whose issues involved religion/spirituality. Common client religion/spirituality issues were questioning one's childhood religion, exploring…
Fisher, John W.
This paper provides a critique of available quantitative measures of spirituality and well-being that have been used with children and youth. These measures range in scope from single-item to complex multiple-item instruments. The four domain model of spiritual health and well-being has been used to classify each item in the spirituality measures…
Hodge, David R.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…
Tan, Charlene; Tan, Leonard
Spirituality encourages the individual to make sense of oneself within a wider framework of meaning and see oneself as part of some larger whole. This article discusses Confucian spirituality by focusing on the spiritual ideals of "dao" (Way) and "he" (harmony). It is explained that the Way represents a shared vision of human…
Kimbel, Tyler M.; Schellenberg, Rita
Authors discuss the importance of school counselors addressing spiritual and religious issues in ethically meeting the developmental and cultural needs of K-12 students. Domains of spiritual and religious competence for professional counselors, published by the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC, 2009),…
Fallon, Kathleen M.; Dobmeier, Robert A.; Reiner, Summer M.; Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Giglia, Lauren A.; Goodwin, Eric
Counselors and lesbian and gay clients experience parallel values conflicts between religious beliefs/spirituality and sexual orientation. This article uses critical thinking to assist counselors to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with professional ethical codes. Clients are assisted to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with sexual…
Smith, W. Alan
Compares and contrasts American Indian spirituality with European-American religion. European-American religion emphasizes theological interpretation and separateness between man and God. American Indian spirituality stresses direct experience of the holy, and unity between man and the spiritual world. Considers how the two might be incorporated…
Newbanks, Shirlene; Rieg, Linda S
This qualitative study assessed if parish nurses (PNs) perceive the basic preparation course they attended prepared them to incorporate the spiritual dimension into their practice. It was unclear if the course was a major variable or if previous spiritual training and experience are the critical dimensions related to whether or not PNs feel prepared to incorporate the spiritual dimension into their practice.
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Mayhew, Matthew J.
Using data collected via the Campus Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey (CRSCS), we examined how dimensions of the campus spiritual climate shape student satisfaction. The findings reveal that structural worldview diversity, space for support and spiritual expression, and provocative experiences with worldview diversity positively relate to…
Lauzon, Allan C.
The idea of spirituality is increasingly being used in the context of adult education. This paper will tentatively explore some of the implications of an emergent spirituality within the practice of adult education. It begins by situating our understanding of spirituality in an historical context. This is followed by a brief historical overview of…
Canales, Arthur David
The essay considers the process of cultivating Christian spirituality in Catholic adolescents. It will integrate and document official Catholic Church teachings on the subject and also unofficial scholarly reflections. The expose briefly defines adolescent spirituality and situates the process of cultivating adolescent spirituality in Catholic…
Barrett, Michelle C. Sterk
Cultivating spiritual development is central to the mission of Catholic higher education institutions. Studies demonstrate that service learning is a pedagogical method through which spiritual development can be fostered among undergraduates. This study builds upon prior research to analyze whether spiritual growth occurred and which dimensions of…
van Asselt, Kathryn Watkins; Senstock, Tracy D. Baldo
Spirituality is a potential area of concern for counseling clients. This study presents the empirical results of a survey completed by 572 counselors to determine if counselors' spiritual beliefs, experiences, or training had an impact on their focus of therapy or self-perceived competence. A counselor's personal spirituality, spiritual…
Yob, Iris M.
Two extraordinary recent experiences that the author would call highly "spiritual" are explored against the background of ideas provided by writers such as Friedrich Schleiermacher, Rudolf Otto, Paul Tillich, and Abraham Maslow to unpack what spirituality is, with particular attention to the emotions and the insights involved in spirituality. The…
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey
Spirituality is of acknowledged and profound importance to children from mainstream school populations, but has been overlooked in respect of children with special needs. This article explores the issues related to spirituality and disabilities, and the relationship between spirituality and education for students with special needs. The following…
This ethnographic study examines the role of spirituality in the composition teaching process and in Paolo Freire's dialogic education specifically. Work to acquire some aspects of spiritual "Discourse," as the term is defined by James Gee, is needed in order to make this spiritual foundation visible and practicable. Through a series of…
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Akos, Patrick; Czyszczon, Greg; Eldridge, Ashley
Spiritual wellness, much like resilience, is a multidimensional protective factor for students. This article reviews the relevant literature linking spiritual wellness and thriving in the adolescent population. Assessment and intervention methods that can be used in secondary school settings to promote spiritual wellness are provided.
Karlin-Neumann, Patricia; Sanders, Joanne
This essay examines how Stanford University, secular in its origins, yet with a church at its center, addresses the religious and spiritual concerns of current students, whether from traditional or innovative religious backgrounds. Identified religious and spiritual needs prompt questions about the balance between the spiritual health and…
Clarke, Philip B.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Lewis, Todd F.
Spiritual bypass is the avoidance of underlying emotional issues by focusing solely on spiritual beliefs, practices, and experiences. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, compassionate approach to effectively addressing resistance among those who present with spiritual bypass. In this article, the authors provide background…
Hodge, David R.; Horvath, Violet E.
Spiritual needs often emerge in the context of receiving health or behavioral health services. Yet, despite the prevalence and salience of spiritual needs in service provision, clients often report their spiritual needs are inadequately addressed. In light of research suggesting that most social workers have received minimal training in…
Wright, Stephen G
The spiritual needs of patients are often neglected by health-care professionals who are already over-stretched by the 'physical' demands of their role. However, there is also ignorance of the spiritual needs of health-care professionals, especially nurses, who may have personal uncertainties about their own spirituality. This lack of understanding can lead to burnout.
Gieseke, Amy R.
Since the mid-1990s, researchers have grown increasingly interested in the effect of spirituality on a person's ability to lead others. The spiritual leadership literature has expanded to include the role of spirituality in particular leadership settings, such as higher education, and within particular leadership types, particularly…
Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina
Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The…
Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.
A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…
Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.
This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…
Responses from 132 baccalaureate nursing programs indicated that the majority include spiritual dimensions in program philosophy and curriculum, but few had definitions of spirituality and nursing care. Content typically addressed patients' spiritual needs, dying, and holism. Respondents were uncertain about faculty preparation to teach about…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Dalay, Naihra Jae Z.; De Guzman, Anthony Joe M.; de Jesus, Luigi Lauren E.; de Mesa, Jacqueline Barbara C.; Flores, Jan Derick D.
Spirituality is an aspect of holistic care delivery by health team members. However, despite the established relationship of spirituality and health, there had been little evidence of ways of assessing spirituality for nurses' clinical practice in Asia, particularly in regard to geriatric patients. This study aimed to establish an eiditic…
Diaz, Naelys; Horton, E. Gail; Green, Diane; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald
This study aims to examine the relationship between spirituality and believing in God's presence and depressive symptoms among 160 inpatient individuals who abuse substances. Findings indicated that both spirituality and believing in God's presence were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, whereby spirituality was inversely related to…
Spirituality has become an issue in many domains of the Norwegian society, but this is not reflected in public education. This paper discusses why this is so, and suggests some hermeneutical approaches to understanding spirituality that can include pre-school children's spirituality, with particular reference to a Norwegian context. Central to…
Leopold, Debra; Juniu, Susana
While spiritual health has been gaining respect among researchers and academic scholars as a vital component of human wellness, little research has focused on the implementation and assessment of spiritual education in public schools. The present study examined the effects of spiritual health education on students' ability to choose positive…
St. Peters, Timothy R.
As schools expand secularization and laws limiting religious expression increase, one must not forget the religious spirituality of the individual. Individual religious spirituality is still protected under the United States Constitution. Many researchers feel that this religious spirituality should be nurtured, not discouraged in public schools.…
Solhkhah, Ramon; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Daly, Jeanine; Bunt, Gregory
Clinically, the treatment of substance abuse has relied on the Twelve Steps model, which is heavily focused on issues of spirituality. Adolescents may have cognitive and developmental issues that preclude them from taking advantage of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) model. To this end, we examined the spiritual orientation and spiritual behaviors…
Kiessling, Marcia Kennard
This quantitative research study measured self-reported spirituality of student affairs professionals, practices of student affairs professionals in regard to integration of spirituality into their work, and predictors of holistic, spiritually-infused practice of student affairs professionals. The independent variables were demographic and work…
Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.
This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American…
Trousdale, Ann; Bach, Jacqueline; Willis, Elizabeth
Reading and discussing poetry with spiritual themes can play a major role in children's spiritual development. The communal, oral recitation of poetry has been a means of spiritual expression in many faith traditions. How would children respond to such a time-honoured oral group experience with poetry? What might it reveal about their…
This article seeks to understand spirituality in newborn children through an exploration of Wordsworth's clouds of glory. First the article explores adult reactions reflecting a newborn child's spirituality. Objective manifestations of spirituality in newborn children, such as love, presence and connection, wonder and meaning, and faith, are…
Youth work in the United Kingdom is a profession requiring three years of training, and its beginnings are strongly rooted in a spiritual (often specifically Christian) context. Until the past few decades, spirituality was also integrated within the educational system. The author argues that intentionally bringing spirituality to the center of…
Drawing upon narrative data generated in a semi-structured interview with an 82-year-old female patient in geriatric physical rehabilitation, this clinical case study provides a detailed example of recognizing, assessing, and addressing spiritual distress as a symptom of physical pain. Data analysis focused on narrative content as well as on the interactive and performative aspects of narrating spiritual health issues in a close reading of two "attachment narratives." Results support the "narrative turn" in healthcare, including the therapeutic benefits of empathic listening as "narrative care" in geriatric rehabilitation and in healthcare in general.
Lottes, Christine R; Engstrom, Del; Engstrom, Lorri F
There is a need for spiritual health seminars at the work site and through hospital and other community venues. This article describes how the authors prepared for and conducted seminars in their community. The research demonstrates that religious commitment may play a beneficial role in an individual's health. Once the authors were armed with this research and a fundamentally sound and practical program, they were able to assist individuals in their community in designing and initiating their own individual spiritual health workouts, which may then influence their physical and mental health. In this way, the authors were able to apply holistic principles of spirit, mind, and body.
De Germond-Burquier, Véronique; Narring, Françoise; Entremont, Cécile; Basset, Lytta
Spirituality affects adolescents' as well as adults' daily life. It is usually considered to be a protective factor in physical and psychological health outcomes, but might also be a cause of suffering. In the perspective of an holistic approach, health professional should assess this subject with tact and sensitivity. Until there is a suitable instrument adapted to this age group and European culture, the exploration of spirituality and religious practices can be evaluated while taking the clinical history. Nevertheless, resistance which is common in health professionals, could be overcome by appropriate training.
van Nooten, Johan; Oh, Hans; Pierce, Bruce; Koning, Frederic J; Jadad, Alejandro R
A systematic review was undertaken of the literature on the use of the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICT's) in the provision and support of religious and spiritual care in healthcare. Indexes such as Medline, PsychoINFO and Proquest Religion were searched. The review found little systematic study of the effectiveness of the Internet and other ICT's in religious and spiritual care. It is believed that the results of this review provide a basis for promise spiri care in the further explora of the potential and of ICT's for tual healthcare.
Tomcsányi, Teodóra; Ittzés, András; Horváth-Szabó, Katalin; Martos, Tamás; Szabó, Tünde
Our article reviews the major questions raised by the psychological research of spirituality and religion, as well as the historical background of this research area. In our view the scientific exploration of spirituality and religion constitutes a process that allows for both empirical and hermeneutical approaches and as such it is open for a dialogue with other branches of social sciences. The most important topics addressed by the article include: 1. possible conceptualizations of the terms spirituality and religion; the connection between the two; similarities and differences; 2. the interpretation of spirituality as a dimension of the personality; 3. the question of measurement of spirituality and tools of its measurement; 4. the effects of spirituality; and 5. the culture relatedness of research data. Finally we demonstrate how the ASPIRES scale recently developed by R. Piedmont, its theoretical approach, development process, and empirical results try to answer these key questions.
Knowlden, Adam P; Shewmake, Meghan E; Burns, Maranda; Harcrow, Andy
The purpose of this study was to test a set of hypotheses suggesting sleep quality and spiritual beliefs differed according to degree of psychological distress and biological sex. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index measured sleep quality, the Beliefs and Values Scale measured spiritual beliefs, and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale measured distress. A factorial MANOVA tested the model. Higher sleep quality and greater spiritual beliefs were associated with lower levels of distress. Women exhibited lower sleep quality than men, whereas spiritual beliefs were equivalent between sexes. To decrease psychological distress, interventions should improve sleep quality and increase spiritual engagement.
Cervantes, Joseph M; Parham, Thomas A
This article attempts to capture a significant aspect of the counseling process for people of color: the spiritual dimension. It is argued that spirit and spirituality are relevant dimensions that should be integrated in counseling because spirituality is a key ingredient in the cultural upbringing and socialization of many people of color. Further, religious and spiritual beliefs are affected by experiences of racism and oppression, which then affects psychological coping. Reflective guidelines are offered to understand the essence of spirituality and cultural diversity, and lessons for the practitioner are recommended.
Bennett, Kellie S; Shepherd, Julie M
This study investigated the influence of spirituality on depression in Western Australian women. Two hundred and seventy-eight women (aged 18-78) completed an online survey about factors relating to daily spiritual experience, depression, anxiety and social support. Significant correlations were found between spiritual experience and depression, whereby individuals who reported higher spirituality also reported higher rates of social support and lower levels of depression. A major finding from this study was that spirituality accounted for a significant proportion of variance in depressive symptoms beyond the mediating effect of social support.
Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Craft-Rosenberg, Martha
Although much has been written regarding ill adolescents, research has not described their spiritual response. The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of spirituality in adolescents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using van Manen's phenomenological method. Findings from nine teens showed that the essential theme of spirituality was "longing," the strong desire for something unattainable. Consistent with Reed's (1992) paradigm for understanding spirituality, participants mediated their longing through "Connecting with others, self, and beyond self." These findings support the need for nursing to assess spirituality in teens and determine developmentally appropriate interventions to ameliorate longing.
Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Uphold, Constance R.; Shehan, Constance L.; Reid, Kimberly J.
This study examined the association of spirituality and health-related quality of life among 226 HIV-positive men. Two measures of spirituality were used: the Spiritual Growth subscale from the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (S. N. Walker, K. R. Sechrist, & N. J. Pender, 1987) and the Spirituality subscale of the HIV Coping Instrument (L.…
Kashdan, Todd B; Nezlek, John B
Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.
This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…
Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.
This qualitative study explores how the spiritual epistemology of Black, gay and bisexual, cisgender men in college changed during their spiritual journeys and how participants used spirituality in their collegiate lives. External forces, such as family members, religious text, and church settings, initially shaped many participants' spirituality,…
Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, Suresh K.; Nandan, Deoki
While measuring physical, mental, and social health as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), the basis of measurement is in terms of Determinants. Recently with the advent of health promotion activities, the emphasis is on enabling individuals, groups, and societies to have control on these Determinants. To measure the spiritual health, the 4th Dimension, a Spiritual Health Scale consisting of 3 Domains, 6 Constructs, and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test-retest reliability has been established. The 3 Domains are: Self-Evolution, Self-Actualization, and Transcendence. In this article, the process of self evolution in terms of “Wider Perspective” and “Nurturance-Art” have been captured through the Determinants like Commitment, Introspection, Honesty, Creativity, Contemplation, Prayer, Philanthropy, Extending Self, Empathy, Yoga and Exercise, Questioning Injustice, Aesthetics, Value for Time, and Being Away From Comparisons. PMID:23559785
Historically, Christian colleges and universities have struggled to incorporate racial and ethnic diversity into White and homogenous campuses. Research indicates that a positive racial climate is essential to promote spiritual growth for students from diverse backgrounds. As a result, diversity is a compelling interest for Christian institutions.…