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Sample records for spodoptera fugiperda fall

  1. Population Variation of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Pete L.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R.; Isenhour, David J.; Lee, Donald J.; Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  2. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  3. Cry1F Resistance in Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Single Gene versus Pyramided Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Meagher, Robert L.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Head, Graham P.; Andow, David A.; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G. David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012–2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda. PMID:25401494

  4. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  5. Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela Murúa, M; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  6. Investigating the Molecular Mechanisms of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renato A.; Omoto, Celso; Field, Linda M.; Williamson, Martin S.; Bass, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain) or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain) were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC) target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS). These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results provide

  7. Migratory patterns of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in the western hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm (FAW) is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and southern Florida. For the la...

  8. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  9. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Kumar, P Lava; Sankung, Sagnia B; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed.

  10. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sankung, Sagnia B.; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed. PMID:27788251

  11. Sex pheromone of fall armyworm,Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) : Identification of components critical to attraction in the field.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Teal, P E; Heath, R R; Mengelkoch, L J

    1986-09-01

    Analyses of extracts of pheromone glands and of volatiles from calling female fall armyworm moths,Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), revealed the presence of the following compounds: dodecan-1-ol acetate, (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate, 11-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate. The volatiles emitted by calling females differed from the gland extract in that the two aldehydes were absent. Field tests were conducted with sticky traps baited with rubber septa formulated to release blends with the same component ratios as those emitted by calling females. These tests demonstrated that both (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate are required for optimum activity and that this blend is a significantly better lure than either virgin females or 25 mg of (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate in a polyethylene vial, the previously used standard. Addition of the other three acetates found in the volatiles did not significantly increase the effectiveness of the two-component blend as a bait for Pherocon 1C or International Pheromones moth traps.

  12. Fall Armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), female moths respond to herbivore-induced corn volatiles.

    PubMed

    Signoretti, A G C; Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2012-02-01

    In response to herbivore attack, plants release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that represent important chemical cues for herbivore natural enemies. Additionally, HIPVs have been shown to mediate other ecological interactions with herbivores. Differently from natural enemies that are generally attracted to HIPVs, herbivores can be either attracted or repelled depending on several biological and ecological parameters. Our study aimed to assess the olfactory response of fall armyworm-mated female moths toward odors released by mechanically and herbivore-induced corn at different time intervals. Results showed that female moths strongly respond to corn volatiles, although fresh damaged corn odors (0-1 h) are not recognized by moths. Moreover, females preferred volatiles released by undamaged plant over herbivore-induced plants at 5-6 h. This preference for undamaged plants may reflect an adaptive strategy of moths to avoid competitors and natural enemies for their offspring. We discussed our results based on knowledge about corn volatile release pattern and raise possible explanations for fall armyworm moth behavior.

  13. Molecular characterization of a TIA-1-like RNA-binding protein in cells derived from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Muto, Sayaka; Tanabe, Toru; Matsumoto, Emi; Mori, Hajime; Kotani, Eiji

    2009-03-23

    A complementary DNA encoding a TIA-1-type RNA-binding protein (SfTRN-1) was isolated from cultured cells of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to characterize its function. The deduced 388-amino acid sequence of SfTRN-1, which possessed three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) followed by a C-terminal auxiliary domain, showed significant homology with mammalian TIA-1/TIAR and silkworm BmTRN-1, factors important in the metabolism of transcripts. It was found that inhibition of SfTRN-1 gene expression by a transfected oligonucleotide encoding the antisense sequence led to a marked increase in the production of a reporter protein and the amount of reporter transcript in the cultured cells. In addition, overexpression of the recombinant full-length SfTRN-1 open reading frame in the cultured cells led to a decrease in reporter protein production, but the truncated RRM1-3 domain lacking the C-terminal auxiliary domain lost its activity. Analysis using a GFP-fused recombinant protein revealed that, unlike mammalian TIA-1/TIAR, SfTRN-1, most likely shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm, had the characteristic of being largely distributed in the cytoplasm, where it perhaps acts to reduce the amount of transcripts, and that RRM1 and RRM3 were related to its nuclear accumulation, but RRM2 to its nuclear export. Furthermore, the posterior half of the auxiliary domain was also found to be related to its nuclear export. This study indicates that respective RRM subdomains of SfTRN-1 play distinct roles important to its subcellular distribution, and it identified unique systems for the distribution and functional regulation of the TIA-1 family in insect cells, ones which are clearly different from those in mammalian cells.

  14. Cross-Resistance between Cry1 Proteins in Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) May Affect the Durability of Current Pyramided Bt Maize Hybrids in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Daniel; Salmeron, Eloisa; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Bernardi, Oderlei; Dourado, Patrick Marques; Carvalho, Renato Assis; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) offer valuable options for managing insect pests with considerable environmental and economic benefits. Despite the benefits provided by Bt crops, the continuous expression of these insecticidal proteins imposes strong selection for resistance in target pest populations. Bt maize (Zea mays) hybrids have been successful in controlling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the main maize pest in Brazil since 2008; however, field-evolved resistance to the protein Cry1F has recently been reported. Therefore it is important to assess the possibility of cross-resistance between Cry1F and other Cry proteins expressed in Bt maize hybrids. In this study, an F2 screen followed by subsequent selection on MON 89034 maize was used to select an S. frugiperda strain (RR) able to survive on the Bt maize event MON 89034, which expresses the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins. Field-collected insects from maize expressing the Cry1F protein (event TC1507) represented most of the positive (resistance allele-containing) (iso)families found. The RR strain showed high levels of resistance to Cry1F, which apparently also conferred high levels of cross resistance to Cry1A.105 and Cry1Ab, but had only low-level (10-fold) resistance to Cry2Ab2. Life history studies to investigate fitness costs associated with the resistance in RR strain revealed only small reductions in reproductive rate when compared to susceptible and heterozygous strains, but the RR strain produced 32.2% and 28.4% fewer females from each female relative to the SS and RS (pooled) strains, respectively. Consistent with the lack of significant resistance to Cry2Ab2, MON 89034 maize in combination with appropriate management practices continues to provide effective control of S. frugiperda in Brazil. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda across Brazil, and the cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1A.105

  15. Characterization of the Earwig, Doru lineare, as a Predator of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A Functional Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Sueldo, Mabel Romero; Bruzzone, Octavio A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:20575739

  16. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  17. Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and Organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Fall armyworm (FAW) is a damaging pest of many economic crops. Long-term use of chemical control prompted resistance development to many insecticide classes. Many populations were found to be significantly less susceptible to major Bt toxins expressed in transgenic crops. In this study, ...

  18. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura.

  19. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  20. RNAi Screening in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhanita; Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Kumar, Ajit; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference is a potent and precise reverse genetic approach to carryout large-scale functional genomic studies in a given organism. During the past decade, RNAi has also emerged as an important investigative tool to understand the process of viral pathogenesis. Our laboratory has successfully generated transgenic reporter and RNAi sensor line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells and developed a reversal of silencing assay via siRNA or shRNA guided screening to investigate RNAi factors or viral pathogenic factors with extraordinary fidelity. Here we describe empirical approaches and conceptual understanding to execute successful RNAi screening in Spodoptera frugiperda 21-cell line.

  1. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature, but must repeat a series of northward migratory flights each spring if it is to re-infest ...

  2. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  3. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  4. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  5. Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

  6. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  7. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  8. Isolation and DNA barcode characterization of a permanent Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) population in Florida that targets fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Telenomus remus Nixon is a platygastrid egg parasite of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), with a history of use as an augmentative biological control agent in Central and South America. Efforts were made in 1975-1977 and again in 1988-1989 to introduce T. remus into the fall ar...

  9. Isolation and DNA barcode characterization of a permanent Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) population in Florida that targets fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Telenomus remus (Nixon) is a scelionid egg parasite of the fall armworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), with a history of use as an augmentative biological control agent in Central and South America. Efforts were made in 1975-1977 to introduce T. remus into the fall armyworm overwintering regi...

  10. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  11. Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

  12. Expression of crylFa in bahiagrass enhances resistance to fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum var. Flugge) is the predominant forage grass in Florida and in subtropical regions worldwide. To improve pest resistance against fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith), an optimized cry1Fa gene encoding a '-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis was synthesized...

  13. Development and feeding of fall armyworm, on Miscanthus x giganteus and switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] larvae infesting plots of Miscanthus x giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize prompted laboratory-based tests of survival, development and feeding preferences on leaf tissue from M. x giganteus and switchgrass (Panicum ...

  14. Demonstration using field collections that Argentina fall armyworm populations exhibit strain-specific host plant preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations ...

  15. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  16. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  17. Changes in midgut endopeptidase activity of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are responsible for adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Paulillo, L C; Lopes, A R; Cristofoletti, P T; Parra, J R; Terra, W R; Silva-Filho, M C

    2000-06-01

    The development of transgenic maize plants expressing soybean proteinase inhibitors could reduce the economic damage of one of the major maize pests in Brazil, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797). We examined the influence of soybean proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzyme properties and development of S. frugiperda larvae. The inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in vitro by soybean proteinase inhibitors suggested that either Kunitz (SBTI) or Bowman-Birk (SBBI) would have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by insect larvae. However, chronic ingestion of semipurified soybean inhibitors did not result in a significant reduction of growth and development of fall armyworm. Therefore, digestive serine proteinase activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) of fall armyworm larvae were characterized. The results suggest that S. frugiperda was able to physiologically adapt to dietary proteinase inhibitors by altering the complement of proteolytic enzymes in the insect midguts.

  18. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in ...

  19. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  20. [Accidental falls].

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  2. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  3. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract- Spodoptera frugiperda consists of two genetically and behaviorally different strains, the corn- and the rice-strain, which seem to be in the process of sympatric speciation. We investigated the role of strain-specific sexual communication as a prezygotic mating barrier between both strains...

  4. Spodoptera species as pests in Florida strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hillsborough County, Florida, produces about 15% of the nation’s strawberries on over 11,000 acres. The economic impact to the area is over $700 million. Production averages over 20 million flats of strawberries from November through March. Fields are planted in the fall with young plants (transp...

  5. Effect of Host Age and Nematode Strain on Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda to Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Fuxa, James R.; Richter, Arthur R.; Acudelo-Silva, Fernando

    1988-01-01

    Median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) were determined for four nematode populations (two strains of Steinernema feltiae, a S. feltiae hybrid, and S. bibionis) against fifth-instar fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae and for the most virulent of these nematodes against different instars and stages of the insect. Based on lack of overlap of 95% fiducial limits, there were significant differences in virulence among the four nematodes. The LC₅₀ ranged from 7.6 to 33.3 nematodes/ 0.7 ml water, and slopes of the log dose-probit regression lines were similar except for the S. feltiae All strain. First-instar fall armyworms suffered virtually 100% mortality from the S. feltiae Mexican strain at 1.0 nematode/0.7 ml, and LC₅₀ were 2.3 and 7.9 nematodes/0.7 ml in third-instar and fifth-instar larvae, respectively. Pupae had 7-20% mortality at doses ranging from 30 to 60 nematodes/0.7 ml. PMID:19290189

  6. Physiological basis of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess both foliage- and ear-feeding insect resistance in the same maize inbred lines, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance at the seedling stage was examined in six corn inbred lines. The six inbred lines included the four CIMMYT maize inbred...

  7. Using intron sequence comparisons in the triose-phosphate isomerase gene to study the divergence of the fall armyworm host strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Noctuid moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (the fall armyworm), is endemic to the Western Hemisphere and appears to be undergoing sympatric speciation to produce two subpopulations that differ in their choice of host plants. The diverging “rice strain” and “corn strain” are morphologically indistinguis...

  8. Extractives of seeds of the meliaceae: Effects onSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith),Acalymma vittatum (F.), andArtemia salina Leach.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, K L; Reed, D K

    1987-01-01

    Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 22 species of plants of the family Meliaceae from a number of countries were prepared. The extracts were submitted to antifeedant and toxicity bioassays utilizing fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Toxicity tests were also performed with brine shrimp,Anemia salina Leach. Feeding inhibition and mortality produced by some of these extracts were comparable to and, in certain cases, slightly greater than the effects produced by comparable neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss.) seed preparations. Brine shrimp toxicity data do not extrapolate to insect activity, and vice versa.

  9. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. af...

  10. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  11. Determination and analysis of the genome sequence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV), a pathogen of the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis, was subjected to sequencing of its entire DNA genome and bioassay analysis comparing its virulence to that of other baculoviruses. The annotated SpliMNPV genome of...

  12. Interaction between Calcium Ions and Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Activity against Sf9 Cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Monette, R.; Potvin, L.; Baines, D.; Laprade, R.; Schwartz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium ions and modulators of calcium movement on Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein toxicity were investigated with Sf9 cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, fall armyworm) by a new B. thuringiensis toxicity assay based on measurement of fluorescence of ethidium homodimer, a high-affinity DNA stain. CryIC toxicity was substantially stimulated by extracellular calcium in a dose-dependent way (in the millimolar range), while toxicity enhancement could not be replicated when calcium was replaced by barium. This incremental toxicity was reduced by cobalt and lanthanum ions, two inorganic-calcium transport inhibitors. Methoxyverapamil, a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker, and nifedipine, an inhibitor of dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channels, had no effect on CryIC toxin activity, but BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel activator, increased CryIC activity at high concentrations of extracellular calcium. While A23187, a calcium ionophore, and TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular-calcium mobilization, did not change CryIC-induced mortality, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium uptake in intracellular stores, and more particularly trifluoperazine, which inhibits calcium-calmodulin-dependent processes, increased CryIC-mediated toxicity. The incremental effect of extracellular calcium on CryIC-induced toxicity was consistent with an increased concentration of intracellular calcium. PMID:16535509

  13. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  14. Cannibalism and virus production in Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae fed with two leaf substrates inoculated with Baculovirus spodoptera.

    PubMed

    Valicente, F H; Tuelher, E S; Pena, R C; Andreazza, R; Guimarães, M R F

    2013-04-01

    Cannibalism in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (FAW), is a limiting factor in a baculovirus production system. To detect the impact of cannibalism, a two-step bioassay was conducted with different larval ages of FAW fed on two food sources (corn and castor bean leaves) contaminated with the S. frugiperda multiple-embedded nucleopolyhedrovirus. In a first bioassay, the food source affected the cannibalism, being higher for all larval ages tested (5-, 6- and 7-day-old larvae) in larvae fed on corn than on those fed on castor bean leaves. Larval mortality, weight equivalent and larval equivalents (LEs) per hectare decreased as the larval age increased. Larval weight, occlusion bodies (OBs)/larva and total OBs increased when the larval age increased. In a second bioassay, in which only 6- and 7-day-old larvae were used because of the performance in the first bioassay, the cannibalism rates were affected by the interaction between food sources and time of feeding (48 and 72 h), reaching the highest values for 6- and 7-day-old larvae fed on corn leaves for 72 h. Mortality of the FAW was affected by the interaction between food sources, larval age and time of feeding. The lowest mortalities were on 7-day-old larvae when they were fed on castor bean leaves for 48 and 72 h. Larval weight, OBs/larva, total OBs and LEs were affected by the interaction between food sources and larval age. A significant correlation was observed between larval weight and OBs/larva that fed on both food sources, suggesting that larval weight can be used to achieve a concentration to be sprayed in 1 ha.

  15. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  16. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  17. Optimization of Methodology for Rearing Spodoptera albula on Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, M M; Souza, B H S; Nogueira, L; Ribeiro, Z A; Eduardo, W I; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2017-03-08

    Advances in techniques for rearing insects on artificial diets are fundamental to solving issues of basic and applied entomology. In this study, we evaluated the development of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on three artificial diets used for other species of Lepidoptera, at three larval densities, and two densities of adult couples housed in oviposition cages of two sizes, with the aim of optimizing methodology for rearing S. albula in the laboratory. Biological parameters were recorded from S. albula, and a fitness index was calculated based on the larval survival and duration and weight of pupae. The total and daily oviposition was recorded using 5 or 10 adult couples of S. albula housed in two cage sizes. Concentrations of total nitrogen and protein in the tested diets were determined. Development of S. albula was completed in all artificial diets; however, the diet used for rearing Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) larvae was the most suitable for S. albula, yielding intermediate development time and higher survival relative to the other diets. Individualization of larvae favored S. albula development by producing overall greater weights of larvae and pupae, higher survival rates, and longer adult longevity. Cage size and number of couples per cage did not influence S. albula fecundity in the experiment conditions. Spodoptera albula can be satisfactorily reared on the artificial diet used for A. gemmatalis, using one larva per tube, and either density of adults at any cage size. Additional amendments are needed in the rearing methodology to achieve optimal conditions for larval development to adulthood.

  18. The Fall and Fall of Gary Hart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    The fall of Gary Hart, brought about because of his indiscretions during the 1988 presidential campaign, should not be treated exclusively as a consequence of Hart's moral failings. Rather, the fall of Hart can be traced to a complex of factors including bad judgment, the near total control that the press exercises over the political agenda, and…

  19. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding.

  20. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Rodrigues, João V. C.; Souza, Thadeu C.; Tavares, Clébson S.; Campos, Silverio O.; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Pereira, Eliseu J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crop “pyramids” producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the “pyramid” resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field. PMID:26675246

  1. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  2. Falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Rose

    2017-02-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the causes and consequences of falls for older patients. It discussed the falls risk assessment tools, and falls prevention measures.

  3. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  4. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall-prevention plan. High heels, floppy slippers and shoes with slick soles can make you slip, stumble ... your stocking feet. Instead, wear properly fitting, sturdy shoes with nonskid soles. Sensible shoes may also reduce ...

  5. Immobility and falls.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J E

    1998-11-01

    Immobility is a common problem for hospitalized older adults. Excessive bed rest results in multiple adverse physiologic consequences and may contribute to functional decline and increased risk for falls in the hospital setting. About 2% of hospitalized older adults fall during hospitalization. Risk factors for in-hospital falls includes cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, specific diagnoses, multiple comorbidities, and psychotropic medications. Appropriate actions to prevent immobility and falls include increasing exercise and activity levels, improving the hospital environment, and decreasing the use of psychotropic medications. Bed alarms and increased supervision for high-risk patients also may help prevent falls.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN SITU TOXICITY ASSAY SYSTEM USING RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUSES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method for experimentally analyzing the role of enzymes involved in metabolizing mutagenic, carcinogenic, or cytotoxic chemicals is described. Spodoptera fugiperda (SF-21) cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses are used for high level expression of one or m...

  7. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThe fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  8. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  9. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  10. Susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua to 9 toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2008-03-01

    Nine of the most common lepidopteran active Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis have been tested for activity against Spodoptera exigua. Because of possible intraspecific variability, three laboratory strains (FRA, HOL, and MUR) have been used. Mortality assays were performed with the three strains. LC(50) values for the active toxins were determined to the FRA and the HOL strains, whereas susceptibility of the MUR strain was assessed using only two concentrations. The results showed that Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, and Cry1Fa were the most effective toxins with all strains. Cry1Ab was found effective for the HOL strain, but very little effective against FRA (6.5-fold) and MUR strains. Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac were marginally toxic to all strains, whereas the rest of the toxins tested (Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa, and Cry2Ab) were non toxic. Significant differences in susceptibility among strains were also found for Cry1Da, being the FRA strain 25-fold more susceptible than the HOL strain. Growth inhibition, as an additional susceptibility parameter, was determined in the FRA strain with the 9 toxins. The toxicity profile obtained differed from that observed in mortality assays. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, and Cry1Fa toxins produced a similar larval growth inhibition. Cry2Aa had a lower but clear effect on larval growth inhibition, whereas Cry1Ba and Cry2Ab did not have any effect.

  11. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  12. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6 hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  13. Liability for falls.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-03-01

    Reengineering of roles, inexperienced personnel and poor communications among departments has led to an increase in patient falls--a major source of liability. While health care facilities are not liable for all falls, they are expected to take precautions based on patients' deficits.

  14. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  15. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  16. Influence of parasitism by Chelonus insularis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Ingeborg; Alvarez, Alonso; Barreto, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus insularis Cresson is a key parasitoid of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) during the second field generation in the upper Magdalena River Basin, Colombia. In spite of selection pressure, the higher susceptibility of the second generation fall armyworm larvae to insecticides, compared with that of the first generation, suggests that the parasitism may be responsible for the apparent difference in susceptibility. Parasitized and non-parasitized 2nd-instar larvae of the fall armyworm were tested for susceptibility to chlorpyriphos, methomyl, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis in the laboratory, using the leaf dip test. Parasitized larvae were up to 3.93 times more susceptible to chlorpyriphos, 3.71 times to methomyl, and 14.11 times to cypermethrin than non-parasitized larvae. The least effect of parasitism on susceptibility was found for B. thuringiensis. We discuss the negative influence of synthetic insecticide on the parasitoid population dynamics and its impact on insecticide resistance.

  17. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Fernanda F.; Mendes, Simone M.; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Araújo, Octávio G.; Oliveira, Eugenio E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50–70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  18. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  19. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  20. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  1. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  2. Genetic and biological variation among nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from spodoptera frugiperda (lepidotpera: noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR-based method was used to identify and distinguish among 40 uncharacterized nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolates from the moth Spodoptera frugiperda that were part of an insect virus collection. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with sequences amplified from two strongly conserved loci (pol...

  3. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  4. Monitoring two native Spodoptera species using an exotic pheromone lure developed for an exotic species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....

  5. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  6. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  7. Thumbsucking and falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Ozturk, O M

    1977-03-01

    A review of the studies on the aetiology of habitual thumbsucking reveals either contradictory or inconclusive results. In this study carried out in Turkey, 50 thumbsuckers, 50 non-thumbsuckers, 250 school children and 312 'problem' children were investigated through interviews, questionnaires and other clinical techniques with their mothers. Among variables studied were aspects of feeding, onset and incidence of thumbsucking, strength of sucking drive, sex distribution, educational level and occupation of mothers, parental attitudes toward physical contact with children, mother-child relationships, and particular forms of falling asleep. It was found that thumbsucking was aetiologically more related to ways of falling asleep than to other factors. An attempt was made to explain the social, psychological and physiological basis of the aetiological significance of the falling asleep-stage in habitual thumbsucking. These findings now permit predictive longitudinal investigations to test this accuracy.

  8. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz C; Raetano, Carlos G; Leite, Luis G

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall armyworms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall armyworm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organosilicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha-1, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment.

  9. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over…

  10. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  11. Fall 2005 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This annual report includes the following information presented in tabular form: (1) Location of West Virginia Public Institutions of Higher Education; (2) Location of West Virginia Independent Institutions of Higher Education; (3) Freshmen Headcount Enrollment, by Attendance Status, Early Fall 2005; (4) Headcount Enrollment by Residence,…

  12. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  13. Fall Protection in Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Fall Protection in Construction U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3146 1998(Revised) Report Documentation...Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20210 Performing Organization Report Number OSHA 3146...compliance responsibili- ties, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because

  14. FHR Iowa Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This October 22, 2015, letter from EPA approves the petition from Flint Hills Resources, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through the FHR Iowa Falls Process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the R

  15. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  16. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  17. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, John W.; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  19. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  20. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  1. Proteomics of the 26S proteasome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV.

    PubMed

    Lyupina, Yulia V; Zatsepina, Olga G; Serebryakova, Marina V; Erokhov, Pavel A; Abaturova, Svetlana B; Kravchuk, Oksana I; Orlova, Olga V; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N; Lavrov, Andrey I; Sokolova, Olga S; Mikhailov, Victor S

    2016-06-01

    Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect insect species such as Lepidoptera and are used in biotechnology for protein production and in agriculture as insecticides against crop pests. Baculoviruses require activity of host proteasomes for efficient reproduction, but how they control the cellular proteome and interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) of infected cells remains unknown. In this report, we analyzed possible changes in the subunit composition of 26S proteasomes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), cells in the course of infection with the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). 26S proteasomes were purified from Sf9 cells by an immune affinity method and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot search in bioinformatics databases. A total of 34 homologues of 26S proteasome subunits of eukaryotic species were identified including 14 subunits of the 20S core particle (7 α and 7 β subunits) and 20 subunits of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP contained homologues of 11 of RPN-type and 6 of RPT-type subunits, 2 deubiquitinating enzymes (UCH-14/UBP6 and UCH-L5/UCH37), and thioredoxin. Similar 2D-gel maps of 26S proteasomes purified from uninfected and AcMNPV-infected cells at 48hpi confirmed the structural integrity of the 26S proteasome in insect cells during baculovirus infection. However, subtle changes in minor forms of some proteasome subunits were detected. A portion of the α5(zeta) cellular pool that presumably was not associated with the proteasome underwent partial proteolysis at a late stage in infection.

  2. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Renato J; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B; Okuma, Daniela M; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Amaral, Fernando S de A E; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-10

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  3. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. de A. e; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants. PMID:27721425

  4. Novel Hierarchical Fall Detection Algorithm Using a Multiphase Fall Model

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Yeh; Liu, Kai-Chun; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2017-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents for the elderly in the living environment. Reducing hazards in the living environment and performing exercises for training balance and muscles are the common strategies for fall prevention. However, falls cannot be avoided completely; fall detection provides an alarm that can decrease injuries or death caused by the lack of rescue. The automatic fall detection system has opportunities to provide real-time emergency alarms for improving the safety and quality of home healthcare services. Two common technical challenges are also tackled in order to provide a reliable fall detection algorithm, including variability and ambiguity. We propose a novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm involving threshold-based and knowledge-based approaches to detect a fall event. The threshold-based approach efficiently supports the detection and identification of fall events from continuous sensor data. A multiphase fall model is utilized, including free fall, impact, and rest phases for the knowledge-based approach, which identifies fall events and has the potential to deal with the aforementioned technical challenges of a fall detection system. Seven kinds of falls and seven types of daily activities arranged in an experiment are used to explore the performance of the proposed fall detection algorithm. The overall performances of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy using a knowledge-based algorithm are 99.79%, 98.74%, 99.05% and 99.33%, respectively. The results show that the proposed novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm can cope with the variability and ambiguity of the technical challenges and fulfill the reliability, adaptability, and flexibility requirements of an automatic fall detection system with respect to the individual differences. PMID:28208694

  5. The Resource. Fall 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Adams, Director of Scientific Visualization, initiated a Bring Your Own Data ( BYOD ) workshop for MSRC users. The first workshop was held June 25-26 in...leverage these assets in their future work. The first BYOD workshop was definitely a benefit to the users. Chris Stone, in particular was able to...publications 28 ERDC MSRC The Resource, Fall 2001 ac ro ny m s AG Access Grid AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BYOD Bring Your Own Data CDC Control Data

  6. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  7. Modeling a falling slinky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R. C.; Wheatland, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A slinky is an example of a tension spring: in an unstretched state a slinky is collapsed, with turns touching, and a finite tension is required to separate the turns from this state. If a slinky is suspended from its top and stretched under gravity and then released, the bottom of the slinky does not begin to fall until the top section of the slinky, which collapses turn by turn from the top, collides with the bottom. The total collapse time tc (typically ˜0.3 s for real slinkies) corresponds to the time required for a wave front to propagate down the slinky to communicate the release of the top end. We present a modification to an existing model for a falling tension spring [Calkin, Am. J. Phys. 61, 261-264 (1993)] and apply it to data from filmed drops of two real slinkies. The modification of the model is the inclusion of a finite time for collapse of the turns of the slinky behind the collapse front propagating down the slinky during the fall. The new finite-collapse time model achieves a good qualitative fit to the observed positions of the top of the real slinkies during the measured drops. The spring constant k for each slinky is taken to be a free parameter in the model. The best-fit model values for k for each slinky are approximately consistent with values obtained from measured periods of oscillation of the slinkies.

  8. Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins by two Spodoptera species.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Chakroun, Maissa; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Ferré, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Vip3 proteins have been described to be secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase and to display a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran larvae. Vip3Aa protoxin has been reported to be significantly more toxic to Spodoptera frugiperda than to Spodoptera exigua and differences in the midgut processing have been proposed to be responsible. In contrast, we have found that Vip3Ae is essentially equally toxic against these two species. Proteolysis experiments were performed to study the stability of Vip3A proteins to peptidase digestion and to see whether the differences found could explain differences in toxicity against these two Spodoptera species. It was found that activation of the protoxin form and degradation of the 62kDa band took place at lower concentrations of trypsin when using Vip3Aa than when using Vip3Ae. The opposite effect was observed for chymotrypsin. Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae protoxins were effectively processed by midgut content extracts from the two Spodoptera species and the proteolytic activation did not produce a peptidase resistant core under these in vitro conditions. Digestion experiments performed with S. frugiperda chromatography-purified digestive serine peptidases showed that the degradation of the Vip3A toxins active core is mainly due to the action of cationic chymotrypsin-like peptidase. Although the digestion patterns of Vip3A proteins do not always correlate with toxicity, the peptidase stability of the 62kDa core is in agreement with intraspecific differences of toxicity of the Vip3Aa protein.

  9. Demonstration Using Field Collections that Argentina Fall Armyworm Populations Exhibit Strain-specific Host Plant Preferences.

    PubMed

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Nagoshi, Rodney N; Dos Santos, Daniel A; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Vilardi, J C

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations (previously designated "host strains") that differ in their choice of plant host. Specifically, the corn strain is preferentially found in corn and sorghum, while the rice strain is dominant in rice, turf grass, and alfalfa. However, inconsistent results were reported in surveys of fall armyworm in Argentina, with some indicating that the host plant preferences of the two strains might be compromised or even nonexistent. If correct, this would complicate efforts to control this pest by considerably expanding the range of habitats that would have to be considered as potential sources for fall armyworm infestations in specific crops. A reexamination of Argentine fall armyworm, this time with field collections rather than the laboratory colonies used in previous studies, confirmed the existence of the two strains and their host preferences. Specifically, the corn strain was consistently the majority population infesting corn and was usually so in sorghum, while the rice strain was predominant in pasture/turf grasses and alfalfa. The one outlier was a collection from rice, which had a corn strain majority. Overall, the data were generally consistent with strain behaviors observed in other areas of the Western Hemisphere.

  10. Suitability of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermudagrass Cultivars for Black Cutworms and Fall Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Cheon; Obear, Glen R; Liesch, Patrick J; Held, David W; Williamson, R Chris

    2015-08-01

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern United States. Heat-tolerant bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. The goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutworm and fall armyworm to these newer heat-tolerant creeping bentgrass cultivars, as well as commonly used cultivars of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Loppers.)]. Choice and no-choice feeding assays and fecundity tests were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate performance and preference of the two insects. When given a choice, neither black cutworm nor fall armyworm showed a preference for the majority of new cultivars tested. There were no differences in leaf area consumption or insect development for either pest in no-choice feeding assays. Black cutworm females preferred laying eggs in bentgrass compared with bermudagrass, but will oviposit onto bermudagrass, suggesting that both turf species are suitable hosts of this pest. The broad host ranges of generalist caterpillar pests of turfgrass hinder the application of host plant resistance in integrated pest management on golf courses.

  11. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... increases your fracture risk. Catching yourself so you land on your hands or grabbing onto an object as you fall can prevent a hip fracture. Protective responses, such as reflexes and changes in posture that break the fall, can reduce ...

  12. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States from mitochondrial haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. In the United States, infestations in corn acreages extend from the Mexican to the Canadian border. Because fall armyworm does not survive prolonged freezing, the infestations annually affecting most of North America are migrants from southern Texas and Florida, where winter temperatures are mild and host plants are available. A haplotype method was developed that can distinguish between these two geographically distant overwintering populations, with the potential to delineate the associated migratory pathways. Several years of collections from major corn-producing areas in the southern, central, and eastern United States were used to map the geographical distribution of the fall armyworm haplotypes. From these haplotype profiles, it was possible to develop the most detailed description yet of the annual northward movements of fall armyworm. The consistency of these results with past studies and the implications on our understanding of fall armyworm biology are discussed. A better understanding of fall armyworm populations and their movement is critical for the development of strategies to predict infestation levels and eventually control this pest in the United States. PMID:22957154

  13. Long-distance free fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph; Carlson, James

    1999-03-01

    We present an analysis of a situation described in Milton's epic poem "Paradise Lost" in which we calculate the distance required for a nine-day free-fall from rest to the Earth. The resulting method is completely general, and can be applied to free-fall toward other bodies and to near-Earth free-fall as well.

  14. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall

  15. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  16. [Fall risk and fracture. Aging and fall/fracture].

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Fall deteriorates QOL and ADL of elderly people, especially when they suffer from hip and vertebral fractures. It is not easy to identify the cause of falling, because falling usually result from multiple factors. Among various potential causes, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, medication of hypnotic drugs, and environmental factors are important, because they are frequent and can be modifiable. When evaluating fall risks, grasping power, one-leg standing time, timed up&go test, are useful. On the other hand, fall risk index, 22-item self-assessment test, is easy and even better in predicting future falls. In the Cochrane systematic review article 2009, exercise such as Tai-Chi, withdrawal of hypnotic drugs, and vitamin D supplementation are shown to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly.

  17. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  18. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Paulo R S; Barbosa, José C; Busoli, Antonio C; Overal, William L; Miranda, Vicente S; Ribeiro, Susane M

    2008-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In São Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests.

  19. Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, R; Moraes, J C; Auad, A M; Coelho, M; Nascimento, A M

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application and administration of the phytohormone gibberellic acid on resistance of the corn plants to the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, and their vegetative characteristics. We evaluated larval and pupal duration, survival and biomass, and adult longevity, malformation and fecundity of S. frugiperda after feeding on plant matter treated with silicon and/or gibberellic acid. The feeding preference of FAW first-instar larvae, the total leaf area consumed by the insects, and the vegetative parameters of corn plants were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the measured parameters of larval and pupal stages of S. frugiperda in response to silicon or gibberellic acid. In adult stage insects, the number of eggs per female was significantly reduced in insects derived from larvae fed plants treated with silicon or gibberellic acid. In a non-preference test, 48 h after release, caterpillars preferred control untreated plants and consumed less matter from plants that had received hormonal treatment (gibberellic acid). Gibberellic acid also altered the vegetative characteristics of plants, by increasing their height, shoot fresh and dry mass, and silicon content. We conclude that gibberellic acid can alter the vegetative characteristics and silicon uptake of corn plants, leading to a reduction in their consumption by S. frugiperda larvae and a decrease in female insect oviposition.

  20. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS.

  1. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains from central Colombia to two insecticides, methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin: a study of the genetic basis of resistance.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Díez, J D; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of several crops in the western hemisphere. This insect has genetically differentiated into two host-associated populations: the corn (Zea mays L.) and the rice (Oryza sativa L.) strains. The corn strain also is found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sorghum and the rice strain in Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and millet. In the United States and Brazil, lines from corn, rice, Bermuda grass, and millet were used to evaluate the resistance of both strains to various insecticides, and found that the corn strain is more resistant than the rice strain. However, in these studies the larvae were not genotyped. In Colombia, genotyping of fall armyworm is necessary because the rice strain also can be found in corn fields. In this work, collected larvae from corn and rice fields from Tolima (central Colombia) were genotyped and evaluated for the resistance to methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that the rice strain does not significantly differ in resistance to methomyl compared with the corn strain but it develops tolerance more rapidly to lambda-cyhalothrin. The eggs viability of treated females also was significantly affected by methomyl on each generation. The realized heritability of resistance was higher for lambda-cyhalothrin (0.23-0.42) than for methomyl (0.04-0.14). The number of generations needed for 10-fold increase in resistance is approximately 11.5 generations for methomyl and 6.5 for lambda-cyhalothrin. Finally, the genetic basis of resistance to both insecticides involves few recessive autosomal genes. The results obtained here suggest that methomyl is a better option than lambda-cyalothin to control fall armyworm.

  2. Biotransformation of alpha-terpineol by the larvae of common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ohsawa, Masashi

    2002-08-14

    Biotransformation of alpha-terpineol by the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae was investigated. alpha-Terpineol was mixed in an artificial diet, and the diet was fed to the larvae (fourth-fifth instar) of S. litura. Metabolites were isolated from the frass and analyzed spectroscopically. Main metabolites were 7-hydroxy-alpha-terpineol (p-menth-1-ene-7,8-diol) and oleuropeic acid (8-hydroxy-p-menth-1-en-7-oic acid). Intestinal bacteria from the frass of larvae did not participate in the metabolism of alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol was preferentially oxidized at the C-7 position (allylic methyl group) by S. litura larvae.

  3. Student Profile, Fall 1977 to Fall 1986. Historical Profiles Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The tables and graphs presented in this report reflect changes in community college enrollments in California over the past 10 years (fall 1977 to fall 1986), as they have responded to fluctuations in the state's economy, available state revenues, and community college funding. First, an executive summary highlights the following trends over the…

  4. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  5. Persistence. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today's college student is not your '60s drop-out. In 2010, college students tended to stay enrolled (i.e., persist), even if it was in a different school, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. For a student enrolled in the fall, persistence is defined as either continued enrollment during the next term after the fall or…

  6. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  7. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia.

  8. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  9. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this cou...

  10. Nitrogen fertilization rate affects feeding, larval performance, and oviposition preference of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most critical chemical elements for plant and animal growth. Development and oviposition of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied in relation to varying nitrogen levels in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The development of S. exig...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  15. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  17. Insecticidal Activity and Histopathological Effects of Vip3Aa Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis on Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Song, Feifei; Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Chen; Shao, Ensi; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-10-28

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) are insecticidal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. In this study, Vip3Aa protein, obtained by in vitro expression of the vip3Aa gene from B. thuringiensis WB5, displayed high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura aside from Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera. Bioassay results showed that the toxicity of Vip3Aa protein against S. litura larvae statistically decreased along with the increase of the age of the larvae, with LC50 = 2.609 ng/cm(2) for neonatal larvae, LC50 = 28.778 ng/cm(2) for first instar larvae, LC50 = 70.460 ng/cm(2) for second instar larvae, and LC50 = 200.627 ng/cm(2) for third instar larvae. The accumulative mortality of 100% larvae appeared at 72 h for all instars of S. litura larvae, when feeding respectively with 83.22, 213.04, 341.40, and 613.20 ng/cm(2) of Vip3Aa toxin to the neonatal and first to third instar larvae. The histopathological effects of Vip3Aa toxin on the midgut epithelial cells of S. litura larvae was also investigated. The TEM observations showed wide damage of the epithelial cell in the midgut of S. litura larvae fed with Vip3Aa toxin.

  18. Identification and characterization of odv-e25 of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofei; Pan, Lijin; Yu, Hang; Li, Sainan; Zhang, Guoping; Pang, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) odv-e25 is 684 bp long, potentially encoding 227 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.9 kDa. Homology analysis indicated that SpltMNPV ODV-E25 has 35-65% amino acid identity with that of other known baculoviruses. RT-PCR results revealed that the odv-e25 is transcribed actively at the late stage of infection and the mRNA start site was mapped within a consensus baculovirus late promoter sequence (TTAAG). Western blot analysis of odv-e25 expression with an antiserum made against 6 x His tagged ODV-E25 expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that it was present as a doublet of approximately 27 kDa from 24 h through 96 h in SpltMNPV-infected Spli-221 cells. Similar results were seen on Western blots of Spodoptera exigua (Se)MNPV-infected Se301 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that ODV-E25 was predominantly present in the cytoplasm of SpltMNPV-infected cells and localized to the envelopes of occlusion-derived virus.

  19. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana.

  1. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  2. SisFall: A Fall and Movement Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Sucerquia, Angela; López, José David; Vargas-Bonilla, Jesús Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, which are insufficient for testing new proposals due to their absence of objective population, lack of performed activities, and limited information. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADLs) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADLs and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADLs and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where new approaches could be focused. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages developing new strategies with this new dataset as the benchmark. PMID:28117691

  3. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  4. Toxicity and physiological effect of quercetin on generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and a non-target earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel flavonoid, quercetin, was isolated from Euphorbia hirta L., a medicinal plant using chromatography techniques including: Thin-layer chromatography, Column chromatography, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Toxicity to larval of Spodoptera litura analyze pupal weight, survival rate, fec...

  5. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  6. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  7. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. DO NOT hold your breath. Balance Exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  8. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  9. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers. Learn More Important Facts about Falls Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Each year, ... once doubles your chances of falling again. 2 Falls Are Serious and Costly One out of five ...

  10. Pupil Membership and Related Information, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    Information is provided about student membership in the Colorado public schools in 1998. In fall 1998, there were 699,135 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 11,968 students (1.7%) from fall 1997. Fall membership grew by 58,614 students (9.2%) from fall 1994 to fall 1998. Beginning in fall 1990, membership each year has surpassed…

  11. Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2011-01-01

    A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both oil and extract exhibited highly significant growth inhibition at all concentrations tested, while the oil of M. azedarach recorded higher insecticidal activity against both instars than the crude extract. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of linoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester, and free oleic acid as the main components in addition to hexadecanol, palmitic acid, methyl esters of stearic acid and myristic acid. Fatty acids and their esters were not only the main constituents of essential oil from the ripe fruits of M. azedarach, but also mainly responsible for the insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against S. littoralis.

  12. Life history of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2006-12-01

    The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  14. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  15. TOXICITY OF THE SEEDS OF PHASEOLUS LATHYROIDES (LEGUMINOSAE) AGAINST SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE).

    PubMed

    Pipattanaporn, P; Tharamak, S; Temyarasilp, P; Bullangpoti, V; Pluempanupat, W

    2015-01-01

    The seeds of Phaseolus lathyroides were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively by Soxhlet apparatus. Each crude extract was examined for toxicity against the second instars of Spodoptera litura using a topical application method under laboratory conditions. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most effective mortality (LD₅₀ = 11,964 and 9,169 ppm after treated at 24 and 48 hours, respectively). Furthermore, in vivo enzyme based experiments revealed that acetylcholinesterase activity of survived S. litura (24 hours post-treatment) was increased by 12% compared to control experiments. Our result showed the possibility to develop alternative strategies by using extract from the seeds of Phaseolus lathyroides for the control of S. litura.

  16. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82–93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen. PMID

  17. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species.

  18. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L.; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread. PMID:27301612

  19. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  20. Histopathology and the lethal effect of Cry proteins and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith Caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Knaak, N; Franz, A R; Santos, G F; Fiuza, L M

    2010-08-01

    Among the phytophagous insects which attack crops, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is particularly harmful in the initial growth phase of rice plants. As a potential means of controlling this pest, and considering that the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner demonstrates toxicity due to synthesis of the Cry protein, the present study was undertaken to evaluate this toxic effect of B. thuringiensis thuringiensis 407 (pH 408) and B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 on S. frugiperda. The following method was used. Both bacterial strains were evaluated in vitro in 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars, by means of histopathological assays. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins, codified by the respective strains of B. thuringiensis, were evaluated in vivo by bioassays of 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars in order to determine the Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50). The results of the histopathological analysis of the midget of S. frugiperda caterpillars demonstrate that treatment with the B. thuringiensis thuringiensis strain was more efficient, because the degradations of the microvilosities started 9 hours after treatment application (HAT), while in the B. thuringiensis kurstaki the same effect was noticed only after 12 HAT. Toxicity data of the Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins presented for the target-species LC50 levels of 9.29 and 1.79 microgxcm-2 respectively. The strains and proteins synthesised by B. thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki are effective in controlling S. frugiperda, and may be used to produce new biopesticides or the genes may be utilised in the genetic transformation of Oryza sativa L.

  1. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  2. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%).

  3. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  4. BURDEN FALLS ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The Burden Falls Roadless Area lies in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois, about 5 mi west of the western edge of the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. Geologic mapping and geochemical surveys indicate that the area has little promise for the occurrence of fluorspar and associated minerals; other special studies also indicate little promise for oil and gas and construction materials. Traces of gold and silver were detected in some geochemical samples but follow-up studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of resources of these metals within the Burden Falls Roadless Area.

  5. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  6. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls.

  7. NAVO MSRC Navigator. Fall 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    investigations; ocean engineering and marine acoustics; marine geology and geophysics; and bathymetric surveying. 11FALL 007NAVO MSRC NAVIGATOR As...MSRC NAVIGATOR HiPC 2007International Conference on High Performance Computing December 18-21, 2007Goa, India , http://www.hipc.org/ i I i l i

  8. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  9. More about the falling raindrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A simple strategy is presented for solving the "inverse rocket" problem of a particle accumulating material from a medium through which it falls vertically. Some forms of drag can also be easily included, thereby changing the constant acceleration to a more realistic value.

  10. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  11. Watch Out for Falling Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The path taken by the falling fragment in the June 2011 event. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]Sometimes plasma emitted from the Sun doesnt escape into space, but instead comes crashing back down to the solar surface. What can observations and models of this process tell us about how the plasma falls and the local conditions on the Sun?Fallback from a FlareOn 7 June 2011, an M-class flare erupted from the solar surface. As the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly looked on, plasma fragments from the flare arced away from the Sun and then fell back to the surface.Some fragments fell back where the Suns magnetic field was weak, returning directly to the surface. But others fell within active regions, where they crashed into the Suns magnetic field lines, brightening the channels and funneling along them through the dense corona and back to the Suns surface.The authors model of the falling blobs at several different times in their simulation. The blobs get disrupted when they encounter the field lines, and are then funneled along the channels to the solar surface. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]This sort of flare and fall-back event is a common occurrence with the Sun, and SDOs observations of the June 2011 event present an excellent opportunity to understand the process better. A team of scientists led by Antonino Petralia (University of Palermo, Italy and INAF-OAPA) modeled this event in an effort to learn more about how the falling plasma interacts with strong magnetic fields above the solar surface.Magnetic Fields as GuidesPetralia and collaborators used three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical modeling to attempt to reproduce the observations of this event. They simulated blobs of plasma as they fall back to the solar surface and interact with magnetic field lines over a range of different conditions.The team found that only simulations that assume a relatively strong magnetic field resulted in the blobs funneling along a channel to the

  12. Experiments with a falling rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of a uniform thin rod released from rest, with the bottom end initially in contact with a horizontal surface. Our focus here is the motion of the bottom end as the rod falls. For small angles of release with respect to the horizontal, the rod falls without the bottom end slipping. For larger angles, the slipping direction depends on the static friction coefficient between the rod and the horizontal surface. Small friction coefficients cause the end to slip initially in one direction and then in the other, while for high coefficients, the end slips in one direction only. For intermediate values, depending on the angle of release, both situations can occur. We find the initial slipping direction to depend on a relation between the angle at which the rod slips, and a critical angle at which the frictional force vanishes. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  13. Dynamics of turbulent falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Naraigh, Lennon; Matar, Omar

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of laminar falling films have received considerable attention over the past several decades. In contrast, turbulent falling films have been the subject of far fewer studies. We seek to redress this balance by studying the stability of falling films which have already undergone a transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow regime. We derive a uniform-film base-state for this flow by assuming the averaged turbulent velocity field to be steady and fully-developed, and by employing a modified version of mixing-length theory. The latter features an interpolation function for the eddy viscosity, and van Driest-type functions for turbulence-damping near the wall and interface regions. The predicted base-state streamwise velocity component is in good agreement with experimental data. A linear stability analysis of this base-state is then carried out by solving a modified version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Our results suggest that the unstable mode is a long-wave one. This provides motivation for the derivation of long-wave equations for the nonlinear evolution of the film.

  14. Vestimentiferan on a whale fall.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Shank, T M; Black, M B; Baco, A R; Smith, C R; Vrijenhoek, R C

    1998-04-01

    Discovery of chemosynthetic communities associated with whale bones led to the hypothesis that whale falls may serve as stepping-stones for faunal dispersal between disjunct hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor (1). The initial observation was followed by a faunal inventory that revealed a diverse assemblage of microbes and invertebrates, supported by chemoautotrophic production, living in close proximity to whale remains (2, 3). To date, the conspicuous absence from whale falls of vestimentiferan tubeworms (a predominant constituent of eastern Pacific vent and seep habitats) has been a major objection to the stepping-stone hypothesis (4-5). We report the first evidence of a vestimentiferan tubeworm associated with a whale fall (Fig. 1). The tubeworm, Escarpia spicata, was identified by morphological criteria and DNA sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I (COI) gene. Additionally, the bacterial endosymbiont in the tubeworm possessed a 16S rRNA gene that was similar to that of endosymbionts from vestimentiferans in sedimented cold-seep environments.

  15. Osteoarthritis and falls in the older person.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Maw Pin

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis and falls are common conditions affecting older individuals which are associated with disability and escalating health expenditure. It has been widely assumed that osteoarthritis is an established risk factor for falls in older people. The relationship between osteoarthritis and falls has, quite surprisingly, not been adequately elucidated, and published reports have been conflicting. Our review of the existing literature has found limited evidence supporting the current assumption that the presence of osteoarthritis is associated with increased risk of falls with suggestions that osteoarthritis may actually be protective against falls related fractures. In addition, joint arthroplasty appears to increase the risk of falls in individuals with osteoarthritis.

  16. A wearable airbag to prevent fall injuries.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.

  17. Candidate chemosensory Genes in Female Antennae of the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; Poulain, Julie; Gavory, Frédéric; Walker III, William B.; Hansson, Bill S.; Larsson, Mattias C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available. Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis. PMID:22904672

  18. Bitter gourd proteinase inhibitors: potential growth inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Telang, Manasi; Srinivasan, Ajay; Patankar, Aparna; Harsulkar, Abhay; Joshi, Vijay; Damle, Archana; Deshpande, Vasanti; Sainani, Mohini; Ranjekar, Prabhakar; Gupta, Gorakh; Birah, Ajanta; Rani, Seema; Kachole, Manavendra; Giri, Ashok; Gupta, Vidya

    2003-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were identified as strong inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). Biochemical investigations showed that bitter gourd PIs (BGPIs) inhibited more than 80% HGP activity. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of two major proteins (BGPI-1 and-2) and two minor proteins (BGPI-3 and-4) having inhibitory activity against both trypsin and HGP. The major isoforms BGPI-1 and BGPI-2 have molecular mass of 3.5 and 3.0 kDa, respectively. BGPIs inhibited HGP activity of larvae fed on different host plants, on artificial diet with or without added PIs and proteinases excreted in fecal matter. Degradation of BGPI-1 by HGP showed direct correlation with accumulation of BGPI-2-like peptide, which remained stable and active against high concentrations of HGP up to 3 h. Chemical inhibitors of serine proteinases offered partial protection to BGPI-1 from degradation by HGP, suggesting that trypsin and chymotrypsin like proteinases are involved in degradation of BGPI-1. In larval feeding studies, BGPIs were found to retard growth and development of two lepidopteran pests namely Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. This is the first report showing that BGPIs mediated inhibition of insect gut proteinases directly affects fertility and fecundity of both H. armigera and S. litura. The results advocate use of BGPIs to introduce insect resistance in otherwise susceptible plants.

  19. Microbial control of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) by Egyptian Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Alfazairy, Ahlam A; El-Ahwany, Amani M D; Mohamed, Eman A; Zaghloul, Heba A H; El-Helow, Ehab R

    2013-03-01

    Four local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates that had been serologically identified as Bt var. kurstaki (Btk2, Btk3, and Btk66) and Bt var. mexicanensis (Btm27), in addition to two reference strains (4D20 and 4AC1), were laboratory assayed as microbial control agents against the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis revealed that each of the six experimental strains carries, at least, a cry1 type gene which expresses a protein toxin active against lepidopterous insects. Additionally, PCR amplification results demonstrated that 4D20 and Btk66 contain the Lepidoptera- and Diptera-active cry2 type gene and that Btk66 contains Coleoptera-active cry7 and cry8 genes. Among the six strains, Btk66 and Btm27 were the most promising microbial control agents against S. littoralis. The present findings were the first to report that Btm27 (classified as B. thuringiensis var. mexicanensis) is a very potent microbial control agent against S. littoralis-tested larvae. For more characterization of these two isolates, the sspO gene was investigated as a molecular chronometer. The DNA sequencing results proved that Btk66 and Btm27 carry sspO open reading frames with identical nucleotide sequences, suggesting a strong phylogenetic relationship between the two strains.

  20. The complete sequence of the first Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus genome: a natural multiple recombinant virus.

    PubMed

    Cuartas, Paola E; Barrera, Gloria P; Belaich, Mariano N; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Villamizar, Laura F

    2015-01-20

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  1. Effects of zinc exposure on the reproduction of Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinghua; Gao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Hongxia; Zou, Zhiwen; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Guren

    2009-11-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Zn to insects was investigated in this study. By exposing phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius to Zn in artificial diets of larvae, we investigated the effects of Zn on reproduction at ecological and molecular levels. A significantly shorter period of laying eggs was observed in S. litura exposed to 300-750mg Zn/kg. The oviposition rate, fecundity and hatchability of female adults treated with 750mg Zn/kg were significantly lower than those of the controls (31.43%, 20.95% and 52%, respectively, compared to the control). The Zn accumulation and vitellin (Vn) content in eggs were tested by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and Bradford combining Western-blot, respectively. The results showed that Zn accumulated in the eggs, which has affected the weight and Vn content of eggs with significant negative correlations. The down-regulated expression levels of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): the relative quantity of Vg mRNA was less than half of the controls at higher than 450mg Zn/kg wet weight. These results indicated that excess Zn made expression of Vg gene down-regulated and caused poor accumulation of egg yolk, which led to a reduction in egg numbers and failure of eggs to hatch.

  2. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm. PMID:25606011

  3. An insensitive acetylcholinesterase confers resistance to methomyl in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Byrne, F J; Toscano, N C

    2001-04-01

    Two forms of acetylcholinesterase were identified in field populations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), collected from cotton in San Joaquin Valley, CA. Strains (BESS and BKRR) homogeneous for each variant were isolated and their relative susceptibilities to methomyl, chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos-oxon assessed by topical application bioassay. In comparisons with a laboratory susceptible strain (DOW), BKRR and BESS expressed 68-fold and sevenfold resistance, respectively, to the carbamate methomyl. Neither strain was cross-resistant to chlorpyrifos or its oxygen analog (chlorpyrifos-oxon). In biochemical studies, the BKRR AChE enzyme was approximately 30-fold and sixfold more insensitive to methomyl and chlorpyrifos-oxon, respectively, compared with the DOW enzyme. The correlation between the toxicological and biochemical studies provides strong evidence that target-site insensitivity is an important mechanism of resistance to methomyl. The lack of significant cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos suggests that the insensitive AChE in these field populations was selected by methomyl alone and not by the organophosphate.

  4. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity.

  5. Geographic Origin and Host Cultivar Influence on Digestive Physiology of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Golikhajeh, Neshat; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2017-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity in three geographic strains (Miandiab, Kalposh and Moghan regions) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different sugar beet cultivars (Dorothea, Rozier, Persia and Perimer) was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photo period of 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). The results of this study demonstrated that digestive protease and amylase activity of S. exigua larvae was affected by both geographic origin of the pest and host plant cultivar. Three strains reared on the same sugar beet cultivars demonstrated different levels of proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth and fifth instars. The highest proteolytic and amylolytic activity, in most cases, was observed in larvae collected from Kalposh region. Among different sugar beet cultivars, the highest protease activity in three strains was observed on cultivars Rozier and Perimer. Nevertheless, the highest amylase activity was seen on cultivar Dorothea, and the lowest activity was seen on cultivar Rozier. This study suggested that variations in digestive enzymatic activity of three geographic strains of S. exigua might be attributed to local adaptation with their local host plant and environmental conditions inherent by larvae. PMID:28069730

  6. [Antifeeding effects of crude lantadene from Lantana camara on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yizhi; Zhang, Maoxin; Ling, Bing

    2005-12-01

    In this study, crude lantadene was extracted from Lantana canmara leaves, and its antifeeding effects on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae were tested. In no-choice test, crude lantadene at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had antifeeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae and 1st instar S. litura larvae, with the antifeeding rate being 62.4% and 33.1%, respectively within 48 h. In choice test, even a low concentration (0.4 mg x ml(-1)) crude lantadene still had anti-feeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae, and the antifeeding rate at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration was 52.7%, 55.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Crude lantadene only at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had anti-feeding effects on the 1st instar S. litura larvae, and the antifeeding rate was 33.0%. For the 2nd instar S. litura larvae, crude lantadene had no antifeeding effects both in no-choice and in choice test.

  7. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  8. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  9. Endophyte-mediated interactions between cauliflower, the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tamanreet; Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Amarjeet; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endosymbionts in plants may influence interactions among plants, herbivores and their parasitoids through the production of secondary metabolites. We used a lepidopteran pest and its generalist parasitoid to test the effect of endophyte-infected plants on a third trophic level. Endophytic fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from Acacia arabica, were used to infect cauliflower plants. We found that the presence of the endophyte in the plants significantly extended the development period of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae. Feeding of the host on endophyte-infected plants further adversely affected the development and performance of its parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). A negative impact was also recorded for longevity and fecundity of endophyte-naive parasitoid females due to the parasitization of host larvae fed on endophyte-infected plants. The presence of endophytes in the diet of the host larvae significantly prolonged the development of the parasitoid. A strong detrimental effect was also recorded for larval survival and emergence of parasitoid adults. The longevity and parasitism rate of female wasps were reduced significantly due to the ingestion of endophyte-infected cauliflower plants by S. litura larvae. Overall, we found that both endophytic fungi had a negative impact on the parasitoid.

  10. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454

  11. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  12. Impact of elevated CO₂ on tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on peanut, Arachis hypogea.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Rao, V U M; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO(2) (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO(2) levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO(2) on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO(2) compared with ambient CO(2). Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO(2). The present results indicate that elevated CO(2) levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient).

  13. General up regulation of Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins and chymotrypsins allows its adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Daniela; Nadalini, Larissa D; Bengtson, Mario H; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2007-12-01

    The existence of a diverse serine proteinase gene family in lepidopteran insects suggests they play a significant role in the insect adaptation to plant proteinase inhibitors. These proteinases have been shown to be involved in the process of proteolytic digestion in insect larvae. We carried out a selective transcriptome study of midguts from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae fed on a diet supplemented with soybean proteinase inhibitor (SPI). Using subtracted cDNA libraries made of gut-expressed transcripts, a total of 2100 partial sequences were obtained, of those 38% were related to digestive process. Two large and diverse groups of chymotrypsins and trypsins were obtained, and some of these proteinase-encoding genes were further characterized by quantitative RT-PCR. The transcription analyses revealed two groups: one group of genes constitutively expressed in the control larvae that is up regulated by introducing SPI to the diet, and a second group that is absent in the control but is induced by the SPI-rich diet. This observation suggests that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI involves de novo synthesis and also up regulation of existing enzymes. Proteases from intestines of larvae reared on a diet with SPI showed insensitivity to the inhibitor. The proteases were also insensitive to a broad-spectrum potato proteinase inhibitor preparation. We propose that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI follows a "shotgun" approach, based on a general up regulation of a large set of endoproteinases.

  14. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter(-1)), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10(-5) mg a.i. liter(-1) and 78.95 mg a.i. liter(-1)). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  15. The Green Gut: Chlorophyll Degradation in the Gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Büchler, Rita; Wielsch, Natalie; Walde, Marie; Heintzmann, Rainer; Pauchet, Yannik; Svatos, Ales; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-11-01

    Chlorophylls, the most prominent natural pigments, are part of the daily diet of herbivorous insects. The spectrum of ingested and digested chlorophyll metabolites compares well to the pattern of early chlorophyll-degradation products in senescent plants. Intact chlorophyll is rapidly degraded by proteins in the front- and midgut. Unlike plants, insects convert both chlorophyll a and b into the corresponding catabolites. MALDI-TOF/MS imaging allowed monitoring the distribution of the chlorophyll catabolites along the gut of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The chlorophyll degradation in the fore- and mid-gut is strongly pH dependent, and requires alkaline conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis we identified a lipocalin-type protein in the intestinal fluid of S. littoralis homolog to the chlorophyllide a binding protein from Bombyx mori. Widefield and high-resolution autofluorescence microscopy revealed that the brush border membranes are covered with the chlorophyllide binding protein tightly bound via its GPI-anchor to the gut membrane. A function in defense against gut microbes is discussed.

  16. Global and Local Modulatory Supply to the Mushroom Bodies of the Moth Spodoptera Littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S.; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  17. Targeting the Diuretic Hormone Receptor to Control the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Apone, Fabio; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Tortora, Assunta; Tito, Annalisa; Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria; Arciello, Stefania; Andrenacci, Davide; Lelio, Ilaria Di; Colucci, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most devastating pests of crops worldwide. Several types of treatments have been used against this pest, but many of them failed because of the rapid development of genetic resistance in the different insect populations. G protein coupled receptors have vital functions in most organisms, including insects; thus, they are appealing targets for species-specific pest control strategies. Among the insect G protein coupled receptors, the diuretic hormone receptors have several key roles in development and metabolism, but their importance in vivo and their potential role as targets of novel pest control strategies are largely unexplored. With the goal of using DHR genes as targets to control S. littoralis, we cloned a corticotropin-releasing factor-like binding receptor in this species and expressed the corresponding dsRNA in tobacco plants to knock down the receptor activity in vivo through RNA interference. We also expressed the receptor in mammalian cells to study its signaling pathways. The results indicate that this diuretic hormone receptor gene has vital roles in S. littoralis and represents an excellent molecular target to protect agriculturallyimportant plants from this pest. PMID:25368043

  18. Differential expression of chemosensory-protein genes in midguts in response to diet of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Qi, Jiangwei; Zhou, Xiaofan; Hu, Mei Ying; Zhong, Guo Hua

    2017-03-22

    While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut. The orthologous relationships between midgut expressed CSPs in S. litura and those in Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella also suggest a conserved pattern of CSP expression in midgut. We further demonstrated that the expression of midgut-CSPs may change in response to different host plants, and SlitCSPs could bind typical chemicals from host plant in vitro. Overall, our results suggested midgut expressed SlitCSPs may have functional roles, likely contributing to specialization and adaption to different ecosystems. Better knowledge of this critical component of the chemsensation signaling pathways in midguts may improve our understanding of food preference processes in a new perspective.

  19. Pre-exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf volatiles enhance the reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Bai, Jiaxiu; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Daogen; Lin, Huiyue

    2017-03-20

    Plant volatiles serve as sensory cues for insects to find food and habitats. They are also reported to affect many insect behaviors. In the current study, we determined how exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) for 24h affect reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura. Further, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate taro volatiles-induced reproductive behavior in S. litura by recording peripheral, behavioral, and neuronal responses of male moths to sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:OAc and Z9,E12-14:OAc) and their mixtures in different ratios, as well as gene expression levels of sex pheromone receptors. The results showed that the exposure to taro volatiles significantly enhanced male mating rate, mating duration, and egg hatching rates, but not mating times and the number of oviposition per female. Consistently, the peripheral and behavioral responses of pre-exposed males to sex pheromone components and their mixtures wherein Z9,E11-14:OAc owned higher proportions, as well as neuronal responses to those at low dosages were significantly increased compared to non-exposed males. The expression levels of sex pheromone receptor genes were also significantly increased in pre-exposed males compared to non-exposed ones. These results suggest that taro volatile pre-exposures could promote the reproductive performance of S. litura by enhancing the competitiveness of male mating and communications between male and females. These findings provide new insights for the management of this insect pest as well as other moths.

  20. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter−1), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10−5 mg a.i. liter−1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter−1). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults. PMID:27958333

  1. Component information is preserved in glomerular responses to binary odor mixtures in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Chong, Kwok Ying; Daniels, Wiltrud; Hansson, Bill S; Pearce, Tim C

    2007-06-01

    Natural odors are often complex mixtures of different compounds. These mixtures can be perceived to have qualities that are different from their components. Moreover, components can be difficult to distinguish within a blend, even if those components are identifiable when presented individually. Thus, odor components can interact along the olfactory pathway in a nonlinear fashion such that the mixture is not perceived simply as the sum of its components. Here we investigated odor-evoked changes in Ca2+ concentration to binary blends of plant-related substances in individually identified glomeruli in the moth Spodoptera littoralis. We used a wide range of blend ratios and a range of concentrations below the level at which glomerular responses become saturated. We found no statistically significant cases where the mixture response was greater than both component responses at the same total concentration (synergistic interactions) and no statistically significant cases where the mixture response was less than either component presented individually (suppressive interactions). Therefore, we conclude that, for the plant mixtures studied, information of their components is preserved in the neural representations encoded at the first stage of olfactory processing in this moth species.

  2. Molecular cloning, expression pattern and comparative analysis of chitin synthase gene B in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Senthil; Tang, Bin; Chen, Xiaofei; Tian, Honggang; Zhang, Wenqing

    2008-03-01

    The chitin synthase (CHS) gene B (4781 bp) of Spodoptera exigua (SeCHSB) was cloned by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and 3'/5' RACE from the midgut. SeCHSB contains an open reading frame of 4572 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 1523 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 174.6 kDa. Alignment of SeCHSB with class B CHSs of other insects showed a high degree of conservation in the putative catalytic domain region. The structure of the SeCHSB gene was analyzed and was found to be the same as that of Manduca sexta CHSB (MsCHSB), including 23 exons and 22 introns but without alternative exons. Southern blot analysis revealed that SeCHSB was a single copy gene and the presence of only two chitin synthase genes in S. exigua. Further investigation indicated that SeCHSB was specifically expressed in the midgut, and its transcript existed constitutively in the midgut from the 3rd instar larval stage to prepupae and reached highest expression on the 1st day of the fifth instar larval stage. These data suggest that SeCHSB is very important in midgut formation and development. Chitin synthase gene comparisons between different classes of insects using software tools revealed some interesting aspects of the similarity and divergence of the gene in the Class Insecta.

  3. An SSH library responsive to azadirachtin A constructed in Spodoptera litura Fabricius cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study revealed differentially expressed genes responsive to azadirachtin A (Aza) in Spodoptera litura cell line through suppression subtractive hybridization. In the Aza-responsive SSH library, approximately 270 sequences represent 53 different identified genes encoding proteins with various predicted functions, and the percentages of the gene clusters were 26.09% (genetic information processing), 11.41% (cell growth and death), 7.07% (metabolism), 6.52% (signal transduction/transport) and 2.72% (immunity), respectively. Eleven clones homologous to identified genes were selected to be confirmed through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Among the eleven clones validated, all but one transcript of lipase showed an increase in SL cell line collected from ETA, whereas the transcripts of other genes were lower in the SL cell line collected from ETA compared with that of UETA. These genes were considered to be related to the response of SL cell line to Aza. These will provide a new clue to uncover the molecular mechanisms of Aza acting on SL cell line.

  4. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5th instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    PubMed

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds.

  6. Functional analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus late expression factors in Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Berretta, Marcelo F; López, M Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Romanowski, Víctor

    2013-02-01

    We used transient expression assays to assess the function of the baculovirus Spodoptera frugiperda M nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) homologs of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) factors involved in late gene expression (lefs), in the Sf9 insect cell-line, which is permissive for both viruses. It is well-established that nineteen AcMNPV lefs support optimal levels of activity from a late promoter-reporter gene cassette in this assay. A subgroup of SfMNPV lefs predicted to function in transcription-specific events substituted the corresponding AcMNPV lefs very efficiently. When all SfMNPV lefs were assayed, including replication lefs, activity was low, but addition of two AcMNPV lefs not encoded in SfMNPV genome, resulted in augmented reporter activity. SfMNPV IE-1 was able to activate an early promoter cis-linked to an hr-derived element from SfMNPV but not from AcMNPV. However, the level of early promoter activation with SfMNPV IE-1 was lower compared to AcMNPV IE-1.

  7. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  8. Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage.

  9. Ovicidal activity of Atalantia monophylla (L) Correa against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Muthu, Chellaiah; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Antony; Kingsley, Selvadurai; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Atalantia monophylla (A. monophylla) leaf in different solvent crude extracts and fractions against eggs of Spodoptera litura (S. litura). Methods Hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform solvent extracts of A. monophylla leaf and 12 fractions from hexane extract were screened at 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.0% and 0.5% for crude extracts and 1 000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg for fractions against the eggs of S. litura for the ovicidal activity. LC50 and LC90 were calculated using probit analysis. Results Hexane crude extract showed maximum ovicidal activity of 61.94% at 5.0% concentration with a correlation value of r2=0.81, and least LC50 value of 3.06%. Hexane extract was fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and 12 fractions were obtained. Fraction 9 was active which showed maximum ovicidal activity of 75.61% at 1 000 mg/kg with the LC50 value of 318.65 mg/kg and LC90 value of 1 473.31 mg/kg. In linear regression analysis, significant and high correlation (r2=0.81%) was seen between concentration and ovicidal activity of hexane crude extracts and its active fraction. Conclusions As per our knowledge, this is the first report for ovicidal activity of A. monophylla against S. litura, A. monophylla could be used for the management of S. litura and other insect pests. PMID:23593580

  10. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cuartas, Paola E.; Barrera, Gloria P.; Belaich, Mariano N.; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Villamizar, Laura F.

    2015-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness. PMID:25609309

  11. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form.

  12. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  13. Antifeedant activity of an anthraquinone aldehyde in Galium aparine L. against Spodoptera litura F.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masanori; Tanimoto, Kumiko; Sakatani, Akiko; Komai, Koichiro

    2002-05-01

    The insect antifeedant anthraquinone aldehyde nordamnacanthal (1,3-dihydroxy-anthraquinone-2-al) was identified in Galium aparine L., and isolated from the root powder of akane (Rubia akane), a member of the Rubiaceae. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies using a series of anthraquinone analogues suggested that the aldehyde group on the anthraquinone was more important than the quinone moiety for antifeedant activity against the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura). High levels of nordamnacanthal were found in the seed leaf stage and in callus tissue induced from seedlings of G. aparine, but its concentration decreased with plant development. Since these compounds are natural pigments for dying textiles, we also evaluated the antifeedant activity against the carpet beetle (Attagenus japonicus ), a textile pest was also evaluated. While nordamnacanthal had strong antifeedant activity against the common cutworm, it did not show any antifeedant activity against the carpet beetle. The most effective antifeedant against the carpet beetle was the major constituent in the extract of R. trictorum, lucidin-3-O-primeveroside, a food pigment.

  14. Proteomic analysis of Cry2Aa-binding proteins and their receptor function in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt “pyramid” cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood. We identified several proteins that bind Cry2Aa (polycalin, V-ATPase subunits A and B, actin, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase [4-HB-CoAT]), and a receptor for activated protein kinase C (Rack), in S. exigua. Recombinant, expressed versions of these proteins were able to bind the Cry2Aa toxin in vitro assays. RNA interference gene knockdown of the Se-V-ATPase subunit B significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. exigua larvae to Cry2Aa, whereas knockdown of the other putative binding proteins did not. Moreover, an in vitro homologous competition assay demonstrated that the Se-V-ATPase subunit B binds specifically to the Cry2Aa toxin, suggesting that this protein acts as a functional receptor of Cry2Aa in S. exigua. This the first Cry2Aa toxin receptor identified in S. exigua brush-border membrane vesicles. PMID:28067269

  15. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy.

  16. Attrition and Student Progress at Bronx Community College for Entering Classes: Fall 1972 to Fall 1976 (Progress to Fall 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Norman

    Data tables summarize the semester-by-semester persistence of each class of regularly matriculated students entering Bronx Community College (BCC) between Fall 1972 and Fall 1976 in terms of graduation and retention rates. For each entering class, the tables provide progress analyses up to Fall 1978 by curriculum group and high school grade…

  17. [Medication and falls in old age].

    PubMed

    Modreker, M K; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2009-04-01

    Falls with and without injuries in elderly persons commonly have multiple causes. Exposure to drugs does contribute to these causes. Therefore, complete assessment and evaluation of prescription and over the counter drugs are essential parts of fall-prevention concepts. Frail elderly persons frequently treated with several medications are particularly predisposed to adverse drug effects which may increase the risk of falling. Risk increasing drug effects are dose dependent which have been best studied with psychotropic medication. Apart from psychotropic drugs, cardiovascular drugs contribute to FRIDs (Fall-Risk Increasing Drugs). Fall risk is particularly increased with drugs of the same therapeutic class combined or combinations of psychotropics and cardiovascular drugs. Intervention studies on withdrawal and dose reduction of fall-risk increasing drugs were successful in reducing the risk of falling. There is relatively few knowledge on whether and how drug treatment does decrease fall risk in elderly patients by improving safe mobility and walking ability relevant to activities of daily living.

  18. Factors inducing falling in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Yoko; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Yuri, Yoshimi; Katsumura, Hitomi; Hara, Tomihiro; Usui, Yuki; Fujino, Yoritaka; Nomura, Takuo; Hirao, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients. PMID:28356628

  19. 75 FR 79921 - Fall 2010 Unified Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...) FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Ch. III Fall 2010 Unified Agenda AGENCY: Federal Deposit... Corporation (FDIC) is hereby publishing items for the Fall 2010 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory...

  20. Fall Risk is Not Black and White

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Dan K.; Kim, Dae Hyun; Gross, Alden L.; Habtemariam, Daniel A.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Li, Wenjun; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether previously reported racial differences in fall rates between White and Black/African American is explained by differences in health status and neighborhood characteristics. Design Prospective cohort Setting Community Participants The study included 550 White and 116 Black older adults in the Greater Boston area (mean age: 78 years; 36% men) who were English-speaking, able to walk across a room, and without severe cognitive impairment. Measurements Falls were prospectively reported using monthly fall calendars. The location of each fall and fall-related injuries were asked during telephone interviews. At baseline, we assessed risk factors for falls, including sociodemographic characteristics, physiologic risk factors, physical activity, and community-level characteristics. Results Over the mean follow-up of 1,048 days, 1,539 falls occurred (incidence: 806/1,000 person-years). Whites were more likely than Blacks to experience any falls (867 versus 504 falls per 1,000 person-years; RR [95% CI]: 1.77 [1.33, 2.36]), outdoor falls (418 versus 178 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.78 [1.08, 2.92]), indoor falls (434 versus 320 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.44 [1.02, 2.05]), and injurious falls (367 versus 205 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.79 [1.30, 2.46]). With exception of injurious falls, higher fall rates in Whites than Blacks were substantially attenuated with adjustment for risk factors and community-level characteristics: any fall (1.24 [0.81, 1.89]), outdoor fall (1.57 [0.86, 2.88]), indoor fall (1.08 [0.64, 1.81]), and injurious fall (1.77 [1.14, 2.74]). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the racial differences in fall rates may be largely due to confounding by individual-level and community-level characteristics. PMID:26855845

  1. A fully relativistic radial fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Ritter, Patxi

    2014-10-01

    Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A gedankenexperiment in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this paper, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) the falling body, with a strength proportional to the mass of the small body for a given large mass; further, the same observer notes a higher value of the maximal coordinate velocity, this value being reached earlier during infall. In the second part of this paper, we implement a self-consistent approach for which the trajectory is iteratively corrected by the self-force, this time computed on osculating geodesics. Finally, we compare the motion driven by the self-force without and with self-consistent orbital evolution. Subtle differences are noticeable, even if self-force effects have hardly the time to accumulate in such a short orbit.

  2. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... than 15 feet (4.6 m) above a lower level shall be protected from fall hazards by guardrail...

  8. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Jenna had been ... pins and needles." But why would your foot fall asleep? Many people say this is because you' ...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  10. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  11. The variability of meteoroid falling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  12. Identification of α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl acetate from the cuticle of soybean pods armyworm (Spodoptera cosmioides).

    PubMed

    Fronza, Edegar; Migues, Ignacio; Specht, Alexandre; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the soybean pods armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larval cuticles was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector (GC-MS). Among the usual lipids found in the insect cuticle, α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl acetate were also isolated from S. cosmioides. On the other hand, no vitamin E derivative was found in A. gemmatalis exuvia. This is the first report of vitamin E occurrence in the insect's cuticle.

  13. Fear of falling in vision impairment.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula E; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults. In addition to the resulting physical injury and potential disability after a fall, there are also important psychological consequences, including depression, anxiety, activity restriction, and fear of falling. Fear of falling affects 20 to 43% of community-dwelling older adults and is not limited to those who have previously experienced a fall. About half of older adults who experience fear of falling subsequently restrict their physical and everyday activities, which can lead to functional decline, depression, increased falls risk, and reduced quality of life. Although there is clear evidence that older adults with visual impairment have higher falls risk, only a limited number of studies have investigated fear of falling in older adults with visual impairment and the findings have been mixed. Recent studies suggest increased levels of fear of falling among older adults with various eye conditions, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, whereas other studies have failed to find differences. Interventions, which are still in their infancy in the general population, are also largely unexplored in those with visual impairment. The major aims of this review were to provide an overview of the literature on fear of falling, its measurement, and risk factors among older populations, with specific focus on older adults with visual impairment, and to identify directions for future research in this area.

  14. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  15. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors.

  16. Insecticide resistance status of field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Che, Wunan; Shi, Tian; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2013-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest of vegetables in China, and its control is heavily dependent on chemical insecticides. The current resistance status of nine insecticides was investigated in 16 field populations collected from seven provinces of China during 2009-2012. Compared with the susceptible strain WH-S, some field populations evolved various levels of resistance to eight of the nine insecticides tested: emamectin benzoate (4- to 348-fold), indoxacarb (2- to 41-fold), spinosad (5- to 38-fold), chlorantraniliprole (2- to 44-fold), tebufenozide (2- to 87-fold), chlorfluazuron (3- to 31-fold), cypermethrin (79- to 1240-fold), and chlorpyrifos (8- to 3,080-fold), but no significant resistance was detected to chlorfenapyr (0.4- to 7-fold). This indicates that chlorfenapyr has no cross-resistance with these other currently used insecticides. Four consecutive years' resistance screening at two places shows that resistance patterns were different between populations from Luhe (Jiangsu Province) and Fengxian (Shanghai), which are approximately 300 km apart. Resistance levels to chlorpyrifos were much higher in populations from Luhe (877- to 3,080-fold) than from Fengxian (8- to 110-fold). Fengxian populations developed moderate levels of resistance to tebufenozide (13- to 87-fold), but no resistance in Luhe populations (2- to 6-fold). However, Luhe populations developed moderate levels of resistance to chlorfluazuron (21- to 31-fold), but there was no resistance in Fengxian populations (3- to 5-fold). It is suggested that local insecticide selection determined resistance patterns although S. exigua has long-distance migratory potential. Adaptive resistance management tactics (such as rotations) should be designed and implemented based on the resistance patterns of S. exigua for each geographic area.

  17. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  18. Testing the joint effects hypothesis of elemental defense using Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Dorothy J; Boyd, Robert S; Moar, William

    2015-02-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation may be an elemental defense, in which high concentrations of a metal in plant tissues decrease herbivore survival or growth rate. The Joint Effects Hypothesis suggests that a combination of metals, or a combination of a metal with an organic compound, may have an enhanced defensive effect. The enhancement may be additive or synergistic: in either case the concentration of a particular metal necessary to provide a defensive benefit for the plant is lowered. We tested the Joint Effects Hypothesis using Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) neonates fed artificial diets. Metal + metal experiments utilized diets amended with metal pairs, using four metals commonly hyperaccumulated by plants (Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). We also conducted metal + organic compound experiments, pairing each metal with nicotine, mustard seed powder, or tannic acid. We tested for joint effects using both lethal (LC20 levels) and sublethal concentrations (10-25 % reduced larval weight) of the chemicals tested. For all experiments, either additive or synergistic effects were found. Of the metal + metal pairs tested, three (Co + Cu, Cu + Zn, and Ni + Zn) were synergistic in lethal concentration tests and only Co + Cu was synergistic in sublethal tests. For metal + organic combination lethal tests, synergism occurred for all combinations except for Co or Ni + nicotine, Ni + mustard seed powder, and Zn + nicotine. For sublethal tests, Zn + all three organic chemicals, Co + mustard seed powder or tannic acid, and Cu + nicotine, were synergistic. These results support the Joint Effects Hypothesis, suggesting that metals combined with other metals or organic compounds may be more effective against herbivores than individual metals.

  19. Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes induced plant defence against larval herbivory.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit multifarious defence traits against herbivory that are constitutively expressed or induced upon attack. Insect egg deposition often precedes impending larval attack, and several plants can increase their resistance against larvae after experiencing the oviposition by an herbivore. The nature of such oviposition-mediated resistance remains unknown, and here we aim to determine plant traits that explain it. We test whether oviposition on a host plant can induce plant defence responses or enhance (prime) the induction of defence traits in response to larval herbivory. We exposed Nicotiana attenuata plants to oviposition by moths of a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua. Its larvae suffered higher mortality, retarded development and inflicted less feeding damage on oviposition-experienced than on oviposition-unexperienced plants. While oviposition alone did not induce any of the examined defence traits, oviposited plants exhibited a stronger inducibility of known defence traits, i.e. caffeoylputrescine (CP) and trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs). We found no effects of oviposition on phytohormone levels, but on the feeding-inducible accumulation of the transcription factor NaMyb8 that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates, including CP. Comparison of larval performance on wild-type plants, CP-deficient plants (silenced NaMyb8 gene), and TPI-deficient plants (silenced NaPI gene) revealed that priming of plant resistance to larvae by prior oviposition required NaMyb8-mediated defence traits. Our results show that plants can use insect egg deposition as a warning signal to prime their feeding-induced defence.

  20. Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a wide array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) have been predicted to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after insect herbivory. However, until now this prediction was not testable. Results To investigate the roles CPKs play in a herbivore response-signaling pathway, we screened the characteristics of Arabidopsis CPK mutants damaged by a feeding generalist herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Following insect attack, the cpk3 and cpk13 mutants showed lower transcript levels of plant defensin gene PDF1.2 compared to wild-type plants. The CPK cascade was not directly linked to the herbivory-induced signaling pathways that were mediated by defense-related phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. CPK3 was also suggested to be involved in a negative feedback regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels after herbivory and wounding damage. In vitro kinase assays of CPK3 protein with a suite of substrates demonstrated that the protein phosphorylates transcription factors (including ERF1, HsfB2a and CZF1/ZFAR1) in the presence of Ca2+. CPK13 strongly phosphorylated only HsfB2a, irrespective of the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in vivo agroinfiltration assays showed that CPK3-or CPK13-derived phosphorylation of a heat shock factor (HsfB2a) promotes PDF1.2 transcriptional activation in the defense response. Conclusions These results reveal the involvement of two Arabidopsis CPKs (CPK3 and CPK13) in the herbivory-induced signaling network via HsfB2a-mediated regulation of the defense-related transcriptional machinery. This cascade is not involved in the phytohormone-related signaling pathways, but rather directly impacts transcription factors for defense responses. PMID:20504319

  1. Purification, biochemistry and molecular cloning of an insect glycosylasparaginase from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dunn, G S; Aronson, N N

    1996-07-01

    Glycosylasparaginase (EC 3.5.1.26) from Sf9 cells (Spodoptera frugiperda) was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 2.1 unit/mg. The enzyme is composed of two non-identical alpha/beta subunits joined by strong non-covalent forces and has one glycosylation site located in the alpha subunit. Molecular masses of the subunits were determined to be 28 kDa and 17 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Native enzyme existed in quaternary structures of either heterodimer (alpha beta) or heterotetramer (alpha 2 beta 2). These forms exhibited different ionic characteristics during DE52 anion exchange chromatography, and their molecular masses were determined to be 47 kDa and 101 kDa by gel filtration. The enzyme was thermostable, requiring 65-70 degrees C to be denatured, and it had a broad pH optimum from 4-10.5 with a pKa around 6. SDS easily inactivated the enzyme. The K(m) of glycosylasparaginase for its normal substrate GlcNAc-Asn was 0.88 mM. The enzyme also exhibited asparaginase activity with a K(m) of 3.0 mM for asparagine. N-terminal amino acids of the denatured subunits were sequenced and degenerate primers were designed for cloning its cDNA using PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. Glycosylasparaginase cDNAs from bovine and rat were also cloned using similar strategies, and primary structures of glycosylasparaginases from six species (human, bovine, rat, mouse, Sf9 cells and Flavobacterium) have been compared and related to a recent crystal structure of the human enzyme.

  2. Seasonal Pattern of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Migration Across the Bohai Strait in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Xie, Bingtang; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

    2015-04-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.), is a serious crop pest with a strong migratory ability. Previous studies on the migration of S. litura were mostly carried out in its "year-round breeding region" (YBR) or "overwintering region" (OR). However, the pattern of seasonal movements in its "summer breeding region" (SBR; i.e., northern China where they cannot overwinter) remains unknown. Here, we present data from an 11-yr study of this species made by searchlight trapping on Beihuang (BH) Island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which provides direct evidence that S. litura regularly migrates across this sea. There was considerable yearly and monthly variation in the number of S. litura trapped on BH, with the vast majority trapped in the autumn. The mean time from the earliest trapping to the latest trapping within a year was 110±12 d during 2003-2013, with the shortest time span of 40 d in 2003 and the longest of 166 d in 2012. S. litura moths had downwind displacement rather than randomly by heading toward their seasonally favorable direction (i.e. toward southwest in the four autumn migration events by prevailing northeasterly winds). Some females trapped in July showed a relatively higher proportion of having mated and a degree of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings provide a good starting point of research on S. litura migration between its OR (or YBR) and SBR, which will help us develop more effective regional management strategies against this pest.

  3. In vivo Pyro-SIP assessing active gut microbiota of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With (13)C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision.

  4. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  5. In Vivo Pyro-SIP Assessing Active Gut Microbiota of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With 13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision. PMID:24475063

  6. Response of the Cutworm Spodoptera litura to Sesame Leaves or Crude Extracts in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ofosuhene Sintim, Henry; Tashiro, Toru; Motoyama, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of extracts of sesame, Sesamum indicum L. (Liamiales: Pedaliaceae), and whole leaves of some selected cultivars of sesame were tested using a natural host Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Indices taken using the immature stages include; diet utilization, growth and development and induction of detoxification enzymes. The results indicate that S. litura generally selects its food amongst cultivars within 6 hours after food presentation. Growth and development of the insect is controlled also by plant acceptability and quality. Although all the cultivars tested significantly limit insect growth and development the variety 56S-radiatum did not allow a complete life cycle as pupation from first instar stage was 0%. Generally the crucial period for immature S. litura was the larval period, especially the first two instars where the weight of an insect fed on an experimental diet was three times lower than that of a control diet. The larval developmental period was greater than 40 days as compared to 17 days for insects fed a control diet. S. litura also had lowered efficiency in utilizing ingested food, from a low of 13% in a sesame cultivar to 45% in the control diet. The key detoxification enzyme was a glutathione s-transferase that was confirmed by a 6-fold increase between S. litura fed a plant cultivar vs. a control diet towards the substrate 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. First and second instars of S. litura have a relatively reduced detoxification of enzymes in response to plant cultivar diets leading to low survival. A 3% v/w crude extract of the cultivars increased enzyme induction towards all the tested substrates. PMID:20050772

  7. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  8. Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  9. Genetic Structure of a Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population: High Prevalence of Deletion Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2004-01-01

    A Nicaraguan field isolate (SfNIC) of Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus was purified by plaque assay on Sf9 cells. Nine distinct genotypes, A to I, were identified by their restriction endonuclease profiles. Variant SfNIC-B was selected as the standard because its restriction profile corresponded to that of the wild-type isolate. Physical maps were generated for each of the variants. The differences between variants and the SfNIC-B standard were confined to the region between map units 9 and 32.5. This region included PstI-G, PstI-F, PstI-L, PstI-K and EcoRI-L fragments. Eight genotypes presented a deletion in their genome compared with SfNIC-B. Occlusion body-derived virions of SfNIC-C, -D and -G accounted for 41% of plaque-purified clones. These variants were not infectious per os but retained infectivity by injection into S. frugiperda larvae. Median 50% lethal concentration values for the other cloned genotypes were significantly higher than that of the wild type. The variants also differed in their speed of kill. Noninfectious variants SfNIC-C and -D lacked the pif and pif-2 genes. Infectivity was restored to these variants by plasmid rescue with a plasmid comprising both pif and pif-2. Transcription of an SfNIC-G gene was detected by reverse transcription-PCR in insects, but no fatal disease developed. Transcription was not detected in SfNIC-C or -D-inoculated larvae. We conclude that the SfNIC population presents high levels of genetic diversity, localized to a 17-kb region containing pif and pif-2, and that interactions among complete and deleted genotypic variants will likely influence the capacity of this virus to control insect pests. PMID:15345446

  10. Compartmentalization of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the larval gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2006-09-01

    Allelochemicals play important roles in the plant defense against herbivorous insects. They act as feeding deterrents, interfere with digestion and nutrient absorption, and cause production of potentially dangerous oxidative radicals. This study demonstrates that the distributions of oxidative radicals and of the antioxidant enzymes that eliminate them are compartmentalized in the digestive tract of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Feeding on diets supplemented with the tannic acid (TA), alpha-solanine, and demissidine, respectively, did not affect the rate of food passage through the digestive tract of larvae but 1.25, 2.5, and 5% TA evoked a strong oxidative response. The amount of the superoxide anion in the foregut tissue and content increased up to 70-fold and the titer of total peroxides in the foregut content about 3-fold. This oxidative stress was associated with enhanced carbonyl content in the foregut tissue proteins, indicative of certain tissue deterioration. Extensive foregut damage was probably prevented by elevated activity of the glutathione S-transferase peroxidase. A complex antioxidant response was elicited in the midgut. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in the midgut tissue and content, and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase rose in the midgut tissue. The enzymes apparently eliminated oxidative radicals passing to midgut from the foregut with the food bolus and thereby prevented carbonylation of the midgut proteins. We postulate that the generation of oxidative radicals in the foregut and the induction of antioxidant defense in the midgut are controlled processes and that their compartmentalization is an important functional feature of the digestive tract. The glycoalkaloid alpha-solanine and the aglycone demissidine applied at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations had no effect on any of the examined parameters.

  11. In vivo recombination between two strains of the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus in its natural host, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, D; Vlak, J M; Caballero, P

    1997-01-01

    The DNA restriction map for the enzymes BamHI, BglII, PstI, and XbaI of SeMNPV-US (Se-US), the best-studied Nucleopolyhedrovirus strain isolated from Spodoptera exigua in California, was used as a reference to construct that of SeMNPV-SP2 (Se-SP2), a closely related Spanish strain of the same virus. After coinfection of S. exigua with both the Se-US and Se-SP2 strains per os, a recombinant virus (SeMNPV-SUR1 [Se-SUR1]) was detected after one passage which quickly replaced the parental viruses. A physical map of Se-SUR1 DNA was constructed for BamHI, BglII, PstI, and XbaI and compared to that of the parental viruses, Se-US and Se-SP2. Se-SUR1 is the result of at least four crossover events between Se-US and Se-SP2 and not of selection of a minor variant in one of the parental viruses. Bioassays of the recombinant and parental strains against L2 beet armyworm larvae demonstrated that their 50% lethal dose values were not significantly different. The differences in median lethal time values are too small to explain the replacement of the parental viruses by the recombinant virus upon successive passage in vivo, although it cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the selective advantage of the recombinant strain, Se-SUR1. The consequences of the release of nonindigenous or recombinant baculovirus strains in agro-ecosystems are discussed. PMID:9251191

  12. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest. PMID:26444432

  13. Sex pheromone of the Spanish population of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Gloria; Guerrero, Angel; Quero, Carmen

    2010-07-01

    The pheromone composition of the Spanish population of the beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was identified. Analysis of female gland extracts showed the presence of compounds Z9,E12-14:Ac (1), Z9-14:Ac (2), Z11-16:Ac (3), Z9,E12-14:OH (4), Z9-14:OH (5), and Z11-16:OH (6) in a ratio of 26:11:1:22:31:9. The amount of compound per gland ranged from 2.08 ng for 5 to 0.09 ng for 3. However, analysis of female volatiles by SPME revealed only the presence of compounds, 1, 2, 3, and 5 in a 34:40:4:22 ratio. In electroantennogram assays, compound 1 elicited the highest response, and the C14 acetates evoked higher electrophysiological responses than the corresponding alcohols or C16 isomers. In a wind tunnel, no behavioral difference was observed between formulations based on the gland extracts and female volatiles. In both cases, males responded as when virgin females were used as the attractant source. Compound 1 alone elicited upwind flight by males, but required the presence of compound 5 in a 80:20 to 40:60 ratio for full activity. Ternary mixtures of 1, 5 and the minor components did not improve the performance of the 1+5 blend in a 60:40 ratio. In the field, the mixture 1+5+3 in a 56:37:7 ratio was the most attractive formulation, and is expected to be useful in future pest control strategies.

  14. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Candidate Chemosensory Gene Families from Spodoptera exigua Developmental Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Yong; Zhang, Ting; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Li, Fei; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Insect chemosensory genes have been considered as potential molecular targets to develop alternative strategies for pest control. However, in Spodoptera exigua, a seriously polyphagous agricultural pest, only a small part of such genes have been identified and characterized to date. Here, using a bioinformatics screen a total of 79 chemosensory genes were identified from a public transcriptomic data of different developmental stages (eggs, 1st to 5th instar larvae, pupae, female and male adults), including 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 20 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 22 chemosensory receptors (10 odorant receptors (ORs), six gustatory receptors (GRs) and six ionotropic receptors (IRs)) and three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Notably, a new group of lepidopteran SNMPs (SNMP3 group) was found for the first time in S. exigua, and confirmed in four other moth species. Further, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) were employed respectively to validate the sequences and determine the expression patterns of 69 identified chemosensory genes regarding to sexes, tissues and stages. Results showed that 67 of these genes could be detected and reconstructed in at least one tissue tested. Further, 60 chemosensory genes were expressed in adult antennae and 52 in larval heads with the antennae, whereas over half of the genes were also detected in non-olfactory tissues like egg and thorax. Particularly, S. exigua OBP2 showed a predominantly larval head-biased expression, and functional studies further indicated its potentially olfactory roles in guiding food searching of larvae. This work suggests functional diversities of S. exigua chemosensory genes and could greatly facilitate the understanding of olfactory system in S. exigua and other lepidopteran species.

  16. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ralph S.; Valencia, Matthew John

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  17. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  18. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Larval Guts from Field-Collected and Laboratory-Reared Spodoptera frugiperda from the South American Subtropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Natalia A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to report a high-throughput approach integrating gene expression data from Spodoptera frugiperda guts and their associated metatranscriptomes. Our datasets provide information on the potential effects of environmental conditions on the expression profile of S. frugiperda larval guts, their associated metatranscriptome, and putative interactions between them. PMID:26184938

  19. [Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance].

    PubMed

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    2010-01-01

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.

  20. A correlation between macronutrient balancing and insect host-plant range: evidence from the specialist caterpillar Spodoptera exempta (Walker).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Pum; Raubenheimer, David; Behmer, Spencer T; Simpson, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    In an earlier study, we showed that the ingestive responses of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis to foods imbalanced in their protein:carbohydrate content is similar to generalist locusts, but differs from that of specialist-feeding locusts. Here we further pursued the comparison by repeating the experiments using a closely related specialist caterpillar, Spodoptera exempta. First, caterpillars were allowed to self-compose a diet of preferred protein:carbohydrate balance by mixing between nutritionally complementary foods. Then, they were confined to one of five imbalanced foods, in which we measured the trade-off between over- and under-ingesting the two nutrients. On complementary foods, the caterpillars actively regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake. In the no-choice experiment, those fed excess-protein foods ingested small surpluses of protein compared with generalist feeders, thus showing a pattern of nutrient balancing similar to that observed in specialist locusts. Utilisation data indicated that ingested excesses and deficits were to some extent offset by differential utilisation. Evidence also showed that post-ingestive responses of the specialist S. exempta were less flexible than those observed in the generalist S. littoralis, a pattern which is again in accordance with comparisons of acridids differing in their host-plant range.

  1. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management.

  2. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with ribosomal S2 protein triggers larvicidal activity in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Sharma, Nathilal; Seth, Rakesh; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2010-11-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) is synthesized as an extracellular insecticidal toxin by certain strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Vip3A is active against several lepidopteran pests of crops. Polyphagous pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, and its cell line Sf21 are sensitive for lyses to Vip3A. Screening of cDNA library prepared from Sf21 cells through yeast two-hybrid system with Vip3A as bait identified ribosomal protein S2 as a toxicity-mediating interacting partner protein. The Vip3A-ribosomal-S2 protein interaction was validated by in vitro pulldown assays and by RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments. Knockdown of expression of S2 protein in Sf21 cells resulted in reduced toxicity of the Vip3A protein. These observations were further extended to adult fifth-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Knockdown of S2 expression by injecting corresponding double-stranded RNA resulted in reduced mortality of larvae to Vip3A toxin. Intracellular visualization of S2 protein and Vip3A through confocal microscopy revealed their interaction and localization in cytoplasm and surface of Sf21 cells.

  3. Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies. Setting—Falls are the leading cause of worker injury and death in the construction industry. Equipment and practices that can prevent falls are often not used appropriately in the dynamic construction work environment. Methods—A contractual partnership between a university and construction contractors created management systems to ensure use of fall protection measures. Audits by university faculty provided accountability for implementing the fall prevention system. Evaluation was conducted by quasiexperimental methodology comparing changes in audit score from baseline to fifth quarter from baseline for intervention and control contractors. Results—Audit scores improvement was greater for intervention than for control contractor group. Conclusion—A third party intervention can improve contractor fall prevention performance. PMID:11565975

  4. What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Fractures What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... I Keep My Bones Healthy? Why Do People Fall? Some of the reasons people fall are: Tripping ...

  5. 1. Photocopy of a photographca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  6. 3D simulation for falling papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2001-12-01

    The combination of IDO (Interpolated Differential Operator) scheme, Cut Cell technique, and overlapping grid method make it possible to simulate the falling process of papers. We have the result of the falling with fluttering trajectory for a certain initial angle of the paper, and the fluttering mechanism becomes clear. It is shown that the simulation is applicable to the phenomena of falling leaves with complex shape.

  7. Effectiveness of team training on fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Robertson, Bethany; Delk, Marcia L; Patrick, Sara; Kimrey, Margaret Michelle; Green, Beverly; Gallagher, Erin

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures design with intervention and comparison groups was used to evaluate the effect of a training curriculum based on TeamSTEPPS with video vignettes focusing on fall prevention. Questionnaires, behavioral observations, and fall data were collected over 9 months from both groups located at separate hospitals. The intervention group questionnaire scores improved on all measures except teamwork perception, while observations revealed an improvement in communication compared with the control group. Furthermore, a 60% fall reduction rate was reported in the intervention group. Team training may be a promising intervention to reduce falls.

  8. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  9. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. Automated Fall Detection With Quality Improvement “Rewind” to Reduce Falls in Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Rantz, Marilyn J.; Banerjee, Tanvi S.; Cattoor, Erin; Scott, Susan D.; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the implementation of a fall detection and “rewind” privacy-protecting technique using the Microsoft® Kinect™ to not only detect but prevent falls from occurring in hospitalized patients. Kinect sensors were placed in six hospital rooms in a step-down unit and data were continuously logged. Prior to implementation with patients, three researchers performed a total of 18 falls (walking and then falling down or falling from the bed) and 17 non-fall events (crouching down, stooping down to tie shoe laces, and lying on the floor). All falls and non-falls were correctly identified using automated algorithms to process Kinect sensor data. During the first 8 months of data collection, processing methods were perfected to manage data and provide a “rewind” method to view events that led to falls for post-fall quality improvement process analyses. Preliminary data from this feasibility study show that using the Microsoft Kinect sensors provides detection of falls, fall risks, and facilitates quality improvement after falls in real hospital environments unobtrusively, while taking into account patient privacy. PMID:24296567

  12. Nanotoxicological Effects of SiO2 Nanoparticles on Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 Cells.

    PubMed

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Foglia, Maria L; Targovnik, Alexandra M; Miranda, Maria V; Desimone, Martin F

    2016-01-01

    The application of silica nanoparticles (NPs) in the biomedical field experienced a great development. The driving forces for these and future developments are the possibility to design NPs with homogeneous size and structure amenable to specific grafting. Moreover, it is possible to tune the characteristics of the NPs to meet the requirements of each specific cell and desired application. Herein, we analyzed the effect of silica NPs of various sizes and surface charge on the viability of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9 cell line) with the aim of extending the knowledge of possible toxicity of the NPs in the environment and development of new tools for insect control. Moreover, these results will also contribute to develop more effective systems for gene vectors delivery and recombinant proteins expression. Bare silica NPs of 14 nm, 380 nm and 1430 nm as well as amine-modified silica NPs of 131 nm and 448 nm were obtained by the Stöber method. The NPs were characterized by DLS and zeta potential measurements. The cell viability was assessed by the MTT test. It was observed that the 14 nm NPs possess the highest toxic effect. Indeed, after 24 h, the viability of the cells exposed to the lower concentration of NPs (0.12 mg/ml) was about 40% of the value obtained for the control cells not exposed to NPs. Moreover, the exposure to other negative charged NPs also causes a lower activity when compared with the control. Alternatively, lower concentrations of positive charged NPs (i.e.: 0.12 or 0.6 mg/ml) demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation of the cells and higher concentrations (i.e.: 7.2 mg/ml) did not present significant differences with the control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the NPs possess an effect that is highly influenced by the size, charge and concentration. Although, silica NPs are being used in the biomedical field, these results contribute to further understanding the risk that could be associated to nanoparticles and how these can be

  13. Regioselective biotransformation of (+)- and (-)-citronellene by the larvae of common cutworm ( Spodoptera litura ).

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Masuda, Atsunori; Kano, Haruki; Takechi, Hiromune

    2009-09-09

    Terpenoids, which have many biological activities and have occurred widely in nature, can be artificially synthesized. However, regioselective oxidation of terpenoids is difficult by chemical methods. In this study, (+)- and (-)-citronellene were biotransformed with Spodoptera litura to define the mechanism of metabolism of citronellene and gain a new natural terpenoid. (+)-Citronellene was converted to (2S,3S)-3,7-dimethyl-6-octene-1,2-diol and (2R,3S)-3,7-dimethyl-6-octene-1,2-diol (89.7%), (3S,6S)-(-)-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-6,7-diol (3.8%), (3S)-(6E)-(+)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-8-ol (4.2%), and (3S)-(6E)-(+)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-8-oic acid (2.3%). In contrast, (-)-citronellene was converted to (2R,3R)-3,7-dimethyl-6-octene-1,2-diol and (2S,3R)-3,7-dimethyl-6-octene-1,2-diol (56.3%), (+)-iridan-7,8-diol (3.5%), and (3R)-(6E)-(-)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-8-oic acid (40.2%). The main metabolic pathway of (+)- and (-)-citronellene by larvae of S. litura was oxidized at the terminal double bond and trans-allylic methyl position. Particularly on (+)-citronellene, the regioselective reaction was shown. On the oxidation of C-6, C-7, and C-8 positions, four new compounds (3S,6S)-(-)-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-6,7-diol, (3S)-(6E)-(+)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-8-oic acid, (+)-iridan-7,8-diol, and (3R)-(6E)-(-)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-8-oic acid were produced in regioselective oxidation. It noted that stereoselective oxidation occurred between the enantiomers. The C-6 position was oxidized on the (+)-(3S) form, whereas cyclized and the C-7 position were oxidized on the (-)-(3R) form.

  14. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M. Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed. PMID:28166292

  15. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Fleischer, Shelby; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  16. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  17. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls.

  18. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  19. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  20. Veterans' fall risk profile: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients' fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans' fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n = 1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1.

  1. Veterans’ fall risk profile: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients’ fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans’ fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n=1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1. PMID:18044113

  2. Bellevue Community College Student Profile, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Valerie L.

    Intended for the college community and various campus constituencies working with the college, this report provides data on students enrolled at Bellevue Community College (BCC), in Washington, as of fall 1995. Following an executive summary and introduction, data are presented for 1990-95 and specifically for fall 1995 on student age, gender,…

  3. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  4. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? A A A Jenna had been ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  5. Fall Meeting by the numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-02-01

    - Visits to the Fall Meeting Web site: 650,000 - Total participants at the meeting: 20,890 - Abstracts submitted to the meeting: 20,087 - Donors who attended and took advantage of donor lounges: 1835 - Total attendance at Simon Winchester's Presidential Forum Lecture: 1200 - Total attendance at the Honors Banquet: 905 - Books sold at the AGU Marketplace: 671 - Individuals registered for the Fun Run: 487 - Students who participated in the Student Breakfast: 450 - Individuals who crossed the finish line at the Fun Run: 384 - Total attendees at Exploration Station: 307 - Total booths sold in the Exhibit Hall: 304 - registered for the meeting: 288 - Membership transactions completed for renewing and registering members at AGU Marketplace: 156 - Meeting attendees who were past Congressional Visits Day participants: 82 - Editors, associate editors, and their student guests who visited the Editors Resource Center: 63 - Copies of Navigating Graduate School and Beyond: A Career Guide for Graduate Students and a Must Read for Every Advisor sold during and after the talk and book signing by author Sundar A. Christopher: 50 - Kegs of beer consumed during the Ice Breaker on Sunday, 4 December: 48 - Hours of video footage shot at the meeting by the AGU videographer: 40 - Potential geopress authors and editors who attended the daily "Come Publish With geopress" sessions in the AGU Marketplace: 31 - Press conferences held at the meeting: 25 - Average age of minors attending Exploration Station: 8.7 - Educational seminars sponsored by AGU Publications: 2 (one on how to write a good scientific paper and the other on the rewards of reviewing) - Watching three preschoolers in space suits waiting to meet astronaut Andrew Feustel after the Public Lecture: Priceless (with apologies to Mastercard®)

  6. The motif of falling: falling and the loss of the mother.

    PubMed

    Andresen, J J

    1985-01-01

    Falling carries the meaning of loss of the mother for three patients studied psychoanalytically. Falling carries the same implication in various tropes, myths and biblical imagery. This convergence of evidence supports the thesis that falling is a symbol of maternal loss.

  7. Reducing falls in a care home

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rosie

    2017-01-01

    Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30st April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of knowledge& understanding about falls risks and how to manage these. This informed the training which was delivered and iterative testing commenced with the introduction of the Lanarkshire Falls Risk/Intervention tool – where the multifactorial nature of a resident's falls risks are explored and specific actions to manage these are identified and implemented. Failure to meet PDSA predictions about sharing risk reducing actions with staff and length of time to complete the tool prompted a focus on communication and the processes whereby the tool is completed. “Teach back” was employed to highlight communication difficulties and ultimately the introduction of Huddles out improved the flow of information about residents and informed the Falls Risk/Intervention tool. 5 PDSAs were completed and within them multiple tests of change. The improvement shift came following a root cause analysis of the nature & cause of one resident's falls and applying the tool & communication processes. The average falls rate fell from 49 per 1000 occupied bed days to 23.6 and was sustained because of the attention to the importance of communication. The aim was achieved with a 36.6% reduction in Falls rate. Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30th April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level

  8. Reducing falls in a care home.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rosie

    2017-01-01

    Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30st April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of knowledge& understanding about falls risks and how to manage these. This informed the training which was delivered and iterative testing commenced with the introduction of the Lanarkshire Falls Risk/Intervention tool - where the multifactorial nature of a resident's falls risks are explored and specific actions to manage these are identified and implemented. Failure to meet PDSA predictions about sharing risk reducing actions with staff and length of time to complete the tool prompted a focus on communication and the processes whereby the tool is completed. "Teach back" was employed to highlight communication difficulties and ultimately the introduction of Huddles out improved the flow of information about residents and informed the Falls Risk/Intervention tool. 5 PDSAs were completed and within them multiple tests of change. The improvement shift came following a root cause analysis of the nature & cause of one resident's falls and applying the tool & communication processes. The average falls rate fell from 49 per 1000 occupied bed days to 23.6 and was sustained because of the attention to the importance of communication. The aim was achieved with a 36.6% reduction in Falls rate. Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30th April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of

  9. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram− as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture. PMID:28257054

  10. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China.

    PubMed

    Feng, H-Q; Wu, K-M; Cheng, D-F; Guo, Y-Y

    2003-04-01

    The autumn return migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner and other insects in northern China was observed with radar and with a simultaneously-operated searchlight trap and ground light-trap at a site in Langfang, near Beijing. The searchlight trap was found to be an efficient tool for trapping migrants and, operated alongside a ground light-trap, could distinguish migrant from locally-flying species. It was confirmed that S. exigua and some other species were high-altitude nocturnal windborne migrants during September and October in northern China. Maximum density of moths typically occurred below 500 m, and strong layering was often observed at about 200 m above ground level in airflows that would carry the moths towards the south. Descent of S. exigua in the vicinity of the radar site in late September was often associated with rain.

  11. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram- as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.

  12. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize.

  13. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  14. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    SciTech Connect

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  15. Neuropsychological mechanisms of falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761

  16. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  17. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    PubMed

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  18. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients)

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65–101). Falls were defined “accidental” (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), “medical” (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), “dementia-related” (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and “unexplained” (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury. PMID:23533394

  19. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  20. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. Siena, 1794: History's Most Consequential Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1995-09-01

    In the mythos of meteoritics, the fall of stones at L'Aigle in Normandy at 1 p. m. on April 26, 1803, is commonly regarded as the event that turned skeptics into believers and opened the way for the new science. A strong case can be made, however, that the fall of stones at Siena at 7:00 p.m. on June 16, 1794, established the authenticity of meteorite falls and set in motion the reexaminations of entrenched beliefs that led to the founding of the new science. The Siena fall was heralded by the appearance of an extraordinarily high, dark cloud emitting smoke, sparks like rockets, and bolts of unusually slow-moving red lightning. With a tremendous explosion a shower of stones, ranging in weight from a few milligrams to 3 kg, fell southeast of Siena. This was the first meteorite fall to occur in the vicinity of a sizeable European city and the first to be witnessed by so many people, including English visitors, that the fall of the stones from the sky could not be denied. It also was the first fall to be seriously investigated by scholars, at several universities in Italy, who collected eye-witness reports and specimens and formulated hypotheses of origin. Their task was greatly complicated by the timing of the fall which occurred 18 hours after Mt. Vesuvius sprang into full eruption. Some believed that the two events were entirely coincidental; others thought that the stones either were ejecta from the volcano (which lay about 320 km to the southeast of Siena) or had consolidated in the fiery masses of dust and ash expelled by the mountain. No explanations seemed entirely satisfactory, but, in an age when the very possibility of falling stones had been decisively ruled out by savants of the Enlightenment, the well-observed fall at Siena opened a new dialog on this subject. The Siena fall occurred only two months after the publication in Riga and Leipzig of Ernst F. F. Chladni's book On the Origin of Ironmasses in which he concluded from historical records that

  9. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  10. Fall from Grace: The Decline of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepper, Jeff A.; Schnepper, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Asks whether the United States is about to join the Roman Empire as a historical lesson of inevitable rise and fall. The government, economic and industrial leaders, and social scientists are examined. (Editor/RK)

  11. Estimation of the kinetic energy dissipation in fall-arrest system and manikin during fall impact.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Powers, John R; Harris, James R; Pan, Christopher S

    2011-04-01

    Fall-arrest systems (FASs) have been widely applied to provide a safe stop during fall incidents for occupational activities. The mechanical interaction and kinetic energy exchange between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in FAS ergonomic design. In the current study, we developed a systematic approach to evaluate the energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard (EAL) and in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The kinematics of the manikin and EAL during the impact were derived using the arrest-force time histories that were measured experimentally. We applied the proposed method to analyse the experimental data of drop tests at heights of 1.83 and 3.35 m. Our preliminary results indicate that approximately 84-92% of the kinetic energy is dissipated in the EAL system and the remainder is dissipated in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The proposed approach would be useful for the ergonomic design and performance evaluation of an FAS. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Mechanical interaction, especially kinetic energy exchange, between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in the ergonomic design of a fall-arrest system. In the current study, we propose an approach to quantify the kinetic energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard and in the harness/body system during fall impact.

  12. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively.

  13. The improvement on the falling needle viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhen-Shun

    1997-04-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional falling needle viscometer, many improvements have been made, e.g., adopting new design of needle structure, collector, and launcher. Furthermore, Hall magnetic sensors and single-board computer are used in the system, which makes the measurement automatic and intelligent. It is proved in the experiment that the instrument is accurate enough and has excellent performance. The technique can also be applied in falling ball viscometers.

  14. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  15. Prevalence of falls in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Sandra Adolph; Antero, Daniel Casagrande; Kulczycki, Marciane Maria; Skare, Thelma Larocca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of falls in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal controls. METHODS: We studied 60 FM, 60 RA patients and 60 controls for fall frequency in one week, one month, six months and one year. Patients were submitted to body mass index determination and balance evaluation through the Berg scale. Data on disease impact and depression were collected in FM patients through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Beck Questionnaire. RESULTS: FM patients had a higher frequency of falls than RA patients and control individuals in one month (p<0.0001), in six months (p<0.0001) and in one year (p<0.0001). No relationship was found between falls and body mass index, pain or depression scores. Falls in 12 months were associated with higher FIQ values. CONCLUSION: FM patients fall more often than RA patients and control individuals. Level of Evidence II, Investigation of the effect of a patient characteristic on the disease outcome. PMID:25061425

  16. Get connected: New Fall Meeting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscovitch, Mirelle

    2012-11-01

    Kick off your 2012 Fall Meeting experience today by joining the Fall Meeting Community, an interactive Web-based community. Whether you are attending this year's Fall Meeting or are just interested in learning more, this site can help you connect with colleagues, learn about the groundbreaking research and amazing programming being presented in San Francisco, and plan your trip to the largest Earth and space science conference of the year. Available through the Fall Meeting Web site (http://fallmeeting.agu.org), the Community allows you to share your Fall Meeting experience like never before. You can join groups based on your interests, and each group includes a message board that allows you to ask questions, post comments, discuss presentations, and make plans with colleagues. You can also create your own groups and use the Community's robust search engine to find and connect with friends. And because the Fall Meeting Web site was improved for 2012 to allow for nearly seamless functionality on mobile devices, you can access much of the same Community functionality on the go.

  17. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

  18. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    PubMed

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and

  19. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls.

  20. New restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the cytochrome oxidase I gene facilitate host strain identification of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Meagher, Robert L; Adamczyk, John J; Braman, S Kristine; Brandenburg, Rick L; Nuessly, Gregg

    2006-06-01

    Several restriction sites in the cytochrome oxidase I gene of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. Strain specificity was demonstrated for populations in Florida, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina, with an AciI and SacI site specific to the rice (Oryjza spp.)-strain and a BsmI and HinfI site joining an already characterized MspI site as diagnostic of the corn (Zea mays L.)-strain. All four of these sites can be detected by digestion of a single 568-bp polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragment, but the use of two enzymes in separate digests was found to provide accurate and rapid determination of strain identity. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of almost 200 adult and larval specimens from the Mississippi delta region. The results indicated that the corn-strain is likely to be the primary strain infesting cotton (Gossypium spp.) and that an unexpected outbreak of fall armyworm on the ornamental tree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. was due almost entirely to the rice-strain.

  1. Fall risk probability estimation based on supervised feature learning using public fall datasets.

    PubMed

    Koshmak, Gregory A; Linden, Maria; Loutfi, Amy

    2016-08-01

    Risk of falling is considered among major threats for elderly population and therefore started to play an important role in modern healthcare. With recent development of sensor technology, the number of studies dedicated to reliable fall detection system has increased drastically. However, there is still a lack of universal approach regarding the evaluation of developed algorithms. In the following study we make an attempt to find publicly available fall datasets and analyze similarities among them using supervised learning. After preforming similarity assessment based on multidimensional scaling we indicate the most representative feature vector corresponding to each specific dataset. This vector obtained from a real-life data is subsequently deployed to estimate fall risk probabilities for a statistical fall detection model. Finally, we conclude with some observations regarding the similarity assessment results and provide suggestions towards an efficient approach for evaluation of fall detection studies.

  2. OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING EAST-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  3. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    PubMed

    Groen, B E; Weerdesteyn, V; Duysens, J

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the fall have raised concerns because of the risk for wrist fractures. The purpose of the study was to get insight into the role of hand impact, impact velocity, and trunk orientation in the reduction of hip impact force in MA techniques. Six experienced judokas performed sideways falls from kneeling height using three fall techniques: block with arm technique (control), MA technique with use of the arm to break the fall (MA-a), and MA technique without use of the arm (MA-na). The results showed that the MA-a and MA-na technique reduced the impact force by 27.5% and 30%, respectively. Impact velocity was significantly reduced in the MA falls. Trunk orientation was significantly less vertical in the MA-a falls. No significant differences were found between the MA techniques. It was concluded that the reduction in hip impact force was associated with a lower impact velocity and less vertical trunk orientation. Rolling after impact, which is characteristic for MA falls, is likely to contribute to the reduction of impact forces, as well. Using the arm to break the fall was not essential for the MA technique to reduce hip impact force. These findings provided support for the incorporation of MA fall techniques in fall prevention programs for elderly.

  4. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-06

    loss, vision loss, and/or peripheral neuropathy . Level C patients are those who upon examination and history pose a possible fall risk, so appropriate...extremities, sensory loss, vision loss, and peripheral neuropathy . Given this high-risk population, it was imperative that falls are prevented from...settings Neurology Falls 21 (Parkinson’s disease, dementia, diabetic neuropathy , change in vision, gait, sensation or weakness, ageing

  5. Evaluation of functional deficits and falls risk in the elderly--methods for preventing falls.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Michael R; Scalzi, Maria Elena; Redmond, Stephen J; Lord, Steven R; Celler, Branko G; Lovell, Nigel H

    2009-01-01

    Falls in the elderly have a profound impact on their quality of life through injury, increased fear of falling, reduced confidence to perform daily tasks and loss of independence. Falls come at a substantial economic cost. Tools to quantify falls risk and evaluate functional deficits allow interventions to be targeted to those at increased risk of falling and tailored to correct deficits with the aim of reducing falls rate and reducing ones risk of falling. We describe a system to evaluate falls risk and functional deficits in the elderly. The system is based on the evaluation of performance in a simple set of controlled movements known as the directed routine (DR). We present preliminary results of the DR in a cohort of 68 subjects using features extracted from the DR. Linear least-squares models were trained to estimate falls risk, knee-extension strength, proprioception, mediolateral body sway, anteroposterior body sway and contrast sensitivity. The model estimates provided good to fair correlations with (r=0.76 p<0.001), (r=0.65 p<0.001), (r=0.35 p<0.01), (r=0.53 p<0.001), (r=0.48 p<0.001) and (r=0.37 p<0.01) respectively.

  6. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk.

    PubMed

    Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-04-01

    The term polypharmacy has negative connotations due to its association with adverse drug reactions and falls. This spectrum of adverse events widens when polypharmacy occurs among the already vulnerable geriatric population. To date, there is no consensus definition of polypharmacy, and diverse definitions have been used by various researchers, the most common being the consumption of multiple number of medications. Taking multiple medications is considered a risk factor for falls through the adverse effects of drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Falls studies have determined that taking ≥ 4 drugs is associated with an increased incidence of falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls. In light of existing evidence, careful and regular medication reviews are advised to reduce the effect of polypharmacy on falls. However, intervention studies on medication reviews and their effectiveness on falls reduction have been scarce. This article reviews and discusses the evidence behind polypharmacy and its association with falls among older individuals, and highlights important areas for future research.

  7. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury.

  8. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  9. REDUCTION OF THE MOMENTUM OF FALLING BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Kendall, J.W.; Morrison, I.H.

    1954-09-21

    A means for catching free falling bodies that may be damaged upon impact is given. Several layers of floating gas-filled rubber balls are contained within a partially compartmented tank of liquid. The compartment extends from beneath the surface of the liquid to that height necessary to contain the desired number of layers of the balls. The balls and the liquid itself break the force of the fall by absorbing the kinetic energy of falling body. The body may then be retrieved from the floor of the tank by a rake that extends from outside of the tank through the free surface area and underneath the compartment wall. This arrangement is particularly useful in collecting irradiated atomic fuel rods that are discharged from a reactor at considerable height without damaging the thin aluminum jacket of the rods.

  10. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  11. Enrollment Trends at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities, Fall 1990 to Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides enrollment trend information for public four-year colleges and universities for the period fall 1990 through fall 1997. Several trends are highlighted: during this period, total enrollment fell 0.5 percent to 5.77 million students; enrollment of racial/ethnic minorities rose 24.5 percent; white enrollment fell 10.8 percent.…

  12. Sacramento City College Assessment Center Research Report: Assessment Procedures, Fall 1983 - Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, M.; Caffrey, Patrick

    Studies and analyses conducted by the Assessment Center at Sacramento City College (SCC) between fall 1983 and fall 1984 provided the data on SCC's students and services which are presented in this report. Following an overview of the significant findings of the year's research efforts, part I sets forth the purpose of the report and part II…

  13. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  14. Nocturia Is Associated with Slipping and Falling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Several reports have demonstrated associations between falls and nocturia in the elderly. However, little information is available regarding other age groups. This study evaluated the relationship between the frequency of nocturia and falls in men using a large, population-based survey in Korea, and the results were adjusted for various confounding factors. Data from a 2011 Korean community health survey (KCHS) were retrieved for 92,660 men aged 19 to 103 years. Information regarding the history of slips or falls in the past year was collected. The frequency of nocturia was classified as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 instances a night. Walking during the day, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep time, stress level and medical histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebral stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoporosis were adjusted using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted for young (19–30 years), middle-aged (31–60 years), and elderly individuals (61+ years). Approximately 14.6% of the men had a history of falls. Their mean age was 42.9 years, which was significantly higher than that of the non-faller group (P < 0.001). An increased frequency of nocturia was associated with increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for falls (AOR for 1 instance of nocturia/night = 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.33–1.50]; AOR for 2 instances = 1.41 [1.33–1.50]; AOR for 3 instances = 2.00 [1.75–2.28]; AOR for 4 instances = 2.12 [1.73–2.61]; AOR for ≥ 5 instances = 2.02 [1.74–2.36], P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the AORs for falls significantly increased in all age groups as the frequency of nocturia increased. PMID:28060916

  15. Public events at Fall Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Adamec, Bethany

    2012-11-01

    Three much-anticipated events at Fall Meeting are AGU's family science programs, which take place the Sunday before Fall Meeting begins. Beginning at noon on 2 December, the public lecture will be given by Michael Meyer, John Grotzinger, and Rebecca Williams. These three NASA scientists are working with the rover Curiosity, which is currently exploring Mars. They will engage the public in a discussion of Mars exploration and the latest activities of the most sophisticated explorer ever sent to another planet. The panelists will discuss the hopes and excitement of exploring Mars through a robot's eyes, nose, taste, and touch.

  16. Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" (from Champlain canal structure book) 6-45, New York State Archives and Manuscripts, Albany, New York), c. 1858 - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  17. 159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Low Line Book #1, pp. 76,77). RECORD OF BORROW AT LOW LINE SIPHON. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SPILL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 46 CFR 122.704 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 122.704 Section 122.704 Shipping..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.704 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used in a... fall must be renewed when necessary due to deterioration or at internals of not more than 5...

  1. 46 CFR 185.704 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 185.704 Section 185.704 Shipping... of falls. (a) Each fall used in a launching appliance on a vessel must be turned end for end at intervals of not more than 30 months. (b) Each fall must be renewed when necessary due to deterioration...

  2. 46 CFR 131.550 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 131.550 Section 131.550 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.550 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used with a launching appliance must be turned end for end at intervals of not more than 30 months. (b) Each fall used with a...

  3. 49 CFR 214.103 - Fall protection, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fall protection, generally. 214.103 Section 214... Fall protection, generally. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, when... shall use a personal fall arrest system or safety net system. All fall protection systems required...

  4. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. Structural and biochemical characteristics of chitin-binding protein SeCBP66 from Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Liu, B; Zhang, Y K; Guo, W; Li, S Y; Lu, X J; Li, R J

    2016-08-12

    Peritrophic membrane proteins are important components of the insect peritrophic membrane. A novel cDNA gene encoding a chitin-binding protein, named secbp66, was identified by immunization screening of the cDNA library of Spodoptera exigua. The full length of secbp66 is 1806 bp, which encodes 602 amino acids. The predicted weight of the protein is 64.2 kDa. Bioinformatic analysis showed that a signal peptide composed of 17 amino acids located at the N-terminal of SeCBP66 contained seven tandem putative Type-II functional chitin-binding domains and five potential N-glycosylation sites, but no O-linked glycosylation sites. To study the properties of SeCBP66, recombinant SeCBP66 was successfully expressed in the insect cell line BTI-Tn-5B1-4 with a Bac-to-Bac expression system. A chitin binding experiment showed that the recombinant SeCBP66 protein could bind to chitin strongly. This study of the novel chitin-binding protein SeCBP66 provides a basis for developing new control targets for S. exigua.

  6. Field resistance of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and four newer chemistry insecticides in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hong; Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to evaluate resistance in the populations of Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from five districts of Hunan Province in China to various insecticides from 2010 to 2012 using a standard leaf dip bioassay method. For organophosphates and pyrethroids, resistance ratios compared with a susceptible Lab-BJ strain were in the range of 14-229-fold for organophosphates and 12-227-fold for pyrethroids. Similarly, relative low levels of resistance to emamectin, indoxacarb, and chlorfenapyr were observed in all five populations. In contrast, the resistance to carbamates (thiodicarb or methomyl) was significantly higher than that of organophosphates, pyrethroids and newer chemistry insecticides. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that the newer chemistry insecticides and old generation insecticides were not significant except abamectin, which was negatively significantly correlated with methomyl. A significant correlation was observed between thiodicarb, methomyl, and deltamethrin, whereas resistance to bifenthrin showed no correlations with resistance to other insecticides except deltamethrin. The results are discussed in relation to integrated pest management for S. litura with special reference to management of field evolved resistance to insecticides.

  7. Responses of the cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to two Bt corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

    PubMed

    Yinghua, Shu; Yan, Du; Jin, Chen; Jiaxi, Wei; Jianwu, Wang

    2017-02-10

    To examine the responses of the secondary lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids [5422Bt1 (Event Bt11), 5422CBCL (MON810)] expressing Cry1Ab, larval bioassays with Cry1Ab toxin, corn leaves or kernels and bagging on corn plants were conducted. The results showed that larvae displayed a similar performance when fed kernels, but not leaves of 5422Bt1, 5422CBCL and their near-isogenic non-Bt corn (5422). Significantly higher Cry1Ab amounts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of both Bt hybrids, with different molecular weights of protein band in plants (72 and 90 kDa for 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL, respectively), gut contents (65 kDa), feces (50 kDa), which indicated that larvae had lower ingestion, higher degradation and excretion of Cry1Ab when fed kernels not leaves of both Bt hybrids. Significantly higher levels of cadherin-like receptors and alkaline phosphatase transcripts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of two Bt hybrids. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in larvae fed 5422Bt1 leaves were significantly higher than that of 5422 treatments. Therefore, S. litura had low susceptibility to 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL when larvae fed kernels not leaves of Bt corn. Additionally, S. litura presented a much stronger tolerance to 5422CBCL than 5422Bt1.

  8. Aminopeptidase N1 is involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxicity in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lin; Cui, Songhe; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Boyao; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with their hosts is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal activity. Previous studies support ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCC2/3) and one cadherin-like protein are Cry1Ac functional receptors in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). In this study, a combined one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting approach identified aminopeptidase N (APNs) as putative Cry1Ac binding proteins in the midgut brush border membrane of S. exigua larvae. Functional analyses by gene silencing of six different S. exigua APN genes (SeAPN1, SeAPN2, SeAPN3, SeAPN4, SeAPN5 and SeAPN6) showed that only suppression of SeAPN1 resulted in decreased larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin. These results support that SeAPN1 plays important functional role in Cry1Ac toxicity in S. exigua. PMID:28327568

  9. Identification of plant semiochemicals and characterization of new olfactory sensory neuron types in a polyphagous pest moth, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Anderson, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Birgersson, Göran; Razaq, Muhammad; Shad, Sarfraz A; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    Phytophagous insects use blends of volatiles released from plants to select hosts for feeding and oviposition. To behaviorally analyze complex blends, we need efficient and selective methods for elucidating neuron types, their ligands, and specificity. Gas chromatography-combined single sensillum recordings (GC-SSRs) from antennal olfactory sensilla of female moth, Spodoptera littoralis revealed 38 physiologically active peaks in the headspace volatile blends from both larvae-damaged cotton plants and lilac flowers. Using GC-combined mass spectrometry, 9 new physiologically active compounds were identified from damaged cotton and 11 from lilac compared with earlier electrophysiological studies using antennae of female S. littoralis. We characterized 14 novel classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Among these, we found the first 2 ligands for a frequent type of short trichoid sensillum, for which no ligands were identified earlier. By using GC-SSR, a substantial increase in functional classes of OSNs and active compounds, 40% and 34% more, respectively, compared with recent studies using GC-electroantennogram or SSR using single compounds was detected. Compared with the estimated number of corresponding antennal olfactory receptors, the OSN classes now correspond to 83% of a likely maximum. The many specialist OSNs observed may facilitate behavioral confirmation of key plant volatiles in blends.

  10. Population dynamics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Peng; Wu, Kongming; Huang, Minsong; Yu, Dazhao; Wu, Jinping

    2008-08-01

    Genetically modified cotton that produces a crystalline protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Berliner) (Bt) has been widely deployed to manage lepidopteran insect pests in cotton growing areas worldwide. However, susceptibility of different insect species to Bt protein varies, which may affect lepidopteran pest populations in the field. Studies on effects of two transgenic cotton lines (BG1560 and GK19) carrying a Cry1A gene on common cutworm Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were conducted during 2002-2005 in the cotton planting region of the Yangtze River valley of China. Results showed that common cutworm larvae had low susceptibility to Bt cotton. There was no significant difference in larval population densities in conventional and Bt cotton fields. However, the larval populations of the insect on conventional plants treated with chemical insecticides for control of target pest of Bt cotton were significantly lower than that in Bt cotton fields. These results indicated that the common cutworm was the potential to become a major and alarming pest in Bt cotton fields, and therefore efforts to develop an effective alternative management strategy are needed.

  11. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis.

  12. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects interactions between Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and two host plant species outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, F.; Bunce, J.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner), larvae were placed on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) plants in outdoor chambers in which the plants were growing at either the ambient ([approximately] 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) or ambient plus 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] ([approximately] 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) carbon dioxide concentration. A series of experiments was performed to determine if larvae reduced plant growth differently at the two carbon dioxide concentrations in either species and if the insect growth or survival differed with carbon dioxide concentration. Leaf nitrogen, water, starch, and soluble carbohydrate contents were measured to assess carbon dioxide concentration effects on leaf quality. Insect feeding significantly reduced plant growth in sugarbeet plants at 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] but not at 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] nor in pigweed at either carbon dioxide concentration. Larval survival was greater on sugarbeet plants at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Increased survival occurred only if the insects were at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration and consumed leaf material grown at the elevated concentration. Leaf quality was only marginally affected by growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in these experiments. The results indicate that in designing experiments to predict effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant-insect interactions, both plants and insects should be exposed to the experimental carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as to as realistic environmental conditions as possible.

  13. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-12-14

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica.

  14. Synergistic activity of a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and a bacterial endochitinase against Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Regev, A; Keller, M; Strizhov, N; Sneh, B; Prudovsky, E; Chet, I; Ginzberg, I; Koncz-Kalman, Z; Koncz, C; Schell, J; Zilberstein, A

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the insecticidal effect of the delta-endotoxin crystal protein CryIC on the relatively Cry-insensitive larvae of Spodoptera littoralis, a combination of CryIC and endochitinase was used. CryIC comprising the first 756 amino acids from Bacillus thuringiensis K26-21 and endochitinase ChiAII encoded by Serratia marcescens were separately produced in Escherichia coli carrying the genes in overexpression vectors. The endochitinase on its own, even at very low concentrations (0.1 microgram/ml), perforated the larval midgut peritrophic membrane. When applied together with low concentrations of CryIC, a synergistic toxic effect was obtained. In the absence of chitinase, about 20 micrograms of CryIC per ml was required to obtain maximal reduction in larval weight, while only 3.0 micrograms of CryIC per ml caused a similar toxic effect in the presence of endochitinase. Thus, a combination of the Cry protein and an endochitinase could result in effective insect control in transgenic systems in which the Cry protein is not expressed in a crystalline form. PMID:8837413

  15. Identification of microRNAs by small RNA deep sequencing for synthetic microRNA mimics to control Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Liang; Huang, Qi Xing; Yin, Guo Hua; Lee, Samantha; Jia, Rui Zong; Liu, Zhi Xin; Yu, Nai Tong; Pennerman, Kayla K; Chen, Xin; Guo, An Ping

    2015-02-25

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major pest of cotton around the world. With the increase of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in transgenic cotton plants, there is a need to develop an alternative control approach that can be used in combination with Bt transgenic crops as part of resistance management strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a non-coding small RNA family (18-25 nt), play crucial roles in various biological processes and over-expression of miRNAs has been shown to interfere with the normal development of insects. In this study, we identified 127 conserved miRNAs in S. exigua by using small RNA deep sequencing technology. From this, we tested the effects of 11 miRNAs on larval development. We found three miRNAs, Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9, to be differentially expressed during larval stages of S. exigua. Oral feeding experiments using synthetic miRNA mimics of Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9 resulted in suppressed growth of S. exigua and mortality. Over-expression of Sex-miR-4924 caused a significant reduction in the expression level of chitinase 1 and caused abortive molting in the insects. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel approach of using miRNA mimics to control S. exigua development.

  16. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  17. Diurnal rhythm in expression and release of yolk protein in the testis of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Polanska, Marta A; Majewska, Magdalena M; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Bebas, Piotr

    2011-04-01

    Circadian clocks (oscillators) regulate multiple life functions in insects. The circadian system located in the male reproductive tract of Lepidoptera is one of the best characterized peripheral oscillators in insects. Our previous research on the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, demonstrated that this oscillator controls the rhythm of sperm release from the testis and coordinates sperm maturation in the upper vas deferens (UVD). We demonstrated previously that a protein that functions as yolk protein in females is also produced in cyst cells surrounding sperm bundles in the testis, and is released into the UVD. Here, we investigated the temporal expression of the yolk protein 2 (yp2) gene at the mRNA and protein level in the testis of S. littoralis, and inquired whether their expression is regulated by PER-based molecular oscillator. We describe a circadian rhythm of YP2 accumulation in the UVD seminal fluid, where this protein interacts with sperm in a circadian fashion. However, we also demonstrate that yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein levels within cyst cells show only a diurnal rhythm in light/dark (LD) cycles. These rhythms do not persist in constant darkness (DD), suggesting that they are non-circadian. Interestingly, the per gene mRNA and protein levels in cyst cells are rhythmic in LD but not in DD. Nevertheless, per appears to be involved in the diurnal timing of YP2 protein accumulation in cyst cells.

  18. Identification and characterization of a fatty acyl reductase from a Spodoptera littoralis female gland involved in pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Carot-Sans, G; Muñoz, L; Piulachs, M D; Guerrero, A; Rosell, G

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs), the enzymes that catalyse reduction of a fatty acyl-CoA to the corresponding alcohol in insect pheromone biosynthesis, are postulated to play an important role in determining the proportion of each component in the pheromone blend. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized from the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a FAR cDNA (Slit-FAR1), which appeared to be expressed only in the pheromone gland and was undetectable in other female tissues, such as fat body, ovaries, wings, legs or thorax. The encoded protein has been successfully expressed in a recombinant system, and the recombinant enzyme is able to produce the intermediate fatty acid alcohols of the pheromone biosynthesis of S. littoralis from the corresponding acyl-CoA precursors. The kinetic variables Km and Vmax, which have been calculated for each acyl-CoA pheromone precursor, suggest that in S. littoralis pheromone biosynthesis other biosynthetic enzymes (e.g. desaturases, acetyl transferase) should also contribute to the final ratio of components of the pheromone blend. In a phylogenetic analysis, Slit-FAR1 appeared grouped in a cluster of other FARs involved in the pheromone biosynthesis of other insects, with little or non-specificity for the natural pheromone precursors.

  19. Combinatorial effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant and Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin on Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak, Mariam; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-03-01

    Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC50 of 245ng/cm(2). Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane. Binding experiments revealed that the AG1 biosurfactant recognized three putative receptors located in the brush border membrane vesicles of S. littoralis with sizes of 91, 72 and 64kDa. Competition assays using biotinylated metabolites indicated that AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 toxin did not compete for the same S. littoralis receptors. When combined, AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 showed an additive effect against S. littoralis larvae. These findings suggested that B. amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate S. littoralis and to prevent resistance development by this pest.

  20. Cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter efficiently drives heterogeneous gene expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, Q N; Zhang, X T; Zheng, X Y; Lv, Y F; Hao, Z M

    2014-03-05

    Recently, wide attention has been given to the potential of recombinant baculovirus as a gene transfer vehicle for mammalian gene therapy. In this study, we packaged the recombinant baculoviruses with cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV-IE) promoter in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells, and found that the CMV-IE promoter could efficiently drive the exogenic gene expression in the cells 12 h post-infection (h.p.i.). The expression level at 72 h.p.i. was only around half of that driven by polyhedrin promoter (Ppolh). However, the biological activity of the reporter proteins at 72 h.p.i. were similar with that driven by Ppolh. In addition, the Sf9 cells transfected with CMV-IE-containing plasmids also expressed foreign genes, suggesting that the CMV-IE-directed heterogeneous gene expression in the Sf9 cells was baculovirus-independent. These results demonstrate that the CMV-IE promoter might be used as a regular promoter in Sf9 cells.

  1. Spinosad induces programmed cell death involves mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjun; Wang, Bo; Gao, Jufang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Wenping; Tao, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the nervous system of target insects. However, its mechanism of action in non-neural insect cells is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial functional changes associated with spinosad in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Our results indicate that in Sf9 cells, spinosad induces programmed cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction through enhanced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, eventually leading to cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The cytochrome C release induced by spinosad treatment was partly inhibited by the mPTP inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid. Subsequently, we found that spinosad downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated p53 and Bax expressions, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and triggered PARP cleavage in Sf9 cells. These findings suggested that spinosad-induced programmed cell death was modulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release.

  2. Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Xingan; Meng, Qianqian; Wang, Peidan; Shu, Benshui; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    Azadirachtin as a kind of botanical insecticide has been widely used in pest control. We previously reported that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis of Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1, which involves in the up-regulation of P53 protein. However, the detailed mechanism of azadirachtin-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood in insect cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of lysosome and lysosomal protease in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. The result confirmed that azadirachtin indeed inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. The lysosomes were divided into different types as time-dependent manner, which suggested that changes of lysosomes were necessarily physiological processes in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Interestingly, we noticed that azadirachtin could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L releasing to cytosol. Z-FF-FMK (a cathepsin L inhibitor), but not CA-074me (a cathepsin B inhibitor), could effectively hinder the apoptosis induced by azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 could also be inactivated by the inhibition of cathepsin L enzymatic activity induced by Z-FF-FMK. Taken together, our findings suggest that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells in a lysosomal pathway, and cathepsin L plays a pro-apoptosis role in this process through releasing to cytosol and activating caspase-3.

  3. Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT/TOR Pathways by Azadirachtin A in Spodoptera litura Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuehua; Lai, Duo; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophagolysosome and Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation were observed by electron microscopy and western blotting, indicating that azadirachtin triggered autophagy in SL-1 cell. Furthermore, azadirachtin inhibited survival signaling by blocking the activation of PI3K, AKT and the down-stream target of rapamycin. Similar to the positive control of starvation, azadirachtin induced the activation of insulin receptor (InR) via a cellular feedback mechanism. In addition, the autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), a molecular switch of autophagy and apoptosis, was truncated (tAtg5) to trigger cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm under azadirachtin stress, which indicated that azadirachtin induced apoptosis through autophagy. Our findings suggest that azadirachtin primarily induced autophagy in SL-1 cell by dysregulating InR- and PI3K/AKT/TOR pathways, then stimulated apoptosis by activating tAtg5. PMID:27752103

  4. [Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves].

    PubMed

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V de; Torres, Jorge B

    2009-01-01

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 degrees C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Boüin s aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxilin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron.

  5. Genome-wide In Silico Analysis, Characterization and Identification of Microsatellites in Spodoptera littoralis Multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV)

    PubMed Central

    Atia, Mohamed A. M.; Osman, Gamal H.; Elmenofy, Wael H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a survey to analyze the distribution and frequency of microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) genome (isolate AN–1956). Out of the 55 microsatellite motifs, identified in the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome using in silico analysis (inclusive of mono-, di-, tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats), 39 were found to be distributed within coding regions (cSSRs), whereas 16 were observed to lie within intergenic or noncoding regions. Among the 39 motifs located in coding regions, 21 were located in annotated functional genes whilst 18 were identified in unknown functional genes (hypothetical proteins). Among the identified motifs, trinucleotide (80%) repeats were found to be the most abundant followed by dinucleotide (13%), mononucleotide (5%) and hexanucleotide (2%) repeats. The 39 motifs located within coding regions were further validated in vitro by using PCR analysis, while the 21 motifs located within known functional genes (15 genes) were characterized using nucleotide sequencing. A comparison of the sequence analysis data of the 21 sequenced cSSRs with the published sequences is presented. Finally, the developed SSR markers of the 39 motifs were further mapped/localized onto the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome. In conclusion, the SSR markers specific to SpliMNPV, developed in this study, could be a useful tool for the identification of isolates and analysis of genetic diversity and viral evolutionary status. PMID:27650818

  6. Juvenile hormone analog technology: effects on larval cannibalism and the production of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Sonia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2010-06-01

    The production of a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been markedly increased by using juvenile hormone analog (JHA) technology to generate a supernumerary sixth instar in the species. In the current study we compared the incidence of cannibalism in S. exigua fifth and sixth instars reared at low (two larvae per dish) and a high density (10 larvae per dish). The incidence of cannibalism was significantly higher in fifth instars compared with sixth instars and increased with rearing density on both instars. Infected larvae were more prone to become victims of cannibalism than healthy individuals in mixed groups comprising 50% healthy + 50% infected larvae in both instars reared at high density. Instar had a marked effect on occlusion body (OB) production because JHA-treated insects produced between 4.8- and 5.6-fold increase in OB production per dish compared with fifth instars at high and low densities, respectively. The insecticidal characteristics of OBs produced in JHA-treated insects, as indicated by LD50 values, were similar to those produced in untreated fourth or fifth instars. Because JHA technology did not increase the prevalence of cannibalism and had no adverse effect on the insecticidal properties of SeMNPV OBs, we conclude that the use of JHAs to generate a supernumerary instar is likely to be compatible with mass production systems that involve gregarious rearing of infected insects.

  7. Spatial variation in foliar chemicals within radish (Raphanus sativus) plants and their effects on performance of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jitendra; Tan, Ching-Wen; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2010-12-01

    Foliar chemicals are variable within a plant and this may affect herbivore feeding preference. This study was carried out to quantify concentrations of primary (nitrogen, water, and total nonstructural carbohydrates) and secondary substances (sinigrin) in young and old leaves of Raphanus sativus L. and to evaluate performance and survival of a generalist herbivore Spodoptera litura F. feeding on them. Forty to 50-d-old R. sativus plants were used in both foliar chemical analysis and insect performance bioassays. Leaves located on the third to the sixth node from the base of the plant were defined as old leaves and the remaining leaves (from seventh node to the plant apex) of the plant were referred as young leaves in this study. All foliar chemicals except water differed significantly between young and old leaves. Moreover, young leaves were more nutritious but much more defended, based on sinigrin content, against S. litura than old leaves. Performance and survival of S. litura were reduced on young leaves as compared with old leaves. Male and female larval duration only differed significantly on young leaves. Female larval development time was longer than male development time on young leaves, but not on older leaves. Therefore, this study revealed that defenses in young leaves have differential effects upon male and female S. litura.

  8. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Gamal H.; Assem, Shireen K.; Alreedy, Rasha M.; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K.; Basry, Mahmoud A.; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  9. Gene knockout demonstrates that vip3A contributes to the pathogenesis of Bacillus thuringiensis toward Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Donovan, W P; Donovan, J C; Engleman, J T

    2001-07-01

    Vip3A is an 89-kDa protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during vegetative growth. To determine the importance of Vip3A for the insect pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis the vip3A gene was deleted from strain HD1, yielding strain HD1Deltavip3A. Compared with HD1, strain HD1Deltavip3A was one-fourth as toxic to Agrotis ipsilon larvae and less than one-tenth as toxic to Spodoptera exigua larvae. When streptomycin was included in the S. exigua diet the toxicity of HD1Deltavip3A was approximately half that of HD1. Addition of HD1 spores increased the toxicity of purified Cry1 protein more than 600-fold against S. exigua, whereas addition of HD1Deltavip3A spores increased toxicity of Cry1 protein approximately 10-fold. These results demonstrate that an important component of B. thuringiensis insecticidal activity against S. exigua is the synthesis of Vip3A protein by B. thuringiensis cells after ingestion of spores and crystal proteins by insect larvae.

  10. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural “metamorphosis” in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  11. Responses of the cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to two Bt corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab

    PubMed Central

    Yinghua, Shu; Yan, Du; Jin, Chen; Jiaxi, Wei; Jianwu, Wang

    2017-01-01

    To examine the responses of the secondary lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids [5422Bt1 (Event Bt11), 5422CBCL (MON810)] expressing Cry1Ab, larval bioassays with Cry1Ab toxin, corn leaves or kernels and bagging on corn plants were conducted. The results showed that larvae displayed a similar performance when fed kernels, but not leaves of 5422Bt1, 5422CBCL and their near-isogenic non-Bt corn (5422). Significantly higher Cry1Ab amounts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of both Bt hybrids, with different molecular weights of protein band in plants (72 and 90 kDa for 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL, respectively), gut contents (65 kDa), feces (50 kDa), which indicated that larvae had lower ingestion, higher degradation and excretion of Cry1Ab when fed kernels not leaves of both Bt hybrids. Significantly higher levels of cadherin-like receptors and alkaline phosphatase transcripts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of two Bt hybrids. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in larvae fed 5422Bt1 leaves were significantly higher than that of 5422 treatments. Therefore, S. litura had low susceptibility to 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL when larvae fed kernels not leaves of Bt corn. Additionally, S. litura presented a much stronger tolerance to 5422CBCL than 5422Bt1. PMID:28186125

  12. Purification and characterization of biliverdin-binding vitellogenin from the hemolymph of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Kousei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Katagiri, Chihiro; Ochiai, Masanori; Tojo, Sumio

    2002-06-01

    Biliverdin-binding vitellogenin (Vg) was purified from adult female hemolymph of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, by using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies. The molecular mass of the protein was 490 kDa and it was composed of two 188-kDa subunits. Three internal amino acid sequences obtained by digestion of the protein with lysylendopeptidase showed high similarity to those of Bombyx mori Vg, supporting the purified blue protein to be vitellogenin. latroscan analyses demonstrated the presence of biliverdin in Vg that occupied 2.4% of total lipid components. Among the lipids of Vg (9.5 micrograms total lipids per 100 micrograms protein), diacylglycerol was the most predominant, followed by phospholipid, hydrocarbons, and then triacylglycerol, while in biliverdin-binding proteins (BPs) purified from larval hemolymph (3.1 micrograms total lipids per 100 micrograms protein), phospholipid was the most abundant lipid followed by diacylglycerol; hydrocarbons and triacylglycerol were minor components. Vg was first detected in the hemolymph of female pupae one day before eclosion, but injection of 5 micrograms of methoprene into a 3-day-old pupa induced Vg in the hemolymph 4 days earlier than in the control. Methoprene also induced a faster decline in BP-A and BP-B titers in the hemolymph with a corresponding increase of the Vg titer. These results suggest that juvenile hormone (JH) induces not only vitellogenesis but also the uptake of these proteins by stimulating the metamorphosis of fat body during the pupal stage.

  13. Survey of Graduates, Fall 1983-Summer 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    Results of a survey of graduates of the University of North Carolina, Wilmington, are presented, with attention to economic and noneconomic benefits. Of 765 students who graduated between fall 1983 and summer 1984, 325 returned usable questionnaires. Ninety percent of the graduates were either employed or looking for work, while 16% were employed…

  14. Community Needs Assessment Survey Report, Fall 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainesville Coll., GA. Office of Planning and Institutional Research.

    As part of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools self-study process for reaffirmation of accreditation, Gainesville College (GC) conducted its second decennial needs assessment survey in fall 1990 to obtain data to assist in college planning and program improvement. Separate survey instruments were developed to gather data from…

  15. Bodies Falling with Air Resistance: Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1982-01-01

    Two models are presented. The first assumes that air resistance is proportional to the velocity of the falling body. The second assumes that air resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity. A program written in BASIC that simulates the second model is presented. (MP)

  16. Freshman Profile, Entering Class: Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter B.

    In fall 1974, Hostos Community College (HCC) participated in the national survey of college freshmen which is conducted annually by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) of the American Council on Education, and UCLA. The population served by Hostos Community College is, for the most part, comprised of economically disadvantaged,…

  17. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  18. Seneca Falls: A Women's Demonstration for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Billie

    1984-01-01

    A reporter gives her personal impressions of the Seneca Falls Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice and the march by members of the encampment to the Seneca Army Depot. Confrontations between the demonstrators and conservative counterdemonstrators and the army response are also covered. (IS)

  19. Minority Enrollment Report, Fall Semester 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Ronald B.

    This report displays longitudinal data on minority enrollment at Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC), and examines trends that may affect minority enrollment in the future. A record number of minority students attended PVCC for the fall semester 1999. Slightly over two-thirds of all minority students attending PVCC were African-American.…

  20. Riemann pendulum in free fall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible detection in space and in different free fall system of the tidal effects via a Riemann pendulum rate, is considered. The possibility to perform such an experiment for educational purpouse by a Moire' or Holographic double exposure detection is described. The International Space Station may obtain high quality test of 3D Riemann pendulum effects.

  1. Community College Users' Report, Fall 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, A. L., Ed.

    This report was compiled from information supplied by instructors participating in the National Science Foundation's community college field test of PLATO IV--a computer-based system developed at the University of Illinois--during the fall semester of 1975. Represented here are the responses of instructors at five Illinois community colleges to…

  2. Occupational Programs Student Survey, Fall 2002. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuschke, Daylene M.; Gribbons, Barry C.

    Each semester, the College of the Canyons (California) surveys all students enrolled in occupational courses. This information has three primary purposes: (1) the survey results are used in determining funding through the Vocational and Technical Education Act (VTEA); (2) beginning in fall 2000, the College expanded the survey to include students'…

  3. TAP into Learning, Fall-Winter 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Dimock, Vicki; Martinez, Danny

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the final three issues of "TAP into Learning" (Technology Assistance Program). The double fall issue focuses on knowledge construction and on using multimedia applications in the classroom. Contents include: "Knowledge Under Construction"; "Hegel and the Dialectic"; "Implications for…

  4. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  5. Community College Humanities Review, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Susan, Ed.; Wilson, Ned M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The "Community College Humanities Review" is a forum for scholarly work focusing on research, curriculum change, and developments within the humanities disciplines. The fall 1998 issue offers the following articles: (1) "Feminist Currents and Confluence in Southern and Latin America, Women's Narrative: Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda y Arteaga and…

  6. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid A. Dorf; Yevgeny F. Raitses; Artem N. Smirnov; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2004-06-29

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed.

  7. Integrating the Curriculum: Faux Fall Repousse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    When introducing a new unit, art teachers know that sometimes a little "bling" can really grab students' attention. The author received "ooohs" and "aaahs" from her fourth-graders when they learned they would be creating "Faux Fall Repousse." The dazzling shine of the aluminum foil and the beautiful array of autumnal colors were impossible for…

  8. OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the…

  9. Fall Colors, Temperature, and Day Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen; Miller, Heather; Roossinck, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Along with the bright hues of orange, red, and yellow, the season of fall represents significant changes, such as day length and temperature. These changes provide excellent opportunities for students to use science process skills to examine how abiotic factors such as weather and temperature impact organisms. In this article, the authors describe…

  10. Academic Crossover Study: Community Colleges, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    In fall 1981, a study was conducted in Hawaii's community colleges to determine the course-taking patterns of different groups of student majors (e.g., the proportion of the liberal arts major's academic load that is taken in the humanities, natural sciences, etc.), and the client-serving patterns of different subject disciplines (e.g., the…

  11. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  12. Ethnic Student Survey--Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1995, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a survey of a random sample of 1,447 current students to gather information on their attitudes and goals and to compare responses for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students. Completed surveys were received from 433 students, including 53 Asians, 73 Blacks, 127 Hispanics,…

  13. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  14. Early Childhood: Fall Harvest and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies for using fall fruits/vegetables in science lessons, including activities related to melons, pumpkins, grapes, pears, squash, and yams. Suggests extending the activities over a month or more to allow children time to explore and investigate. (JN)

  15. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  16. NOVA[R] Fall 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher guide includes activity information for the program NOVA, Fall 2001. Background for each activity is provided along with its correlation to the national science standards. Activities include: (1) "Search for a Safe Cigarette"; (2) "18 Ways To Make a Baby"; (3) "Secrets of Mind"; (4) "Neanderthals on…

  17. Falls exercise interventions and reduced falls rate: always in the patient's interest?

    PubMed

    Laybourne, A H; Biggs, S; Martin, F C

    2008-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Physical, psychological and social consequences include injury, fall-related fear and loss of self-efficacy. In turn, these may result in decreased physical activity, reduced functional capacity, and increased risk of institutionalisation. Falls prevention exercise programmes (FPEP) are now widespread within the National Health Service, often part of multifactorial interventions, and are designed to minimise impairments that impact physical function, such as strength and balance. Assessment of the clinical efficacy of FPEPs has therefore focused on the measurement of physical function and rate of falls. Whilst important, this approach may be too narrow to capture the highly variable and multidimensional responses that individuals make to a fall and to a FPEP. We argue that the current focus may miss a paradoxical lack of or even deleterious impact on quality of life, despite a reduction in physical performance-related falls risk. We draw upon the Selective Optimisation and Compensation (SOC) model, developed by Paul and Margret Baltes, to explore how this paradox may be a result of the coping strategies adopted by individuals in response to a fall.

  18. Reducing fall risk in the elderly: risk factors and fall prevention, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pfortmueller, C A; Lindner, G; Exadaktylos, A K

    2014-08-01

    Falls in the elderly are a major source of injury resulting in disability and hospitalization. They have a significant impact on individual basis (loss of quality of live, nursing home admissions) and social basis (healthcare costs). Even though falls in the elderly are common there are some well studied risk factors. Special emphasis should be put on sarcopenia/frailty, polypharmacy, multimorbidity, vitamin D status and home hazards. There are several well evaluated fall prevention approaches that either target a single fall risk factor or focus on multiple risk factors. It has to be kept in mind that not all fall prevention strategies are useful for all patients as for example dietary substitution of vitamin D is only recommended in people with increased risk for a vitamin D deficiency. Home hazard reduction strategies are more effective when combined with other fall prevention approaches such as for example exercise programs. In conclusion elderly patients should routinely be screened for relevant risk factors and if need an indiviudally targeted fall prevention program compiled.

  19. 77 FR 21761 - Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On February 23, 2012, Alice Falls Corporation (transferor) and Alice Falls Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an ] application for transfer...

  20. The history of falls and the association of the timed up and go test to falls and near-falls in older adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Catherine M; Faulkner, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Background Falling accounts for a significant number of hospital and long-term care admissions in older adults. Many adults with the combination of advancing age and functional decline associated with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA), are at an even greater risk. The purpose of this study was to describe fall and near-fall history, location, circumstances and injuries from falls in a community-dwelling population of adults over aged 65 with hip OA and to determine the ability of the timed up and go test (TUG) to classify fallers and near-fallers. Method A retrospective observational study of 106 older men and women with hip pain for six months or longer, meeting a clinical criteria for the presence of hip OA at one or both hips. An interview for fall and near-fall history and administration of the TUG were administered on one occasion. Results Forty-five percent of the sample had at least one fall in the past year, seventy-seven percent reported occasional or frequent near-falls. The majority of falls occurred during ambulation and ascending or descending steps. Forty percent experienced an injury from the fall. The TUG was not associated with history of falls, but was associated with near-falls. Higher TUG scores occurred for those who were older, less mobile, and with greater number of co-morbidities. Conclusion A high percentage of older adults with hip OA experience falls and near-falls which may be attributed to gait impairments related to hip OA. The TUG could be a useful screening instrument to predict those who have frequent near-falls, and thus might be useful in predicting risk of future falls in this population. PMID:17610735

  1. Elderly fall risk prediction using static posturography

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years) stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) center of pressure (CoP) motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS); and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM) CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ) were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24), prospective all fallers (42), prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple), and prospective non-fallers (47). Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity—0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity—2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity) and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for older

  2. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Palmerini, Luca; Bagalà, Fabio; Zanetti, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases) in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms. PMID:26007719

  3. Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

  4. Conditioning of sandhill cranes during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    1990-01-01

    Body mass of adult female and male sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) increased an average of 17 and 20%, respectively, from early September to late October on staging areas in central North Dakota and varied by year. Increases in body mass averaged 550 and 681 g among female and male G. c. canadensis, respectively, and 616 and 836 g among female and male G. c. rowani. Adult and juvenile G. c. rowani were lean at arrival, averaging 177 and 83 g of fat, respectively, and fat reserves increased to 677 and 482 g by mid-October. Fat-free dry mass increased by 12% among juveniles, reflecting substantial growth, but remained constant among adults. The importance of fall staging areas as conditioning sites for sandhill cranes, annual variation in body mass, and vulnerability of cranes to habitat loss underscore the need to monitor status of fall staging habitat in the northern plains region and to take steps to maintain suitable habitat where necessary.

  5. Volume penalization to model falling leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai

    2007-11-01

    Numerical modeling of solid bodies moving through viscous incompressible fluid is considered. The 2D Navier-Stokes equations, written in the vorticity-streamfunction formulation, are discretized using a Fourier pseudo-spectral scheme with adaptive time-stepping. Solid obstacles of arbitrary shape are taken into account using the volume penalization method. Time- dependent penalization is implemented, making the method capable of solving problems where the obstacle follows an arbitrary motion. Numerical simulations of falling leaves are performed, using the above model supplemented by the discretized ODEs describing the motion of a solid body subjected to external forces and moments. Various regimes of the free fall are explored, depending on the physical parameters and initial conditions. The influence of the Reynolds number on the transition between fluttering and tumbling is investigated, showing the stabilizing effect of viscosity.

  6. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  7. Quantum ballistic experiment on antihydrogen fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Dufour, G.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an approach to measuring gravitational mass of antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) based on interferometry of time distribution of free-fall events of antiatoms. Our method consists of preparing a coherent superposition of quantum states of \\bar{{{H}}} localized near a material surface in the gravitational field of the Earth, and then observing the time distribution of annihilation events after the free-fall of the initially prepared superposition from a given height to a detector plate. We show that the time distribution of interest is mapped to a precisely predictable velocity distribution of the initial wave packet. This approach is combined with production of a coherent superposition of gravitational states by inducing a resonant transition using an oscillating gradient magnetic field. We show that the relative accuracy of measuring the \\bar{{{H}}} atom gravitational mass can be achieved with this approach is 10-4, with 103 antiatoms settled in lowest gravitational states.

  8. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    better automation to understand the threat. • Automated static analysis of artifacts • Large-scale analysis of indicators 5 Fall 2014 SEI Research...Review J. Spring; October 29, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Malware Analysis Process Artifact Catalog DoD Malware Static Analysis...2014 Carnegie Mellon University Static Analysis Improvements 1. Compiler transformation framework • ROSE [Quinlan 2000] • Well-established program

  9. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Fall 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    advertising and recruiting opportunities, especially the latter two, since certain ptarget market segments (positive propensity males) have already been...learning useful career skills, have emerged as the overriding themes remembered by target market males from the military’s recruitment advertising ...D-A143 li6 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY FALL i98i(U) MARKET FACTS 1/4 INC CHICAGO IL PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH CORP S GROENENAN UNCLAS APR 8.2 6474

  10. Fall 2014 Data-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 Data-Intensive Systems Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA... Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Klein /John 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Oct 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Big Data Systems NoSQL and horizontal scaling are changing architecture principles by creating

  11. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Preventing Falls in the Hospital (Arabic) الوقاية ...

  12. Klamath Falls downtown development geothermal sidewalk snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Klamuth Falls, Oregon, downtown has seen a period of decline over the past 20 years as businesses have moved to new suburban shopping centers. Downtown business owners and the Klamuth Falls Downtown Redevelopment Agency are working to reverse that trend with a Downtown Streetscape Project intended to make the downtown a more pleasant place to work and do business. The visible elements of the project include new crosswalks with brick pavers, wheelchair ramps at sidewalk corners, new concrete sidewalks with a consistent decorative grid pattern, sidewalk planters for trees and flowers, and antique-style park benches and lighting fixtures. A less visible, but equally valuable feature of the project is the plastic tubing installed under the sidewalks, wheelchair ramps and crosswalks, designed to keep them snow and ice free in the winter. A unique feature of the snowmelt system is the use of geothermal heated water on the return side of the Klamath Falls Geothermal District Heating System, made possible by the recent expansion of the district heating system.

  13. A Second H Chondrite Stream of Falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Wang, M.-S.; Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Earlier, Dodd et al. [1] described a statistically significant concentration of 17 H4-6 chondrite falls in May between 1855 and 1895, that clustered on a year-day plot, indicating a coorbital meteoroid stream or two closely-related ones. Contents of 10 thermally labile trace elements (Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te,Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In) determined by RNAA demonstrated that 13 of these H Cluster 1 (hereafter HC1) falls are compositionally distinguishable from another 45 non-H Cluster 1 (non-HC1) falls [1] (as are Antarctic samples with nominal terrestrial ages >50 ky [2,3]). This compositional distinguishability is demonstrable using two standard, model-dependent multivariate statistical tests (linear discriminant analysis LDA or logistic regression LR) or the model-independent, randomization-simulation (R-S) methods of Lipschutz and Samuels [4]. Despite petrographic and cosmic ray exposure age variabilities, like Antarctic suites [2] HC1 meteorites seemingly derive from coorbital meteoroids (from their circumstances of fall) and apparently have a common thermal history (reflected in contents of thermally labile trace elements) distinguishable from those of other H4-6 chondrite falls [1]. Other explanations seem inviable [5]. During days 220-300 when streams of large fireballs [6] and near-Earth asteroids [7] occur several H chondrite concentrations are evident (Fig. 1), particularly if petrographic type becomes a criterion [1]. Here, we focus on H Clusters 2 through 4 (HC2-4) containing, respectively, 10 H4-6, 5 H5 and 12 H6 chondrite members, for which full data sets exist because of the generosity of many colleagues/institutions. H chondrite clusters in the same time-span might include samples derived from related parent regions. Hence, we changed our comparison-base to approximate a random background of falls by including only the 34 non-Cluster H chondrites, HC0; this also simplified our calculations. To establish whether this choice impacts our observations, we compared 13

  14. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  15. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    PubMed

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  16. Modern Rehabilitation in Osteoporosis, Falls, and Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Skarantavos, Grigorios; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    In prevention and management of osteoporosis, modern rehabilitation should focus on how to increase muscular and bone strength. Resistance exercises are beneficial for muscle and bone strength, and weight-bearing exercises help maintain fitness and bone mass. In subjects at higher risk for osteoporotic fractures, particular attention should be paid to improving balance – the most important element in falls prevention. Given the close interaction between osteoporosis and falls, prevention of fractures should be based on factors related to bone strength and risk factors for falls. Fractures are the most serious complication of osteoporosis and may be prevented. The use of modern spinal orthosis helps to reduce pain and improve posture. Vibration platforms are used in rehabilitation of osteoporosis, based on the concept that noninvasive, short-duration, mechanical stimulation could have an impact on osteoporosis risk. Pharmacologic therapy should be added for those at high risk of fracture, and vitamin D/calcium supplementation is essential in all prevention strategies. Success of rehabilitation in osteoporotic and fractured subjects through an individualized educational approach optimizes function to the highest level of independence while improving the overall quality of life. PMID:24963273

  17. Falling through the black hole horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a "stick", as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking's quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a "firewall", the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking's model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the train exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  18. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment.

  19. Functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis by heterologous expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Montagné, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Brigaud, Isabelle; François, Adrien; François, Marie-Christine; de Fouchier, Arthur; Lucas, Philippe; Larsson, Mattias C; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-09-01

    Moth sex pheromone communication is recognised as a long-standing model for insect olfaction studies, and a widespread knowledge has been accumulated on this subject thanks to numerous chemical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. A key step has been the identification of candidate sex pheromone receptors, opening new routes to understanding the specificity and sensitivity of this communication system, but only few of these receptors have as yet been functionally characterised. In this context, we aim at unravelling the molecular bases of pheromone reception in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. Taking advantage of a collection of antennal-expressed sequence tags, we previously identified three fragments of candidate pheromone receptors in this species. Here, we report full-length cloning of one of these receptors, named SlitOR6. Both sequence and expression pattern analyses were consistent with its annotation as a pheromone receptor, which we further confirmed by functional characterization. Using Drosophila antennae as a heterologous expression system, we identified a single component of the pheromone blend of S. littoralis, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, as the ligand of SlitOR6. Two strategies were employed: (i) expressing SlitOR6 in the majority of Drosophila olfactory neurons, in addition to endogenous receptors, and monitoring the responses to pheromone stimuli by electroantennography; (ii) replacing the Drosophila pheromone receptor OR67d with SlitOR6 and monitoring the response by single sensillum recordings. Results were fully congruent and responses to (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were highly specific in both heterologous systems. This approach appears to be efficient and reliable for studying moth pheromone receptors in an in vivo context.

  20. Temporal allocation of metabolic tolerance to transgenic Bt cotton in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Guo, JianYing; Wu, Gang; Wan, FangHao

    2011-02-01

    Digestive and detoxification enzyme activity and nutrient composition were examined in the body of fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), fed on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt cotton for different time periods. Nutrient composition and specific enzyme activities differed significantly between the S. exigua fed Bt vs. non-Bt cotton. At 1, 6 and 24 h, free fatty acid and glucose levels were significantly lower in S. exigua fed on Bt cotton than those fed on non-Bt cotton. S. exigua fed on Bt cotton had significantly higher trypsin and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and significantly lower lipase, carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities than non-Bt fed worms for all feeding time periods. Differences were also observed among feeding times within each cotton variety group. Significantly lower free fatty acid and total amino acid were observed in S. exigua fed on Bt cotton for 24 h than in those fed for 1 h. Significantly lower activities of lipase and trypsin were detected in S. exigua fed on Bt cotton for 24 h than those for 1 and 4 h. However, carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in S. exigua fed on Bt cotton for 24 h were significantly higher than those for 1, 4 and 6 h. The interaction between cotton variety and feeding time significantly affected the activities of lipase, trypsin, acetylcholinesterase and T-SOD enzymes in S. exigua. Measuring the temporal allocation of protection and detoxification enzyme activities in the body of S. exigua in response to B. thuringiensis can provide a meaningful evaluation on the metabolic tolerance of herbivorous insects under the continuous selection pressure of a toxic protein.

  1. Identification of MicroRNAs in Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura Based on Deep Sequencing and Homology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xie; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Jianhao; Zhong, Yi; Yang, Xiaonan; Li, Zhiqian; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2013-01-01

    The current identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) in insects is largely dependent on genome sequences. However, the lack of available genome sequences inhibits the identification of miRNAs in various insect species. In this study, we used a miRNA database of the silkworm Bombyx mori as a reference to identify miRNAs in Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura using deep sequencing and homology analysis. Because all three species belong to the Lepidoptera, the experiment produced reliable results. Our study identified 97 and 91 conserved miRNAs in H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. Using the genome of B. mori and BAC sequences of H. armigera as references, 1 novel miRNA and 8 novel miRNA candidates were identified in H. armigera, and 4 novel miRNA candidates were identified in S. litura. An evolutionary analysis revealed that most of the identified miRNAs were insect-specific, and more than 20 miRNAs were Lepidoptera-specific. The investigation of the expression patterns of miR-2a, miR-34, miR-2796-3p and miR-11 revealed their potential roles in insect development. miRNA target prediction revealed that conserved miRNA target sites exist in various genes in the 3 species. Conserved miRNA target sites for the Hsp90 gene among the 3 species were validated in the mammalian 293T cell line using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Our study provides a new approach with which to identify miRNAs in insects lacking genome information and contributes to the functional analysis of insect miRNAs. PMID:23289012

  2. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  3. Characterization of DNA Topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for Toxicity Evaluation of Camptothecin and Hydoxy-Camptothecin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanning; He, Weizhi; Yang, Jingjing; Li, Chuanren; Jiang, Hongyun

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1). Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner), a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1) among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337–930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT) in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future. PMID:23451051

  4. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  5. Three heat shock proteins from Spodoptera exigua: Gene cloning, characterization and comparative stress response during heat and cold shocks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Bin; Wang, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    To gain insight into the comparative function in stress response of HSPs in insects, three HSP cDNAs were cloned from the fat body of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). SexHSP70, SexHSP74 and SexHSP83 cDNAs encoding the protein of 667, 685 and 717 amino acids, with the pI of 5.52, 5.75 and 5.02, respectively. Northern blotting revealed that all three SexHSP mRNAs are expressed in the fat body, mid-gut, spermary and tracheae. SexHSP70, SexHSP74and SexHSP83 mRNAs were expressed in the fat body and whole body at different levels during different developmental stages. The three SexHSP transcripts were highly expressed in the fat body on the first day of fifth instar larvae, on the fourth and seventh days of the pupa stage, and in the whole body on the initial stages of larvae. Under heat and cold shock conditions, SexHSP70 and SexHSP83 mainly functioned during heat shock and cooling and SexHSP83 also had a function in the recovery stage. SexHSP74 had important functions in short-term heat shock and recovery, as well as long-term cooling. The results revealed that long-term shocking can affect SexHSP74 and SexHSP83 expression and long-term cooling can influence SexHSP83 expression during the recovery stage.

  6. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  7. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  8. Enhancement of supercooling capacity and survival by cold acclimation, rapid cold and heat hardening in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xialin; Cheng, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-12-01

    Insects can increase their resistance to cold stress by prior exposure to non-lethal cold temperatures. Here, we investigated the supercooling capacity and survival of eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupae of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during CA, and responses to various pre-treatment protocols, including constant temperatures, thermoperiods, and RCH, RHH, RCH+RHH and RHH+RCH combined with thermoperiods. Only acclimated eggs demonstrated a significant decrease in SCP, from -20.7±0.3 to -22.9±0.3°C, among all experimental groups compared to non-acclimated stages. Survival increased by 17.5% for eggs, 40.0% and 13.3% for 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and by 20.0% for pupae after CA. Compared to controls, survival of eggs under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C), thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RHH, and thermoperiod (5:15, 10:20, and 15:25°C)+RCH significantly increased. In addition, survival of 3rd and 5th instar larvae and pupae increased under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C) and thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RCH, possibly due to the induction of heat shock proteins or cryoprotectants. However, the pre-treatments of thermoperiod+RCH+RHH and thermoperiod+RHH+RCH did not significantly enhance survival of any developmental stage. These adaptive responses may allow S. exigua to enhance supercooling capacity and survival in response to seasonal or unexpected diurnal decreases in environmental temperatures.

  9. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Crava, Cristina M.; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity. PMID:25993013

  10. Deep-tissue confocal imaging of the central projections of ovipositor sensory afferents in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Seada, Mervat A; Ghaninia, Majid

    2016-03-01

    The pre-ovipositon behavior of moths is largely dependent upon the cues that a gravid female perceives while assessing potential oviposition sites. Assessment of such sites is accomplished, at least in part, by mechanosensory and gustatory sensilla located on the ovipositor whose sensory neurons project into the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Using anterograde backfill staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three dimensional reconstruction, we traced and analyzed the central projections of the sensory neurons housed in the sensilla located on the ovipositor papillae and explored the neuropilar composition of the TAG in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The TAG consists of three fused neuromeres (6-8th Ner) associated with the 6-8th abdominal segments. Within the TAG, and specifically in the 8th neuromere, four unstructured neuropilar compartments are present; the dorso-ipsilateral motor neuropil (MN), the medio-ipsilateral mechanosensory neuropil (MchN), the medio-ipsilateral small gustatory neuropil (GN), and the medio-contralateral posterior ovipositor glomerulus (Og). The Og appears quite compact, with a hollow core free of terminal arborizations. The MchN is further subdivided into 4 unstructured glomeruli in the 8th neuromere, whose afferents are subsequently extended into 3 glomeruli in the 7th and 6th neuromeres. Few neurites of the Og are populated with large dense varicosities reminiscent of neurosecretory vesicles. Given that all ovipositor nerves converge into a common ganglionic center, the TAG, we assume that this ganglion may be a center for coordination of oviposition behaviors, including movements of the ovipositor during assessment of oviposition substrates and egg laying in S. littoralis.

  11. Spore stage expression of a vegetative insecticidal gene increase toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 against Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Thamthiankul Chankhamhaengdecha, S; Tantichodok, A; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2008-09-10

    To enhance the toxicity of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain SP41 (SP41), the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) gene vip3A from SP41 was redirected to the sporulation stage by replacing its native promoter with the strong promoter P19 of the cry11Aa operon. Compared to the wild type, SP41 with PVIP (vip3A with its native promoter and ter) had the relative expression ratios of 457, 548, and 290 at 8, 14, and 20 h of cultivation, respectively, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). SP41 transformed by P19VIP (vip3A controlled by P19 promoter with vip3A ter) showed higher expressions (23, 2055, 1831) at the same time points. SP41 with P19VIP20 (vip3A controlled by P19 promoter and containing P20 and operon ter) had the lowest expression levels (3, 11, 9) at any time point. SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins in the culture supernatant of the P19VIP at 8, 14, and 20 h demonstrated a significant increase in Vip3A at the sporulation stage. Using the surface contamination bioassay, the 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) of whole culture of PVIP, P19VIP, and P19VIP20 at 20 and 48 h of cultivation against Spodoptera exigua larvae were (68.3, 21.2, and 60.2 microg cm(-2)) and (69.8, 41.8, and 74.6 microg cm(-2)), respectively, compared with 86.6 and 104.4 microg cm(-2) for SP41. The results showed that Vip from P19VIP, expressed at spore stage at 20 and 48 h, can increase the toxicity of SP41 for 4.1- and 2.5-fold, respectively.

  12. Inheritance of Cry1F resistance, cross-resistance and frequency of resistant alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Vélez, A M; Spencer, T A; Alves, A P; Moellenbeck, D; Meagher, R L; Chirakkal, H; Siegfried, B D

    2013-12-01

    Transgenic maize, Zea maize L., expressing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis has been registered for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) control since 2003. Unexpected damage to Cry1F maize was reported in 2006 in Puerto Rico and Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda was documented. The inheritance of Cry1F resistance was characterized in a S. frugiperda resistant strain originating from Puerto Rico, which displayed >289-fold resistance to purified Cry1F. Concentration-response bioassays of reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible parental populations indicated that resistance is recessive and autosomal. Bioassays of the backcross of the F1 generation crossed with the resistant parental strain suggest that a single locus is responsible for resistance. In addition, cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa and Vip3Aa was assessed in the Cry1F-resistant strain. There was no significant cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ba and Cry2Aa, although only limited effects were observed in the susceptible strain. Vip3Aa was highly effective against susceptible and resistant insects indicating no cross-resistance with Cry1F. In contrast, low levels of cross-resistance were observed for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Because the resistance is recessive and conferred by a single locus, an F1 screening assay was used to measure the frequency of Cry1F-resistant alleles from populations of Florida and Texas in 2010 and 2011. A total frequency of resistant alleles of 0.13 and 0.02 was found for Florida and Texas populations, respectively, indicating resistant alleles could be found in US populations, although there have been no reports of reduced efficacy of Cry1F-expressing plants.

  13. Evidence for negative cross resistance to insecticides in field collected Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) from Lebanon in laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Lysandrou, M

    2002-01-01

    A sample of Spodoptera littoralis pupae were field collected from in Lebanon in November 1999. Approximately 50 healthy pupae were used to initiate a laboratory colony (stain code LEB). As a benchmark for sensitivity to insecticides the susceptible laboratory strain (LET) was used for comparison. The LET stain has been held in laboratory culture for over 10 years and originated from Israel. Three test chemicals were investigated; Spinosad (Tracer, 480 g/L SC), chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 g/L EC) and cypermethrin (Ambush C 100 g/L EC) representing a range of different modes of actions. To estimate the sensitivity of the LEB strain relative to the LET stain laboratory bioassays, conducted on second instar larvae exposed treated tomato leaves for two days. The method used was based on IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) insecticide susceptibly test number 7. Larvae from the LEB strain were tested in both the F1 and F2 laboratory generations. LC50 values were calculated using a Log-Probit model allowing the susceptibly of each strain to each test item to be compared. The LEB (field) strain were approximately twice as sensitive to spinosad compared with the LET (laboratory) strain. The LEB strain was 6-10 times less sensitive to chlorpyrifos which was within the range expected. However the LEB stain was 250-360 times less sensitive to cypermethrin compared with the LET strain, indicating a high level of resistance to pyrethroids in the field population. This kind of relationship gave a strong indication for negative cross resistance between spinosad and cypermethrin. It was concluded that spinosad had potential as a resistance management tool due to its novel mode of action and negative cross resistance with pyrethroids.

  14. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  15. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to lead stress: changes in sex ratio, Pb accumulations, midgut cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhou, Jialiang; Lu, Kai; Li, Keqing; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    When cutworm Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different lead (Pb) concentrations for one or five generations, changes in growth and food utilization were recorded; Pb accumulations were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer; changes in midgut cell ultrastructure were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed significantly between insects of the 1st and 5th generation. The male-female rate of 200mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 1st generation and 50mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 5th generation was significantly higher than control. No significant difference of Pb accumulations was found in larvae, pupae and adults between the 1st and 5th generation. No significant difference of Pb accumulations in corresponding tissues of larvae was found between male and female. Compared to fat body, hemolymph, head, foregut and hindgut, the highest Pb accumulation was found in migut of larvae exposed to 200mgkg(-1) Pb. TEM showed that expanded intercellular spaces were observed in Pb-treated midgut cells. The nuclei were strongly destroyed by Pb stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and destroyed nuclear envelope. Mitochondria became swollen with some broken cristae after exposure to Pb. Therefore, neither gender nor progeny difference was present in Pb accumulations of S. litura, although effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed from different generations and genders. Pb accumulations in midgut caused pathological changes in cells ultrastructure, possibly reflected the growth and food utilization of S. litura.

  16. Screening for fall risk in patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, L M; Josephson, N C

    2013-05-01

    Many risk factors for falls identified in the general population are found in patients with haemophilia. Furthermore, fall risk increases with age and patients with haemophilia are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. After a fall occurs, there are often behavioural changes that have significant health consequences and further increase fall risk. Fall risk can be quickly assessed in the clinical setting with specific questions in the medical history and by a variety of performance-based screening tools. Identification of fall risk enables early intervention, thereby preventing injury and fear of physical activity, both of which have been associated with falling and may carry an increased risk in patients with haemophilia. Review of the existing literature on assessment of fall risk reveals the importance of screening in the clinical setting, which is commonly done via a fall history and performance-based assessment tools. Selecting appropriate fall risk screening tools is an important step in identifying and providing optimal interventions for those at risk. Assessments of fall history, fear of falling, gait velocity, gait variability and vestibular dysfunction are suggested as screening tools for patients with haemophilia. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal screening, evaluation and treatment techniques for these patients. The longitudinal physical therapy care provided by Haemophilia Treatment Centres presents a unique opportunity for instituting measures that will reduce the incidence of falling in patients with haemophilia.

  17. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects : XIV. Response ofTelenomus remus to abdominal tips ofSpodoptera frugiperda, (Z)-9-tetradecene-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-dodecene-1-ol acetate.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, D A; Lewis, W J; Gueldner, R C

    1983-06-01

    Telenomus remits Nixon is a parasitoid that attacks egg masses ofSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Increased host-seeking behavior was elicited fromT. remus females in Y-tubes, Petri dish, and greenhouse bioassays byS. frugiperda female abdominal tips as well as (Z)-9-tetradecene-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-dodecene-1-ol acetate.

  18. Does secondary plant metabolism provide a mechanism for plant defenses in the tropical soda apple Solanum viarum (Solanales: Solanaceae) against the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua and southern armyworm S. eridania?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua and southern armyworm S. eridania with tropical soda apple Solanum viarum a relative of tomato. In addition, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme assays were conducted to determine if secondary plant defense compounds are being produce...

  19. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP321B1 gene from tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in commonly used insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides leading to resistance in insect populations. A polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) has been shown to be resistant to a wide range of insecticides. In this stu...

  20. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  1. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... But many cannot and need long-term care. Fear of Falling Fear of falling becomes more common with age, even ... and restore your walking confidence. Getting over your fear can help you to stay active, maintain your ...

  3. 21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER PLANT AND DAM TAKEN AROUND 1920, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BUILDING AT LOWER LEFT IS COTTAGE THAT LATER BURNED. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  4. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  5. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  6. Science Policy and Education Events at 2013 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Programming for the 2013 Fall Meeting is under way, and the schedule promises to be even more exciting than last year. Science policy-related events planned for the 2013 Fall Meeting include the following:

  7. INTAKE, CLOSE UP OF RACKS; FACING NORTHWEST Shoshone Falls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, CLOSE UP OF RACKS; FACING NORTHWEST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  8. INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  9. DETAIL OF SPILLWAY GATES; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SPILLWAY GATES; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  10. INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  11. Historic view of Nooksack Falls, taken in 1904 prior to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view of Nooksack Falls, taken in 1904 prior to construction of the hydroelectric project. (J.B. Hahn, photographer, 1904.) - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  12. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, D.; Gallego-Diaz, J. M.; Adsuar, J. C.; Domínguez-Muñoz, F. J.; Olivares, P. R.; Gusi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Results. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. Conclusion. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance. PMID:26618173

  13. The Effects of the A Matter of Balance Program on Falls and Physical Risk of Falls, Tampa, Florida, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Janke, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the effects of the A Matter of Balance (MOB) program on falls and physical risk factors of falling among community-dwelling older adults living in Tampa, Florida, in 2013. Methods A total of 110 adults (52 MOB, 58 comparison) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Data on falls, physical risk of falling, and other known risk factors of falling were collected at baseline and at the end of the program. Multivariate analysis of covariance with repeated measures and logistic regressions were used to investigate the effects of this program. Results Participants in the MOB group were less likely to have had a fall and had significant improvements in their physical risk of falling compared with adults in the comparison group. No significant effects of the MOB program on recurrent falls or the number of falls reported were found. Conclusion This study contributes to our understanding of the MOB program and its effectiveness in reducing falls and the physical risk of falling among older adults. The findings support extended use of this program to reduce falls and physical risk of falling among older adults. PMID:26402047

  14. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls.

    PubMed

    van der Zijden, A M; Groen, B E; Tanck, E; Nienhuis, B; Verdonschot, N; Weerdesteyn, V

    2012-06-01

    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls. The femoral fracture risk, however, also depends on the femoral loading configuration (direction and point of application of the force). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fall techniques, landing surface and fall height on the impact force and the loading configuration in sideways falls. Twelve experienced judokas performed sideways MA and Block ('natural') falls on a force plate, both with and without a judo mat on top. Kinematic and force data were analysed to determine the hip impact force and the loading configuration. In falls from a kneeling position, the MA technique reduced the impact force by 27%, but did not change the loading configuration. The use of the mat did not change the loading configuration. Falling from a standing changed the force direction. In all conditions, the point of application was distal and posterior to the greater trochanter, but it was less distal and more posterior in falls from standing than from kneeling position. The present decrease in hip impact force with an unchanged loading configuration indicates the potential protective effect of the MA technique on the femoral fracture risk. The change in loading configuration with an increased fall height warrant further studies to examine the effect of MA techniques on fall severity under more natural fall circumstances.

  15. Trends in Enrollment: Fall 2002 Update. Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    This memorandum contains tables of data about enrollment in institutions in the University of Wisconsin (UW) System in fall 2001 and some information about trends over time. The fall 2002 full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment was 135,653, up 1,952 (1.5%) from fall 2001. The fall 2002 headcount enrollment was 160,635, up 1,202 (0.8%) from fall…

  16. Trends in Enrollment: Fall 2001 Update. Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    This memorandum contains tables of data about enrollment in institutions in University of Wisconsin (UW) System institutions in fall 2001 and some information about trends over time. The fall 2001 full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment of 133,701 was up 2,316 (1.8%) from fall 2000. The fall 2001 headcount enrollment of 159,433 was up 2,457 (1.6%)…

  17. Development of a wearable-sensor-based fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Falin; Zhao, Hengyang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregivers with the patient's location.

  18. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  19. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  20. Fall classification by machine learning using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad; Herrmann, Megan; Jayaraman, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Fall prevention is a critical component of health care; falls are a common source of injury in the elderly and are associated with significant levels of mortality and morbidity. Automatically detecting falls can allow rapid response to potential emergencies; in addition, knowing the cause or manner of a fall can be beneficial for prevention studies or a more tailored emergency response. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate techniques to not only reliably detect a fall but also to automatically classify the type. We asked 15 subjects to simulate four different types of falls-left and right lateral, forward trips, and backward slips-while wearing mobile phones and previously validated, dedicated accelerometers. Nine subjects also wore the devices for ten days, to provide data for comparison with the simulated falls. We applied five machine learning classifiers to a large time-series feature set to detect falls. Support vector machines and regularized logistic regression were able to identify a fall with 98% accuracy and classify the type of fall with 99% accuracy. This work demonstrates how current machine learning approaches can simplify data collection for prevention in fall-related research as well as improve rapid response to potential injuries due to falls.

  1. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  9. Central Falls High School: First Year Transformation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…

  10. 46 CFR 122.704 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 122.704 Section 122.704 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.704 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used in...

  11. 46 CFR 131.550 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 131.550 Section 131.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.550 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used with a launching...

  12. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  13. 2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, SHOWING TRASH RACKS, REMOVABLE STEEL DOORS, TRASH RAKE STRUCTURE, AND DERRICK, WINCH AND CABLE GATE LIFTING DEVICE, LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  14. 3. EAST FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY IN LEFT FOREGROUND, SPOKANE CITY HALL IN LEFT BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. 4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. Iowa Community Colleges Fall 2002 Credit Student Enrollment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges.

    The Iowa Community College System transmits fall enrollment data to the Department of Education after the 14th day of the fall term start date. Highlights from this fall 2002 report include: (1) the unduplicated credit headcount enrollment of 73,947 demonstrates an increase of 5,157 (7.5%) over the previous year's unduplicated credit headcount of…

  18. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  19. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  20. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... of the Interior (Secretary) has established, in the State of New Jersey, Paterson Great Falls...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 57.14106 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1304 - Ice fall hazard zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ice fall hazard zones. 13.1304 Section 13.1304 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Provisions § 13.1304 Ice fall hazard zones. Entering an ice fall hazard zone is prohibited. These zones...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brooks Falls area. 13.1226... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 56.14106 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). 1915.159 Section 1915... Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.159 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). The criteria of this section apply... acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. (a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages....

  6. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.759 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 1926.759 Section 1926.759 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.759 Falling object... aloft, shall be secured against accidental displacement. (b) Protection from falling objects other...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.501 - Duty to have fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty to have fall protection. 1926.501 Section 1926.501..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fall Protection § 1926.501 Duty to have fall protection. (a) General. (1) This section sets forth requirements for employers...

  10. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE MODERN SUBSTATION AND OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND AND THE POWER PLANT IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  11. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. POWER PLANT AND INTAKE GATES ARE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE ATTACHED 'OLD SWITCHING BUILDING' (NOW ABANDONED) IS IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  12. The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo's gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical…

  13. Traumatic Lung Herniation following Skateboard Fall

    PubMed Central

    Kiffin, Chauniqua; Carrillo, Eddy H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung herniation (LH) is a rare clinical entity involving the protrusion of lung outside the thoracic cage. It has a variety of etiologies and clinical presentations, making diagnosis difficult. We present a case of a 20-year-old male who reported pleuritic pain after falling from a skateboard. Evaluation through computed tomography (CT) scanning of the chest revealed an anterior lung hernia associated with rib fractures. This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to include lung herniation in the differential diagnosis of patients with trauma and inexplicable or persistent pulmonary issues. PMID:27872645

  14. Fall 1991 Ocean Sciences Student Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    Michele Okihiro received an Outstanding Student Paper Award for a paper she presented at the AGU Fall 1991 Meeting entitled “Infragravity Bound Waves in Shallow and Deep Water.” Okihiro received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics from Pomona College in 1980, a Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering from the University of Hawaii in 1988, and a Master of Science degree in oceanography from the University of California at San Diego in 1986. Okihiro is currently working toward her doctorate in oceanography at the University of California at San Diego. Her research at Scripps Institution concerns infragravity waves and their role in forcing resonant harbor oscillations.

  15. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Fall 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    AD-fl143 M8 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY FALL 1975(U) MARKET FRCTS 1/2 RO-11IL4 INC CHICAGO IL J T HEISLER FEB 76 9221 UNCLAS DMDC/MRB-TR-75/i onl8... Market Facts, Inc. Job No. 9Z21 100 South Wacker Drive3 OMB 0 22-R-0339 Chicago, Illinois 60606 February, 1976 I S SE.liY’ L.LA ,AItJ,N O.r ?rIIS$ A...NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Market Facts, Inc. (if applicable) Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) 6c ADDRESS (City. State, and ZIPCode) lb. ADDRESS

  16. Contemporary Records of the (1492) Ensisheim Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, F. A.; Levi-Donati, G. R.

    1992-07-01

    On the occasion of the five-hundredth anniversary of the Ensisheim (LL6) stone (November 16, 1492), five rare documents on this fall are presented: 1) Anonymous, Annali del Convento di S. Domenico. (in Italian) Manuscript n. 1151, Biblioteca Com. "Augusta", Perugia. 2) Eusebii Pamphili C. (1570) Chronicon. Petri, Basilea. (in Latin). 3) Lycosthenes (Wolffhart) C. (1557) Prodigiorum ac ostentorum Chronicon. Petri, Basilea. (in Latin). 4) Sansovino F. (1582) Cronologia del Mondo. Salicato, Vinegia. (in Italian). 5) Schedel H. (1492) Liber Chronicarum cum figuris et ymagi(ni)bus ab inicio mu(n)di. Koberger, Nuremberga. (in Latin).

  17. Free fall onto magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salpeter, E. E.

    Some compact X-ray sources show evidence of cyclotron line radiation from excited electron Landau orbits, powered by hydrogen and helium falling onto a neutron star atmosphere along the magnetic field. The slowing of the incident matter is discussed, including the spread in energy loss due to Coulomb scattering and direct nuclear reactions for disintegrating the α particles. The α disintegrations, followed by neutron capture, lead to nuclear γ rays; the γ-ray intensity is (indirectly) coupled to the Coulomb energy loss and the cyclotron line emission.

  18. Youth Attitude Tracking Study; Fall 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-AOG2 532 MARKET FACTS INC WASHINGTON DC PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARC-ETC F/6 5/9 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDYI FALL 1979.(U) S L MAR GO MOA9O3-78-C-0396...1. A Report Prepared For: The Department of Defense I Prepared By: The Public Sector Research Group of Market Facts, Inc. 1750 K Street, N.W...Prepared By: The Public Sector Research Group of Market Facts, Inc. .1750 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 March 1980 CLEARED f.R OPEN UIIJUCT " MAR

  19. Nonspherical liquid droplet falling in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Meenu; Premlata, A. R.; Tripathi, Manoj Kumar; Karri, Badarinath; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of an initially nonspherical liquid droplet falling in air under the action of gravity is investigated via three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations in the inertial regime. The surface tension is considered to be high enough so that a droplet does not undergo breakup. Vertically symmetric oscillations which decay with time are observed for low inertia. The amplitude of these oscillations increases for high Gallilei numbers and the shape asymmetry in the vertical direction becomes prominent. The reason for this asymmetry has been attributed to the higher aerodynamic inertia. Moreover, even for large inertia, no path deviations or oscillations are observed.

  20. Persistent groin pain after a bicycle fall.

    PubMed

    Luu, Say-Chong; Jacques, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-17

    Motor scooter handlebar syndrome (MSH) is uncommon. MSH includes groin pain associated with intimal injury to the common femoral artery caused by a direct blow from objects such as a motor scooter handlebar. We describe a case of a 23-year-old man with MSH occurring after a bicycle fall. The diagnosis was performed 5 years after the onset of pain. The patient underwent endovascular surgery and made a rapid recovery. Postoperatively, he was free of symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty of recognising this syndrome.