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Sample records for spondylolisthesis

  1. Spondylolisthesis Identified Using Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Beneck, George J; Gard, Andrea N; Fodran, Kimberly A

    2017-12-01

    57-year-old woman was recruited for a research study of muscle activation in persons with low back pain. She described a progressive worsening of left lower lumbar pain, which began 5 years prior without any precipitating incident, and intermittent pain at the left gluteal fold (diagnosed as a proximal hamstring tear 2 years prior). Ultrasound revealed marked anterior displacement of the L3-4 and L4-5 facet joints. The subject was recommended for a radiograph using a lateral recumbent view, which demonstrated a grade II spondylolisthesis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):970. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7363.

  2. Spondylolisthesis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain sports activities, such as gymnastics, weightlifting, and football, greatly stress the bones in the lower back. ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  3. Automatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Measurement in CT Images.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dong, Zhongxing; Yan, Ruyi; Gong, Liyan; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Salganicoff, Marcos; Fei, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar spondylolisthesis is one of the most common spinal diseases. It is caused by the anterior shift of a lumbar vertebrae relative to subjacent vertebrae. In current clinical practices, staging of spondylolisthesis is often conducted in a qualitative way. Although meyerding grading opens the door to stage spondylolisthesis in a more quantitative way, it relies on the manual measurement, which is time consuming and irreproducible. Thus, an automatic measurement algorithm becomes desirable for spondylolisthesis diagnosis and staging. However, there are two challenges. 1) Accurate detection of the most anterior and posterior points on the superior and inferior surfaces of each lumbar vertebrae. Due to the small size of the vertebrae, slight errors of detection may lead to significant measurement errors, hence, wrong disease stages. 2) Automatic localize and label each lumbar vertebrae is required to provide the semantic meaning of the measurement. It is difficult since different lumbar vertebraes have high similarity of both shape and image appearance. To resolve these challenges, a new auto measurement framework is proposed with two major contributions: First, a learning based spine labeling method that integrates both the image appearance and spine geometry information is designed to detect lumbar vertebrae. Second, a hierarchical method using both the population information from atlases and domain-specific information in the target image is proposed for most anterior and posterior points positioning. Validated on 258 CT spondylolisthesis patients, our method shows very similar results to manual measurements by radiologists and significantly increases the measurement efficiency.

  4. Nonoperative Treatment in Lumbar Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Garet, Matthew; Reiman, Michael P.; Mathers, Jessie; Sylvain, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed across the life span of sports-participating individuals. Determining which treatments are effective for these conditions is imperative to the rehabilitation professional. Data Sources: A computer-assisted literature search was completed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases (1966-April 2012) utilizing keywords related to nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. Reference lists were also searched to find all relevant articles that fit our inclusion criteria: English language, human, lumbar pain with diagnosed spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, inclusion of at least 1 nonoperative treatment method, and use of a comparative study design. Data Extraction: Data were independently extracted from the selected studies by 2 authors and cross-referenced. Any disagreement on relevant data was discussed and resolved by a third author. Results: Ten studies meeting the criteria were rated for quality using the GRADE scale. Four studies found surgical intervention more successful than nonoperative treatment for treating pain and functional limitation. One study found no difference between surgery and nonoperative treatment with regard to future low back pain. Improvement was found in bracing, bracing and exercises emphasizing lumbar extension, range of motion and strengthening exercises focusing on lumbar flexion, and strengthening specific abdominal and lumbar muscles. Conclusion: No consensus can be reached on the role of nonoperative versus surgical care because of limited investigation and heterogeneity of studies reported. Studies of nonoperative care options suffered from lack of blinding assessors and control groups and decreased patient compliance with exercise programs. PMID:24427393

  5. Characterization of radiographic features of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yapeng; Wang, Hui; Yang, Dalong; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Sidong; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Wenyuan

    2016-11-01

    Radiographic features of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed in a total of 17 patients treated for this condition at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2005 to March 2012.To investigate the radiographic features, pelvic compensatory mechanisms, and possible underlying etiologies of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis.To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the characteristics of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis.The Taillard index and the lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacrum slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) were determined on lateral X-ray images, and the angular displacement was analyzed on flexion-extension X-ray images. Correlation between LL and various pelvic parameters and correlation between Taillard index and angular displacement were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis.A total of 20 cases of isthmic spondylolisthesis and 14 of degenerative spondylolisthesis were retrospectively studied in 17 patients. The Taillard index and the angular displacement in the lower vertebrae were both larger than those in the upper vertebrae. Statistical analysis revealed that LL was correlated with PI and PT, whereas PI was correlated with PT and SS. However, no correlation was identified between Taillard index and angular displacement.In consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis, the degree of vertebral slip and the angular displacement of the lower vertebrae were both greater than those of the upper vertebrae, indicating that the compensatory mechanism of the pelvis plays an important role in maintaining sagittal balance.

  6. Characterization of radiographic features of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yapeng; Wang, Hui; Yang, Dalong; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Sidong; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radiographic features of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed in a total of 17 patients treated for this condition at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2005 to March 2012. To investigate the radiographic features, pelvic compensatory mechanisms, and possible underlying etiologies of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the characteristics of consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis. The Taillard index and the lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacrum slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) were determined on lateral X-ray images, and the angular displacement was analyzed on flexion–extension X-ray images. Correlation between LL and various pelvic parameters and correlation between Taillard index and angular displacement were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. A total of 20 cases of isthmic spondylolisthesis and 14 of degenerative spondylolisthesis were retrospectively studied in 17 patients. The Taillard index and the angular displacement in the lower vertebrae were both larger than those in the upper vertebrae. Statistical analysis revealed that LL was correlated with PI and PT, whereas PI was correlated with PT and SS. However, no correlation was identified between Taillard index and angular displacement. In consecutive lumbar spondylolisthesis, the degree of vertebral slip and the angular displacement of the lower vertebrae were both greater than those of the upper vertebrae, indicating that the compensatory mechanism of the pelvis plays an important role in maintaining sagittal balance. PMID:27861359

  7. Current evaluation and management of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    McTimoney, C A Michelle; Micheli, Lyle J

    2003-02-01

    Spondylolysis occurs with a prevalence of 4% to 6% in the general population. Although the etiology of this lesion is still unclear, it has been shown to have both hereditary and acquired risk factors, with an increased prevalence in men and athletes participating in certain high-risk sports. Spondylolisthesis occurs in a significant proportion of individuals with bilateral spondylolysis. Predicting risk factors for progression of the slip in spondylolisthesis has proven difficult. Multiple imaging techniques are helpful in the diagnosis of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, with recent research addressing the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and management of pars lesions. The management guidelines have remained largely unchanged since early recommendations. Recently, the addition of a bone growth stimulator to the management of difficult cases has shown promise.

  8. Mobilisation of the thoracic spine in the management of spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P P; Pattnaik, Monalisa

    2016-07-01

    Segmental instability due to lumbar spondylolisthesis is a potential cause of chronic low back pain. Hypomobility of the spine results in compensatory segmental hypermobility of the segment above or below restricted segments. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the effects of mobilisation of the hypomobile upper thoracic spine along with conventional flexion exercises and stretching of short hip flexors on the degree of slippage and the functions of the persons with lumbar spondylolisthesis. All patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I - Experimental group, treated with mobilisation of the thoracic spine along with the conventional physiotherapy and Group II - Conventional group, treated with conventional stretching, strengthening, and lumbar flexion exercise programme. The experimental group treated with mobilisation of the thoracic spine shows a significant reduction in the percentage of vertebral slip from pre-treatment to post-treatment measurements. Low back pain due to spondylolisthesis may be benefited by mobilisation of the thoracic spine along with stretching of short hip flexors, piriformis, lumbar flexion range of motion exercises, core strengthening exercises, etc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of spondylolisthesis in low back pain by clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kalpakcioglu, Banu; Altinbilek, Turgay; Senel, Kazim

    2009-01-01

    Current guides recommend to evaluate the patients with low back pain complaints with initial clinical assessment and history, and to utilize radiological or other imaging technics, in case of possible diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of radiological and clinical assessment, and validate the reliability of spondylolisthesis diagnosed with clinical assessment. This study is conducted on 100 patients with, and 30 patients without (control group) radiological diagnosis of spondylolisthesis, who had applied to Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Haydarpasa Numune Hospital with low back pain complaints in one and a half year. Clinic assessment was consisted of 20 parameters including examinations of motor system such as, sign of slipping observed on palpation and inspection, extension of trunk and increase in lumbar lordosis. Antero-posterior, lateral, oblique and lateral flexion/extension radiographies were used for radiological assessment. Slipping degree and lumbar lordosis angle were measured. Women/men patients ratio was 91/9 in spondylolisthesis group and 22/8 in control group. Age of 69% of patients were 50 and over. In both groups, sciatalgia was observed in more than half of the patients, and no significant difference was detected in localization (p > 0.05). In clinical assessment, weak and drooping abdominal wall, paravertebral muscle hypertrophy, increase in lumbar lordosis, sign of slipping observed on palpation and inspection, hamstring muscle spasm, pain during lateral trunk flexion-extension tasks and during double leg raising task were found to be positively correlated with radiological assesment (p < 0.05). In our study, a systematic clinical assessment was proved to be useful in determination of possible spondylolisthesis cases. Radiological assessments are required in order to make the diagnosis clear and to determine the grade and prognosis of spondylolisthesis. Advanced imaging techniques like MRI and CT

  10. Nursing review of diagnosis and treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, degenerative spondylolisthesis or degenerative (not traumatic) slippage of one vertebral body over another is divided into 4 grades – grade I (25%), grade II (50%), grade III (75%), and grade IV (100%). Dynamic X-rays, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) scans document the slip secondary to arthritic changes of the facet joint plus stenosis, ossification of the yellow ligament, disc herniations, and synovial cysts. MR best demonstrates soft tissue pathology whereas CT better delineates ossific/calcified disease. Methods: Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, typically found at the L4–L5 level followed by L3–L4 and L5S1, is more common in females (ratio 2:1) over the age of 65. Symptoms include radiculopathy (root pain) and neurogenic claudication (e.g., pain with ambulation, requiring the patient to stop, rest, sit down). Symptoms/signs may include unilateral/bilateral radiculopathy and uni/multifocal motor, reflex, and sensory deficits in. Some may also present with a cauda equina syndrome (e.g., paraparesis/sphincter dysfunction). Results: Surgery for grade I-II spondylolisthesis may include laminectomy alone, laminectomy/noninstrumented fusion or with an instrumented fusion. Older patients with osteoporosis are more likely to have no fusion or a noninstrumented fusion. All fusions utilize autograft harvested from the laminectomy that may or may not be combined with a bone graft expander (to increase the fusion mass) combined with autogenous bone marrow aspirate. The fusion mass is placed over the transverse processes following decortication. Conclusions: Patients with multilevel spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis may require decompressive lumbar laminectomies alone or in combination with noninstrumented or instrumented fusions. PMID:29119044

  11. Workers' Compensation, Return to Work, and Lumbar Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis is associated with consistent outcomes in the general population. However, workers' compensation is a risk factor for worse outcomes. Few studies have evaluated prognostic factors within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work among patients with workers' compensation claims after fusion for spondylolisthesis. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify 686 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis from 1993 to 2013. Positive return to work status was recorded in patients who returned to work within 2 years of fusion and remained working for longer than 6 months. The criteria for return to work were met by 29.9% (n=205) of subjects. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify prognostic factors for return to work. Negative preoperative prognostic factors for postoperative return to work included: out of work for longer than 1 year before fusion (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.16); depression (P=.007; OR<0.01); long-term opioid analgesic use (P=.006; OR, 0.41); lumbar stenosis (P=.043; OR, 0.55); and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.63). Return to work rates associated with these factors were 9.7%, 0.0%, 10.0%, 29.2%, and 25.0%, respectively. If these subjects were excluded, the return to work rate increased to 60.4%. The 70.1% (n=481) of subjects who did not return to work had markedly worse outcomes, shown by higher medical costs, chronic opioid dependence, and higher rates of failed back syndrome, total disability, and additional surgery. Psychiatric comorbidity increased after fusion but was much higher in those who did not return to work. Future studies are needed to identify how to better facilitate return to work among similar patients with workers' compensation claims. Copyright 2016

  12. [Efficacy of Coflex in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis].

    PubMed

    Hai, Y; Meng, X L; Li, D Y; Zhang, X N; Wang, Y S

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To study the clinical results of Coflex and lumbar posterior decompression and fusion in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis at L(4-5). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with Grade Ⅰ degenerative spondylolisthesis, from January 2008 to December 2011 in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University were reviewed, and patients were divided into two groups by randomness. Group A was treated with Coflex and group B with pedicle instrumentation and interbody fusion. Fifteen patients were included in group A, and 23 patients were included in group B. In group A, the average age was (56.3±9.1) years. In group B, the average age was (58.2±11.2) years. The clinical results were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Slip distance (SD) was measured before and after surgery, and the changes of intervertebral angle at index level and adjacent level were also recorded. Results: The follow-up period was 36 to 68 months, with the average of (39±14) months in the both groups. The operation time and bleeding volume of patients in group A were significantly less than that of group B ( P <0.05). In both groups, the difference of ODI and VAS before operation and postoperative follow-up were statistically significant ( P <0.05). There was no significant difference between lumbar intervertebral angle and the sliding distance in group A at all time points. In the group B, there was a significant increase in the intervertebral angle and the sliding distance at L(3-4) and L(5)-S(1 )level after surgery, the difference at upper and below adjacent segment before and after surgery were statistically significant. Conclusions: Coflex interspinous dynamic stabilization system has same excellent clinical results as pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion surgery for the treatment of L(4-5) degenerative spondylolisthesis; no significant progression of spondylolisthesis been observed during more than 3 years follow

  13. Prognostic Importance of Spinopelvic Parameters in the Assessment of Conservative Treatment in Patients with Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    M L V, Sai Krishna; Sharma, Deep; Menon, Jagdish

    2018-04-01

    This was a prospective, two-group comparative study. The present study aimed to determine the importance of the spinopelvic parameters in the causation and progression of spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis is slippage of one vertebra over the vertebra below. Since the discovery of pelvic incidence (PI) in 1998 in addition to documentation of other parameters in spinopelvic balance, slippage in spondylolisthesis has been attributed to these parameters. Many studies on the Caucasian population have implicated high PI as a causative factor of spondylolisthesis. To the best of our knowledge, no study has described the role of these parameters in the progression of spondylolisthesis. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India. Seventy-nine patients with spondylolisthesis consented to participate in the study. All patients were advised to undergo conservative treatment and were regularly followed up according to the protocol. Seventy-five asymptomatic volunteers were recruited as a control group. Of the total of 79 patients, 54 were followed up for 6 months, during which 46 improved, eight showed no improvement, and 25 were lost to follow-up. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters were measured by a single observer using the Surgimap spine software ver. 2.1.2 (Nemaris, New York, NY, USA). Parameters measured were PI, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. The results from patients and controls were compared using appropriate statistical methods. The normal and spondylolisthesis groups significantly differed with respect to PI, SS, and PT ( p <0.001). There were no significant differences in the measured spinopelvic parameters between patients with high- and low-grade spondylolisthesis or between those whose condition improved and those whose condition worsened. PI, the most important of all spinopelvic parameters, is responsible for the slip in spondylolisthesis, but

  14. Higher Improvement in Patient-Reported Outcomes Can Be Achieved After Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Clinical and Radiographic Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Classification Type D Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Liang; Qiu, Yong; Chen, Zhong-Hui; Zhou, Qing-Shuang; Li, Song; Sun, Xu

    2018-06-01

    Clinical and radiographic degenerative spondylolisthesis (CARDS) classification defines a distinct subset of patients with kyphotic angulation at the involved segment (type D). Research using CARDS classification to investigate motion characteristics at involved segments or patient-related outcomes (PROs) following surgical intervention is sparse. We investigated the relationship between CARDS type D spondylolisthesis and dynamic instability and PROs in type D versus non-type D spondylolisthesis. We reviewed consecutive patients who received transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for L4-5 spondylolisthesis between 2009 and 2015. Patients were assigned into type D and non-type D groups. Translational motion was determined by upright lumbar lateral radiography with supine sagittal magnetic resonance imaging or flexion and extension radiography. Demographics, radiographic parameters, and PROs were evaluated. Type D and non-type D groups comprised 34 and 163 patients, respectively. Compared with non-type D, type D group was characterized by lordotic angulation loss and higher degree of olisthesis on upright radiographs and demonstrated higher translational motion on upright lumbar lateral radiography with supine sagittal magnetic resonance imaging analysis. After surgery, mean reduction rate was significantly higher in type D group; type D had less slippage, but differences in slip angle and disc height were not significant. Preoperative Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale for back pain scores were higher in type D group. Type D spondylolisthesis and dynamic instability were associated with achieving minimal clinically important differences in PROs. CARDS type D spondylolisthesis is a distinct subset associated with dynamic instability and worse PROs. Higher improvement in PROs can be achieved in CARDS type D spondylolisthesis after surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement Properties of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire in Adolescent Patients With Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Gabriel; Joncas, Julie; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Beauséjour, Marie; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Prospective validation of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire French-Canadian version (SRS-22fv) in adolescent patients with spondylolisthesis. To determine the measurement properties of the SRS-22fv. The SRS-22 is widely used for the assessment of health-related quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and other spinal deformities. Spondylolisthesis has an important effect on quality of life. The instrument was previously used in this population, although its measurement properties remained unknown. We aim to determine its reliability, factorial, concurrent validity, and its discriminant capacity in an adolescent spondylolisthesis population. The SRS-22fv was tested in 479 subjects (272 patients with spondylolisthesis, 143 with AIS, and 64 controls) at a single institution. Its reliability was measured using the coefficient of internal consistency, concurrent validity by the short form-12 (SF-12v2 French version) and discriminant validity using multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and multivariate linear regression. The SRS-22fv showed a good global internal consistency (spondylolisthesis: Cronbach α = 0.91, AIS: 0.86, and controls: 0.78) in all its domains for spondylolisthesis patients. It showed a factorial structure consistent with the original questionnaire, with 60% of explained variance under four factors. Moderate to high correlation coefficients were found for specifically corresponding domains between SRS-22fv and SF-12v2. Boys had higher scores than do girls, scores worsened with increasing age and body mass index. Analysis of covariance showed statistically significant differences between patients with spondylolisthesis, patients with AIS, and controls when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, pain, function, and self-image scores. In the spondylolisthesis group, scores on all domains and mean total scores were significantly lower in surgical candidates and in patients with high

  16. Radiofrequency neurotomy for treatment of low back pain in patients with minor degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Klessinger, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis is one of the major causes for low back pain. Morphological abnormalities of the zygapophysial joints are a predisposing factor in the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis. Therefore, radiofrequency neurotomy seems to be a rational therapy. To determine if radiofrequency neurotomy is effective for patients with low back pain and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Retrospective practice audit. Single spine center Charts of all patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent treatment with radiofrequency neurotomy during a time period of 3 years were reviewed. Only patients with magnetic resonance imaging confirming the diagnosis were included. Patients with a lumbar spine operation in their history, patients with neurological deficits, and patients with a follow-up less than 3 months were excluded. Patients were treated with lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy. Positive treatment response was defined as at least a 50% reduction in pain. A radiofrequency neurotomy was only performed after positive diagnostic medial branch blocks. During a time period of 3 years, 1,490 patients were treated with lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy. Forty of these patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. A significant pain reduction was achieved in 65 % of the patients. This audit is retrospective and observational, and therefore does not represent a high level of evidence. However, to our knowledge, since this information has not been previously reported and no specific nonoperative treatment for lumbar pain in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis exists, it appears to be the best available research upon which to recommend treatment and to plan higher quality studies. Zygapophysial joints are a possible source of pain in patients with spondylolisthesis. Radiofrequency neurotomy is a rational, specific nonoperative therapy in addition to other nonoperative therapy methods with a success rate of 65%. This is the first

  17. Intraoperative conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots associated with spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Popa, Iulian; Poenaru, Dan V; Oprea, Manuel D; Andrei, Diana

    2013-07-01

    Lumbosacral nerve roots anomalies may produce low back pain. These anomalies are reported to be a cause for failed back surgery. They are usually left undiagnosed, especially in endoscopic discectomy techniques. Any surgery for entrapment disorders, performed on a patient with undiagnosed lumbosacral nerve roots anomaly, may lead to serious neural injuries because of an improper surgical technique or decompression. In this report, we describe our experience with a case of L5-S1 spondylolisthesis and associated congenital lumbosacral nerve root anomalies discovered during the surgical intervention, and the difficulties raised by such a discovery. Careful examination of coronal and axial views obtained through high-quality Magnetic Resonance Imaging may lead to a proper diagnosis of this condition leading to an adequate surgical planning, minimizing the intraoperatory complications.

  18. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents: I. Diagnosis, natural history, and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Ralph; Herman, Martin J; Cheung, Emilie V; Pizzutillo, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often diagnosed in children presenting with low back pain. Spondylolysis refers to a defect of the vertebral pars interarticularis. Spondylolisthesis is the forward translation of one vertebral segment over the one beneath it. Isthmic spondylolysis, isthmic spondylolisthesis, and stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis are the most common forms seen in children. Typical presentation is characterized by a history of activity-related low back pain and the presence of painful spinal mobility and hamstring tightness without radiculopathy. Plain radiography, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography are useful for establishing the diagnosis. Symptomatic stress reactions of the pars interarticularis or adjacent vertebral structures are best treated with immobilization of the spine and activity restriction. Spondylolysis often responds to brief periods of activity restriction, immobilization, and physiotherapy. Low-grade spondylolisthesis (< or =50% translation) is treated similarly. The less common dysplastic spondylolisthesis with intact posterior elements requires greater caution. Symptomatic high-grade spondylolisthesis (>50% translation) responds much less reliably to nonsurgical treatment. The growing child may need to be followed clinically and radiographically through skeletal maturity. When pain persists despite nonsurgical interventions, when progressive vertebral displacement increases, or in the presence of progressive neurologic deficits, surgical intervention is appropriate.

  19. Facet Joint Osteoarthritis Affects Spinal Segmental Motion in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Shigeyuki; Takatori, Ryota; Arai, Yuji; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Inoue, Nozomu; Ogura, Taku; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-06-15

    This is a retrospective clinical case series (case-control study). To clarify the influence of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) on the pathology of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) using in vivo 3-dimensional image analysis. There are no radical treatments to prevent progression of DS in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis associated with DS. Therefore, an effective treatment method based on the pathology of DS should be developed. In total, 50 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis involving L4/5 who underwent dynamic computed tomography were divided into 2 groups: with DS [spondylolisthesis (Sp) group; 12 male, 14 female; mean age, 74 y]; and without DS (non-Sp group; 15 male, 9 female; mean age, 70 y). Degeneration of the intervertebral disk and FJOA at L4/5 were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Disk and intervertebral foramen heights, the distance between the craniocaudal edges of the facet joint, and the interspinous distance were measured on dynamic computed tomographic images. Also, in vivo 3-dimensional segmental motion was evaluated using the volume merge method. There were no significant differences in degenerative findings for the intervertebral disk; however, progressive FJOA was detected in the Sp group. Dynamic changes in the distance between the craniocaudal edges of the facet joints were significantly larger in the Sp group. In this study, progressive FJOA and larger segmental motion in the distance between the craniocaudal edges of the facet joints were found in the Sp group. We clarified for the first time that DS involves ligament laxity due to FJOA that affects spinal segmental motion in vivo. We consider that a treatment method based on FJOA would be useful for treating patients with DS. Level IV.

  20. Nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis: a 10- to 18-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, S; Ijiri, K; Hayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Controversy exists concerning the indications for surgery and choice of surgical procedure for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The goals of this study were to determine the clinical course of nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis as well as the indications for surgery. A total of 145 nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were examined annually for a minimum of 10 years follow-up evaluation. Radiographic changes, changes in clinical symptoms, and functional prognosis were surveyed. Progressive spondylolisthesis was observed in 49 patients (34%). There was no correlation between changes in clinical symptoms and progression of spondylolisthesis. The intervertebral spaces of the slipped segments were decreased significantly in size during follow-up examination in patients in whom no progression was found. Low-back pain improved following a decrease in the total intervertebral space size. A total of 84 (76%) of 110 patients who had no neurological deficits at initial examination remained without neurological deficit after 10 years of follow up. Twenty-nine (83%) of the 35 patients who had neurological symptoms, such as intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, at initial examination and refused surgery experienced neurological deterioration. The final prognosis for these patients was very poor. Low-back pain was improved by restabilization. Conservative treatment is useful for patients who have low-back pain with or without pain in the lower extremities. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients with neurological symptoms including intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, provided that a good functional outcome can be achieved.

  1. The management of high-grade spondylolisthesis and co-existent late-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Bayley, Edward; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2016-10-01

    It is relatively common for a scoliosis deformity to be associated with a lumbar spondylolisthesis in adolescents (up to 48 % of spondylolistheses). In the literature two types of curve have been described: 'sciatic' or 'olisthetic'. However, there is no consensus in the literature on how best to treat these deformities. Some authors advocate a single surgical intervention, where both deformities are corrected; whereas, others advocate treating them as separate entities. In this situation, it has been shown that the scoliosis will correct with treatment of the spondylolisthesis. We present a 12-year-old girl who had a concomitant high-grade spondylolisthesis and scoliosis. Her main complaints were those of low back pain and an L5 radiculopathy. We took the decision to treat the spondylolisthesis surgically, but observe the scoliosis, rather than correcting them both surgically at the same sitting. Although the immediately post-operative radiographs showed persistence of the scoliosis, 1-year follow-up demonstrated full resolution of the deformity. This young lady also had relief of her low back pain and leg pain following the surgery. There are no standard guidelines and therefore, we discuss the management of this difficult problem, exemplifying a case of a young girl who had high-grade spondylolisthesis along with a clinically non-flexible scoliosis treated at our institution. We demonstrate that it is safe to observe the scoliosis, even in high-grade spondylolistheses.

  2. Risk factors for degenerative spondylolisthesis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    DeVine, John G.; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic literature review. Rationale: Many authors have postulated on various risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), yet controversies regarding those risk factors still exist. Objective: To critically appraise and summarize evidence on risk factors for DS. Methods: Articles published before October 15, 2011, were systematically reviewed using PubMed and bibliographies of key articles. Each article was subject to quality rating and was analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: From 382 citations, 30 underwent full-text review. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. All but two were considered poor quality. Female gender and higher facet joint angle were consistently associated with an increased risk of DS across multiple studies. Multiple studies also consistently reported no association between back pain and prolonged occupational sitting. Associations between age, parity, lumbosacral angle, lumbar lordosis, facet joint tropism, and pelvic inclination angles were inconsistent. Conclusions: There appears to be consistent evidence to suggest that the risk of DS increases with increasing age and is greater for females and people with a greater facet joint angle. PMID:23230415

  3. Spondylolisthesis in an Etruscan woman from Spina (Ferrara, Italy): an iron age case report.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Onisto, Nicoletta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Spondylolisthesis consists of the slippage of a vertebra in relation to the one beneath. It is caused by separation of the neural arch from the vertebral body (spondylolysis), and predominantly occurs at the isthmus (pars interarticularis). Originally thought to be a congenital anomaly, its strict correlation with certain activities that seem to exert stress on lower spine was later demonstrated. This paper describes a case of progression of spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis found on an adult female skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy). The case in question was identified among 209 skeletons exhumed at Spina. As spondylolisthesis is strictly connected with activities that exert stress on lower spine, the evidence suggests that this woman was engaged in stressful physical activity, perhaps related to the specific trade function of the site.

  4. Treating Traumatic Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Using Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with three years follow up

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the surgical outcome of traumatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis treated using posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and help spine surgeons to determine the treatment strategy. Methods: We reviewed retrospectively five cases of traumatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis treated in our hospital from May 2005 to May 2010. There were four male and one female patient, treated surgically using posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patients’ data including age, neurological status, operation time, blood loss, follow-up periods, X- radiographs and fusion status were collected. Results: All the cases were treated using posterior lumbar interbody fusion to realize decompression, reduction and fusion. Solid arthrodesis was found at the 12-month follow-up. No shift or breakage of the instrumentation was found, and all the patients were symptom-free at the last follow-up. Conclusion: Traumatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis can be treated using posterior lumbar interbody fusion to realize the perfect reduction, decompression, fixation and fusion. PMID:25225542

  5. Occupational and personal factors associated with acquired lumbar spondylolisthesis of urban taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chan, W; Katz, J; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the occupational and personal factors associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis in taxi drivers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort. Information was retrieved from the medical records of standardised lumbosacral spine plain films, age, and anthropometric measures of 1242 subjects. Acquired spondylolisthesis (ASL) was defined as non-lytic spondylolisthesis involving lumbar spines above L5. Questionnaires were used to gather information on demographic features, health behaviours, exercise, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the odds ratio (OR) for prevalent ASL cases associated with personal and occupational factors. Results: A total of 40 cases (3.2%) of ASL were diagnosed. Among those driving ⩽5 years, 6–15 years, and >15 years, the estimated prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was 1.1%, 2.4%, and 7.1% respectively. Results of multiple logistic regression suggested that taxicab driving >15 years (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.7, compared to driving ⩽5 years), age (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.6 for age 46–55; and OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.9 for age >55), body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.6), and frequent strenuous exercise (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.5) were significantly associated with higher prevalence of spondylolisthesis. There was a consistent likely exposure-response relation between professional seniority and ASL prevalence. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed association between professional driving and spondylolisthesis, and to examine further the specific occupational exposures accountable for this association. PMID:15550605

  6. Axial presacral lumbar interbody fusion and percutaneous posterior fixation for stabilization of lumbosacral isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Gerszten, Peter C; Tobler, William; Raley, Thomas J; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E; Nasca, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    Case series. To describe a minimally invasive surgical technique for treatment of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Traditional surgical management of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is technically challenging and associated with significant complications. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer patients treatment alternatives with lower operative morbidity risk. The combination of percutaneous pedicle screw reduction and an axial presacral approach for lumbosacral discectomy and fusion is an option for the surgical management of low-grade lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Twenty-six consecutive patients with symptomatic L5-S1 level isthmic spondylolisthesis (grade 1 or grade 2) underwent axial presacral lumbar interbody fusion and percutaneous posterior fixation. Study outcomes included visual analogue scale for axial pain severity, Odom criteria, and radiographic fusion. The procedure was successfully completed in all patients with no intraoperative complications reported. Intraoperative blood loss was minimal (range, 20-150 mL). Median hospital stay was 1 day (range, <1-2 d). Spondylolisthesis grade was improved after axial lumbar interbody fusion (P<0.001) with 50% (13 of 26) of patients showing a reduction of at least 1 grade. Axial pain severity improved from 8.1±1.4 at baseline to 2.8±2.3 after axial lumbar interbody fusion, representing a 66% reduction from baseline (95% confidence interval, 54.3%-77.9%). At 2-year posttreatment, all patients showed solid fusion. Using Odom criteria, 81% of patients were judged as excellent or good (16 excellent, 5 good, 3 fair, and 2 poor). There were no perioperative procedure-related complications including infection or bowel perforation. During postoperative follow-up, 4 patients required reintervention due to recurrent radicular (n=2) or screw-related (n=2) pain. The minimally invasive presacral axial interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation technique is a safe and effective treatment for low-grade isthmic

  7. Proximal sacral deformity: a common element in lytic isthmic spondylolisthesis at L5 and in degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 segment. Two apparently very different etiopathogenic entities.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Goyanes, A; Barahona-Lorenzo, D; Díez-Ulloa, M A

    A radiographic study was carried out to investigate the relationship between proximal sacral sagittal anatomy (either kyphosis or lordosis) and either isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis. In addition, we studied whether there is a relationship between proximal sacral kyphosis and the degree of such listhesis in the case of L5 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Lateral standing x-rays were used from 173 patients, ninety of whom had degenerative spondylolisthesis L4-L5, and eighty-three an isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5 (67 low-grade and 16 high-grade) and compared with a control group of 100 patients adjusted by age and gender, without any type of spondylolisthesis. Listhesis was graded using Meyerding's classification and the proximal sacral kyphosis angle (CSP) was measured between S1 and S2 posterior walls, according to Harrison's method. In our series, there was a proximal sacral kyphosis in both types of spondylolisthesis, greater in the lytic type. By contrast, the control group had a proximal sacral lordosis. The differences were statistically significant. Therefore, we concluded that there was a proximal sacral kyphosis in patients with both degenerative and isthmic lytic spondylolisthesis, but with our results, we were not able to ascertain whether it is a cause or a consequence of this listhesis. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Thoracic Inlet Parameters for Degenerative Cervical Spondylolisthesis Imaging Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanbing; Wang, Xiao-Tao; Zhu, Lei; Wei, Yu-Xi

    2018-04-05

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of sagittal measurement of thoracic inlet parameters for degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis (DCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We initially included 65 patients with DCS and the same number of health people as the control group by using cervical radiograph evaluations. We analyzed the x-ray and computer tomographic (CT) data in prone and standing position at the same time. Measurement of cervical sagittal parameters was carried out in a standardized supine position. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate these parameters as a diagnostic index for DCS. RESULTS There were 60 cases enrolled in the DCS group, and 62 cases included in the control group. The T1 slope and thoracic inlet angle (TIA) were significantly greater for the DCS group compared to the control group (24.33±2.85º versus 19.59±2.04º, p=0.00; 76.11±9.82º versus 72.86±7.31º, p=0.03, respectively). We observed no significant difference for the results of the neck tilt (NT), C2-C7 angle in the control and the DSC group (p>0.05). Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed that preoperative T1 slope of more than 22.0º showed significantly diagnostic value for the DCS group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance of thoracic inlet have a statistically significant increased risk of DCS. T1 slope of more than 22.0º showed significantly diagnostic value for the incidence of DCS.

  9. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The

  10. A comparison of film and computer workstation measurements of degenerative spondylolisthesis: intraobserver and interobserver reliability.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Michael J; Winslow, Lauren; Gill, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    A comparison of measurements of degenerative spondylolisthesis made on film and on computer workstations. To determine whether the 2 methodologies are comparable in some of the parameters used to assess lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Digital radiology has been replacing analog radiographs. In scoliosis, several studies have shown that measurements made on digital and analog films are similar and that they are also similar to those made on computer workstations. Such work has not been done in spondylolisthesis. Twenty-four cases of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis were identified from our clinic practice. Three observers measured anterior displacement, sagittal rotation, and lumbar lordosis on digital films using the same protractor and pencil. The same parameters were measured on the same studies at clinical workstations. All measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. A statistician determined the intra and interobserver reliability of the 2 measurement methods and the degree of agreement between the 2 methods. The differences between the first and second readings did reach statistical significance in some cases, but none of them were large enough to be clinically meaningful. The interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were >or=0.80 except for one (0.67). The difference among the 3 observers was similarly statistically significant in a few instances but not enough to influence clinical decisions and with good ICCs (0.67 and better). Similarly, the differences in the 2 methods were small, and ICCs ranged from 0.69 to 0.98. This study supports the use of computer workstation measurements in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. The parameters used in this study were comparable, whether measured on film or at clinical workstations.

  11. Asymmetric Spondylolisthesis as the Cause of Childhood Lumbar Scoliosis—Can New Imaging Modalities Help Clarify the Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan B.; Wenger, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The etiology of idiopathic scoliosis is likely genetic. Research is proceeding to identify the responsible genes. Although genetics accounts for the majority of idiopathic scoliosis, a subset of curves occur secondary to mechanical “foundation”issues at the lumbosacral junction. The most common mechanical “foundation”issue at the lumbosacral junction is spondylolisthesis. A relationship between lumbar scoliosis and spondylolisthesis has been well documented. Modern imaging studies are providing an opportunity to cast new light on this inter-relationship. First, computerized tomography (CT) studies, and now 3-D CT studies of the lumbosacral area have been performed in an attempt to further elucidate this matter. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the topic and to present images that suggest an etiologic relationship between lumbar scoliosis and spondylolisthesis with mild asymmetric spondylolisthesis proposed as the cause of the lumbar curve. PMID:19223951

  12. MRI signal distribution within the intervertebral disc as a biomarker of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Julien; Périé, Delphine; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Aubin, Carl-Eric

    2012-12-03

    Early stages of scoliosis and spondylolisthesis entail changes in the intervertebral disc (IVD) structure and biochemistry. The current clinical use of MR T2-weighted images is limited to visual inspection. Our hypothesis is that the distribution of the MRI signal intensity within the IVD in T2-weighted images depends on the spinal pathology and on its severity. Therefore, this study aims to develop the AMRSID (analysis of MR signal intensity distribution) method to analyze the 3D distribution of the MR signal intensity within the IVD and to evaluate their sensitivity to scoliosis and spondylolisthesis and their severities. This study was realized on 79 adolescents who underwent a MRI acquisition (sagittal T2-weighted images) before their orthopedic or surgical treatment. Five groups were considered: low severity scoliosis (Cobb angle ≤50°), high severity scoliosis (Cobb angles >50°), low severity spondylolisthesis (Meyerding grades I and II), high severity spondylolisthesis (Meyerding grades III, IV and V) and control. The distribution of the MRI signal intensity within the IVD was analyzed using the descriptive statistics of histograms normalized by either cerebrospinal fluid or bone signal intensity, weighted centers and volume ratios. Differences between pathology and severity groups were assessed using one- and two-way ANOVAs. There were significant (p < 0.05) variations of indices between scoliosis, spondylolithesis and control groups and between low and high severity groups. The cerebrospinal fluid normalization was able to detect differences between healthy and pathologic IVDs whereas the bone normalization, which reflects both bone and IVD health, detected more differences between the severities of these pathologies. This study proves for the first time that changes in the intervertebral disc, non visible to the naked eye on sagittal T2-weighted MR images of the spine, can be detected from specific indices describing the distribution of the MR

  13. Comparison and correlation of pelvic parameters between low-grade and high-grade spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Chang-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    This study was retrospectively conducted on 51 patients with L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. This study was conducted to compare a total of 11 pelvic parameters, such as the level of displacement by Meyerding method, lumbar lordosis, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, slip angle, S2 inclination, pelvic incidence (PI), L5 inclination, L5 slope, pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS) between low-grade and high-grade spondylolisthesis, and to investigate a correlation of the level of displacement by Meyerding method with other pelvic parameters. Pelvic parameters were measured using preoperational erect lateral spinal simple radiographs. The patients were divided into 39 patients with low-grade spondylolisthesis and 12 patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis before analysis. In all patients of both groups, 11 radiographic measurements including the level of displacement by Meyerding method, lumbar lordosis, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, slip angle, S2 inclination, PI, L5 inclination, L5 slope, PT, and SS were performed. T test and Pearson correlation analysis were conducted to compare and analyze each measurement. As for the comparison between the 2 groups, a statistically great significance in the level of displacement by Meyerding method, lumbosacral angle, slip angle, L5 incidence, PI, and L5 slope (P≤0.001) was shown. Meanwhile, a statistical significance in the sacral inclination and PT (P<0.05) was also shown. However, no statistical significance in the S2 incidence and SS was shown. A correlation of the level of displacement by Meyerding method with each parameter was analyzed in the both the groups. A high correlation was observed in the lumbar lordosis, lumbosacral angle, slip angle, L5 incidence, and L5 slope (Pearson correlation coefficient, P=0.01), as well as the sacral inclination, PI, and PT (Pearson correlation coefficient, P=0.05). Meanwhile, no correlation was shown in the S2 incidence and SS. A significant difference in the lumbosacral

  14. Effect of low-level pulsed laser 890-nm on lumbar spondylolisthesis: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyed M. J.; Afsharpad, Mitra; Djavid, Gholam-reza E.

    2002-10-01

    Objective: Evaluating the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in alleviating the symptoms of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: Laser was irradiated for 2 mm at six symmetric points along the lumbosacral spine and 5 points along the referred point ofpain, six times a week for 2 weeks (890 nm; 8 J/cm2; pulsed at 1500 Hz). Perception of benefit, level of function was assessed by the Oswestry disability index, lumbar mobility range of motion and low back pain intensity. Results and Discussion: Results showed a complete reduction in pain and improvement in function in the patient. This case report suggests that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could play a role in conservative management of low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis.

  15. A Blast of Mistakes: Undiagnosed Cervical Spondylolisthesis Following a Bomb Explosion.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Riccardo; Marrocco, Luigi; Piccione, Emanuele; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2017-03-30

    BACKGROUND A case of spinal trauma had an unusual clinical course due to medical mistakes, from which we can learn some important lessons. CASE REPORT We report a case of spondylolisthesis following a bomb explosion, which went undiagnosed for a long time because of a series of mistakes that are highlighted in this article. What makes this case unique is that the spondylolisthesis developed during hospital stay, but the patient had no loss of mobility, strength, or sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS This case shows that establishing the conditions of an organ or a body part upon admission to hospital may not be enough when a patient has suffered extensive and serious trauma, and that it is necessary to carry out more checkups over time, especially if there are new clues and symptoms.

  16. Spino-pelvic sagittal balance of spondylolisthesis: a review and classification.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Hubert; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roussouly, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In L5-S1 spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that sacro-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of the spine. The purpose of this article is to review the work done within the Spinal Deformity Study Group (SDSG) over the past decade, which has led to a classification incorporating this recent knowledge. The evidence presented has been derived from the analysis of the SDSG database, a multi-center radiological database of patients with L5-S1 spondylolisthesis, collected from 43 spine surgeons in North America and Europe. The classification defines 6 types of spondylolisthesis based on features that can be assessed on sagittal radiographs of the spine and pelvis: (1) grade of slip, (2) pelvic incidence, and (3) spino-pelvic alignment. A reliability study has demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-observer reliability similar to other currently used classifications for spinal deformity. Furthermore, health-related quality of life measures were found to be significantly different between the 6 types, thus supporting the value of a classification based on spino-pelvic alignment. The clinical relevance is that clinicians need to keep in mind when planning treatment that subjects with L5-S1 spondylolisthesis are a heterogeneous group with various adaptations of their posture. In the current controversy on whether high-grade deformities should or should not be reduced, it is suggested that reduction techniques should preferably be used in subjects with evidence of abnormal posture, in order to restore global spino-pelvic balance and improve the biomechanical environment for fusion.

  17. Adjacent segment disease after instrumented fusion for adult lumbar spondylolisthesis: Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Deviren, Vedat; Tay, Bobby; Burch, Shane; Berven, Sigurd H

    2017-05-01

    A potential long-term complication of lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD), which may necessitate second surgery and adversely affect outcomes. The objective of this is to determine the incidence of ASD following instrumented fusion in adult patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis and to identify the risk factors for this complication. We retrospectively assessed adult patients who had undergone decompression and instrumented fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis between January 2006 and December 2012. The incidence of ASD was analyzed. Potential risk factors included the patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and radiographic variables such as sagittal alignment, preexisting disc degeneration and spinal stenosis at the adjacent segment. A total of 154 patients (mean age, 58.4 years) were included. Mean duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. Eighteen patients (11.7%) underwent a reoperation for ASD; 15 patients had reoperation at cranial ASD and 3 at caudal ASD. The simultaneous decompression at adjacent segment (p=0.002) and preexisting spinal stenosis at cranial adjacent segment (p=0.01) were identified as risk factors for ASD. The occurrence of ASD was not affected by patient-related factors, the types, grades and levels of spondylolisthesis, surgical approach, fusion procedures, levels of fusion, number of levels fused, types of bone graft, use of bone morphogenetic proteins, sagittal alignment, preexisting adjacent disc degeneration and preexisting spinal stenosis at caudal adjacent segments. Our findings suggest the overall incidence of ASD is 11.7% in adult patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis after decompression and instrumented fusion at a mean follow-up of 28.6 months, the simultaneous decompression at the adjacent segment and preexisting spinal stenosis at cranial adjacent segment are risk factors for ASD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effects of muscle weakness on degenerative spondylolisthesis: A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zeng, Zhi-Li; Tong, Jian-Hua; Zhen, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Shuang; Yu, Yan; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Whether muscle weakness is a cause, or result, of degenerative spondylolisthesis is not currently well understood. Little biomechanical evidence is available to offer an explanation for the mechanism behind exercise therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of back muscle weakness on degenerative spondylolisthesis and to tease out the biomechanical mechanism of exercise therapy. A nonlinear 3-D finite element model of L3-L5 was constructed. Forces representing global back muscles and global abdominal muscles, follower loads and an upper body weight were applied. The force of the global back muscles was reduced to 75%, 50% and 25% to simulate different degrees of back muscle weakness. An additional boundary condition which represented the loads from other muscles after exercise therapy was set up to keep the spine in a neutral standing position. Shear forces, intradiscal pressure, facet joint forces and von Mises equivalent stresses in the annuli were calculated. The intervertebral rotations of L3-L4 and L4-L5 were within the range of in vitro experimental data. The calculated intradiscal pressure of L4-L5 for standing was 0.57MPa, which is similar to previous in vivo data. With the back muscles were reduced to 75%, 50% and 25% force, the shear force moved increasingly in a ventral direction. Due to the additional stabilizing force and moment provided by boundary conditions, the shear force varied less than 15%. Reducing the force of global back muscles might lead to, or aggravate, degenerative spondylolisthesis with forward slipping from biomechanical point of view. Exercise therapy may improve the spinal biomechanical environment. However, the intrinsic correlation between back muscle weakness and degenerative spondylolisthesis needs more clinical in vivo study and biomechanical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The evaluation of lumbosacral dysplasia in young patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis: comparison with controls and relationship with the severity of slip.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Labelle, Hubert; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    Comparison of lumbosacral dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with low and high grade spondylolisthesis has not been done previously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between lumbosacral dysplasia and severity of slip in young patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Postero-anterior and lateral radiographs of 120 normal individuals and 131 patients with developmental spondylolisthesis (91 low and 40 high grades) were reviewed. Quantitative evaluation of lumbosacral dysplasia was done using 6 criteria involving the degree of laminar dysplasia, degree of facet dysplasia, size of L5 transverse processes, L5/S1 disc height, type of sacral doming and L5 lumbar index. Subjects were categorized as having no/low, moderate or severe dysplasia based on the total dysplasia score. Comparisons in total dysplasia score between normal, low grade and high grade groups were performed and the correlation between degree of dysplasia and percentage of slip was assessed. Most normal individuals (88.3%) had no/low dysplasia; most patients with low grade spondylolisthesis (61.5%) had moderate dysplasia, while most patients with high grade spondylolisthesis (72.5%) had severe dysplasia. There was a significant difference in dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with spondylolisthesis. Dysplasia also varied significantly between low and high grade spondylolisthesis. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.63) between severity of dysplasia and percentage of slip. There is a significant relationship between the severity of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral dysplasia, with mainly no/low dysplasia observed in controls and increasing total dysplasia scores in higher grades of spondylolisthesis. In addition, a variable degree of dysplasia was found within groups with low or high grade spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different subgroups of patients exist with regard to dysplasia. Thus the degree of dysplasia varies in

  20. Guideline summary review: an evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, D Scott; Baisden, Jamie; Mazanec, Daniel J; Patel, Rakesh D; Bess, Robert S; Burton, Douglas; Chutkan, Norman B; Cohen, Bernard A; Crawford, Charles H; Ghiselli, Gary; Hanna, Amgad S; Hwang, Steven W; Kilincer, Cumhur; Myers, Mark E; Park, Paul; Rosolowski, Karie A; Sharma, Anil K; Taleghani, Christopher K; Trammell, Terry R; Vo, Andrew N; Williams, Keith D

    2016-12-01

    The North American Spine Society's (NASS) Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Isthmic Spondylolisthesis features evidence-based recommendations for diagnosing and treating adult patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis. The guideline is intended to reflect contemporary treatment concepts for symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis as reflected in the highest quality clinical literature available on this subject as of June 2013. NASS' guideline on this topic is the only guideline on adult isthmic spondylolisthesis accepted in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Guideline Clearinghouse. The purpose of the guideline is to provide an evidence-based educational tool to assist spine specialists when making clinical decisions for adult patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence-based guideline recommendations for diagnosing and treating patients with this condition. This is a guideline summary review. This guideline is the product of the Adult Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Work Group of NASS' Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline Development Committee. The methods used to develop this guideline are detailed in the complete guideline and technical report available on the NASS website. In brief, a multidisciplinary work group of spine care specialists convened to identify clinical questionsto address in the guideline. The literature search strategy was developed in consultation with medical librarians. Upon completion of the systematic literature search, evidence relevant to the clinical questions posed in the guideline was reviewed. Work group members utilized NASS evidentiary table templates to summarize study conclusions, identify study strengths and weaknesses, and assign levels of evidence. Work group members participated in webcasts and in-person recommendation meetings to update and formulate evidence-based recommendations and incorporate expert opinion when

  1. Geographic variation in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis: characterizing practice patterns and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Azad, Tej D; Vail, Daniel; O'Connell, Chloe; Han, Summer S; Veeravagu, Anand; Ratliff, John K

    2018-05-07

    The role of arthrodesis in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis remains controversial. We hypothesized that practice patterns and outcomes for this patient population may vary widely. To characterize geographic variation in surgical practices and outcomes for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Retrospective analysis on a national longitudinal database between 2007 and 2014. We calculated arthrodesis rates, inpatient and long term costs, and key quality indicators (e.g. reoperation rates). Using linear and logistic regression models, we then calculated expected quality indicator values, adjusting for patient-level demographic factors, and compared these values to the observed values, to assess quality variation apart from differences in patient populations. We identified a cohort of 67,077 patients (60.7% female, mean age of 59.8 years (SD, 12.0) with lumbar spondylolisthesis who received either laminectomy or laminectomy with arthrodesis. The majority of patients received arthrodesis (91.8%). Actual rates of arthrodesis varied from 97.5% in South Dakota to 81.5% in Oregon. Geography remained a significant predictor of arthrodesis even after adjusting for demographic factors (p<0.001). Marked geographic variation was also observed in initial costs ($32,485 in Alabama to $78,433 in Colorado), two-year post-operative costs ($15,612 in Arkansas to $34,096 in New Jersey), length of hospital stay (2.6 days in Arkansas to 4.5 in Washington, D.C.), 30-day complication rates (9.5% in South Dakota to 22.4% in Maryland), 30-day readmission rates (2.5% in South Dakota to 13.6% in Connecticut), and reoperation rates (1.8% in Maine to 12.7% in Alabama). There is marked geographic variation in the rates of arthrodesis in treatment of spondylolisthesis within the United States. This variation remains pronounced after accounting for patient-level demographic differences. Costs of surgery and quality outcomes also vary widely. Further study is necessary to

  2. Remodelling of the sacrum in high-grade spondylolisthesis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, André; Weijers, René; van Rhijn, Lodewijk

    2003-06-01

    Two young patients are described, who were operated on for high-grade spondylolisthesis. A good posterolateral fusion was achieved, without decompression and without reduction. The clinical course was favourable, the tight hamstring syndrome resolved. Disappearance of the posterior-superior part of the sacrum and of the posterior part of the L5-S1 disc was observed on comparing pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images. This resulted in normalisation of the width of the spinal canal. Around the L5 nerve roots in the L5-S1 foramina some fat reappeared. These anatomical changes on MRI could play a role in the disappearance of clinical symptoms.

  3. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis and degenerative spondylosis: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Park, Yung; Ha, Joong Won; Lee, Yun Tae; Sung, Na Young

    2014-06-01

    Multiple studies have reported favorable short-term results after treatment of spondylolisthesis and other degenerative lumbar diseases with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. However, to our knowledge, results at a minimum of 5 years have not been reported. We determined (1) changes to the Oswestry Disability Index, (2) frequency of radiographic fusion, (3) complications and reoperations, and (4) the learning curve associated with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at minimum 5-year followup. We reviewed our first 124 patients who underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion to treat low-grade spondylolisthesis and degenerative lumbar diseases and did not need a major deformity correction. This represented 63% (124 of 198) of the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedures we performed for those indications during the study period (2003-2007). Eighty-three (67%) patients had complete 5-year followup. Plain radiographs and CT scans were evaluated by two reviewers. Trends of surgical time, blood loss, and hospital stay over time were examined by logarithmic curve fit-regression analysis to evaluate the learning curve. At 5 years, mean Oswestry Disability Index improved from 60 points preoperatively to 24 points and 79 of 83 patients (95%) had improvement of greater than 10 points. At 5 years, 67 of 83 (81%) achieved radiographic fusion, including 64 of 72 patients (89%) who had single-level surgery. Perioperative complications occurred in 11 of 124 patients (9%), and another surgical procedure was performed in eight of 124 patients (6.5%) involving the index level and seven of 124 patients (5.6%) at adjacent levels. There were slowly decreasing trends of surgical time and hospital stay only in single-level surgery and almost no change in intraoperative blood loss over time, suggesting a challenging learning curve. Oswestry Disability Index scores improved for patients with spondylolisthesis

  4. [POSTERIOR LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION FOR DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BILATERAL ISTHMIC LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS].

    PubMed

    Xing, Wenhua; Huo Hongjun; Yang, Xuejun; Xiao, Yulong; Zhao, Yan; Fu, Yu; Zhu, Yong; Li, Feng; Xin, Daqi

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effectiveness of posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Between February 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients with double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis were treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion. There were 12 males and 5 females, with an age ranged 48-69 years (mean, 55.4 years). The disease duration ranged from 11 months to 17 years (median, 22 months). According to the Meyerding classification, 30 vertebrea were rated as degree I, 3 as degree II, and 1 as degree III. L₄,₅ was involved in 14 cases and L₃,₄ in 3 cases. The preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 8.6 ± 3.2. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 2 cases because of intraoperative dural tear; primary healing of incision was obtained, with no operation related complication in the other patients. The patients were followed up 1-6 years (mean, 3.4 years). At last follow-up, VAS score was decreased significantly to 1.1 ± 0.4, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=7.652, P=0.008). X-ray films showed that slippage vertebral body obtained different degree of reduction, with a complete reduction rate of 85% (29/34) at 1 week after operation. All patients achieved bony union at 6-12 months (mean, 7.4 months). According to the Lenke classification, 13 cases were rated as grade A and 4 cases as grade B. No internal fixation loosening and fracture were observed during the follow-up. Intervertebral disc height was maintained, no loss of spondylolisthesis reduction was found. It can obtain satisfactory clinical result to use spinal canal decompression by posterior approach, and screw fixation for posterior fusion in treatment of double-segmental bilateral isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. The key points to successful operation include accurate insertion of screw, effective decompression, distraction before reduction, rational use of

  5. Case report 868. Congenital bilateral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis of the fourth cervical vertebra.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, K; Chavda, S V

    1994-10-01

    A case of congenital bilateral spondylolysis of fourth cervical vertebra was reported and the characteristic radiological features shown. Although the diagnosis is often suggested by the plain films, demonstration of the typical CT findings is often necessary to reach a final diagnosis. Awareness of this entity and its specific radiological features will help to differentiate this relatively benign cervical anomaly from other, more ominous, unstable causes of cervical spondylolisthesis such as those related to acute cervical injury. It may also prevent any inappropriate treatment from being undertaken.

  6. Outcome of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in spondylolisthesis-A clinico-radiological correlation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Vijay Anand; Douraiswami, Balaji; Subramani, Suresh

    2018-06-01

    Lumbar spondylolisthesis is a common cause of morbidity in middle aged individuals. Spinal fusion with instrumentation has become the gold standard for lumbar segmental instability. Studies which correlate the improvement in radiology postoperatively with functional outcome show contrasting reports. This study is aimed at finding the correlation between clinical and radiological outcomes after surgery with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. A retrospective study in 35 patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in a period of 1 year was done. Preoperative pain (VAS Score), functional ability (ODI), radiological parameters (slip angle, slip grade, disc height, foraminal height, lumbar lordosis) were compared with postoperative recordings at the last followup. Functional improvement (Macnab's criteria) and fusion (Lee's fusion criteria) were assessed. Statistical analysis was done with student's paired t -test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. VAS score, ODI improved from 8 to 2 and 70 to 15 respectively. Slip angle improved from 23°to 5° on an average. 80% patients showed fusion and 85% showed good clinical outcome at 1 year followup. Analyzing with Pearson correlation coefficient showed no significant relation between pain scores and radiological parameters. But there was statistically significant relation between radiological fusion and the final clinical outcome. TLIF produces spinal fusion in most individuals. Strong spinal fusion is essential for good clinical outcome in spondylolisthesis patients who undergo TLIF. Reduction in slip is not necessary for all patients with listhesis.

  7. Pedicle screw fixation for isthmic spondylolisthesis: does posterior lumbar interbody fusion improve outcome over posterolateral fusion?

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Conti, Alfredo; Cacciola, Fabio; Cardali, Salvatore; La Torre, Domenico; Gambadauro, Nicola Maria; Tomasello, Francesco

    2003-09-01

    Posterolateral fusion involving instrumentation-assisted segmental fixation represents a valid procedure in the treatment of lumbar instability. In cases of anterior column failure, such as in isthmic spondylolisthesis, supplemental posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) may improve the fusion rate and endurance of the construct. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is, however, a more demanding procedure and increases costs and risks of the intervention. The advantages of this technique must, therefore, be weighed against those of a simple posterior lumbar fusion. Thirty-five consecutive patients underwent pedicle screw fixation for isthmic spondylolisthesis. In 18 patients posterior lumbar fusion was performed, and in 17 patients PLIF was added. Clinical, economic, functional, and radiographic data were assessed to determine differences in clinical and functional results and biomechanical properties. At 2-year follow-up examination, the correction of subluxation, disc height, and foraminal area were maintained in the group in which a PLIF procedure was performed, but not in the posterolateral fusion-only group (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, no statistical intergroup differences were demonstrated in terms of neurological improvement (p = 1), economic (p = 0.43), or functional (p = 0.95) outcome, nor in terms of fusion rate (p = 0.49). The authors' findings support the view that an interbody fusion confers superior mechanical strength to the spinal construct; when posterolateral fusion is the sole intervention, progressive loss of the extreme correction can be expected. Such mechanical insufficiency, however, did not influence clinical outcome.

  8. Traumatic L7 articular processes fracture and spondylolisthesis following dorsal lumbosacral laminectomy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Montoliu, Patricia; López, Marta; Mascort, Joan; Morales, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Case summary A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented to our referral hospital with a chronic history of tenesmus and lumbosacral pain. A diagnosis of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) was made and a standard dorsal L7–S1 laminectomy was performed uneventfully, with complete recovery within 1 month. The cat was brought back 4 months later for investigation of lumbosacral pain after having suffered a minor traumatic event. Neurological examination identified a low tail carriage, weakness, exercise intolerance, left pelvic limb lameness and diminished withdrawal reflexes in both pelvic limbs with severe sacrocaudal pain. A traumatic facet fracture of the L7 articular processes and subsequent spondylolisthesis was diagnosed. A second surgery was performed to stabilise the region. The cat was normal on neurological examination 1 month later and no further clinical signs were noted. Relevance and novel information This is the first description of a fracture and spondylolisthesis as a possible postoperative complication after L7–S1 dorsal laminectomy in a cat. The case highlights the importance of postoperative changes in the supportive structures of the lumbosacral spine in cats after surgical treatment of DLSS. PMID:29552353

  9. A systematic review of clinical outcomes in surgical treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Noorian, Shaya; Sorensen, Karen; Cho, Woojin

    2018-05-07

    A variety of surgical methods are available for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, but there is no consensus regarding their relative effects on clinical outcomes. To compare the effects of different surgical techniques on clinical outcomes in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. Systematic Review PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 1,538 patients from six randomized clinical trials and nine observational studies comparing different surgical treatments in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. Primary outcome measures of interest included differences in pre- versus post-surgical assessments of pain, functional disability, and overall health as assessed by validated pain rating scales and questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures of interest included intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, surgery duration, reoperation rates, and complication rates. A search of the literature was performed in September, 2017 for relevant comparative studies published in the prior 10-year period in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.Gov. PRISMA guidelines were followed and studies were included/excluded based on strict predetermined criteria. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for observational studies and the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool for randomized clinical trials. The authors received no funding support to conduct this review. A total of 15 studies (6 randomized clinical trials and 9 observational studies) were included for full text review, a majority of which only included cases of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. 1 study examined the effects of adding pedicle screw fixation (PS) to posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 2 studies examined the effects of adding reduction to interbody fusion (IF) + PS on clinical outcomes. 5 studies compared PLF, 4 with and 1 without PS, to IF + PS. Additionally, 3 studies compared circumferential fusion (IF + PS + PLF) to IF + PS and 1

  10. Bone bridge formation across the neuroforamen 14 years after instrumented fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis-a case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joel Louis; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis

    2017-03-01

    This case report describes the first case of a bone bridge formation across the left L5/S1 neuroforamen after instrumented posterolateral fusion for L5/S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Our patient was a 70-year-old lady who had grade 2, L5/S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and bilateral S1 nerve root compression. She suffered from mechanical low back pain and neurogenic claudication, with radicular pain over both S1 dermatomes. She underwent in-situ, instrumented, posterolateral fusion and was asymptomatic for more than 13 years before developing progressive onset of left radicular pain over the L5 dermatome. Imaging revealed a bisected left L5/S1 neuroforamen secondary to a bone bridge formation resulting in stenosis. The pars defect in this case may have had sufficient osteogenic and osteoinductive factors to heal following spinal stabilization. Although in-situ posterolateral fusion is an accepted surgical treatment for isthmic spondylolisthesis, surgeons should consider reduction of the spondylolisthesis and excision of the pars defects to avoid this possible long-term complication.

  11. Clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for high-grade l5-s1 spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Deviren, V; Berven, S; Kleinstueck, F; Bradford, D S

    2001-10-15

    A clinical retrospective study was conducted. To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of reduction followed by trans-sacral interbody fusion for high-grade spondylolisthesis. In situ posterior interbody fusion with fibula allograft has improved the fusion rates for patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. The use of this technique in conjunction with partial reduction has not been reported. Nine consecutive patients underwent treatment of high-grade (Grade 3 or 4) spondylolisthesis with partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion using cortical allograft. The average age at the time of surgery was 27 years (range, 8-51 years), and the average follow-up period was 43 months (range, 24-72 months). Before surgery, eight patients had low back pain, seven patients had radiating leg pain, and five patients had hamstring tightness. The average grade of spondylolisthesis by Meyerding grading was 3.9 (range, 3-5). Charts and radiographs were evaluated, and outcomes were collected by use of the modified SRS outcomes instrument. Radiographic indexes demonstrated significant improvement with partial reduction and fusion. The slip angle, as measured from the inferior endplate of L5, improved from 41.2 degrees (range, 24-82 degrees ) before surgery to 21 degrees (range, 5-40 degrees ) after surgery. All the patients were extremely or somewhat satisfied with surgery. The two patients who underwent this operation without initial instrumentation experienced fractures of their interbody grafts. Both of these patients underwent repair of the pseudarthrosis with placement of trans-sacral pedicle screw instrumentation and subsequent fusion. Partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion is an effective technique for the management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in pediatric and adult patient populations, as assessed by radiographic and clinical criteria. Pedicle screw instrumentation with the sacral screws capturing L5 is recommended when this

  12. Comparison of 368 patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis from the SPORT trial with 955 from the NSQIP database.

    PubMed

    Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Basques, Bryce A; Bohl, Daniel D; Yacob, Alem; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective cohort. To compare demographics and perioperative outcomes between the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis arm and a similar population from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. SPORT is a well-known surgical trial that investigated the benefits of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment in patients with various lumbar pathologies. However, the external validity of SPORT demographics and outcomes has not been fully established. Surgical degenerative spondylolisthesis cases were identified from NSQIP between 2010 and 2012. This population was then compared with the SPORT degenerative spondylolisthesis study. These comparisons were based on published data from SPORT and included analyses of demographics, perioperative factors, and complications. The 368 surgical patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis in SPORT were compared with 955 patients identified in NSQIP. Demographic comparisons were as follows: average age and race (no difference; P > 0.05 for each), sex (9.1% more female patients in SPORT; P = 0.002), smoking status (6.6% more smokers in NSQIP; P = 0.002), and average body mass index (1.1 kg/m greater in NSQIP; P = 0.005). Larger differences were noted in what surgical procedure was performed (P < 0.001), with the most notable difference being that the NSQIP population was much more likely to include interbody fusion than the SPORT population (52.4% vs. 12.5%). Most perioperative factors and complication rates were similar, including average operative time, wound infection, wound dehiscence, postoperative transfusion, and postoperative mortality (no differences; P > 0.05 for each). Average length of stay was shorter in NSQIP compared with SPORT (3.7 vs. 5.8 d; P = 0.042). Though important differences in the distribution of surgical procedures were identified, this study supports the greater generalizability of the surgical SPORT degenerative spondylolisthesis

  13. Current Evidence Regarding the Treatment of Pediatric Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Report From the Scoliosis Research Society Evidence Based Medicine Committee.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles H; Larson, A Noelle; Gates, Marilyn; Bess, R Shay; Guillaume, Tenner J; Kim, Han Jo; Oetgen, Matthew E; Ledonio, Charles G; Sanders, James; Burton, Douglas C

    2017-09-01

    Structured literature review. The Scoliosis Research Society requested an assessment of the current state of peer-reviewed evidence regarding pediatric lumbar spondylolisthesis to identify what is known and what research remains essential to further understanding. Pediatric lumbar spondylolisthesis is common, yet no formal synthesis of the published literature regarding treatment has been previously performed. A comprehensive literature search was performed. From 6600 initial citations with abstract, 663 articles underwent full-text review. The best available evidence regarding surgical and medical/interventional treatment was provided by 51 studies. None of the studies were graded Level I or II evidence. Eighteen of the studies were Level III, representing the current best available evidence. Thirty-three of the studies were Level IV. Although studies suggest a benign course for "low grade" (<50% slip) isthmic spondylolisthesis, extensive literature suggests that a substantial number of patients present for treatment with pain and activity limitations. Pain resolution and return to activity is common with both medical/interventional and operative treatment. The role of medical/interventional bracing is not well established. Uninstrumented posterolateral fusion has been reported to produce good clinical results, but concerns regarding nonunion exist. Risk of slip progression is a specific concern in the "high grade" or dysplastic type. Although medical/interventional observation has been reported to be reasonable in a small series of asymptomatic high-grade slip patients, surgical treatment is commonly recommended to prevent progression. There is Level III evidence that instrumentation and reduction lowers the risk of nonunion, and that circumferential fusion is superior to posterior-only or anterior-only fusion. There is Level III evidence that patients with a higher slip angle are more likely to fail medical/interventional treatment of high

  14. Guideline summary review: An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Matz, Paul G; Meagher, R J; Lamer, Tim; Tontz, William L; Annaswamy, Thiru M; Cassidy, R Carter; Cho, Charles H; Dougherty, Paul; Easa, John E; Enix, Dennis E; Gunnoe, Bryan A; Jallo, Jack; Julien, Terrence D; Maserati, Matthew B; Nucci, Robert C; O'Toole, John E; Rosolowski, Karie; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Villavicencio, Alan T; Witt, Jens-Peter

    2016-03-01

    The North American Spine Society's (NASS) Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis features evidence-based recommendations for diagnosing and treating degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. The guideline updates the 2008 guideline on this topic and is intended to reflect contemporary treatment concepts for symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis as reflected in the highest quality clinical literature available on this subject as of May 2013. The NASS guideline on this topic is the only guideline on degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis included in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). The purpose of this guideline is to provide an evidence-based educational tool to assist spine specialists when making clinical decisions for patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence-based guideline recommendations for diagnosing and treating patients with this condition. A systematic review of clinical studies relevant to degenerative spondylolisthesis was carried out. This NASS spondyolisthesis guideline is the product of the Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Work Group of NASS' Evidence-Based Guideline Development Committee. The methods used to develop this guideline are detailed in the complete guideline and technical report available on the NASS website. In brief, a multidisciplinary work group of spine care specialists convened to identify clinical questions to address in the guideline. The literature search strategy was developed in consultation with medical librarians. Upon completion of the systematic literature search, evidence relevant to the clinical questions posed in the guideline was reviewed. Work group members used the NASS evidentiary table templates to summarize study conclusions, identify study strengths and weaknesses, and assign levels of evidence. Work group members

  15. [Significance of the sagittal profile and reposition of grade III-V spondylolisthesis].

    PubMed

    Dick, W; Elke, R

    1997-09-01

    The deformity in severe spondylolisthesis consists of two components: the parallel anterocaudad slip of the spondylolisthetic vertebra, and its tilt into kyphotic malposition. The influence of the two components is very different: the anterocaudad slippage has not much impact on the sagittal profile of the spine and is easily compensated for by a slight increase in lumbar lordosis. The kyphotic deformity has a high impact on trunk imbalance and the sagittal profile. There are two compensation mechanisms: hyperlordosis of the lumbar spine to its anatomical extremes and-if that is not sufficient-verticalisation of the sacral bone, performed by contracture of the hamstrings and uprighting of the pelvis around the hip joints. The latter mechanism is followed by functional disadvantages. Therefore, correction of the kyphosis of L5 may be considered during operative treatment if the lumbosacral kyphosis (angle delta) is less than 85 degrees and the sacral inclination less than 35 degrees.

  16. Assessment of lumbosacral kyphosis in spondylolisthesis: a computer-assisted reliability study of six measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Glavas, Panagiotis; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Parent, Stefan; de Guise, Jacques A.

    2008-01-01

    Although recognized as an important aspect in the management of spondylolisthesis, there is no consensus on the most reliable and optimal measure of lumbosacral kyphosis (LSK). Using a custom computer software, four raters evaluated 60 standing lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral spine during two sessions at a 1-week interval. The sample size consisted of 20 normal, 20 low and 20 high grade spondylolisthetic subjects. Six parameters were included for analysis: Boxall’s slip angle, Dubousset’s lumbosacral angle (LSA), the Spinal Deformity Study Group’s (SDSG) LSA, dysplastic SDSG LSA, sagittal rotation (SR), kyphotic Cobb angle (k-Cobb). Intra- and inter-rater reliability for all parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Correlations between parameters and slip percentage were evaluated with Pearson coefficients. The intra-rater ICC’s for all the parameters ranged between 0.81 and 0.97 and the inter-rater ICC’s were between 0.74 and 0.98. All parameters except sagittal rotation showed a medium to large correlation with slip percentage. Dubousset’s LSA and the k-Cobb showed the largest correlations (r = −0.78 and r = −0.50, respectively). SR was associated with the weakest correlation (r = −0.10). All other parameters had medium correlations with percent slip (r = 0.31–0.43). All measurement techniques provided excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Dubousset’s LSA showed the strongest correlation with slip grade. This parameter can be used in the clinical setting with PACS software capabilities to assess LSK. A computer-assisted technique is recommended in order to increase the reliability of the measurement of LSK in spondylolisthesis. PMID:19015898

  17. Factors affecting disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis of L4-5: evaluation with axially loaded MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Lee, Yung-Ling; Li, Jenq-Daw

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the factors related to the disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of axial loading on the morphology of the spine and the spinal canal in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-5 and to correlate morphologic changes to their disability and physical functions. From March 2003 to January 2004, 32 consecutive cases (26 females, 6 males) with degenerative L4-5 spondylolisthesis, grade 1-2, intermittent claudication, and low back pain without sciatica were included in this study. All patients underwent unloaded and axially loaded MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine in supine position to elucidate the morphological findings and to measure the parameters of MRI, including disc height (DH), sagittal translation (ST), segmental angulation (SA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) at L4-5, and lumbar lordotic angles (LLA) at L1-5 between the unloaded and axially loaded condition. Each patient's disability was evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, and physical functioning (PF) was evaluated by the Physical Function scale proposed by Stucki et al. (Spine 21:796-803, 1996). Three patients were excluded due to the presence of neurologic symptoms found with the axially loaded MRI. Finally, a total of 29 (5 males, 24 females) consecutive patients were included in this study. Comparisons and correlations were done to determine which parameters were critical to the patient's disability and PF. The morphologies of the lumbar spine changed after axially loaded MRI. In six of our patients, we observed adjacent segment degeneration (4 L3-L4 and 2 L5-S1) coexisting with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-L5 under axially loaded MRI. The mean values of the SA under pre-load and post-load were 7.14 degrees and 5.90 degrees at L4-L5 (listhetic level), respectively. The mean values of the LLA

  18. [Clinical outcomes of single-level lumbar spondylolisthesis by minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bilateral tubular channels].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z L; Jia, L; Yu, Y; Xu, W; Hu, X; Zhan, X H; Jia, Y W; Wang, J J; Cheng, L M

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for single-level lumbar spondylolisthesis treatment with bilateral Spotlight tubular channels. Methods: A total of 21 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis whom underwent MIS-TLIF via bilateral Spotlight tubular channels were retrospectively analyzed from October 2014 to November 2015. The 21 patients included 11 males and 10 females ranged from 35 to 82 years (average aged 60.7 years). In term of spondylolisthesis category, there were 18 cases of degenerative spondylolisthesis and 3 cases of isthmic spondylolisthesis. With respect to spondylolisthesis degree, 17 cases were grade Ⅰ° and 4 cases were grade Ⅱ°. Besides, 17 cases at L(4-5) and 4 cases at L(5)-S(1)were categorized by spondylolisthesis levels. Operation duration, blood loss, postoperative drainage and intraoperative exposure time were recorded, functional improvement was defined as an improvement in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was also employed at pre and post-operation (3 months and the last follow-up), to evaluate low back and leg pain. Furthermore, to evaluate the recovery of the intervertebral foramen and of lumbar sagittal curvature, average height of intervertebral space, Cobb angles of lumbar vertebrae and operative segments, spondylolisthesis index were measured. At the last follow-up, intervertebral fusion was assessed using Siepe evaluation criteria and the clinical outcome was assessed using the MacNab scale. Radiographic and functional outcomes were compared pre- and post-operation using the paired T test to determine the effectiveness of MIS-TLIF. Statistical significance was defined as P <0.05. Results: All patients underwent a successful MIS-TLIF surgery. The operation time (235.2±30.2) mins, intraoperative blood loss (238.1±130.3) ml, postoperative drainage (95.7±57.1) ml and intraoperative radiation exposure (47.1±8

  19. The cost-effectiveness of interbody fusions versus posterolateral fusions in 137 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Abt, Nicholas B; Witham, Timothy F; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    Reimbursements for interbody fusions have declined recently because of their questionable cost-effectiveness. A Markov model was adopted to compare the cost-effectiveness of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (/TLIF) versus noninterbody fusion and posterolateral fusion (PLF) in patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Decision model analysis based on retrospective data from a single institutional series. One hundred thirty-seven patients underwent first-time instrumented lumbar fusions for degenerative or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Quality of life adjustments and expenditures were assigned to each short-term complication (durotomy, surgical site infection, and medical complication) and long-term outcome (bowel/bladder dysfunction and paraplegia, neurologic deficit, and chronic back pain). Patients were divided into a PLF cohort and a PLF plus PLIF/TLIF cohort. Anterior techniques and multilevel interbody fusions were excluded. Each short-term complication and long-term outcome was assigned a numerical quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), based on time trade-off values in the Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study. The cost data for short-term complications were calculated from charges accrued by the institution's finance sector, and the cost data for long-term outcomes were estimated from the literature. The difference in cost of PLF plus PLIF/TLIF from the cost of PLF alone divided by the difference in QALY equals the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER). We do not report any study funding sources or any study-specific appraisal of potential conflict of interest-associated biases in this article. Of 137 first-time lumbar fusions for spondylolisthesis, 83 patients underwent PLF and 54 underwent PLIF/TLIF. The average time to reoperation was 3.5 years. The mean QALY over 3.5 years was 2.81 in the PLF cohort versus 2.66 in the PLIFo/TLIF cohort (p=.110). The mean 3.5-year costs of $54,827.05 after index interbody fusion were

  20. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with status epilepticus following surgery for lumbar stenosis and spondylolisthesis: case report.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Garcés-Pérez, Gloria; García-Carrasco, Juan; Alonso-García, Esther; Gómez-Menéndez, Ana Isabel; Martín-Alonso, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition encountered in many different clinical settings, generally occurring in the context of hypertensive crisis, immunosuppressive therapy or autoimmune diseases. It is characterized by headache, stupor, seizures and visual alterations. MRI findings include white matter changes preferentially in the parieto-occipital regions. Although pathogenesis is not fully elucidated, vasoconstriction and brain hypoperfusion seem to be the cause of brain ischemia and vasogenic edema. CSF hypotension is also a reported plausible pathogenic mechanism. We present a unique case of PRES following laminectomy and fixation for L4-5 lumbar stenosis and spondylolisthesis. The patient presented with a 5-day duration status epilepticus immediately after surgery. Brain MRI showed FLAIR and T2 hyperintensities in the bilateral parietal and occipital lobes and external capsules. On the basis of her postoperative lumbar images, we hypothesize that an unnoticed CSF leak might have contributed to develop PRES in this case. The patient developed multiple postoperative complications. Following treatment for severe hypertension and seizures she ultimately recovered. Prompt recognition and treatment of this potentially life-threatening syndrome is necessary in order to increase the likelihood of favorable outcome. Spinal surgeons need to be aware of the possibility of neurological deterioration following spinal surgery and be alert about the occurrence of a dural leak, either recognized or unnoticed, as the plausible mechanism triggering PRES. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to detect spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in athletes with low back pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grødahl, Linn Helen J; Fawcett, Louise; Nazareth, Madeleine; Smith, Richard; Spencer, Simon; Heneghan, Nicola; Rushton, Alison

    2016-08-01

    In adolescent athletes, low back pain has a 1-year prevalence of 57% and causes include spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. An accurate diagnosis enables healing, prevention of progression and return to sport. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to identify spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis in athletes. Systematic review was undertaken according to published guidelines, and reported in line with PRISMA. Key databases were searched up to 13/11/15. athletic population with LBP, patient history and/or physical examination accuracy data for spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, any study design including raw data. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias (ROB) using QUADAS-2. A data extraction sheet was pre-designed. Pooling of data and investigation for heterogeneity enabled a qualitative synthesis of data across studies. Of the eight included studies, two were assessed as low ROB, one of which also had no concerns regarding applicability. Age (<20 years) demonstrated 81% sensitivity and 44% specificity and gender (male) 73% sensitivity and 57% specificity for spondylolysis. Difficulty falling asleep, waking up because of pain, pain worse with sitting and walking all have sensitivity >75% for spondylolisthesis. Step-deformity palpation demonstrated 60-88% sensitivity and 87-100% specificity for spondylolisthesis. The one-legged hyperextension test was not supported for spondylolysis (sensitivity 50-73%, specificity 0-87%). No recommendations can be made utilising patient history data. Based on one low ROB study, step deformity palpation may be useful in diagnosing spondylolisthesis. No physical tests demonstrated diagnostic utility for spondylolysis. Further research is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Descriptive analysis of spinal neuroaxial injections, surgical interventions and physical therapy utilization for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis within Medicare beneficiaries from 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Joseph A.; Constantin, Alexandra; Ho, Pei-Shu; Akuthota, Venu; Chan, Leighton

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective, observational study. Objective To determine the utilization of various treatment modalities in the management of degenerative spondylolisthesis within Medicare beneficiaries. Summary of Background Data Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis is a condition often identified in symptomatic low back pain. A variety of treatment algorithms including physical therapy and interventional techniques can be used to manage clinically significant degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods This study utilized the 5% national sample of Medicare carrier claims from 2000 through 2011. A cohort of beneficiaries with a new ICD-9 diagnosis code for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis was identified. Current procedural terminology codes were used to identify the number of procedures performed each year by specialty on this cohort. Results A total of 95,647 individuals were included in the analysis. Average age at the time of initial diagnosis was 72.8 ± 9.8 years. Within this study cohort, spondylolisthesis was more prevalent in females (69%) than males and in Caucasians (88%) compared to other racial demographics. Over 40% of beneficiaries underwent at least one injection, approximately one third (37%) participated in physical therapy, one in five (22%) underwent spinal surgery, and one third (36%) did not utilize any of these interventions. Greater than half of all procedures (124,280/216,088) occurred within 2 years of diagnosis. The ratio of focal interventions (transforaminal and facet interventions) to less selective (interlaminar) procedures was greater for the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation compared to the specialties of Anesthesiology, Interventional Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Orthopedic Surgery. The majority of physical therapy was dedicated to passive treatment modalities and range of motion exercises rather than active strengthening modalities within this cohort. Conclusion Interventional techniques and physical therapy are

  3. Current Evidence Regarding the Diagnostic Methods for Pediatric Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Report From the Scoliosis Research Society Evidence Based Medicine Committee.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Jo; Crawford, Charles H; Ledonio, Charles; Bess, Shay; Larson, A Noelle; Gates, Marilyn; Oetgen, Matthew; Sanders, James O; Burton, Douglas

    Structured literature review. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) requested an assessment of the current state of peer-reviewed evidence regarding pediatric lumbar spondylolisthesis with the goal of identifying what is known and what gaps remain in further understanding the diagnostic methods for pediatric spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis in the lumbar spine is common among children and adolescents and no formal synthesis of the published literature regarding diagnostic methods has been previously performed. A comprehensive literature search was performed. Abstracts were reviewed and data from included studies were analyzed by the committee. From 6600 initial citations with abstract, 663 articles underwent full-text review. The best available evidence for the clinical questions regarding diagnostic methods was provided by 26 included studies. Six of the studies were graded as Level III (retrospective comparative), and represent the current best available evidence whereas 20 of the studies were graded as Level IV (retrospective case series) evidence. No Level V (expert opinion) studies were included in the final list. None of the studies were graded as Level I or Level II. Plain radiography is the workhorse imaging modality for diagnosing spondylolisthesis. No association between radiologic grade of spondylolisthesis and clinical presentation were noted; however, grade III and IV slips more often required surgery, and increasing slip angles were associated with worse baseline outcome scores. There is Level III evidence that the Meyerding grade appears to be more accurate for measuring slip percentage whereas the Lonstein Slip angle and Dubousset Lumbosacral Kyphosis angles are the best for measuring lumbosacral kyphosis in spondylolisthesis. In addition, higher sacral table index, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and lower sacral table angle were associated with spondylolisthesis. True incidence could not be determined by the current literature available

  4. Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Use in the Treatment of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqiang; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Park, Jong-Beom; Brodke, Darrel S; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Youssef, Jim A; Wang, Jeffrey C; Yoon, S Tim

    2016-12-01

    Study Design  Retrospective database review. Objective  To identify trends of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS). Methods  PearlDiver Patient Record Database was used to identify patients who underwent lumbar fusion for LDS between 2005 and 2011. The distribution of bone morphogenetic protein use rate (BR) in various surgical procedures was recorded. Patient numbers, reoperation numbers, BR, and per year BR (PYBR) were stratified by geographic region, gender, and age. Results  There were 11,335 fusion surgeries, with 3,461 cases using rhBMP-2. Even though PYRB increased between 2005 and 2008, there was a significant decrease in 2010 for each procedure: 404 (34.5%) for posterior interbody fusion, 1,282 (34.3%) for posterolateral plus posterior interbody fusion (PLPIF), 1,477 (29.2%) for posterolateral fusion, and 335 (22.4%) for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. In patients using rhBMP-2, the reoperation rate was significantly lower than in patients not using rhBMP-2 (0.69% versus 1.07%, p  < 0.0001). Male patients had higher PYBR compared with female patients in 2008 and 2009 ( p  < 0.05). The West region and PLPIF had the highest BR and PYBR. Conclusions Our data shows that the revision rates were significantly lower in patients treated with rhBMP-2 compared with patients not treated with rhBMP-2. Furthermore, rhBMP-2 use in LDS varied by year, region, gender, and type of fusion technique. In the West region, the posterior approach and patients 65 to 69 years of age had the highest rate of rhBMP-2 use.

  5. Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Use in the Treatment of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingqiang; Cohen, Jeremiah R.; Buser, Zorica; Park, Jong-Beom; Brodke, Darrel S.; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Youssef, Jim A.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Yoon, S. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective database review. Objective To identify trends of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS). Methods PearlDiver Patient Record Database was used to identify patients who underwent lumbar fusion for LDS between 2005 and 2011. The distribution of bone morphogenetic protein use rate (BR) in various surgical procedures was recorded. Patient numbers, reoperation numbers, BR, and per year BR (PYBR) were stratified by geographic region, gender, and age. Results There were 11,335 fusion surgeries, with 3,461 cases using rhBMP-2. Even though PYRB increased between 2005 and 2008, there was a significant decrease in 2010 for each procedure: 404 (34.5%) for posterior interbody fusion, 1,282 (34.3%) for posterolateral plus posterior interbody fusion (PLPIF), 1,477 (29.2%) for posterolateral fusion, and 335 (22.4%) for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. In patients using rhBMP-2, the reoperation rate was significantly lower than in patients not using rhBMP-2 (0.69% versus 1.07%, p < 0.0001). Male patients had higher PYBR compared with female patients in 2008 and 2009 (p < 0.05). The West region and PLPIF had the highest BR and PYBR. Conclusions Our data shows that the revision rates were significantly lower in patients treated with rhBMP-2 compared with patients not treated with rhBMP-2. Furthermore, rhBMP-2 use in LDS varied by year, region, gender, and type of fusion technique. In the West region, the posterior approach and patients 65 to 69 years of age had the highest rate of rhBMP-2 use. PMID:27853658

  6. Results of instrumented posterolateral fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis with and without segmental kyphosis: A retrospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Yuan; Lu, Meng-Ling; Niu, Chi-Chien; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Treatment by posterolateral fusion (PLF) with pedicle-screw instrumentation can be unsuccessful in one-segment and low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis. Segmental kyphosis, either rigid or dynamic, was hypothesized to be one of the factors interfering with the fusion results. From 2004 to 2005, 239 patients with single-segment and low-grade spondylolisthesis were recruited and divided into two groups: Group 1 consisting of 129 patients without segmental kyphosis and group 2 consisting of 110 patients with segmental kyphosis. All patients underwent instrumented PLF at the same medical institute, and the average follow-up period was 31 ± 19 months. We obtained plain radiographs of the lumbosacral spine with the anteroposterior view, the lateral view, and the dynamic flexion-extension views before the operation and during the follow-ups. The results of PLF in the two groups were then compared. There was no significant difference in the demographic data of the two groups, except for gender distribution. The osseous fusion rates were 90.7% in group 1 and 68.2% in group 2 (p < 0.001). Instrumented PLF resulted in significantly higher osseous fusion rate in patients without segmental kyphosis than in the patients with segmental kyphosis. For the patients with sagittal imbalance, such as rigid or dynamic kyphosis, pedicle-screw fixation cannot ensure successful PLF. Interbody fusion by the posterior lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion technique might help overcome this problem.

  7. A protocol of a randomized controlled multicenter trial for surgical treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis: the Lumbar Interbody Fusion Trial (LIFT).

    PubMed

    de Kunder, Suzanne L; Rijkers, Kim; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Evers, Silvia M A A; de Bie, Rob A; van Santbrink, Henk

    2016-10-06

    With a steep increase in the number of instrumented spinal fusion procedures, there is a need for comparative data to develop evidence based treatment recommendations. Currently, the available data on cost and clinical effectiveness of the two most frequently performed surgeries for lumbar spondylolisthesis, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), are not sufficient. Therefore, current guidelines do not advise which is the most appropriate surgical treatment strategy for these patients. Non-randomized studies comparing TLIF and PLIF moreover suggest that TLIF is associated with fewer complications, less blood loss, shorter surgical time and hospital duration. TLIF may therefore be more cost-effective. The results of this study will provide knowledge on short- and long-term clinical and economical effects of TLIF and PLIF procedures, which will lead to recommendations for treating patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Multicenter blinded Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT; blinding for the patient and statistician, not for the clinician and researcher). A total of 144 patients over 18 years old with symptomatic single level lumbar degenerative, isthmic or iatrogenic spondylolisthesis whom are candidates for LIF (lumbar interbody fusion) surgery through a posterior approach will be randomly allocated to TLIF or PLIF. The study will consist of three parts: 1) a clinical effectiveness study, 2) a cost-effectiveness study, and 3) a process evaluation. The primary clinical outcome measures are: change in disability measured with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and change in quality adjusted life years (QALY) measured with EQ-5D-5L. Secondary clinical outcome measures are: Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), VAS back pain, VAS leg pain, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), complications, productivity related costs (iPCQ) and medical costs (iMCQ). Measurements will be carried out at five fixed time points (pre

  8. SPORT: Radiographic Predictors of Clinical Outcomes Following Operative or Non-operative Treatment of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Blood, Emily A.; Frymoyer, John W.; Braeutigam, Heike; An, Howard; Girardi, Federico P.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Subgroup analyses according to treatment received. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether baseline radiographic findings predicted outcomes in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The SPORT combined randomized and observational DS cohorts. METHODS The Meyerding listhesis grade was determined on the neutral radiograph (n=222). Patients were classified as having low disk height if disk height was less than 5 mm. Flexion-extension radiographs (n=185) were evaluated for mobility. Those with greater than 10° rotation or 4mm translation were considered Hypermobile. Changes in outcome measures were compared between listhesis (Grade 1 vs. Grade 2), disk height (Low vs. Normal) and mobility (Stable vs. Hypermobile) groups using longitudinal regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Outcome measures included SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales, Oswestry disability index (ODI), stenosis bothersomeness index (SBI), and low back pain bothersomeness scale. RESULTS Overall, 86% had a Grade 1 listhesis, 78% had Normal disk height, and 73% were Stable. Baseline symptom severity was similar between groups. Overall, surgery patients improved more than patients treated non-operatively. At one year, outcomes were similar in surgery patients across listhesis, disk height, and mobility groups (ODI: Grade 1 -23.7 vs. Grade 2 -23.3, p=0.90; Normal disk height-23.5 vs. Low disk height -21.9, p=0.66; Stable -21.6 vs. Hypermobile -25.2, p=0.30). Among those treated nonoperatively, Grade 1 patients improved more than Grade 2 patients (BP +13.1 vs. -4.9, p=0.019; ODI -8.0 vs. +4.8, p=0.010 at 1 year), and Hypermobile patients improved more than Stable patients (ODI -15.2 vs -6.6, p=0.041; SBI -7.8 vs -2.7, p=0.002 at 1 year). DISCUSSION Regardless of listhesis grade, disk height or mobility, patients who had surgery improved more than those treated non-operatively. These differences were due, in part, to differences

  9. Progressive restoration of spinal sagittal balance after surgical correction of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis before skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Diala; Bachy, Manon; Courvoisier, Aurélien; Dubory, Arnaud; Bouloussa, Houssam; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-03-01

    Spinopelvic alignment is crucial in assessing an energy-efficient posture in both normal and disease states, such as high-displacement developmental spondylolisthesis (HDDS). The overall effect in patients with HDDS who have undergone local surgical correction of lumbosacral imbalance for the global correction of spinal balance remains unclear. This paper reports the progressive spontaneous improvement of global sagittal balance following surgical correction of lumbosacral imbalance in patients with HDDS. The records of 15 patients with HDDS who underwent surgery between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. The treatment consisted of L4-sacrum reduction and fusion via a posterior approach, resulting in complete correction of lumbosacral kyphosis. Preoperative, 6-month postoperative, and final follow-up postoperative angular measurements were taken from full-spine lateral radiographs obtained with the patient in a standard standing position. Radiographic measurements included pelvic incidence, sacral slope, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis. The degree of lumbosacral kyphosis was evaluated by the lumbosacral angle. Because of the small number of patients, nonparametric tests were considered for data analysis. Preoperative lumbosacral kyphosis and L-5 anterior slip were corrected by instrumentation. Transient neurological complications were noted in 5 patients. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase of thoracic kyphosis on 6-month postoperative and final follow-up radiographs (p < 0.001). A statistically significant decrease of lumbar lordosis was noted between preoperative and 6-month control radiographs (p < 0.001) and between preoperative and final follow-up radiographs (p < 0.001). Based on the authors' observations, this technique resulted in an effective reduction of L-5 anterior slip and significant reduction of lumbosacral kyphosis (from 69.8° to 105.13°). Due to complete reduction of lumbosacral kyphosis and anterior trunk displacement associated

  10. Does restoration of focal lumbar lordosis for single level degenerative spondylolisthesis result in better patient-reported clinical outcomes? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chanseok; Visintini, Sarah; Dunning, Cynthia E; Oxner, William M; Glennie, R Andrew

    2017-10-01

    It is controversial whether the surgical restoration of sagittal balance and spinopelvic angulation in a single level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis results in clinical improvements. The purpose of this study to systematically review the available literature to determine whether the surgical correction of malalignment in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis correlates with improvements in patient-reported clinical outcomes. Literature searches were performed via Ovid Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of Science using search terms "lumbar," "degenerative/spondylolisthesis" and "surgery/surgical/surgeries/fusion". This resulted in 844 articles and after reviewing the abstracts and full-texts, 13 articles were included for summary and final analysis. There were two Level II articles, four Level III articles and five Level IV articles. Most commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were Oswestery disability index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Four articles were included for the final statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient groups who achieved successful surgical correction of malalignment and those who did not for either ODI (mean difference -0.94, CI -8.89-7.00) or VAS (mean difference 1.57, CI -3.16-6.30). Two studies assessed the efficacy of manual reduction of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and their clinical outcomes after the operation, and there was no statistically significant improvement. Overall, the restoration of focal lumbar lordosis and restoration of sagittal balance for single-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not seem to yield clinical improvements but well-powered studies on this specific topic is lacking in the current literature. Future well-powered studies are needed for a more definitive conclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mild (not severe) disc degeneration is implicated in the progression of bilateral L5 spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Vivek A S; Chamoli, Uphar; Viglione, Luke L; Tsafnat, Naomi; Diwan, Ashish D

    2018-04-02

    Spondylolytic (or lytic) spondylolisthesis is often associated with disc degeneration at the index-level; however, it is not clear if disc degeneration is the cause or the consequence of lytic spondylolisthesis. The main objective of this computed tomography based finite element modelling study was to examine the role of different grades of disc degeneration in the progression of a bilateral L5-lytic defect to spondylolisthesis. High-resolution computed tomography data of the lumbosacral spine from an anonymised healthy male subject (26 years old) were segmented to build a 3D-computational model of an INTACT L1-S1 spine. The INTACT model was manipulated to generate four more models representing a bilateral L5-lytic defect and the following states of the L5-S1 disc: nil degeneration (NOR LYTIC), mild degeneration (M-DEG LYTIC), mild degeneration with 50% disc height collapse (M-DEG-COL LYTIC), and severe degeneration with 50% disc height collapse(S-COL LYTIC). The models were imported into a finite element modelling software for pre-processing, running nonlinear-static solves, and post-processing of the results. Compared with the baseline INTACT model, M-DEG LYTIC model experienced the greatest increase in kinematics (Fx range of motion: 73% ↑, Fx intervertebral translation: 53%↑), shear stresses in the annulus (Fx anteroposterior: 163%↑, Fx posteroanterior: 31%↑), and strain in the iliolumbar ligament (Fx: 90%↑). The S-COL LYTIC model experienced a decrease in mobility (Fx range of motion: 48%↓, Fx intervertebral translation: 69%↓) and an increase in normal stresses in the annulus (Fx Tensile: 170%↑; Fx Compressive: 397%↑). No significant difference in results was noted between M-DEG-COL LYTIC and S-COL LYTIC models. In the presence of a bilateral L5 spondylolytic defect, a mildly degenerate index-level disc experienced greater intervertebral motions and shear stresses compared with a severely degenerate index-level disc in flexion and extension

  12. Defining the minimum clinically important difference for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: insights from the Quality Outcomes Database.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Glassman, Steven D; Foley, Kevin T; Slotkin, Jonathan; Potts, Eric A; Shaffrey, Mark E; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John J; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Archer, Kristin R; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael S; Bydon, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a pivotal role in defining the value of surgical interventions for spinal disease. The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is considered the new standard for determining the effectiveness of a given treatment and describing patient satisfaction in response to that treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the MCID associated with surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database registry from July 2014 through December 2015 for patients who underwent posterior lumbar surgery for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. Recorded PROs included scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for leg pain (NRS-LP) and back pain (NRS-BP). Anchor-based (using the North American Spine Society satisfaction scale) and distribution-based (half a standard deviation, small Cohen's effect size, standard error of measurement, and minimum detectable change [MDC]) methods were used to calculate the MCID for each PRO. RESULTS A total of 441 patients (80 who underwent laminectomies alone and 361 who underwent fusion procedures) from 11 participating sites were included in the analysis. The changes in functional outcome scores between baseline and the 1-year postoperative evaluation were as follows: 23.5 ± 17.4 points for ODI, 0.24 ± 0.23 for EQ-5D, 4.1 ± 3.5 for NRS-LP, and 3.7 ± 3.2 for NRS-BP. The different calculation methods generated a range of MCID values for each PRO: 3.3-26.5 points for ODI, 0.04-0.3 points for EQ-5D, 0.6-4.5 points for NRS-LP, and 0.5-4.2 points for NRS-BP. The MDC approach appeared to be the most appropriate for calculating MCID because it provided a threshold greater than the measurement error and was closest to the average change difference between the satisfied and not-satisfied patients. On subgroup analysis, the MCID thresholds for laminectomy-alone patients were

  13. Revisions for screw malposition and clinical outcomes after robot-guided lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Marc L; Staartjes, Victor E

    2017-05-01

    24.3 ± 28.3) and ODI (from 43.4 ± 18.3 to 16.2 ± 16.7; all p < 0.001). Undergoing PLIF, a high body mass index, smoking status, and a preoperative ability to work were identified as predictors of a reduction in back pain. Length of hospital stay was 2.4 ± 1.1 days and operating time was 161 ± 50 minutes. Ability to work increased from 38.9% to 78.2% of patients (p < 0.001) at the final follow-up, and 89.1% of patients indicated they would choose to undergo the same treatment again. CONCLUSIONS In adults with low-grade spondylolisthesis, the data demonstrated a benefit in using robotic guidance to reduce the rate of revision surgery for screw malposition as compared with other techniques of pedicle screw insertion described in peer-reviewed publications. Larger comparative studies are required to assess differences in PROs following a minimally invasive approach in spinal fusion surgeries compared with other techniques.

  14. Correction of Grade 2 Spondylolisthesis Following a Non-Surgical Structural Spinal Rehabilitation Protocol Using Lumbar Traction: A Case Study and Selective Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fedorchuk, Curtis; Lightstone, Douglas F; McRae, Christi; Kaczor, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Objective Discuss the use of non-surgical spinal rehabilitation protocol in the case of a 69-year-old female with a grade 2 spondylolisthesis. A selective literature review and discussion are provided. Clinical Features A 69-year-old female presented with moderate low back pain (7/10 pain) and severe leg cramping (7/10 pain). Initial lateral lumbar x-ray revealed a grade 2 spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 measuring 13.3 mm. Interventions and Outcomes The patient completed 60 sessions of Mirror Image® spinal exercises, adjustments, and traction over 45 weeks. Post-treatment lateral lumbar x-ray showed a decrease in translation of L4-L5 from 13.3 mm to 2.4 mm, within normal limits. Conclusions This case provides the first documented evidence of a non-surgical or chiropractic treatment, specifically Chiropractic BioPhysics®, protocols of lumbar spondylolisthesis where spinal alignment was corrected. Additional research is needed to investigate the clinical implications and treatment methods. PMID:29299090

  15. Minimally invasive versus open fusion for Grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

    PubMed

    Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Glassman, Steven; Foley, Kevin; Slotkin, Jonathan R; Potts, Eric; Shaffrey, Mark; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael; Asher, Anthony L; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar spondylolisthesis is a degenerative condition that can be surgically treated with either open or minimally invasive decompression and instrumented fusion. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches may shorten recovery, reduce blood loss, and minimize soft-tissue damage with resultant reduced postoperative pain and disability. METHODS The authors queried the national, multicenter Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion between July 2014 and December 2015 for Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. The authors recorded baseline and 12-month patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, numeric rating scale (NRS)-back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society satisfaction questionnaire). Multivariable regression models were fitted for hospital length of stay (LOS), 12-month PROs, and 90-day return to work, after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. RESULTS A total of 345 patients (open surgery, n = 254; MIS, n = 91) from 11 participating sites were identified in the QOD. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 84% (83.5% [open surgery]; 85% [MIS]). Overall, baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts. Two hundred fifty seven patients underwent 1-level fusion (open surgery, n = 181; MIS, n = 76), and 88 patients underwent 2-level fusion (open surgery, n = 73; MIS, n = 15). Patients in both groups reported significant improvement in all primary outcomes (all p < 0.001). MIS was associated with a significantly lower mean intraoperative estimated blood loss and slightly longer operative times in both 1- and 2-level fusion subgroups. Although the LOS was shorter for MIS 1-level cases, this was not significantly different. No difference was detected with regard to the 12-month PROs between the 1-level MIS versus the 1-level open

  16. Spontaneous slip reduction of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: technical note and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Li, Lijun; Qian, Lie; Zhou, Wei; Tan, Jun; Zou, Le; Yang, Mingjie

    2011-02-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: Retrospective clinical data analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate and verify our philosophy of spontaneous slip reduction following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) for treatment of low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis usually requires surgical intervention, and the most currently controversial focus is on method and degree of reduction; and Mini-TLIF is an attractive surgical procedure for isthmic spondylolisthesis. METHODS.: Between February 2004 and June 2008, 21 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent Mini-TLIF in our institute. Total resection of the scar around the pars interarticularis liberated the nerve roots, achieving posterior release as well. The disc was thoroughly resected, and the disc space was gradually distracted and thoroughly released with sequential disc shavers until rupture of anulus conjunct with anterior longitudinal ligament, accomplishing anterior release, so as to insert Cages. Because of circumferential release, the slipped vertebrae would tend to obtain spontaneous reduction, and with pedicle screw fixation, additional reduction would be achieved without any application of posterior translation force. Radiographs, Visual Analogue Scale, and Oswestry Disability Index were documented. All the cases were followed up for 10 to 26 months. RESULTS.: Slip percentage was reduced from 24.2% ± 6.9% to 10.5% ± 4.0%, and foraminal area percentage increased from 89.1% ± 3.0% to 93.6% ± 2.1%. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index decreased from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 2.1 ± 1.1 and from 53.3 ± 16.2 to 17.0 ± 7.8, respectively. No neurologic complications were encountered. There were no signs of instrumentation failure. The fusion rate approached 100%. CONCLUSION.: Slip reduction is based on circumferential release. The procedure can be well performed

  17. Surgical outcomes of degenerative spondylolisthesis with L5-S1 disc degeneration: comparison between lumbar floating fusion and lumbosacral fusion at a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Hui; Niu, Chi-Chien; Keorochana, Gun

    2011-09-01

    A retrospective clinical and radiographic study was performed. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and a preexisting degenerative L5-S1 disc treated with a lumbar floating fusion (LFF) versus lumbosacral fusion (LSF). Fusion for treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis often ends at the L5 level. These patients usually had a preexisting L5-S1 disc degeneration; however, no literature mentions the role of prophylactic LSF in degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with L5-S1 disc degeneration. A total of 107 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up who had lumbosacral or LFF with pedicle instrumentation for degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) classification was used to evaluate the radiographic results of the L5-S1 segment. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified Brodsky's criteria were used to evaluate patients' clinical results. The incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) (includes radiographic and clinical ASD) of both ends was recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age distribution, or amount of follow-up between the LFF and LSF groups. The LSF group had a higher percentage of patients that underwent total L5 laminectomy with loss of L5-S1 posterior ligament integrity (LSF = 92% vs. LFF = 67%, P = 0.019). The higher incidence of cephalic ASD in the LSF group was statistically significant (LSF = 25% vs. LFF = 9.7%, P = 0.049). Although no patient in the LSF group developed L5-S1 ASD, need for L5-S1 segment revision surgery was not prevented with LSF. Clinical outcomes on the basis of the success rate (LFF = 85.5% vs.LSF = 70.8%, P = 0.103) and ODI difference (LFF = 28.97 ± 15.82 vs. LSF = 23.04 ± 10.97, P = 0.109), there were no statistically significant difference between these two groups. Posterior instrumentation with posterolateral LFF for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis with

  18. Comparison of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with autogenous bone chips and PLIF with cage for treatment of double-level isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Deyong; Chen, Zhong; Song, Dewei; Li, Zaixue

    2015-11-01

    Spondylolytic defects involving multiple vertebral levels are rare. It is reported that only 1.48% of patients with back pain were diagnosed with multi-level spondylolysis. The incidence of multiple-level spondylolisthesis is even rarer, so far there have been few reports of multi-level isthmic spondylolisthesis in the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of two different fusion techniques for treatment of double-level isthmic spondylolisthesis. Fifty-four patients who were managed surgically for treatment of double-level symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis were included in this study. Between May 2004 and September 2012, 29 consecutive patients underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with autogenous bone chips (group I) at Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong, China. Between March 2005 and December 2013, 25 consecutive patients underwent PLIF with cage (group II) at Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangdong, China. The mean follow-up periods were 27.2 and 26.8 months, respectively. The mean VAS scores of back and leg pain significantly decreased from 7.2 to 2.2 and 5.8 to 2.1 in the group I and from 7.0 to 1.9 and 6.1 to 1.8 in the group II, respectively. In the group I, mean ODI scores improved significantly from 54% to 14.2% and, in the group II, from 60% to 12.6%. In both groups, VAS and ODI scores significantly changed from pre- to postoperatively (p<0.001), but postoperative outcome between groups was statistically not significant. Solid union was observed in 27 of 29 patients (89.6%) in the group I and in 22 of 25 patients (88%) in the group II, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05). In both groups, changes in disc height, degree of listhesis, and whole lumbar lordosis between the pre- and postoperative periods were significant. Clinical and functional outcomes demonstrate no significant differences between groups in treating back and leg pain

  19. Cost-utility analysis of posterior minimally invasive fusion compared with conventional open fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rampersaud, Y. Raja; Gray, Randolph; Lewis, Steven J.; Massicotte, Eric M.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The utility and cost of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) fusion remain controversial. The primary objective of this study was to compare the direct economic impact of 1- and 2-level fusion for grade I or II degenerative or isthmic spondylolisthesis via an MIS technique compared with conventional open posterior decompression and fusion. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed by use of prospective data from 78 consecutive patients (37 with MIS technique by 1 surgeon and 41 with open technique by 3 surgeons). Independent review of demographic, intraoperative, and acute postoperative data was performed. Oswestry disability index (ODI) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) values were prospectively collected preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. Cost-utility analysis was performed by use of in-hospital micro-costing data (operating room, nursing, imaging, laboratories, pharmacy, and allied health cost) and change in health utility index (SF-6D) at 1 year. Results The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, comorbidities, and body mass index. Groups significantly differed (P < .01) regarding baseline ODI and SF-6D scores, as well as number of 2-level fusions (MIS, 12; open, 20) and number of interbody cages (MIS, 45; open, 14). Blood loss (200 mL vs 798 mL), transfusions (0% vs 17%), and length of stay (LOS) (6.1 days vs 8.4 days) were significantly (P < .01) lower in the MIS group. Complications were also fewer in the MIS group (4 vs 12, P < .02). The mean cost of an open fusion was 1.28 times greater than that of an MIS fusion (P = .001). Both groups had significant improvement in 1-year outcome. The changes in ODI and SF-6D scores were not statistically different between groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LOS and number of levels fused were independent predictors of cost. Age and MIS were the only predictors of LOS. Baseline outcomes and MIS were predictors of 1-year outcome. Conclusion MIS posterior

  20. Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Results of Mini-Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Indirect Decompression for Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Hogaku; Sakuma, Yoshio; Koshika, Yasuhide

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose In this study, we compared the postoperative outcomes of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) indirect decompression with that of mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature There are very few reports examining postoperative results of XLIF and minimally invasive TLIF for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and no reports comparing XLIF and mini-open TLIF. Methods Forty patients who underwent 1-level spinal fusion, either by XLIF indirect decompression (X group, 20 patients) or by mini-open TLIF (T group, 20 patients), for treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis were included in this study. Invasiveness of surgery was evaluated on the basis of surgery time, blood loss, hospitalization period, and perioperative complications. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), disc angle (DA), disc height (DH), and slipping length (SL) were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at 12 months after surgery. Cross-sectional spinal canal area (CSA) was also measured before surgery and at 1 month after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of surgery time or hospitalization period; however, X group showed a significant decrease in blood loss (p<0.001). Serious complications were not observed in either group. In clinical assessment, no significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the JOABPEQ results. The change in DH at 12 months after surgery increased significantly in the X group (p<0.05), and the changes in DA and SL were not significantly different between the two groups. The change in CSA was significantly greater in the T group (p<0.001). Conclusions Postoperative clinical results were equally favorable for both procedures; however, in comparison with mini-open TLIF, less blood loss and greater

  1. Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Results of Mini-Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Indirect Decompression for Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yutaka; Gen, Hogaku; Sakuma, Yoshio; Koshika, Yasuhide

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective study. In this study, we compared the postoperative outcomes of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) indirect decompression with that of mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. There are very few reports examining postoperative results of XLIF and minimally invasive TLIF for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and no reports comparing XLIF and mini-open TLIF. Forty patients who underwent 1-level spinal fusion, either by XLIF indirect decompression (X group, 20 patients) or by mini-open TLIF (T group, 20 patients), for treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis were included in this study. Invasiveness of surgery was evaluated on the basis of surgery time, blood loss, hospitalization period, and perioperative complications. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), disc angle (DA), disc height (DH), and slipping length (SL) were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at 12 months after surgery. Cross-sectional spinal canal area (CSA) was also measured before surgery and at 1 month after surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of surgery time or hospitalization period; however, X group showed a significant decrease in blood loss ( p <0.001). Serious complications were not observed in either group. In clinical assessment, no significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the JOABPEQ results. The change in DH at 12 months after surgery increased significantly in the X group ( p <0.05), and the changes in DA and SL were not significantly different between the two groups. The change in CSA was significantly greater in the T group ( p <0.001). Postoperative clinical results were equally favorable for both procedures; however, in comparison with mini-open TLIF, less blood loss and greater correction of DH were observed in XLIF.

  2. A retrospective review comparing two-year patient-reported outcomes, costs, and healthcare resource utilization for TLIF vs. PLF for single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Elliott; Chotai, Silky; Stonko, David; Wick, Joseph; Sielatycki, Alex; Devin, Clinton J

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs), morbidity, and costs of TLIF vs PLF to determine whether one treatment was superior in the setting of single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patients undergoing TLIF or PLF for single-level spondylolisthesis were included for retrospective analysis. EQ-5D, ODI, SF-12 MCS/PCS, NRS-BP/LP scores were collected at baseline and 24 months after surgery. 90-day post-operative complications, revision surgery rates, and satisfaction scores were also collected. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs based on Medicare payment amounts (direct cost). Patient and caregiver workday losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Total cost was used to assess mean total 2-year cost per QALYs gained after surgery. 62 and 37 patients underwent TLIF and PLF, respectively. Patients in the PLF group were older (p < 0.01). No significant differences were seen in baseline or 24-month PROs between the two groups. There was a significant improvement in all PROs from baseline to 24 months after surgery (p < 0.001). Both groups had similar rates of 90-day complications, revision surgery, satisfaction, and similar gain in QALYs and cost per QALYs gained. There was no significant difference in 24-month direct, indirect, and total cost. Overall costs and health care utilization were similar in both the groups. Both TLIF and PLF for single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis provide improvement in disability, pain, quality of life, and general health.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of an expandable lateral cage and a static transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage with posterior instrumentation in an in vitro spondylolisthesis model.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Matthew; Cyriac, Mathew; Haines, Colin M; Gudipally, Manasa; O'Brien, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient biomechanical data exist from comparisons of the stability of expandable lateral cages with that of static transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) cages. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to compare the relative rigidity of L4-5 expandable lateral interbody constructs with or without additive pedicle screw fixation with that of L4-5 static TLIF cages in a novel cadaveric spondylolisthesis model. Eight human cadaver spines were used in this study. A spondylolisthesis model was created at the L4-5 level by creating 2 injuries. First, in each cadaver, a nucleotomy from 2 channels through the anterior side was created. Second, the cartilage of the facet joint was burred down to create a gap of 4 mm. Light-emitting-diode tracking markers were placed at L-3, L-4, L-5, and S-1. Specimens were tested in the following scenarios: intact model, bilateral pedicle screws, expandable lateral 18-mm-wide cage (alone, with unilateral pedicle screws [UPSs], and with bilateral pedicle screws [BPSs]), expandable lateral 22-mm-wide cage (alone, with UPSs, and with BPSs), and TLIF (alone, with UPSs, and with BPSs). Four of the spines were tested with the expandable lateral cages (18-mm cage followed by the 22-mm cage), and 4 of the spines were tested with the TLIF construct. All these constructs were tested in flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. The TLIF-alone construct was significantly less stable than the 18- and 22-mm-wide lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) constructs and the TLIF constructs with either UPSs or BPSs. The LLIF constructs alone were significantly less stable than the TLIF construct with BPSs. However, there was no significant difference between the 18-mm LLIF construct with UPSs and the TLIF construct with BPSs in any of the loading modes. Expandable lateral cages with UPSs provide stability equivalent to that of a TLIF construct with BPSs in a degenerative spondylolisthesis model.

  4. Outcomes of Posterolateral Fusion with and without Instrumentation and of Interbody Fusion for Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Endler, Peter; Ekman, Per; Möller, Hans; Gerdhem, Paul

    2017-05-03

    Various methods for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis are available. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes after posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, and interbody fusion. The Swedish Spine Register was used to identify 765 patients who had been operated on for isthmic spondylolisthesis and had at least preoperative and 2-year outcome data; 586 of them had longer follow-up (a mean of 6.9 years). The outcome measures were a global assessment of leg and back pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) Questionnaire, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), a visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, and satisfaction with treatment. Data on additional lumbar spine surgery was searched for in the register, with the mean duration of follow-up for this variable being 10.6 years after the index procedure. Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of covariance or competing-risks proportional hazards regression, adjusted for baseline differences in the studied variables, smoking, employment status, and level of fusion. Posterolateral fusion without instrumentation was performed in 102 patients; posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, in 452; and interbody fusion, in 211. At 1 year, improvement was reported in the global assessment for back pain by 54% of the patients who had posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, 68% of those treated with posterolateral fusion with instrumentation, and 70% of those treated with interbody fusion (p = 0.009). The VAS for back pain and reported satisfaction with treatment showed similar patterns (p = 0.003 and p = 0.017, respectively), whereas other outcomes did not differ among the treatment groups at 1 year. At 2 years, the global assessment for back pain indicated improvement in 57% of the patients who had undergone posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, 70% of those who had posterolateral fusion with instrumentation

  5. Congenital Spondylolytic Spondylolisthesis of C2 Vertebra Associated With Atlanto-Axial Dislocation, Chiari Type I Malformation, and Anomalous Vertebral Artery: Case Report With Review Literature.

    PubMed

    Sardhara, Jayesh; Pavaman, Sindgikar; Das, Kuntal; Srivastava, Arun; Mehrotra, Anant; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Congenital spondylolytic spondylolisthesis of C2 vertebra resulting from deficient posterior element of the axis is rarely described in the literature. We describe a unique case of agenesis of posterior elements of C2 with craniovertebral junction anomalies consisting of osseous, vascular, and soft tissue anomalies. A 26-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper cervical myelopathy of 12 months' duration. A computed tomography scan of the cervical spine including the craniovertebral junction revealed spondylolisthesis of C2 over C3, atlantoaxial dislocation, occipitalization of the atlas, hypoplasia of the odontoid, and cleft posterior C1 arch. Additionally, the axis vertebra was found devoid of its posterior elements except bilaterally rudimentary pedicles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed tonsilar herniation, suggesting associated Chiari type I malformation. CT angiogram of the vertebral arteries displayed persistent bilateral first intersegmental arteries crossing the posterior aspect of the C1/2 facet joint. This patient underwent foramen magnum decompression, C3 laminectomy with occipito-C3/C4 posterior fusion using screw and rod to maintain the cervical alignment and stability. We report this rare constellation of congenital craniovertebral junction anomaly and review the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Iliac Crest Autograft on the Outcome of Fusion in the Setting of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kristen; Hwang, Raymond; Hilibrand, Alan; Smith, Harvey E.; Gruskay, Jordan; Lurie, Jon D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable controversy about the long-term morbidity associated with the use of posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft for lumbar spine fusion procedures compared with the use of bone-graft substitutes. The hypothesis of this study was that there is no long-term difference in outcome for patients who had posterior lumbar fusion with or without iliac crest autograft. Methods: The study population includes patients enrolled in the degenerative spondylolisthesis cohort of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial who underwent lumbar spinal fusion. Patients were divided according to whether they had or had not received posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft. Results: There were 108 patients who had fusion with iliac crest autograft and 246 who had fusion without iliac crest autograft. There were no baseline differences between groups in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, or baseline clinical scores. At baseline, the group that received iliac crest bone graft had an increased percentage of patients who had multilevel fusions (32% versus 21%; p = 0.033) and L5-S1 surgery (37% versus 26%; p = 0.031) compared with the group without iliac crest autograft. Operative time was higher in the iliac crest bone-graft group (233.4 versus 200.9 minutes; p < 0.001), and there was a trend toward increased blood loss (686.9 versus 582.3; p = 0.057). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications, including infection or reoperation rates, between the groups. On the basis of the numbers available, no significant differences were detected between the groups treated with or without iliac crest bone graft with regard to the scores on Short Form-36, Oswestry Disability Index, Stenosis Bothersomeness Index, and Low Back Pain Bothersomeness Scale or the percent of patient satisfaction with symptoms averaged over the study period. Conclusions: The outcome scores associated with the use of posterior iliac crest bone graft for

  7. PLIF with a titanium cage and excised facet joint bone for degenerative spondylolisthesis--in augmentation with a pedicle screw.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Koichiro; Kido, Tadato; Unoki, Eiki; Chiba, Mitsuho

    2007-02-01

    To determine the validity of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a titanium cage filled with excised facet joint bone and a pedicle screw for degenerative spondylolisthesis. PLIF using a titanium cage filled with excised facet joint bone and a pedicle screw was performed in 28 consecutive patients (men 10, women 18). The mean age of the patients was 60 years (range, 52 to 75 y) at the time of surgery. The mean follow-up period was 2.3 years (range, 2.0 to 4.5 y). The operation was done at L3/4 in 5, L4/5 in 20, and L3/4/5 in 3 patients. The mean operative bleeding was 318+/-151 g (mean+/-standard deviation), and the mean operative time was 3.34+/-0.57 hours per fixed segment. Clinical outcome was assessed by Denis' Pain and Work scale. Radiologic assessment was done using Boxell's method. Fusion outcome was assessed using an established criteria. On Pain scale, 20 and 8 patients were rated P4 and P5 before surgery, and 11, 12, 2, 2, and 1 patients were rated P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 at final follow-up, respectively. On Work scale (for only physical labors), 12 and 9 patients were rated W4 and W5, before surgery, and 12, 5, 1, and 3 patients were rated W1, W2, W3 and W5 at final follow-up, respectively. There was significant difference in clinical outcome (P<0.01, Wilcoxon singled-rank test) The mean %Slip and Slip Angle was 17.9+/-8.1% and 3.9+/-5.8 degrees before surgery. The mean % Slip and Slip Angle was 5.4+/-4.4% and -2.0+/-4.8 degrees at final follow-up. There was a significant difference between the values (P<0.01, paired t test). "Union" and "probable union" was determined in 29 (93.5%) and 2 (6.5%) of 31 operated segments at 2.3 years (range, 2.0 to 4.5 y), postoperatively. PLIF using a titanium cage filled with excised facet joint bone and a pedicle screw provided a satisfactory clinical outcome and an excellent union rate without harvesting and grafting the autologous iliac bone.

  8. A comparison of the techniques of direct pars interarticularis repairs for spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Nasser; Patra, Devi Prasad; Narayan, Vinayak; Savardekar, Amey R; Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Bollam, Papireddy; Bir, Shyamal; Nanda, Anil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Spondylosis with or without spondylolisthesis that does not respond to conservative management has an excellent outcome with direct pars interarticularis repair. Direct repair preserves the segmental spinal motion. A number of operative techniques for direct repair are practiced; however, the procedure of choice is not clearly defined. The present study aims to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the different operative techniques and their outcomes. METHODS A meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL ( Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). Studies of patients with spondylolysis with or without low-grade spondylolisthesis who underwent direct repair were included. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on the operative technique used: the Buck repair group, Scott repair group, Morscher repair group, and pedicle screw-based repair group. The pooled data were analyzed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. Tests for bias and heterogeneity were performed. The I 2 statistic was calculated, and the results were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect version 2. RESULTS Forty-six studies consisting of 900 patients were included in the study. The majority of the patients were in their 2nd decade of life. The Buck group included 19 studies with 305 patients; the Scott group had 8 studies with 162 patients. The Morscher method included 5 studies with 193 patients, and the pedicle group included 14 studies with 240 patients. The overall pooled fusion, complication, and outcome rates were calculated. The pooled rates for fusion for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 83.53%, 81.57%, 77.72%, and 90.21%, respectively. The pooled complication rates for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle

  9. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis associated low-back and leg pain over two years.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Adogwa, Owoicho; Bydon, Ali; Cheng, Joseph; McGirt, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for lumbar spondylolisthesis allows for surgical treatment of back and leg pain while theoretically minimizing tissue injury and accelerating overall recovery. Although the authors of previous studies have demonstrated shorter length of hospital stay and reduced blood loss with MIS versus open-TLIF, short- and long-term outcomes have been similar. No studies to date have evaluated the comprehensive health care costs associated with TLIF procedures or assessed the cost-utility of MIS- versus open-TLIF. As such, we set out to assess previously unstudied end points of health care cost and cost-utility associated with MIS- versus open-TLIF. Thirty patients undergoing MIS-TLIF (n=15) or open-TLIF (n=15) for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis associated back and leg pain were prospectively studied. Total back-related medical resource use, missed work, and health-state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from EQ-5D with U.S. valuation) were assessed after two-year follow-up. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs on the basis of Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and work-day losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Difference in mean total cost per QALY gained for MIS- versus open-TLIF was assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: COSTmis-COSTopen/QALYmis-QALYopen). MIS versus open-TLIF cohorts were similar at baseline. By two years postoperatively, patients undergoing MIS- versus open-TLIF reported similar mean QALYs gained (0.50 vs. 0.41, P=0.17). Mean total two-year cost of MIS- and open-TLIF was $35,996 and $44,727, respectively. The $8,731 two-year cost savings of MIS- versus open-TLIF did not reach statistical significance (P=0.18) for this sample size. Although our limited sample size prevented statistical significance, MIS- versus open-TLIF was associated with reduced costs over

  10. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in lumbar spondylolisthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Kunder, Suzanne L; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Rijkers, Kim; Caelers, Inge J M H; van Hemert, Wouter L W; de Bie, Rob A; van Santbrink, Henk

    2017-11-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) are both frequently used as a surgical treatment for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Because of the unilateral transforaminal route to the intervertebral space used in TLIF, as opposed to the bilateral route used in PLIF, TLIF could be associated with fewer complications, shorter duration of surgery, and less blood loss, whereas the effectiveness of both techniques on back or leg pain is equal. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of both TLIF and PLIF in reducing disability, and to compare the intra- and postoperative complications of both techniques in patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were carried out. We conducted a Medline (using PubMed), Embase (using Ovid), Cochrane Library, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov and NHS Centre for Review and Dissemination search for studies reporting TLIF, PLIF, lumbar spondylolisthesis and disability, pain, complications, duration of surgery, and estimated blood loss. A meta-analysis was performed to compute pooled estimates of the differences between TLIF and PLIF. Forest plots were constructed for each analysis group. A total of 192 studies were identified; nine studies were included (one randomized controlled trial and eight case series), including 990 patients (450 TLIF and 540 PLIF). The pooled mean difference in postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores between TLIF and PLIF was -3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.72 to -2.20, p≤.001). The pooled mean difference in the postoperative VAS scores was -0.05 (95% CI -0.18 to 0.09, p=.480). The overall complication rate was 8.7% (range 0%-25%) for TLIF and 17.0% (range 4.7-28.8%) for PLIF; the pooled odds ratio was 0.47 (95% CI 0.28-0.81, p=.006). The average duration of surgery was 169 minutes for TLIF and 190 minutes for PLIF (mean difference -20.1, 95% CI -33.5 to -6.6, p=.003). The

  11. Comparison of minimally invasive spine surgery using intraoperative computed tomography integrated navigation, fluoroscopy, and conventional open surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis: a prospective registry-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Huang; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Li, Yen-Yao; Lee, Ching-Yu; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Tsung-Jen

    2017-08-01

    To date, the surgical approaches for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using minimally invasive spine surgery assisted with intraoperative computed tomography image-integrated navigation (MISS-iCT), fluoroscopy (MISS-FS), and conventional open surgery (OS) are debatable. This study compared TLIF using MISS-iCT, MISS-FS, and OS for treatment of one-level lumbar spondylolisthesis. This is a prospective, registry-based cohort study that compared surgical approaches for patients who underwent surgical treatment for one-level lumbar spondylolisthesis. One hundred twenty-four patients from January 2010 to March 2012 in a medical center were recruited. The outcome measures were clinical assessments, including Short-Form 12, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index, Core Outcome Measurement Index, and patient satisfaction, and blood loss, hospital stay, operation time, postoperative pedicle screw accuracy, and superior-level facet violation. All surgeries were performed by two senior surgeons together. Ninety-nine patients (40M, 59F) who had at least 2 years' follow-up were divided into three groups according to the operation methods: MISS-iCT (N=24), MISS-FS (N=23), and OS (N=52) groups. Charts and surgical records along with postoperative CT images were assessed. MISS-iCT and MISS-FS demonstrated a significantly lowered blood loss and hospital stay compared with OS group (p<.01). Operation time was significantly lower in the MISS-iCT and OS groups compared with the MISS-FS group (p=.002). Postoperatively, VAS scores at 1 year and 2 years were significantly improved in the MISS-iCT and MISS-FS groups compared with the OS groups. No significant difference in the number of pedicle screw breach (>2 mm) was found. However, a lower superior-level facet violation rate was observed in the MISS-iCT and OS groups (p=.049). MISS-iCT TLIF demonstrated reduced operation time, blood loss, superior-level facet

  12. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with

  13. Modeled cost-effectiveness of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion compared with posterolateral fusion for spondylolisthesis using N(2)QOD data.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; McGirt, Matthew J; Asher, Anthony L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has become the most commonly used fusion technique for lumbar degenerative disorders. This suggests an expectation of better clinical outcomes with this technique, but this has not been validated consistently. How surgical variables and choice of health utility measures drive the cost-effectiveness of TLIF relative to posterolateral fusion (PSF) has not been established. The authors used health utility values derived from Short Form-6D (SF-6D) and EQ-5D and different cost-effectiveness thresholds to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of TLIF compared with PSF. METHODS From the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD), 101 patients with spondylolisthesis who underwent PSF were propensity matched to patients who underwent TLIF. Health-related quality of life measures and perioperative parameters were compared. Because health utility values derived from the SF-6D and EQ-5D questionnaires have been shown to vary in patients with low-back pain, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were derived from both measures. On the basis of these matched cases, a sensitivity analysis for the relative cost per QALY of TLIF versus PSF was performed in a series of cost-assumption models. RESULTS Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, and 30-day and 90-day readmission rates were similar for the TLIF and PSF groups. Both TLIF and PSF significantly improved back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and EQ-5D and SF-6D scores at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, patients who had undergone TLIF had greater improvements in mean ODI scores (30.4 vs 21.1, p = 0.001) and mean SF-6D scores (0.16 vs 0.11, p = 0.001) but similar improvements in mean EQ-5D scores (0.25 vs 0.22, p = 0.415) as patients treated with PSF. At a cost per QALY threshold of $100,000 and using SF-6D-based QALYs, the authors found that TLIF would be cost-prohibitive compared with PSF at a

  14. Outcome of L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion of high-grade L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schär, Ralph T; Sutter, Martin; Mannion, Anne F; Eggspühler, Andreas; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Fekete, Tamas F; Kleinstück, Frank; Haschtmann, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence and course of iatrogenic L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Consecutive patients treated for high-grade spondylolisthesis with IONM from 2005 to 2013 were screened for eligibility. Prospectively collected clinical and surgical data as well as radiographic outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Patients completed the multidimensional Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) before and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Seventeen patients were included, with a mean age of 26.3 (±9.5) years. Mean preoperative L5-S1 slip was 72% (±21%) and was reduced to 19% (±13%) postoperatively. Mean loss of reduction at last follow-up [mean 19 months (±14, range 3-48 months)] was 3% (±4.3%). Rate of new L5 radiculopathy with motor deficit (L5MD) after surgery was 29% (five patients). Four patients fully recovered after 3 months, one patient was lost to neurologic follow-up. IONM sensitivity and specificity for postoperative L5MD was 20 and 100%, respectively. COMI, back pain and leg pain scores showed significant (p < 0.001) improvements at 3 months postoperatively, which were retained up to 24 months postoperatively. Transient L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade spondylolisthesis is frequent. With IONM the risk of irreversible L5 radiculopathy is minimal. If IONM signal changes recover, full clinical recovery is expected within 3 months. Overall, patient-reported outcome of reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade spondylolisthesis showed clinically important improvement.

  15. Two-year comprehensive medical management of degenerative lumbar spine disease (lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, or disc herniation): a value analysis of cost, pain, disability, and quality of life: clinical article.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Shau, David N; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    Current health care reform calls for a reduction of procedures and treatments that are less effective, more costly, and of little value (high cost/low quality). The authors assessed the 2-year cost and effectiveness of comprehensive medical management for lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, and herniation by utilizing a prospective single-center multidisciplinary spine center registry in a real-world practice setting. Analysis was performed on a prospective longitudinal quality of life spine registry. Patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis (n = 50), stenosis (n = 50), and disc herniation (n = 50) who had symptoms persisting after 6 weeks of medical management and who were eligible for surgical treatment were entered into a prospective registry after deciding on nonsurgical treatment. In all cases, comprehensive medical management included spinal steroid injections, physical therapy, muscle relaxants, antiinflammatory medication, and narcotic oral agents. Two-year patient-reported outcomes, back-related medical resource utilization, and occupational work-day losses were prospectively collected and used to calculate Medicare fee-based direct and indirect costs from the payer and societal perspectives. The maximum health gain associated with medical management was defined as the improvement in pain, disability, and quality of life experienced after 2 years of medical treatment or at the time a patient decided to cross over to surgery. The maximum health gain in back pain, leg pain, disability, quality of life, depression, and general health state did not achieve statistical significance by 2 years of medical management, except for pain and disability in patients with disc herniation and back pain in patients with lumbar stenosis. Eighteen patients (36%) with spondylolisthesis, 11 (22%) with stenosis, and 17 (34%) with disc herniation eventually required surgical management due to lack of improvement. The 2-year improvement did not achieve a minimum clinically

  16. Descriptive epidemiology and prior healthcare utilization of patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial's (SPORT) three observational cohorts: disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin; Lurie, Jon D; Tosteson, Tor D; Hanscom, Brett; Abdu, William A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James

    2006-04-01

    Prospective observational cohorts. To describe sociodemographic and clinical features, and nonoperative (medical) resource utilization before enrollment, in patients who are candidates for surgical intervention for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) according to SPORT criteria. Intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis are the three most common diagnoses of low back and leg symptoms for which surgery is performed. There is a paucity of descriptive literature examining large patient cohorts for the relationships among baseline characteristics and medical resource utilization with these three diagnoses. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) conducts three randomized and three observational cohort studies of surgical and nonsurgical treatments for patients with IDH, SpS, and DS. Baseline data include demographic information, prior treatments received, and functional status measured by SF-36 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-AAOS/Modems version). The data presented represent all 1,411 patients (743 IDH, 365 SpS, 303 DS) enrolled in the SPORT observational cohorts. Multiple logistic regression was used to generate independent predictors of utilization adjusted for sociodemographic variables, diagnosis, and duration of symptoms. The average age was 41 years for the IDH group, 64 years for the SpS group, and 66 years for the DS group. At enrollment, IDH patients presented with the most pain as reported on the SF-36 (BP 26.3 vs. 33.2 SpS and 33.8 DS) and were the most impaired (ODI 51 vs. 42.3 SpS and 41.5 DS). IDH patients used more chiropractic treatment (42% vs. 33% SpS and 26% DS), had more Emergency Department (ED) visits (21% vs. 7% SpS and 4% DS), and used more opiate analgesics (49% vs. 29% SpS and 27% DS). After adjusting for age, gender, diagnosis, education, race, duration of symptoms, and compensation, Medicaid patients used

  17. ISSLS PRIZE IN BIOENGINEERING SCIENCE 2018: dynamic imaging of degenerative spondylolisthesis reveals mid-range dynamic lumbar instability not evident on static clinical radiographs.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Malcolm E; Rynearson, Bryan; LeVasseur, Clarissa; Adgate, Zach; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Aiyangar, Ameet; Anderst, William J

    2018-04-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) in the setting of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis is commonly treated with spinal fusion in addition to decompression with laminectomy. However, recent studies have shown similar clinical outcomes after decompression alone, suggesting that a subset of DS patients may not require spinal fusion. Identification of dynamic instability could prove useful for predicting which patients are at higher risk of post-laminectomy destabilization necessitating fusion. The goal of this study was to determine if static clinical radiographs adequately characterize dynamic instability in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and to compare the rotational and translational kinematics in vivo during continuous dynamic flexion activity in DS versus asymptomatic age-matched controls. Seven patients with symptomatic single level lumbar DS (6 M, 1 F; 66 ± 5.0 years) and seven age-matched asymptomatic controls (5 M, 2 F age 63.9 ± 6.4 years) underwent biplane radiographic imaging during continuous torso flexion. A volumetric model-based tracking system was used to track each vertebra in the radiographic images using subject-specific 3D bone models from high-resolution computed tomography (CT). In vivo continuous dynamic sagittal rotation (flexion/extension) and AP translation (slip) were calculated and compared to clinical measures of intervertebral flexion/extension and AP translation obtained from standard lateral flexion/extension radiographs. Static clinical radiographs underestimate the degree of AP translation seen on dynamic in vivo imaging (1.0 vs 3.1 mm; p = 0.03). DS patients demonstrated three primary motion patterns compared to a single kinematic pattern in asymptomatic controls when analyzing continuous dynamic in vivo imaging. 3/7 (42%) of patients with DS demonstrated aberrant mid-range motion. Continuous in vivo dynamic imaging in DS reveals a spectrum of aberrant motion with significantly greater

  18. Clinical significance of achieving a flexion limitation with a tension band system in grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis: a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Baek, Oon Ki; Bae, Jun Seok; Yoo, Seung-Hwa; Lee, June-Ho

    2015-03-15

    Retrospective clinical study. To evaluate the effect of the limitation of flexion rotation clinically and radiologically after interspinous soft stabilization using a tension band system in grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Although several studies have been published on the clinical effects of limiting rotatory motion using tension band systems, which mainly targets the limitation of flexion rather than that of extension, they were confined to the category of pedicle screw-based systems, revealing inconsistent long-term outcomes. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 60.6 years (range, 28-76 yr) who underwent interspinous soft stabilization after decompression for grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis between 2002 and 2004 were analyzed. At follow-up, the patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their achievement or failure to achieve flexion limitation. The clinical and radiological findings were analyzed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the prognostic factors for surgical outcomes. At a mean follow-up duration of 72.5 months (range, 61-82 mo), 51 patients were classified into the flexion-limited group and 10 into the flexion-unlimited group. Statistically significant improvements were noted only in the flexion-limited group in all clinical scores. In the flexion-unlimited group, there were significant deteriorations in flexion angle (P = 0.009), axial thickness of the ligamentum flavum (P = 0.013), and the foraminal cross-sectional area (P = 0.011), resulting in significant intergroup differences. The preoperative extension angle was identified as the most influential variable for the flexion limitation and the clinical outcomes. The effects of the limitation of flexion rotation achieved through interspinous soft stabilization using a tension band system after decompression were related to the prevention of late recurrent stenosis and resultant radicular pain caused by flexion instability. The

  19. [Effects of robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and traditional open surgery in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis].

    PubMed

    Cui, G Y; Tian, W; He, D; Xing, Y G; Liu, B; Yuan, Q; Wang, Y Q; Sun, Y Q

    2017-07-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effects of robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and traditional open TLIF in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods: A total of 41 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis accepted surgical treatment in Department of Spinal Surgery of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital From July 2015 to April 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 16 cases accepted robot-assisted minimally invasive TLIF and 25 accepted traditional open TLIF. The operation time, X-ray radiation exposure time, perioperative bleeding, drainage volume, time of hospitalization, time for pain relief, time for ambulatory recovery, visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and complications were compared. T test and χ(2) were used to analyze data. Results: There were no significant difference in gender, age, numbers, degrees, pre-operative VAS and ODI in spondylolisthesis (all P >0.05). Compared with traditional open TLIF group, the robot-assisted minimally invasive TLIF group had less perioperative bleeding ((187.5±18.4) ml vs . (332.1±23.5) ml), less drainage volume ((103.1±15.6) ml vs . (261.3±19.8) ml), shorter hospitalization ((7.8±1.9) days vs . (10.0±1.6) days), shorter time for pain relief ((2.8±1.0) days vs . (5.2±1.1) days), shorter time for ambulatory recovery ((1.7±0.9) days vs . (2.9±1.3) days) and less VAS of the third day postoperatively (2.2±0.9 vs . 4.2±2.4) ( t =2.762-16.738, all P <0.05), but need more operation time ((151.3±12.3) minutes vs . (102.2±7.1) minutes) and more X-ray radiation exposure ((26.1±3.3) seconds vs . (5.5±2.1) seconds) ( t =6.125, 15.168, both P <0.01). In both groups ODI was significantly lower in final follow-up than that of the pre-operation ( t =12.215, 14.036, P <0.01). Intervertebral disc height of the final follow-up in both groups were significantly larger than that of the preoperation (robot-assisted minimally invasive TLIF group: (11

  20. The Effect of Anxiety, Depression, and Optimism on Postoperative Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Patients: Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hong-Sik; Shim, Kyu-Dong; Park, Ye-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of depression, anxiety, and optimism on postoperative satisfaction and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent less than two-level posterior instrumented fusions for lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Preoperative psychological status of subjects, such as depression, anxiety, and optimism, was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Clinical evaluation was determined by measuring changes in a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after surgery. Postoperative satisfaction of subjects assessed using the North American Spine Society lumbar spine questionnaire was comparatively analyzed against the preoperative psychological status. The correlation between patient's preoperative psychological status (depression, anxiety, and optimism) and clinical outcomes (VAS and ODI) was evaluated. VAS and ODI scores significantly decreased after surgery ( p < 0.001), suggesting clinically favorable outcomes. Preoperative psychological status of patients (anxiety, depression, and optimism) was not related to the degree of improvement in clinical outcomes (VAS and ODI) after surgery. However, postoperative satisfaction was moderately correlated with optimism. Anxiety and optimism were more correlated with patient satisfaction than clinical outcomes. Accordingly, the surgeon can predict postoperative satisfaction of patients based on careful evaluation of psychological status before surgery.

  1. [COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS AND CHANGE OF SAGITTAL SPINO-PELVIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN MINIMALLY INVASIVE TRANSFORAMINAL AND CONVENTIONAL OPEN POSTERIOR LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSIONS IN TREATMENT OF LOW-DEGREE ISTHMIC LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Zeng, Rong; Li, Guangsheng; Wei, Bo; Hu, Zibing; Lin, Hao; Chen, Guanghua; Chen, Siyuan; Sun, Jiecong

    2015-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness and changes of sagittal spino-pelvic parameters between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and conventional open posterior lumbar interbody fusion in treatment of the low-degree isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Between May 2012 and May 2013, 86 patients with single segmental isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis (Meyerding degree I or II) were treated by minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (minimally invasive group) in 39 cases, and by open posterior lumbar interbody fusion in 47 cases (open group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, degree of lumbar spondylolisthesis, preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Oswestry disability index (ODI) between 2 groups (P>0.05). The following sagittal spino-pelvic parameters were compared between 2 groups before and after operation: the percentage of slipping (PS), intervertebral height, angle of slip (AS), thoracolumbar junction (TLJ), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), spino-sacral angle (SSA), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). Pearson correlation analysis of the changes between pre- and post-operation was done. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients of 2 groups. The postoperative hospital stay of minimally invasive group [(5.1 ± 1.6) days] was significantly shorter than that of open group [(7.2 ± 2.1) days] (t = 2.593, P = 0.017). The patients were followed up 11-20 months (mean, 15 months). The reduction rate was 68.53% ± 20.52% in minimally invasive group, and was 64.21% ± 30.21% in open group, showing no significant difference (t = 0.725, P = 0.093). The back and leg pain VAS scores, and ODI at 3 months after operation were significantly reduced when compared with preoperative ones (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The postoperative other sagittal spino

  2. Clinical and radiographic outcomes of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Changqing; Li, Hua; Ni, Bin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Laminectomy with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has been shown to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes, but it leads to potential adverse consequences associated with extensive disruption of posterior bony and soft tissue structures. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach (BDUA) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and laminectomy with PLIF in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) with stenosis. This is a prospective cohort study. This study compared 43 patients undergoing BDUA+TLIF and 40 patients undergoing laminectomy+PLIF. Visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) score. The clinical outcomes were assessed, and intraoperative data and complications were collected. Radiographic outcomes included slippage of the vertebra, disc space height, segmental lordosis, and final fusion rate. This study was supported by a grant from The National Natural Science Foundation of China (81572168). There were significant improvements in clinical and radiographic outcomes from before surgery to 3 months and 2 years after surgery within each group. Analysis of leg pain VAS and ZCQ scores showed no significant differences in improvement between groups at either follow-up. The mean improvements in low back pain VAS and ODI scores were significantly greater in the BDUA+TLIF group than in the laminectomy+PLIF group. No significant difference was found in the final fusion rate at 2-year follow-up. The BDUA+TLIF group had significantly less blood loss, shorter length of postoperative hospital stay, and lower complication rate compared with the laminectomy+PLIF group. When compared with the conventional laminectomy+PLIF procedure, the BDUA+TLIF procedure achieves similar and satisfactory effects of decompression and fusion for DLS with stenosis. The BDUA+TLIF procedure

  3. Can cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (C-TLIF) maintain segmental lordosis for degenerative spondylolisthesis on a long-term basis?

    PubMed

    Kida, Kazunobu; Tadokoro, Nobuaki; Kumon, Masashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kawazoe, Tateo; Tani, Toshikazu

    2014-03-01

    To determine if cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (C-TLIF) using the crescent-shaped titanium interbody spacer (IBS) favors acquisition of segmental and lumbar lordosis even for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) on a long-term basis. We analyzed 23 consecutive patients who underwent C-TLIF with pedicle screw instrumentations fixed with compression for a single-level DS. Measurements on the lateral radiographs taken preoperatively, 2 weeks postoperatively and at final follow-up included disc angle (DA), segmental angle (SA), lumbar lordosis (LL), disc height (%DH) and slip rate (%slip). There was a good functional recovery with 100 % fusion rate at the mean follow-up of 62 months. Segmental lordosis (DA and SA) and %DH initially increased, but subsequently decreased with the subsidence of the interbody spacer, resulting in a significant increase (p = 0.046) only in SA from 13.2° ± 5.5° preoperatively to 14.7° ± 6.4° at the final follow-up. Changes of LL and %slip were more consistent without correction loss finally showing an increase of LL by 3.6° (p = 0.005) and a slip reduction by 6.7 % (p < 0.001). Despite the inherent limitation of placing the IBS against the anterior endplate of the upper vertebra in the presence of DS, the C-TLIF helped significantly restore segmental as well as lumbar lordosis on a long-term basis, which would be of benefit in preventing hypolordosis-induced back pain and the adjacent level disc disease.

  4. Cortical bone trajectory screw fixation versus traditional pedicle screw fixation for 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion: comparison of surgical outcomes for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique is a new nontraditional pedicle screw (PS) insertion method. However, the biomechanical behavior of multilevel CBT screw/rod fixation remains unclear, and surgical outcomes in patients after 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using CBT screw fixation have not been reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the clinical and radiological outcomes after 2-level PLIF using CBT screw fixation for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS) and to compare these outcomes with those after 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation. METHODS The study included 22 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF with CBT screw fixation for 2-level DS (CBT group, mean follow-up 39 months) and a historical control group of 20 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation for 2-level DS (PS group, mean follow-up 35 months). Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system. Bony union was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT images. Surgery-related complications, including symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD), were examined. RESULTS The mean operative duration and intraoperative blood loss were 192 minutes and 495 ml in the CBT group and 218 minutes and 612 ml in the PS group, respectively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively). The mean JOA score improved significantly from 12.3 points before surgery to 21.1 points (mean recovery rate 54.4%) at the latest follow-up in the CBT group and from 12.8 points before surgery to 20.4 points (mean recovery rate 51.8%) at the latest follow-up in the PS group (p > 0.05). Solid bony union was achieved at 90.9% of segments in the CBT group and 95.0% of segments in the PS group (p > 0.05). Symptomatic ASD developed in 2 patients in the CBT group (9.1%) and 4 patients in the PS group (20.0%, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-level PLIF with CBT

  5. Does Navigation Improve Accuracy of Placement of Pedicle Screws in Single-level Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis?: A Comparison Between Free-hand and Three-dimensional O-Arm Navigation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Boon Tow, Benjamin Phak; Yue, Wai Mun; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lai, Jenn Ming; Guo, Chang Ming; Wearn Peng, Benedict Chan; Chen, John L T; Yew, Andy K S; Seng, Chusheng; Tan, Seang Beng

    2015-10-01

    This was a prospective, nonrandomized study. To assess the accuracy of O-arm navigation-based pedicle screw insertion in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and to compare it with free-hand pedicle screw insertion technique in matched population. O-arm navigation is latest in navigation technology that can provide real-time intraoperative images in 3 dimensions while placing the pedicle screws to improve intraoperative pedicle screw accuracy. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis is a locally unstable pathology and placement of pedicle screws can cause increased rotation and translation of the vertebral body. However, is this motion detected by the tracker placed across the unstable segment, is a matter of debate. Inability to detect these positional changes can lead to pedicle perforation while inserting screws using navigation. No study has evaluated the role of O-arm navigation in this patient population. The study population was divided into 2 groups with 19 patients each, one comprising patients who underwent O-arm navigation-based pedicle screw insertion (group 1) and the other comprising patients who underwent free-hand pedicle screw insertion technique (group 2). A total of 152 pedicle screws were implanted in 38 patients for 1-level instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Intraoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography scans using the O-arm were obtained for all patients after insertion of pedicle screws. The images were reviewed intraoperatively and postoperatively for the analysis of pedicle breaches. Assessments in either of the group included (i) accuracy of placement of screws; (ii) the rate and direction of perforation; and (iii) the number of segments the perforated screw was away from the navigation tracker. Mean age of patients in group 1 (O-arm navigation-assisted) was 60 years (SD 11.25; range, 37-73 y), whereas in group 2 (free-hand pedicle screw) was 62 years (SD 18.07; range, 36-90 y). Overall anatomic perforation

  6. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  7. Radiological and functional outcomes of high-grade spondylolisthesis treated by intrasacral fixation, dome resection and circumferential fusion: a retrospective series of 20 consecutive cases with a minimum of 2 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, E; Ilharreborde, B; Mas, V; Vidal, C; Simon, A-L; Mazda, K

    2018-01-20

    Major concern during surgery for high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) is to reduce lumbosacral kyphosis and restore sagittal alignment. Despite the numerous methods described, lumbosacral fixation in HGS is a challenging technique associated with high complication rate. Few series have described outcomes and most of the results are limited to lumbosacral correction without global sagittal alignment analysis. This study aims at analyzing clinical and radiological outcomes of HGS patients treated with intrasacral rods on full spine radiographs. HGS patients (Meyerding III or higher) operated between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. All patients underwent full spine stereoradiographic images. After L5 and S1 decompression, reduction and circumferential fusion with intrasacral rod fixation and fusion up to L4 were performed under fluoroscopy. The entry points for S1 screws were located 3-5 mm above and 5 mm lateral to the first sacral hole, toward the promontory. The two short distal fusion rods were then positioned into the sacrum guided by anteroposterior fluoroscopy using Jackson's technique. Then, sacral dome resection was performed and a PEEK cage was impacted in L5S1 after reduction. Postoperatively, the hip and knee were kept flexed at 45° for 1 week and extended progressively. Preoperative, 3 months postoperative and last follow-up (> 2 years minimum) clinical and radiographic data were collected. Sagittal parameters included lumbosacral angle (LSA), olisthesis, T1 spinopelvic inclination (T1SPi) and spinopelvic parameters. 20 HGS patients were included (8 ptosis, 5 Meyerding IV). The mean age was 14 years. At final FU (7.2 years ± 3), LSA kyphosis and olisthesis were reduced (65° ± 14 vs 99° ± 11, p < 0.001 and 81% ± 19 vs 45% ± 18, p < 0.001, respectively). While L1L5 lordosis decreased, T1T12 kyphosis increased. At FU, global alignment with T1SPi was - 6° ± 3. No significant loss of correction was observed. Regarding

  8. Analysis of Spinopelvic Parameters with L5 as the New Sacrum after Fusion in High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: A Possible Explanation for Satisfactory Results with In-Situ Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gurudip; Aiyer, Siddharth Narasimhan; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To correlate functional outcomes with spinopelvic parameters in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) treated with instrumented in-situ surgery or reduction and fusion. Overview of Literature Satisfactory functional outcomes are reported with reduction and in-situ fusion strategies in HGS. However, reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesize that following lumbosacral fusion, the L5 becomes part of the sacrum, which improves spinopelvic parameters, resulting in equivalent functional outcomes in both surgical methods. Methods Twenty-six patients undergoing HGS (reduction group A, 13; in-situ group B, 13) were clinically evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), short form-12 (SF-12), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores. Spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), lumbosacral kyphosis (LSK) angle, and sacrofemoral distance (SFD) were measured preoperatively from S1 and postoperatively from L5 as the new sacrum at 1 year follow-up. Sagittal alignment was assessed using the sagittal vertical axis. Results Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, severity of slip, and preoperative spinopelvic parameters (p>0.05). Postoperative VAS, SF-12, and ODI scores significantly improved in both groups (p<0.05). Compared with preoperative values, the mean postoperative PT, SFD, and LSK significantly changed in both groups. In reduction group, PT changed from 26.98° to 10.78°, SFD from 61.24 to 33.56 mm, and LSK from 74.76° to 109.61° (p<0.05). In in-situ fusion group PT changed from 26.78° to 11.08°, SFD from 62.9 to 36.99 mm, and LSK from 67.23° to 113.38° (p<0.05 for all). In both groups, SS and LL did not change significantly (p>0.05). Conclusions After fusion, the L5 becomes the new sacrum and influences spinopelvic parameters to change favorably. This possibly explains why reduction and in-situ fusion achieve equivalent

  9. Analysis of Spinopelvic Parameters with L5 as the New Sacrum after Fusion in High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: A Possible Explanation for Satisfactory Results with In-Situ Fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Das, Gurudip; Aiyer, Siddharth Narasimhan; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective case series. To correlate functional outcomes with spinopelvic parameters in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) treated with instrumented in-situ surgery or reduction and fusion. Satisfactory functional outcomes are reported with reduction and in-situ fusion strategies in HGS. However, reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesize that following lumbosacral fusion, the L5 becomes part of the sacrum, which improves spinopelvic parameters, resulting in equivalent functional outcomes in both surgical methods. Twenty-six patients undergoing HGS (reduction group A, 13; in-situ group B, 13) were clinically evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), short form-12 (SF-12), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores. Spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), lumbosacral kyphosis (LSK) angle, and sacrofemoral distance (SFD) were measured preoperatively from S1 and postoperatively from L5 as the new sacrum at 1 year follow-up. Sagittal alignment was assessed using the sagittal vertical axis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, severity of slip, and preoperative spinopelvic parameters ( p >0.05). Postoperative VAS, SF-12, and ODI scores significantly improved in both groups ( p <0.05). Compared with preoperative values, the mean postoperative PT, SFD, and LSK significantly changed in both groups. In reduction group, PT changed from 26.98° to 10.78°, SFD from 61.24 to 33.56 mm, and LSK from 74.76° to 109.61° ( p <0.05). In in-situ fusion group PT changed from 26.78° to 11.08°, SFD from 62.9 to 36.99 mm, and LSK from 67.23° to 113.38° ( p <0.05 for all). In both groups, SS and LL did not change significantly ( p >0.05). After fusion, the L5 becomes the new sacrum and influences spinopelvic parameters to change favorably. This possibly explains why reduction and in-situ fusion achieve equivalent functional outcomes in HGS.

  10. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gagnet, Paul; Kern, Kent; Andrews, Kyle; Elgafy, Hossein; Ebraheim, Nabil

    2018-06-01

    Spondylolysis is a common diagnosis with a high prevalence in children and adolescents complaining of low back pain. It may be caused by either a defect or fracture of the pars interarticularis due to mechanical stress. Depending on the severity of the spondylolysis and symptoms associated it may be treated either conservatively or surgically, both of which have shown significant success. Conservative treatments such as bracing and decreased activity have been shown to be most effective with patients who have early diagnosis and treatment. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in addition to conservative treatment appears to be very promising for achieving a higher rate of bony union. LIPUS requires more supporting studies, but may prove to become a standard of care in the future. Surgery may be required if conservative treatment, for at least six months, failed to give sustained pain relief for the activities of daily living. Based on studies performed on each of the major surgical treatments we suggest the use of the pedicle screw hook technique and the pedicle screw rod technique due to low rates of hardware failure, increased maintenance of mobility, and lack of a postoperative bracing requirement.

  11. Atlanto-occipital fusion and spondylolisthesis in an Anasazi skeleton from Bright Angel Ruin, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Merbs, C F; Euler, R C

    1985-08-01

    The skeleton of a middle-aged female showing an unusual pattern of congenital, traumatic, and degenerative pathology was recovered from a small Kayenta Anasazi site located near the confluence of Bright Angel Creek with the Colorado River in the Inner Gorge of Grand Canyon. The atlas is fused with the base of the skull and C2 is fused with C3. The cervical region was subjected to hyperextension, perhaps through use of a tumpline, with resultant reduction of the neural canal to 8 mm, a condition that quite likely led to neurological problems. The skeleton also includes a depression fracture of the lateral condyle of the left tibia. Complete, bilateral spondylolysis of L5 led to an olisthesis of approximately 15 mm. The disc between L5 and S1 then ossified, most likely from staphylococcus bacteremia, making the olisthesis permanent and thereby creating a unique arachaeological specimen. Although spondylolysis is usually viewed as a stress fracture, the general pattern of pathology in this individual makes it necessary to consider an etiology of acute trauma.

  12. [Dynamic stabilisation and compression without fusion using Dynesys for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a prospective series of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Ricart, O; Serwier, J-M

    2008-11-01

    We used the Dynesys stabilization to treat degenerative lumber spondylolysis by decompression without fusion with the objective of decreasing the morbidity related to instrumented arthrodesis in older patients yet preventing progression of the displacement. This was a prospective study of 25 patients with symptomatic degenerative lumber spondylolysis associated with degenerative spinal canal stenosis documented by saccoradiculography. For inclusion, static anteroposterior intervertebral displacement had to be at least 3mm in the upright position, irrespective of the displacement on the stress films. The series included 19 women and six men, mean age 71 years (range 53-83). The level was L4-L5 in all 25 cases. Instrumentations involved a single level (L4-L5) or two levels (L3-L5). All patients were explored with computed tomography and saccoradiculography. An MRI was obtained in 12 patients. Pre- and postoperative stress images and views of the entire spinal column in the upright position were used to study pelvic parameters and sagittal spinal balance before and after surgery. Lumbar incidence and lordosis was used to divide the patients into three groups. Outcome was assessed with the Beaujon classification at minimal follow-up of 24 months, mean 34, range 24-72 months. Very good results were obtained in 72% of patients (relative gain greater than 70%) and good results in 28% (relative gain 40-70%). There were not outcomes considered fair or poor. There were two complications: aggravation of preoperative crural paresia with complete recovery and replacement of one neuroaggressive pedicular screw with no consequence thereafter. The stress films confirmed the residual mobility of the instrumented level when the preserved disc was of sufficient height. Postoperative pelvic parameters after Dynesys instrumentation showed improvement in sagittal tilt for T9 by accentuated suprajacent lordosis, even in the event of anterior spinal imbalance preoperatively. Theoretically, solicitation of the pedicular anchors of a rigid instrumentation on a poorly balanced spine would rapidly lead to failure, while fibrous non-union on a globally well balanced spine would be tolerated much longer or even definitively without development of clinical symptoms. In our opinion, the Dynesys instrumentation enables a real restabilization of the spine by adapting to the patients particular spinal balance intra-operatively and postoperatively without imposing a definitive curvature as would a rigid fixation. The ultimate objective is to accompany the aging spine without brutally changing the stress forces. This semi-rigid instrumentation without fusion enables an adapted evolution of the overall spinal degeneration without imposing excessive local forces, which could be sources of stenosis or junctional instability. The most logical indication for this instrumentation is the older subject aged at least 65 years with degenerative lumber spondylolysis and a predominantly self-reducible angular displacement and satisfactory disc height. This context (group 3 in our series) occurs in patients with a weak sacral slope and incidence, as well as minimal lordosis adapted to the pelvic parameters. The Dynesys instrumentation can be a palliative alternative to fusion for more advanced degenerative lumber spondylolysis occurring on spines with anterior imbalance where fusion would be technically difficult in terms of correction of the kyphosis or because of the general risk factors.

  13. Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis

  14. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis... with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis... with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis... with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal...

  17. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Keon; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5° (± 14.9°), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8° (± 13.2°), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5° (± 16.1°) and the average change on the frame was 5.3° (± 10.6°). Results Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). Conclusions Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone

  18. Bone Graft Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  19. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    strains, sciatica, lumbar disc syndrome, and facet syndrome), cardiovascular system (hypertension, coronary artery disease, obstructive syndromes...compression fractures, Schmorl’s nodes, ankylosing spondylitis, spondylolisthesis, spondylosis , Scheur- man’s disease, supply spondylosis , detached retina

  20. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... slipped vertebrae’, also known as spondylolisthesis). The epidural space is a fat filled ‘sleeve’ that surrounds the ... spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space have a very potent anti-inflammatory action that ...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of the following acute and chronic instabilities or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and... spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis... with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of the following acute and chronic instabilities or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and... spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis... with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal...

  3. Classification of high-grade spondylolistheses based on pelvic version and spine balance: possible rationale for reduction.

    PubMed

    Hresko, Michael T; Labelle, Hubert; Roussouly, Pierre; Berthonnaud, Eric

    2007-09-15

    Retrospective review of a radiographic database of high-grade spondylolisthesis patients in comparison with asymptomatic controls. To analyze the sagittal spinopelvic alignment in high-grade spondylolisthesis patients and identify subgroups that may require reduction to restore sagittal balance. High-grade spondylolisthesis is associated with an abnormally high pelvic incidence (PI); however, the spatial orientation of the pelvis, determined by sacral slope (SS) and pelvic tilt (PT), is not known. We hypothesized that sagittal spinal alignment would vary with the pelvic orientation. Digitized sagittal radiographs of 133 high-grade spondylolisthesis patients (mean age, 17 years) were measured to determined sagittal alignment. K-means cluster analysis identified 2 groups based on the PT and SS, which were compared by paired t test. Comparisons were made to asymptomatic controls matched for PI. High-grade spondylolisthesis patients had a mean PI of 78.9 degrees +/- 12.1 degrees . Cluster analysis identified a retroverted, unbalanced pelvis group with high PT (36.5 degrees +/- 8.0 degrees )/low SS (40.3 degrees +/- 9.0 degrees ) and a balanced pelvic group with low PT (mean 21.3 degrees +/- 8.2 degrees )/high SS (59.9 degrees +/- 11.2 degrees ). The retroverted pelvis group had significantly greater L5 incidence and lumbosacral angle with less thoracic kyphosis than the balanced pelvic group. A total of 83% of controls had a "balanced pelvis" based on the categorization by SS and PT. Analysis of sagittal alignment of high-grade spondylolisthesis patients revealed distinct groups termed "balanced" and "unbalanced" pelvis. The PT and SS were similar in controls and balanced pelvis patients. Unbalanced pelvis patients had a sagittal spinal alignment that differed from the balanced pelvis and control groups. Treatment strategies for high-grade spondylolisthesis should reflect the different mechanical strain on the spinopelvic junction in each group; reduction techniques

  4. Current concepts on the sagittal balance and classification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and paediatrics. In spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that spino-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of spine. This article presents the SDSG (Spinal Deformity Study Group) classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. The proper treatment of spondylolisthesis is dependent on recognizing the type of slip, sacro-pelvic balance and overall sagittal balance and its natural history. Although a number of clinical radiographic features have been identified as risk factors, their role as primary causative factors or secondary adaptative changes is not clear. The conservative treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis results in good outcome in the majority of cases. Of those patients who fail conservative treatment, success with surgery is quite good, with significant improvement in neurologic function in those patients with deficits, as well as improvement in patients with back pain. PMID:26229765

  5. [Sacroiliac joint dysfunction with groin pain after an operation for lumbar spinal disorder. A case report].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yusuke; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Motegi, Hiroaki; Imai, Tetsuaki; Matsumoto, Ryouji; Isobe, Masanori; Kim, Kyongsong; Sugawara, Atsushi

    2010-11-01

    A 75-year-old male presented with groin pain after an operation to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis (L5). Groin tenderness was localized to the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). Radiographical and physical examination raised the suspicion of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction. Injection of a painkiller into the SIJ relieved symptoms, including groin tenderness. Symptoms improved gradually, and finally disappeared after five SIJ injections. Groin pain has been reported as a referred symptom of SIJ dysfunction in 9.3-23% of patients. Prior to the patient undergoing surgery to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis, SIJ dysfunction had not been noted on physical examination. Long periods spent in the abnormal posture due to lumbar spondylolisthesis induced SIJ stress. After the operation, an improvement in daily activity actually increased stress on the SIJ, resulting in SIJ dysfunction. Certain pathologies, including SIJ dysfunction, should be considered as residual symptoms after operations for lumbar spinal diseases.

  6. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... straighten and immobilize the spine to allow bone grafts to unite and fuse the vertebrae together. The device is used primarily in the treatment of scoliosis (a lateral curvature of the spine), but it also may be used in the treatment of fracture or dislocation of the spine, grades 3 and 4 of spondylolisthesis...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... straighten and immobilize the spine to allow bone grafts to unite and fuse the vertebrae together. The device is used primarily in the treatment of scoliosis (a lateral curvature of the spine), but it also may be used in the treatment of fracture or dislocation of the spine, grades 3 and 4 of spondylolisthesis...

  8. Period Prevalence of Acute Neck Injury in US Air Force Pilots Exposed to High G Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    entities caused by irritation or compression of the cervical nerve roots. Several types of syndromes are recognized: Cervical neck muscle pain or...Spondylolysis 5. Spondylolisthesis 6. Scheuermann’s Disease ( Kyphosis ) 7. Prominent Lordosis or Kyphosis 8. Klippel-Feil Anomaly (Congenital Short Neck) 9

  9. Lumbar subcutaneous edema and degenerative spinal disease in patients with low back pain: a retrospective MRI study.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, C C; Giona, A; Di Martino, A; Gaudino, F; Mallio, C A; Errante, Y; Occhicone, F; Vitali, M A; Zobel, B B; Denaro, V

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the association between LSE, spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy, lumbar canal stenosis, BMI, radiculopathy and bone marrow edema at conventional lumbar spine MR imaging. This is a retrospective radiological study; 441 consecutive patients with low back pain (224 men and 217 women; mean age 57.3 years; mean BMI 26) underwent conventional lumbar MRI using a 1.5-T magnet (Avanto, Siemens). Lumbar MR images were reviewed by consensus for the presence of LSE, spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy, lumbar canal stenosis, radiculopathy and bone marrow edema. Descriptive statistics and association studies were conducted using STATA software 11.0. Association studies have been performed using linear univariate regression analysis and multivariate regression analysis, considering LSE as response variable. The overall prevalence of LSE was 40%; spondylolisthesis (p = 0.01), facet arthropathy (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.008) and lumbar canal stenosis (p < 0.001) were included in the multivariate regression model, whereas bone marrow edema, radiculopathy and age were not. LSE is highly associated with spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy and BMI, suggesting underestimation of its clinical impact as an integral component in chronic lumbar back pain. Longitudinal simultaneous X-ray/MRI studies should be conducted to test the relationship of LSE with lumbar spinal instability and low back pain.

  10. Handout on Health: Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain. Surgical treatments may be necessary in some cases, including: Herniated (ruptured) disks , where one or more of the disks that cushion the ... on the spinal cord and nerves. Spondylolisthesis , where one or more bones in ... as a person gets older. In rare cases, back pain is caused by a tumor, an ...

  11. Bone bridge formation across the neuroforamen 14 years after instrumented fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis—a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Joel Louis; Tan, Kimberly-Anne

    2017-01-01

    This case report describes the first case of a bone bridge formation across the left L5/S1 neuroforamen after instrumented posterolateral fusion for L5/S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Our patient was a 70-year-old lady who had grade 2, L5/S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and bilateral S1 nerve root compression. She suffered from mechanical low back pain and neurogenic claudication, with radicular pain over both S1 dermatomes. She underwent in-situ, instrumented, posterolateral fusion and was asymptomatic for more than 13 years before developing progressive onset of left radicular pain over the L5 dermatome. Imaging revealed a bisected left L5/S1 neuroforamen secondary to a bone bridge formation resulting in stenosis. The pars defect in this case may have had sufficient osteogenic and osteoinductive factors to heal following spinal stabilization. Although in-situ posterolateral fusion is an accepted surgical treatment for isthmic spondylolisthesis, surgeons should consider reduction of the spondylolisthesis and excision of the pars defects to avoid this possible long-term complication. PMID:28435923

  12. Sagittal alignment after lumbar interbody fusion: comparing anterior, lateral, and transforaminal approaches.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Robert G; Hanna, Robert; Chang, David; Watkins, Robert G

    2014-07-01

    Retrospective radiographic analysis. To determine which lumbar interbody technique is most effective for restoring lordosis, increasing disk height, and reducing spondylolisthesis. Lumbar interbody fusions are performed in hopes of increasing fusion potential, correcting deformity, and indirectly decompressing nerve roots. No published study has directly compared anterior, lateral, and transforaminal lumber interbody fusions in terms of ability to restore lordosis, increase disk height, and reduce spondylolisthesis. Lumbar interbody fusion techniques were retrospectively compared in terms of improvement of lordosis, disk height, and spondylolisthesis between preoperative and follow-up lateral radiographs. A total of 220 consecutive patients with 309 operative levels were compared by surgery type: anterior (184 levels), lateral (86 levels), and transforaminal (39 levels). Average follow-up was 19.2 months (range, 1-56 mo), with no statistical difference between the groups. Intragroup analysis showed that the anterior (4.5 degrees) and lateral (2.2 degrees) groups significantly improved lordosis from preoperative to follow-up, whereas the transforaminal (0.8 degrees) group did not. Intergroup analysis showed that the anterior group significantly improved lordosis more than both the lateral and transforaminal groups. The anterior (2.2 mm) and lateral (2.0 mm) groups both significantly improved disk height more than the transforaminal (0.5 mm) group. All 3 groups significantly reduced spondylolisthesis, with no difference between the groups. After lumbar interbody fusion, improvement of lordosis was significant for both the anterior and lateral groups, but not the transforaminal group. Intergroup analysis showed the anterior group had significantly improved lordosis compared to both the other groups. The anterior and lateral groups had significantly increased disk height compared to the transforaminal group. All the 3 groups significantly reduced spondylolisthesis

  13. Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Romain Shanil; Dissanayake, Poruwalage Harsha; Senarath, Upul; Wijayaratne, Lalith Sirimevan; Karunanayake, Aranjan Lional; Dissanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana

    2017-05-15

    Radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) are common findings in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain; however, its role in disability and intensity of pain is debatable. This study aims to investigate the associations of the x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who attended the rheumatology clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, from May 2012 to May 2014. Severity of disability was measured using Modified Oswestry Disability Index and intensity of pain was assessed using numeric rating scale (0-100). X-ray features of LDD (disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD) and spondylolisthesis were assessed in lateral recumbent lumbar x-rays (L1/L2 to L5/S1) and graded by a consultant radiologist blinded to clinical data. Generalised linear model with linear response was used to assess the associations of x-ray features of LDD with severity of disability and intensity of pain adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and pain radiating into legs. Mean age was 48.99 ± 11.21 and 323 (73.58%) were females. 87 (19.82%) were obese. Mean severity of disability was 30.95 ± 13.67 and mean intensity of pain was 45.50 ± 20.37. 69 (15.72%), 26 (5.92%) and 85 (19.36%) patients had grade 2 disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD, respectively. 51 (11.62%) patients had lumbar spondylolisthesis. Grade of disc space narrowing and overall LDD were not associated with severity of disability or intensity of pain. The presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was associated with severity of disability. Female gender and pain radiating into legs were associated with severity of disability and intensity of pain. Advancing age was associated with x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with severity of

  14. Indications for spine surgery: validation of an administrative coding algorithm to classify degenerative diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Deyo, Richard A.; Tosteson, Tor; Weinstein, James; Mirza, Sohail K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare claims linked to a multi-center clinical trial. Objective The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) provided a unique opportunity to examine the validity of a claims-based algorithm for grouping patients by surgical indication. SPORT enrolled patients for lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis. We compared the surgical indication derived from Medicare claims to that provided by SPORT surgeons, the “gold standard”. Summary of Background Data Administrative data are frequently used to report procedure rates, surgical safety outcomes, and costs in the management of spinal surgery. However, the accuracy of using diagnosis codes to classify patients by surgical indication has not been examined. Methods Medicare claims were link to beneficiaries enrolled in SPORT. The sensitivity and specificity of three claims-based approaches to group patients based on surgical indications were examined: 1) using the first listed diagnosis; 2) using all diagnoses independently; and 3) using a diagnosis hierarchy based on the support for fusion surgery. Results Medicare claims were obtained from 376 SPORT participants, including 21 with disc herniation, 183 with spinal stenosis, and 172 with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The hierarchical coding algorithm was the most accurate approach for classifying patients by surgical indication, with sensitivities of 76.2%, 88.1%, and 84.3% for disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis cohorts, respectively. The specificity was 98.3% for disc herniation, 83.2% for spinal stenosis, and 90.7% for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Misclassifications were primarily due to codes attributing more complex pathology to the case. Conclusion Standardized approaches for using claims data to accurately group patients by surgical indications has widespread interest. We found that a hierarchical coding approach correctly classified over 90

  15. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration: A cross-sectional study focusing on Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingde; Tian, Weifeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Haonan; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The predictive factors associated with neck pain remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess predictive factors, especially Modic changes (MCs), associated with the intensity and duration of neck pain in patients with cervical disc degenerative disease.We retrospectively reviewed patients in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Severe neck pain (SNP) and persistent neck pain (PNP) were the 2 main outcomes, and were assessed based on the numerical rating scale (NRS). Basic data, and also imaging data, were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the predictive factors for neck pain.In all, 381 patients (193 males and 188 females) with cervical degenerative disease were included in our study. The number of patients with SNP and PNP were 94 (24.67%) and 109 (28.61%), respectively. The NRS of neck pain in patients with type 1 MCs was significantly higher than type 2 MCs (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 1.1; P = .004). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that kyphosis curvature (odds ratio [OR] 1.082, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.044-1.112), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.339, 95% CI 1.226-1.462), and annular tear (OR 1.188, 95% CI 1.021-1.382) were factors associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature (OR 1.568, 95% CI 1.022-2.394), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.486, 95% CI 1.082-2.041), and MCs (OR 1.152, 95% CI 1.074-1.234) were associated with PNP.We concluded that kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and annular tear are associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and MCs are associated with PNP. This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain.

  16. Decompression Surgery Alone Versus Decompression Plus Fusion in Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Swiss Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study With 3 Years of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils H; Burgstaller, Jakob M; Pichierri, Giuseppe; Wertli, Maria M; Farshad, Mazda; Porchet, François; Steurer, Johann; Held, Ulrike

    2017-09-15

    Retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter cohort study. To estimate the added effect of surgical fusion as compared to decompression surgery alone in symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis patients with spondylolisthesis. The optimal surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis patients with spondylolisthesis remains controversial. Patients of the Lumbar Stenosis Outcome Study with confirmed DLSS and spondylolisthesis were enrolled in this study. The outcomes of this study were Spinal Stenosis Measure (SSM) symptoms (score range 1-5, best-worst) and function (1-4) over time, measured at baseline, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months follow-up. In order to quantify the effect of fusion surgery as compared to decompression alone and number of decompressed levels, we used mixed effects models and accounted for the repeated observations in main outcomes (SSM symptoms and SSM function) over time. In addition to individual patients' random effects, we also fitted random slopes for follow-up time points and compared these two approaches with Akaike's Information Criterion and the chi-square test. Confounders were adjusted with fixed effects for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale musculoskeletal disorders, and duration of symptoms. One hundred thirty-one patients undergoing decompression surgery alone (n = 85) or decompression with fusion surgery (n = 46) were included in this study. In the multiple mixed effects model the adjusted effect of fusion compared with decompression alone surgery on SSM symptoms was 0.06 (95% confidence interval: -0.16-0.27) and -0.07 (95% confidence interval: -0.25-0.10) on SSM function, respectively. Among the patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis our study confirms that in the two groups, decompression alone and decompression with fusion, patients distinctively benefited from surgical treatment. When adjusted for confounders, fusion surgery was not associated with a more

  17. A Baseline Historical Analysis of Neck and Back-Related Morbidity in the U.S. Army: Occupational Risks Potentially Related to Head-Supported Mass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    disorder with myelopathy, unspecified region 722.73 Intervertebral disc disorder w/ myelopathy, lumbar region 721.3 Lumbosacral spondylosis without...Disc disorder, lumbar region 721.42 Spondylosis with myelopathy, lumbar region 724.6 Disorders of sacrum 738.4 Acquired spondylolisthesis...particular, increases risk for spondylosis and accentuates age-related decreases in spinal lordosis(20). In addition to the ballistic protection

  18. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared tomore » the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.« less

  19. Pedicle screw placement using image guided techniques.

    PubMed

    Merloz, P; Tonetti, J; Pittet, L; Coulomb, M; Lavalleé, S; Sautot, P

    1998-09-01

    Clinical evaluation of a computer assisted spine surgical system is presented. Eighty pedicle screws were inserted using computer assisted technology in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae for treatment of different types of disorders including fractures, spondylolisthesis, and scoliosis. Fifty-two patients with severe fractures, spondylolisthesis, or pseudoarthrosis of T10 to L5 were treated using a computer assisted technique on 1/2 the patients and performing the screw insertion manually for the other 1/2. At the same time, 28 pedicle screws were inserted in T12 to L4 vertebrae for scoliosis with the help of the computer assisted technique. Surgery was followed in all cases (66 vertebrae; 132 pedicle screws) by postoperative radiographs and computed tomographic examination, on which measurements of screw position relative to pedicle position could be done. For fractures, spondylolisthesis, or pseudarthrosis, comparison between the two groups showed that four screws in 52 (8%) vertebrae had incorrect placement with computer assisted technique whereas 22 screws in 52 (42%) vertebrae had incorrect placement with manual insertion. In patients with scoliosis, four screws in 28 (14%) vertebrae had incorrect placement. In all of the patients (132 pedicle screws) there were no neurologic complications. These results show that a computer assisted technique is much more accurate and safe than manual insertion.

  20. Lower thoracic degenerative spondylithesis with concomitant lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Chuan; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Chen, Jyi-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the spine is less common in the lower thoracic region than in the lumbar and cervical regions. However, lower thoracic degenerative spondylolisthesis may develop secondary to intervertebral disc degeneration. Most of our patients are found to have concomitant lumbar spondylosis. By retrospective review of our cases, current diagnosis and treatments for this rare disease were discussed. We present a series of 5 patients who experienced low back pain, progressive numbness, weakness and even paraparesis. Initially, all of them were diagnosed with lumbar spondylosis at other clinics, and 1 patient had even received prior decompressive lumbar surgery. However, their symptoms continued to progress, even after conservative treatments or lumbar surgeries. These patients also showed wide-based gait, increased deep tendon reflex (DTR), and urinary difficulty. All these clinical presentations could not be explained solely by lumbar spondylosis. Thoracolumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurophysiologic studies such as motor evoked potential (MEP) or somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), and dynamic thoracolumbar lateral radiography were performed, and a final diagnosis of lower thoracic degenerative spondylolisthesis was made. Bilateral facet effusions, shown by hyperintense signals in T2 MRI sequence, were observed in all patients. Neurophysiologic studies revealed conduction defect of either MEP or SSEP. One patient refused surgical management because of personal reasons. However, with the use of thoracolumbar orthosis, his symptoms/signs stabilized, although partial lower leg myelopathy was present. The other patients received surgical decompression in association with fixation/fusion procedures performed for managing the thoracolumbar lesions. Three patients became symptom-free, whereas in 1 patient, paralysis set in before the operation; this patient was able to walk with assistance 6 months after surgical decompression

  1. Spinal case of the month with short perspective: How would you treat this L3-L4 synovial cyst?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2018-01-01

    In this new section, Case of the Month with Short Perspective from Surgical Neurology International, we want to see how various spine surgeons would approach different spinal pathologies. In this first case, an elderly male presented with 3 years of lower back pain and progressive neurogenic claudication with bilateral radiculopathy that had exacerbated over the prior 6 months. An outside physician performed a magnetic resonance (MR) study of the lumbar spine that showed a massive synovial cyst filling the spinal canal (e.g., large bilateral cysts) at the L3-L4 level with grade I spondylolisthesis. The MR and CT studies also both demonstrated moderate L2-L3, and severe L3-L4 stenosis. Despite the massive synovial cyst filling the spinal canal at the L3-L4 level, pain management (anesthesia training) spent 3 months performing three successive epidural steroid injections accompanied by attempts at percutaneous synovial cyst aspiration/rupture. By the time the patient presented to neurosurgery, he had developed severe neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, myelopathy, and a cauda equina syndrome. Dynamic X-rays revealed a mild grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L3-L4 level without active motion, while both computed tomography (CT) and MR studies confirmed moderate stenosis stenosis/ossification of the yellow ligament at the L2-L3 level, severe stenosis at L3-L4 level with spondylolisthesis, and massive bilateral synovial cysts at the L3-L4 level filling the spinal canal. Following an L2-L4 decompressive laminectomy without fusion (note the absence of motion intraoperatively at the L3-L4 level), the patient's symptoms resolved, and he regained normal function. How would you have managed this patient?

  2. Pediatric Return to Sports After Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Christman, Tyler; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric patients who undergo spinal surgery are frequently involved in sporting activities. Return to play is often an important postoperative concern for the patient and family. A PubMed search was conducted for articles in the English language on return to play after treatment of pediatric acute disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and scoliosis from 1980 to 2015. Reference lists were reviewed for additional pertinent articles. We included articles that focused on return to sports after surgical treatment of these conditions in this review. Clinical review. Level 4. There are no published guidelines, and most of the literature in this area has focused on return to play after spinal injury rather than after spinal surgery. Most children and adolescents have excellent outcomes with minimal pain at 1 year after lumbar discectomy. The majority of surgeons allow return to full activity once pain-free range of motion and strength are regained, typically at 8 to 12 weeks postoperatively. Pediatric patients with spondylolysis have good outcomes after direct pars repair. Satisfactory outcomes have been demonstrated after fusion for low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 6 months after surgical treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Return to contact and collision sports is controversial. After posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 3 months and return to contact sports between 6 months and 1 year. Return to collision sports is controversial. There is little evidence to guide practitioners on return to sports after pediatric spinal surgery. Ultimately, the decision to allow any young athlete to resume sports participation after spinal injury or surgery must be individualized. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Pediatric Return to Sports After Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Christman, Tyler; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pediatric patients who undergo spinal surgery are frequently involved in sporting activities. Return to play is often an important postoperative concern for the patient and family. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was conducted for articles in the English language on return to play after treatment of pediatric acute disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and scoliosis from 1980 to 2015. Reference lists were reviewed for additional pertinent articles. We included articles that focused on return to sports after surgical treatment of these conditions in this review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: There are no published guidelines, and most of the literature in this area has focused on return to play after spinal injury rather than after spinal surgery. Most children and adolescents have excellent outcomes with minimal pain at 1 year after lumbar discectomy. The majority of surgeons allow return to full activity once pain-free range of motion and strength are regained, typically at 8 to 12 weeks postoperatively. Pediatric patients with spondylolysis have good outcomes after direct pars repair. Satisfactory outcomes have been demonstrated after fusion for low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 6 months after surgical treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Return to contact and collision sports is controversial. After posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 3 months and return to contact sports between 6 months and 1 year. Return to collision sports is controversial. Conclusion: There is little evidence to guide practitioners on return to sports after pediatric spinal surgery. Ultimately, the decision to allow any young athlete to resume sports participation after spinal injury or surgery must be individualized. PMID:26920125

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P < .05). There was no statistical difference for the prevalence of LBP among the different riding disciplines. However, there was a high rate of pathologic T2 signal intensity of the lumbar intervertebral disk among riders-specifically, dressage riders-yet no significant increase when compared with controls. History of LBP symptoms, riding discipline, BMI, and trunk/leg-length ratio had no significant effect on the development of lumbar disk degeneration. Occult fractures of the pars interarticularis and manifest spondylolysis were not seen for any rider. Two controls had spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade 1 not associated with back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  5. The Impact of Lumbar Spine Disease and Deformity on Total Hip Arthroplasty Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Sheets, Charles Z; Seyler, Thorsten M; Penrose, Colin T; Klement, Mitchell R; Gallizzi, Michael A; Brown, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    Concomitant spine and hip disease in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a management challenge. Degenerative lumbar spine conditions are known to decrease lumbar lordosis and limit lumbar flexion and extension, leading to altered pelvic mechanics and increased demand for hip motion. In this study, the effect of lumbar spine disease on complications after primary THA was assessed. The Medicare database was searched from 2005 to 2012 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, procedure codes for primary THA and diagnosis codes for preoperative diagnoses of lumbosacral spondylosis, lumbar disk herniation, acquired spondylolisthesis, and degenerative disk disease. The control group consisted of all patients without a lumbar spine diagnosis who underwent THA. The risk ratios for prosthetic hip dislocation, revision THA, periprosthetic fracture, and infection were significantly higher for all 4 lumbar diseases at all time points relative to controls. The average complication risk ratios at 90 days were 1.59 for lumbosacral spondylosis, 1.62 for disk herniation, 1.65 for spondylolisthesis, and 1.53 for degenerative disk disease. The average complication risk ratios at 2 years were 1.66 for lumbosacral spondylosis, 1.73 for disk herniation, 1.65 for spondylolisthesis, and 1.59 for degenerative disk disease. Prosthetic hip dislocation was the most common complication at 2 years in all 4 spinal disease cohorts, with risk ratios ranging from 1.76 to 2.00. This study shows a significant increase in the risk of complications following THA in patients with lumbar spine disease. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e520-e525.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    PubMed

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  7. Surgery or physical activity in the management of sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Matthew; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Hartvigsen, Jan; Silva, Isabela R C; Maher, Chris G; Koes, Bart W; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2016-11-01

    Previous reviews have compared surgical to non-surgical management of sciatica, but have overlooked the specific comparison between surgery and physical activity-based interventions. Systematic review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro databases was conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing surgery to physical activity, where patients were experiencing the three most common causes of sciatica-disc herniation, spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. Two independent reviewers extracted pain and disability data (converted to a common 0-100 scale) and assessed methodological quality using the PEDro scale. The size of the effects was estimated for each outcome at three different time points, with a random effects model adopted and the GRADE approach used in summary conclusions. Twelve trials were included. In the short term, surgery provided better outcomes than physical activity for disc herniation: disability [WMD -9.00 (95 % CI -13.73, -4.27)], leg pain [WMD -16.01 (95 % CI -23.00, -9.02)] and back pain [WMD -12.44 (95 % CI -17.76, -7.09)]; for spondylolisthesis: disability [WMD -14.60 (95 % CI -17.12, -12.08)], leg pain [WMD -35.00 (95 % CI -39.66, -30.34)] and back pain [WMD -20.00 (95 % CI -24.66, -15.34)] and spinal stenosis: disability [WMD -11.39 (95 % CI -17.31, -5.46)], leg pain [WMD, -27.17 (95 % CI -35.87, -18.46)] and back pain [WMD -20.80 (95 % CI -25.15, -16.44)]. Long-term and greater than 2-year post-randomisation results favoured surgery for spondylolisthesis and stenosis, although the size of the effects reduced with time. For disc herniation, no significant effect was shown for leg and back pain comparing surgery to physical activity. There are indications that surgery is superior to physical activity-based interventions in reducing pain and disability for disc herniation at short-term follow-up only; but high-quality evidence in this field is lacking (GRADE). For spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis, surgery is superior to physical

  8. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingde; Tian, Weifeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Haonan; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The predictive factors associated with neck pain remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess predictive factors, especially Modic changes (MCs), associated with the intensity and duration of neck pain in patients with cervical disc degenerative disease. We retrospectively reviewed patients in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Severe neck pain (SNP) and persistent neck pain (PNP) were the 2 main outcomes, and were assessed based on the numerical rating scale (NRS). Basic data, and also imaging data, were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the predictive factors for neck pain. In all, 381 patients (193 males and 188 females) with cervical degenerative disease were included in our study. The number of patients with SNP and PNP were 94 (24.67%) and 109 (28.61%), respectively. The NRS of neck pain in patients with type 1 MCs was significantly higher than type 2 MCs (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 1.1; P = .004). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that kyphosis curvature (odds ratio [OR] 1.082, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.044–1.112), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.339, 95% CI 1.226–1.462), and annular tear (OR 1.188, 95% CI 1.021–1.382) were factors associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature (OR 1.568, 95% CI 1.022–2.394), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.486, 95% CI 1.082–2.041), and MCs (OR 1.152, 95% CI 1.074–1.234) were associated with PNP. We concluded that kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and annular tear are associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and MCs are associated with PNP. This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain. PMID:29069048

  9. [A rheumatologist's point of view on lumbago].

    PubMed

    Glimet, T

    1989-03-01

    The rheumatologist has to be sure the low back pain of more than three months duration has a mechanical origin, i.e. that it is not due to a tumoral, infectious, metabolic or traumatic vertebral disease. He has to recognise a low back pain from visceral origin and, at the opposite, a functional disorder. The mechanical low back pain may arise from the intervertebral disk, the articular process, a spondylolisthesis, etc... The management includes various physical and medicamentous means; the surgical procedures must be exceptional and have to be done only in highly selected patients. There is a great amount of post-operative sources of low-back pain.

  10. Isolated unilateral vertebral pedicle fracture caused by a back massage in an elderly patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiping; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanling; Yuan, Junhui; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-11-01

    The vertebral pedicle injuries are clinically common. However, the isolated vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies is a rare lesion. We reported a case of a 66-year-old man who experienced a pedicle fracture after a back massage. The patient sustained osteoporosis, long-existing low back pain and nerve compression symptoms without antecedent major trauma. Imaging findings demonstrated an isolated unilateral L5 vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies, spinal canal stenosis at the L4-5 levels, bulging annulus fibrosus at the L4-S1 levels, bilateral spondylolysis and an L5/S1 spondylolisthesis. The patient underwent L4-S1 decompressive laminectomy, L5/S1 discectomy and neurolysis, and reduction and fixation of the L5 vertebral pedicle fracture and L5/S1 spondylolisthesis using the pedicle nail system. At follow-ups, the patient showed good recovery without pain or numbness in the low back and bilateral lower extremities. This study raises the awareness of a complication of alternative medicine and the possibility of a pedicle fracture caused by a low-energy trauma.

  11. Adult's Degenerative Scoliosis: Midterm Results of Dynamic Stabilization without Fusion in Elderly Patients—Is It Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Di Silvestre, Mario; Lolli, Francesco; Greggi, Tiziana; Vommaro, Francesco; Baioni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. A retrospective study. Purpose. Posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation used for degenerative lumbar scoliosis can lead to several complications. In elderly patients without sagittal imbalance, dynamic stabilization could represent an option to avoid these adverse events. Methods. 57 patients treated by dynamic stabilization without fusion were included. All patients had degenerative lumbar de novo scoliosis (average Cobb angle 17.2°), without sagittal imbalance, associated in 52 cases (91%) with vertebral canal stenosis and in 24 (42%) with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Nineteen patients (33%) had previously undergone lumbar spinal surgery. Results. At an average followup of 77 months, clinical results improved with statistical significance. Scoliosis Cobb angle was 17.2° (range, 12° to 38°) before surgery and 11.3° (range, 4° to 26°) at last follow-up. In the patients with associated spondylolisthesis, anterior vertebral translation was 19.5% (range, 12% to 27%) before surgery, 16.7% (range, 0% to 25%) after surgery, and 17.5% (range, 0% to 27%) at followup. Complications incidence was low (14%), and few patients required revision surgery (4%). Conclusions. In elderly patients with mild degenerative lumbar scoliosis without sagittal imbalance, pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization is an effective option, with low complications incidence, granting curve stabilization during time and satisfying clinical results. PMID:23781342

  12. [Lumbosacral instability. The cauda equina compression syndrome in dogs].

    PubMed

    Köppel, E; Rein, D

    1992-12-01

    The literature review includes a short anatomical description of the lumbosacral area, etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of CECS. Two hundred and twenty-seven large-breed dogs were examined clinically, neurologically and radiologically for diseases of the lumbosacral area. Radiological findings, such as dorsal dislocation of L7, spondylosis deformans, sloped craniodorsal contour of S1, sclerosis of the cranial plate of S1 as well as narrowing and increased density of the intervertebral foramen L7/S1 were compared with clinical and neurological results. In 15 dogs dorsal dislocation of L7 by 1 to 8 mm was found. An extended position proved to be more successful in demonstrating that finding than the flexed one. All other pathological changes were found either individually or in combination in patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. One hundred and thirty-six dogs showed no sign of dorsal dislocation but all the other described changes. All detected changes have to be interpreted as instability of the lumbosacral area and resultant chronic and degenerative pathological processes. A definite correlation between spondylolisthesis of L7/S1 and compression of the cauda equina could not be found on plain radiography.

  13. Association between CT-evaluated lumbar lordosis and features of spinal degeneration, evaluated in supine position

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Leonid; Li, Ling; Hunter, David; Been, Ella

    2013-01-01

    Background Context Few studies have directly evaluated the association of lumbar lordosis and segmental wedging of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks with prevalence of spinal degenerative features. Purpose To evaluate the association of CT-evaluated lumbar lordosis, segmental wedging of the vertebral bodies and that of the intervertebral disks with various spinal degeneration features. Study design This cross-sectional study was a nested project to the Framingham Heart Study. Sample A random consecutive subset of 191 participants chosen from the 3590 participants enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study who underwent multi-detector CT to assess aortic calcification. Outcome Measures Physiologic Measures Dichotomous variables indicating the presence of intervertebral disc narrowing, facet joint osteoarthritis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis and density (in Hounsfield units) of multifidus and erector spinae muscles were evaluated on supine CT, as well as the lordosis angle (LA) and the wedging of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks. Sum of vertebral bodies wedging (ΣB) and sum of intervertebral discs wedging (ΣD) were used in analyses. Methods Mean values (±SD) of LA, ΣB and ΣD were calculated in males and females and compared using the t-test. Mean values (±SD) of LA, ΣB and ΣD in 4 age groups: <40, 40–49, 50–59 and 60+ years were calculated. We tested the linear relationship between LA, ΣB and ΣD and age groups. We evaluated the association between each spinal degeneration feature and LA, ΣB and ΣD using multiple logistic regression analysis where studied degeneration features were the dependent variable and all LA, ΣB and ΣD (separately) as well as age, sex, and BMI were independent predictors. Results LA was slightly lower than the normal range for standing individuals, and no difference was found between males and females (p=0.4107). However, the sex differences in sum of vertebral bodies wedging (

  14. Do intraoperative radiographs predict final lumbar sagittal alignment following single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion?

    PubMed

    Salem, Khalid M I; Eranki, Aditya P; Paquette, Scott; Boyd, Michael; Street, John; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The study aimed to determine if the intraoperative segmental lordosis (as calculated on a cross-table lateral radiograph following a single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [TLIF] for degenerative spondylolisthesis/low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis) is maintained at discharge and at 6 months postsurgery. METHODS The authors reviewed images and medical records of patients ≥ 16 years of age with a diagnosis of an isolated single-level, low-grade spondylolisthesis (degenerative or isthmic) with symptomatic spinal stenosis treated between January 2008 and April 2014. Age, sex, surgical level, surgical approach, and facetectomy (unilateral vs bilateral) were recorded. Upright standardized preoperative, early, and 6-month postoperative radiographs, as well as intraoperative lateral radiographs, were analyzed for the pelvic incidence, segmental lumbar lordosis (SLL) at the TILF level, and total LL (TLL). In addition, the anteroposterior position of the cage in the disc space was documented. Data are presented as the mean ± SD; a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Eighty-four patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 56.8 ± 13.7 years, and 46 patients (55%) were men. The mean pelvic incidence was 59.7° ± 11.9°, and a posterior midline approach was used in 47 cases (56%). All TLIF procedures were single level using a bullet-shaped cage. A bilateral facetectomy was performed in 17 patients (20.2%), and 89.3% of procedures were done at the L4-5 and L5-S1 segments. SLL significantly improved intraoperatively from 15.8° ± 7.5° to 20.9° ± 7.7°, but the correction was lost after ambulation. Compared with preoperative values, at 6 months the change in SLL was modest at 1.8° ± 6.7° (p = 0.025), whereas TLL increased by 4.3° ± 9.6° (p < 0.001). The anteroposterior position of the cage, approach, level of surgery, and use of a bilateral facetectomy did not significantly affect postoperative LL

  15. Lumbar Pseudomeningocele Causing Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Rita G; Brown, Steven W; Goetz, Lance L; Miner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Pseudomeningocele is most commonly the result of a rent in the meninges during spine surgery. Noniatrogenic causes exist but are rare. Pseudomeningoceles may heal spontaneously, but they may also slowly enlarge. They rarely present as a mass within the abdomen. The objective of this study was to present the first case report of hydronephrosis secondary to lumbar pseudomeningocele. Design: Single case report and literature review. Methods: Single case report. Results: This man had undergone extensive lumbar spine surgery for pain and spondylolisthesis. He subsequently developed a pseudomeningocele that caused hydronephrosis of the left kidney. He was treated with surgical intervention and had resolution of his hydronephrosis and his flank and groin pain. He also had improvement of his back pain. Conclusions: This report shows an unusual cause of hydronephrosis—a pseudomeningocele presenting as an abdominal mass that compressed the ureter. PMID:19264055

  16. AxiaLIF system: minimally invasive device for presacral lumbar interbody spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Steven M; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar fusion is commonly performed to alleviate chronic low back and leg pain secondary to disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis with or without concomitant lumbar spinal stenosis, or chronic lumbar instability. However, the risk of iatrogenic injury during traditional anterior, posterior, and transforaminal open fusion surgery is significant. The axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) system is a minimally invasive fusion device that accesses the lumbar (L4–S1) intervertebral disc spaces via a reproducible presacral approach that avoids critical neurovascular and musculoligamentous structures. Since the AxiaLIF system received marketing clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004, clinical studies of this device have reported high fusion rates without implant subsidence, significant improvements in pain and function, and low complication rates. This paper describes the design and approach of this lumbar fusion system, details the indications for use, and summarizes the clinical experience with the AxiaLIF system to date. PMID:22915939

  17. AxiaLIF system: minimally invasive device for presacral lumbar interbody spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Steven M; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar fusion is commonly performed to alleviate chronic low back and leg pain secondary to disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis with or without concomitant lumbar spinal stenosis, or chronic lumbar instability. However, the risk of iatrogenic injury during traditional anterior, posterior, and transforaminal open fusion surgery is significant. The axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) system is a minimally invasive fusion device that accesses the lumbar (L4-S1) intervertebral disc spaces via a reproducible presacral approach that avoids critical neurovascular and musculoligamentous structures. Since the AxiaLIF system received marketing clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004, clinical studies of this device have reported high fusion rates without implant subsidence, significant improvements in pain and function, and low complication rates. This paper describes the design and approach of this lumbar fusion system, details the indications for use, and summarizes the clinical experience with the AxiaLIF system to date.

  18. The Spine in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Maegen J; Kruse, Richard W; Shah, Suken A

    2017-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder of type I collagen. Although multiple genotypes and phenotypes are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, approximately 90% of the mutations are in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by bone fragility. Patients typically have multiple fractures or limb deformity; however, the spine can also be affected. Spinal manifestations include scoliosis, kyphosis, craniocervical junction abnormalities, and lumbosacral pathology. The incidence of lumbosacral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is higher in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta than in the general population. Use of diphosphonates has been found to decrease the rate of progression of scoliosis in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. A lateral cervical radiograph is recommended in patients with this condition before age 6 years for surveillance of craniocervical junction abnormalities, such as basilar impression. Intraoperative and anesthetic considerations in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta include challenges related to fracture risk, airway management, pulmonary function, and blood loss.

  19. Quality of life in preoperative patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction is at least as depressed as in other lumbar spinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Cher, Daniel Joseph; Reckling, W Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Pain from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an under-recognized cause of low back pain. The degree to which SIJ pain decreases quality of life has not been directly compared to other more familiar conditions of the lumbar spine. Multivariate regression analysis of individual patient data from two prospective multicenter clinical trials of SIJ fusion and three prospective multicenter clinical trials of surgical treatments for degenerative lumbar spine conditions. Controlling for baseline demographic parameters as well as a validated disability score, quality of life scores (EuroQOL 5-D and SF-36) were, in most cases, lower in the SIJ cohorts compared to the three other spine surgery cohorts. Patients with SIJ dysfunction considering surgery have decrements in quality of life as or more severe compared to patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, and intervertebral disc herniation.

  20. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Lumbar spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Seichi, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is a chronic, noninflammatory disease caused by degeneration of lumbar disc and/or facet joints. The etiology of lumbar spondylosis is multifactorial. Patients with lumbar spondylosis complain of a broad variety of symptoms including discomfort in the low back lesion, whereas some of them have radiating leg pain or neurologenic intermittent claudication (lumbar spinal stenosis). The majority of patients with spondylosis and stenosis of the lumbosacral spine can be treated nonsurgically. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 inhibitors are helpful in controlling symptoms. Prostaglandin, epidural injection, and transforaminal injection are also helpful for leg pain and intermittent claudication. Operative therapy for spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis is reserved for patients who are totally incapacitated by their condition.

  2. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Traumatic dislocation of the S1 polyaxial pedicle screw head: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Du Plessis, Pieter N. B.; Lau, Bernard P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyaxial screw head dislocation in the absence of a manufacture defect is extremely rare and represents a biomechanical overload of the screw, leading to early failure. A 58-year-old gentleman underwent instrumented fusion using polyaxial pedicle screws-titanium rod construct with interbody cage for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level. He attempted to bend forward ten days after the surgery which resulted in a dislocation of the right S1 polyaxial screw head from the screw shank with recurrence of symptoms. He underwent revision surgery uneventfully. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention to the strength of fixation and the amount of release to avoid such a complication. PMID:28435927

  4. Traumatic dislocation of the S1 polyaxial pedicle screw head: a case report.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Pieter N B; Lau, Bernard P H; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Polyaxial screw head dislocation in the absence of a manufacture defect is extremely rare and represents a biomechanical overload of the screw, leading to early failure. A 58-year-old gentleman underwent instrumented fusion using polyaxial pedicle screws-titanium rod construct with interbody cage for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level. He attempted to bend forward ten days after the surgery which resulted in a dislocation of the right S1 polyaxial screw head from the screw shank with recurrence of symptoms. He underwent revision surgery uneventfully. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention to the strength of fixation and the amount of release to avoid such a complication.

  5. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  6. Variations in Practice Patterns among Neurosurgeons and Orthopaedic Surgeons in the Management of Spinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Manzar; Nasir, Sadaf; Moed, Amber; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2011-12-01

    This is a case series. We wanted to identify variations in the practice patterns among neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons for the management of spinal disorders. Spinal disorders are common in the clinical practice of both neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons. It has been observed that despite the availability of various guidelines, there is lack of consensus among surgeons about the management of various disorders. A questionnaire was distributed, either directly or via e-mail, to the both the neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons who worked at 5 tertiary care centers within a single region of Korea. The surgeons were working either in private practice or in academic institutions. The details of the questionnaire included demographic details and the specialty (orthopedic/neurosurgeon). The surgeons were classified according to the level of experience as up to 5 years, 6-10 years and > 10 years. Questions were asked about the approach to lumbar discectomy (fragmentectomy or aggressive disc removal), using steroids for treating discitis, the fusion preference for spondylolisthesis, the role of an orthosis after fusion, the preferred surgical approach for spinal stenosis, the operative approach for spinal trauma (early within 72 hours or late > 72 hours) and the role of surgery in complete spinal cord injury. The data was analyzed using SPSS ver 16. p-values < 0.05 were considered to be significant. Of the 30 surgeons who completed the questionnaire, 20 were neurosurgeons and 10 were orthopedic surgeons. Statistically significant differences were observed for the management of spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, using an orthosis after fusion, the type of lumbar discectomy and the value of surgical intervention after complete spinal cord injury. Our results suggest that there continues to exist a statistically significant lack of consensus among neurosurgeons and orthopedic spine surgeons when considering using an orthosis after fusion, the type of discectomy and

  7. Variations in Practice Patterns among Neurosurgeons and Orthopaedic Surgeons in the Management of Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Sadaf; Moed, Amber; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2011-01-01

    Study Design This is a case series. Purpose We wanted to identify variations in the practice patterns among neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons for the management of spinal disorders. Overview of Literature Spinal disorders are common in the clinical practice of both neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons. It has been observed that despite the availability of various guidelines, there is lack of consensus among surgeons about the management of various disorders. Methods A questionnaire was distributed, either directly or via e-mail, to the both the neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons who worked at 5 tertiary care centers within a single region of Korea. The surgeons were working either in private practice or in academic institutions. The details of the questionnaire included demographic details and the specialty (orthopedic/neurosurgeon). The surgeons were classified according to the level of experience as up to 5 years, 6-10 years and > 10 years. Questions were asked about the approach to lumbar discectomy (fragmentectomy or aggressive disc removal), using steroids for treating discitis, the fusion preference for spondylolisthesis, the role of an orthosis after fusion, the preferred surgical approach for spinal stenosis, the operative approach for spinal trauma (early within 72 hours or late > 72 hours) and the role of surgery in complete spinal cord injury. The data was analyzed using SPSS ver 16. p-values < 0.05 were considered to be significant. Results Of the 30 surgeons who completed the questionnaire, 20 were neurosurgeons and 10 were orthopedic surgeons. Statistically significant differences were observed for the management of spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, using an orthosis after fusion, the type of lumbar discectomy and the value of surgical intervention after complete spinal cord injury. Conclusions Our results suggest that there continues to exist a statistically significant lack of consensus among neurosurgeons and orthopedic spine surgeons

  8. The transition zone above a lumbosacral fusion.

    PubMed

    Hambly, M F; Wiltse, L L; Raghavan, N; Schneiderman, G; Koenig, C

    1998-08-15

    The clinical and radiographic effect of a lumbar or lumbosacral fusion was studied in 42 patients who had undergone a posterolateral fusion with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. To examine the long-term effects of posterolateral lumbar or lumbosacral fusion on the cephalad two motion segments (transition zone). It is commonly held that accelerated degeneration occurs in the motion segments adjacent to a fusion. Most studies are of short-term, anecdotal, uncontrolled reports that pay particular attention only to the first motion segment immediately cephalad to the fusion. Forty-two patients who had previously undergone a posterolateral lumbar or lumbosacral fusion underwent radiographic and clinical evaluation. Rate of fusion, range of motion, osteophytes, degenerative spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis, facet arthrosis, disc ossification, dynamic instability, and disc space height were all studied and statistically compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. The patient's self-reported clinical outcome was also recorded. Degenerative changes occurred at the second level above the fused levels with a frequency equal to those occurring in the first level. There was no statistical difference between the study group and the cohort group in the presence of radiographic changes within the transition zone. In those patients undergoing fusion for degenerative processes, 75% reported a good to excellent outcome, whereas 84% of those undergoing fusion for spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis reported a good to excellent outcome. Radiographic changes occur within the transition zone cephalad to a lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. However, these changes are also seen in control subjects who have had no surgery.

  9. The prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis in young children: a retrospective analysis using CT.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Thibaut; Fournier, Joseph; Odent, Thierry; Sembély-Taveau, Catherine; Merenda, Pauline; Sirinelli, Dominique; Morel, Baptiste

    2018-05-01

    Although lumbar spondylolysis is encountered in general population with an incidence estimated to be 3-10%, limited information is available for children. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of spondylolysis according to associated vertebral bony malformation and spinopelvic parameters in children under eight requiring CT evaluation for unrelated lumbar conditions. Seven hundred and seventeen abdominal and pelvic multi-detector CT scans were obtained in patients under 8 years of age were reviewed. Two board certificated radiologists and two resident radiologists retrospectively evaluated CT scans for lumbar spondylolysis and associated malformations. Pelvic incidence and spondylolisthesis were reported. Our analysis included 717 CT scans in 532 children (259 girls and 273 boys). Twenty-five cases of spondylolysis were diagnosed (16 bilateral and 9 unilateral, 64 and 36%, respectively) in 14 boys (56%) and 11 girls (44%), associating with 12 grade I spondylolisthesis. The mean normal pelvic incidence was 45° (median 44°, SD 7°). The prevalence of spondylolysis was 1% in children under age 3 (n = 3 among 292 patients), 3.7% in children under age 6 (n = 17 among 454 patients) and 4.7% among the 532 patients. Unilateral spondylolysis was significantly associated with a spinal malformation (p = 0.04, Fisher's exact test), with normal pelvic incidence. Half of the patients with bilateral spondylolysis had high pelvic incidence. We observed a prevalence peak of unilateral spondylolysis in the context of a specific malformation in young infants under age 4 with normal pelvic incidence, and, then, a progressive increase in the prevalence of bilateral isolated spondylolysis.

  10. Athletic activity after spine surgery in children and adolescents: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Rubery, Paul T; Bradford, David S

    2002-02-15

    Questionnaire-based survey. To poll the members of the Scoliosis Research Society regarding their opinions and experience with athletic activity after spine surgery performed on children and adolescents. Athletic activity is increasingly important in society. Patients are very concerned about returning to sports and exercise after spinal surgery. There are no generally accepted guidelines for surgeons regarding either appropriate sports or the appropriate time to resume sports after spinal surgery. A survey was designed by the authors and reviewed by a statistical consultant. The form was mailed to the 721 individuals on the Scoliosis Research Society mailing list. Returned surveys were hand scored and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. Of the 316 forms returned, 278 indicated that the respondent performed spinal fusion on children and adolescents. Two hundred sixty-one completed forms, representing approximately 45% of the society's estimated active clinicians, were reviewed. Formal physical therapy was unlikely to be recommended by members of the society regardless of procedure, although postoperative home exercise was used by many after spondylolisthesis fusion. The majority of patients were returned to gym class between 6 months and 1 year (range, immediate to never) after surgery. Most respondents returned patients to noncontact sports between 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Contact sports were generally withheld until 1 year after surgery. Close to 20% of respondents required, and 35% suggested, that patients never return to collision sports. Twenty percent of respondents for scoliosis and 5% for spondylolisthesis reported having notable adverse outcomes attributed to athletic activity. These survey results show the varying approaches taken by members of the Scoliosis Research Society to postoperative athletic activity, and they provide a starting point for investigations regarding alternative approaches.

  11. More nerve root injuries occur with minimally invasive lumbar surgery, especially extreme lateral interbody fusion: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, do more nerve root injuries occur utilizing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques versus open lumbar procedures? To answer this question, we compared the frequency of nerve root injuries for multiple open versus MIS operations including diskectomy, laminectomy with/without fusion addressing degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and/or degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods: Several of Desai et al. large Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial studies showed the frequency for nerve root injury following an open diskectomy ranged from 0.13% to 0.25%, for open laminectomy/stenosis with/without fusion it was 0%, and for open laminectomy/stenosis/degenerative spondylolisthesis with/without fusion it was 2%. Results: Alternatively, one study compared the incidence of root injuries utilizing MIS transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) techniques; 7.8% of PLIF versus 2% of TLIF patients sustained root injuries. Furthermore, even higher frequencies of radiculitis and nerve root injuries occurred during anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) versus extreme lateral interbody fusions (XLIFs). These high frequencies were far from acceptable; 15.8% following ALIF experienced postoperative radiculitis, while 23.8% undergoing XLIF sustained root/plexus deficits. Conclusions: This review indicates that MIS (TLIF/PLIF/ALIF/XLIF) lumbar surgery resulted in a higher incidence of root injuries, radiculitis, or plexopathy versus open lumbar surgical techniques. Furthermore, even a cursory look at the XLIF data demonstrated the greater danger posed to neural tissue by this newest addition to the MIS lumbar surgical armamentariu. The latter should prompt us as spine surgeons to question why the XLIF procedure is still being offered to our patients? PMID:26904372

  12. Sagittal plane analysis of the spine and pelvis in degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Weishi, Li; Zhuoran, Sun; Qingwei, Ma; Zhongqiang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the normative values of pelvic sagittal parameters, but no study has analyzed the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and its role in the pathogenesis. Retrospective analysis was applied to 104 patients with DLS, together with 100 cases of asymptomatic young adults as a control group and another control group consisting of 145 cases with cervical spondylosis. The coronal and sagittal parameters were measured on the anteroposterior and lateral radiograph of the whole spine in the DLS group as well as in the two control groups. Statistical analysis showed that the DLS group had a higher pelvic incidence (PI) value (50.5° ± 10.2°), than the normal control group (with PI 47.2° ± 8.8°) and the cervical spondylosis group (46.9° ± 9.1°). In DLS group, there were 38 cases (36.5%) complicated with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, who had higher PI values than patients without it. Besides, the lumbar lordosis (LL) and sacral slope (SS) of DLS group were lower; the scoliosis Cobb's angle was correlated with pelvic tilt (PT); thoracic kyphosis was correlated with LL, SS, and PT; and LL was correlated with other sagittal parameters. Patients with DLS may have a higher PI, which may impact the pathogenesis of DLS. A high PI value is probably associated with the high prevalence of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis among DLS patients. In DLS patients, the lumbar spine maintains the ability of regulating the sagittal balance, and the regulation depends more on thoracic curve.

  13. Outcomes of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to assess the results of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for a two surgeon, single institution series. In total, extended TLIF with bilateral decompression was performed in 57 patients. Pain, American Spinal Injury Association scores, patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), perioperative indices and radiographic measurements were recorded and analysed. The surgeries were performed between February 2011 and January 2014 on 38 women and 19 men. The mean patient age was 62.86 years, and the mean BMI was 30.31 kg/m(2). In 49 patients, spondylolisthesis was the primary indication. The mean intraoperative time was 284.65 min, and this decreased as the series progressed. The median length of stay was 5 days (range: 2-9). The surgical complication rate was 19.3%. Two patients died from cardiopulmonary complications. Single level TLIF was performed in 78.9% of the cohort, with L4/5 the most commonly fused level. Significant pain reduction was achieved from a mean (± standard deviation) preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) of 8.28 ± 1.39 to 1.50 ± 1.05 at 12 months postoperatively. No patients deteriorated neurologically. Spondylolisthesis was significantly corrected from a preoperative mean of 6.82 mm to 2.80 mm postoperatively. Although there is a learning curve associated with the procedure, extended TLIF with bilateral facet joint removal and decompression appeared to be a safe and effective alternative to other fusion techniques, and our results were comparable to other published case series. The stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An analysis of general surgery-related complications in a series of 412 minilaparotomic anterior lumbosacral procedures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Uk; Choi, Won-Chul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Sang Hyeop; Park, Jong Dae; Maeng, Dae Hyeon; Choi, Young-Geun

    2009-01-01

    Anterior lumbar surgery is associated with certain perioperative visceral and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to document all general surgery-related adverse events and complications following minilaparotomic retroperitoneal lumbar procedures and to discuss strategies for their management or prevention. The authors analyzed data obtained in 412 patients who underwent anterior lumbosacral surgery between 2003 and 2005. The series comprised 114 men and 298 women whose mean age was 56 years (range 34-79 years). Preoperative diagnoses were as follows: isthmic spondylolisthesis (32%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (24%), instability/stenosis (15%), degenerative disc disease (15%), failed-back surgery syndrome (7%), and lumbar degenerative kyphosis or scoliosis (7%). A single level was exposed in 264 patients (64%), 2 in 118 (29%), and 3 or 4 in 30 (7%). The average follow-up period was 16 months. Overall, 52 instances of complications and adverse events occurred in 50 patients (12.1%), including sympathetic dysfunction in 25 (6.06%), vascular injury repaired with/without direct suture in 12 (2.9%), ileus lasting > 3 days in 5 (1.2%), pleural effusion in 4 (0.97%), wound dehiscence in 2 (0.49%), symptomatic retroperitoneal hematoma in 2 (0.49%), angina in 1 (0.24%), and bowel laceration in 1 patient (0.24%). There was no instance of retrograde ejaculation in male patients, and most complications had no long-term sequelae. This report presents a detailed analysis of complications related to anterior lumbar surgery. Although the incidence of complications appears low considering the magnitude of the procedure, surgeons should be aware of these potential complications and their management.

  15. Quality of data regarding diagnoses of spinal disorders in administrative databases. A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Faciszewski, T; Broste, S K; Fardon, D

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of data regarding diagnoses of spinal disorders in administrative databases at eight different institutions. The records of 189 patients who had been managed for a disorder of the lumbar spine were independently reviewed by a physician who assigned the appropriate diagnostic codes according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The age range of the 189 patients was seventeen to eighty-four years. The six major diagnostic categories studied were herniation of a lumbar disc, a previous operation on the lumbar spine, spinal stenosis, cauda equina syndrome, acquired spondylolisthesis, and congenital spondylolisthesis. The diagnostic codes assigned by the physician were compared with the codes that had been assigned during the ordinary course of events by personnel in the medical records department of each of the eight hospitals. The accuracy of coding was also compared among the eight hospitals, and it was found to vary depending on the diagnosis. Although there were both false-negative and false-positive codes at each institution, most errors were related to the low sensitivity of coding for previous spinal operations: only seventeen (28 per cent) of sixty-one such diagnoses were coded correctly. Other errors in coding were less frequent, but their implications for conclusions drawn from the information in administrative databases depend on the frequency of a diagnosis and its importance in an analysis. This study demonstrated that the accuracy of a diagnosis of a spinal disorder recorded in an administrative database varies according to the specific condition being evaluated. It is necessary to document the relative accuracy of specific ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes in order to improve the ability to validate the conclusions derived from investigations based on administrative databases.

  16. Small C7-T1 lordotic angle and muscle degeneration at C7 level were independent radiological characteristics of patients with cervical imbalance: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Koji; Romanu, Joshua; Grisdela, Phillip; Paholpak, Permsak; Zheng, Pengfei; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-01-31

    Cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) of ≥40 mm is recognized as the key factor of poor health-related quality of life, poor surgical outcomes, and correction loss after surgery for cervical deformity. However, little is known about the radiological characteristics of patients with cSVA≥40 mm. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological characteristics of patients with cervical imbalance. Retrospective analysis of weight-bearing cervical magnetic resonance (MR) images. Consecutive 1,500 MR images of symptomatic patients in weight-bearing position. Cervical sagittal vertical axis, cervical alignment, cervical balance parameters (T1 slope, Co-C2 angle, C2-C7 angle, C7-T1 angle, neck tilt, and thoracic inlet angle), disc degeneration (Pfirmann and Suzuki classification), end plate degeneration (Modic change), spondylolisthesis (antero- and retrolisthesis), anteroposterior (AP) diameter of dural sac, cross-sectional area (CSA), and fat infiltration ratio of the transversospinalis muscles at C4 and C7 levels. Patients were divided into two groups: cSVA≥40 mm and cSVA<40 mm. Gender, age, and cervical alignment were analyzed. Subsequently, matched imbalance (cSVA≥40 mm) and control (<40 mm) groups were created using the propensity score to adjust for age, gender, and cervical alignment. Cervicothoracic angular parameters, disc degeneration, Modic change, spondylolisthesis, and degeneration of the transversospinalis muscles at C4 and C7 were compared. Variables with p<.05 were included in the multinomial logistic regression model to identify factors that relate to the cervical balance grouping. The incidence of patients with cervical imbalance was 2.5% (37 patients). Those patients had a higher incidence of kyphosis, were older, and there were more male patients. In the matched imbalance group, the T1 slope was greater (p=.028), C7-T1 lordotic angle was smaller (p<.001), the number of anterolisthesis was greater (p=.012), and the fat

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis: comparison of surgical practice variation and clinical outcome in three national spine registries.

    PubMed

    Lønne, Greger; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Nordvall, Dennis; Gerdhem, Paul; Lagerbäck, Tobias; Andersen, Mikkel; Eiskjaer, Søren; Gehrchen, Martin; Jacobs, Wilco; van Hooff, Miranda L; Solberg, Tore K

    2018-05-21

    Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains controversial, resulting in practice-based variation. The present study aimed to evaluate in a pragmatic study if surgical selection criteria and variation in use of arthrodesis in three Scandinavian countries can be linked to variation in treatment effectiveness. This is an observational study based on a combined cohort from the national spine registries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Patients aged 50 and older operated during 2011-2013 for LSS were included. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (primary outcome), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for leg pain and back pain, and health-related quality of life (Euro-Qol-5D) were reported. Analysis included case-mix adjustment. In addition, we report differences in hospital stay. Analyses of baseline data were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square, or logistic regression tests. The comparisons of the mean changes of PROMs at 1-year follow-up between the countries were done by ANOVA (crude) and analysis of covariance (case-mix adjustment). Out of 14,223 included patients, 10,890 (77%) responded at 1-year follow-up. Apart from fewer smokers in Sweden and higher comorbidity rate in Norway, baseline characteristics were similar. The rate of additional fusion surgery (patients without or with spondylolisthesis) was 11% (4%, 47%) in Norway, 21% (9%, 56%) in Sweden, and 28% (15%, 88%) in Denmark. At 1-year follow-up, the mean improvement for ODI (95% confidence interval) was 18 (17-18) in Norway, 17 (17-18) in Sweden, and 18 (17-19) in Denmark. Patients operated with arthrodesis had prolonged hospital stay. Real-life data from three national spine registers showed similar indications for decompression

  18. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    PubMed

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    Experimentally, posterolateral fusion only provides incomplete control of flexion-extension, rotation and lateral inclination forces. The stability deficit increases with increasing height of the anterior intervertebral space, which for some warrants the adjunction of an intersomatic arthrodesis in addition to the posterolateral graft. Few studies have been devoted to the impact of disc height on the outcome of posterolateral fusion. The purpose of this work was to investigate the spinal segment immobilized by the posterolateral fusion: height of the anterior intervertebral space, the clinical and radiographic impact of changes in disc height, and the short- and long-term impact of disc height measured preoperatively on clinical and radiographic outcome. In order to obtain a homogeneous group of patients, the series was limited to patients undergoing posterolateral arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis, in combination with radicular release. This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 66 patients with mean 52 months follow-up (range 3-63 months). A dedicated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on pre- and postoperative function, the SF-36 quality of life score, and patient satisfaction. Pre- and postoperative (early, one year, last follow-up) radiographic data were recorded: olisthesic level, disc height, intervertebral angle, intervertebral mobility (angular, anteroposterior), and global measures of sagittal balance (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal tilt, pelvic version, pelvic incidence, sacral slope). SpineView was used for all measures. Univariate analysis searched for correlations between variation in disc height and early postoperative function and quality of fusion at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following preoperative parameters: intervertebral angle, disc height, intervertebral mobility, sagittal balance parameters, use of osteosynthesis or not. At the olisthesic

  19. Is There Variation in Procedural Utilization for Lumbar Spine Disorders Between a Fee-for-Service and Salaried Healthcare System?

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Makanji, Heeren; Jiang, Wei; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Bono, Christopher M; Haider, Adil H

    2017-12-01

    Whether compensation for professional services drives the use of those services is an important question that has not been answered in a robust manner. Specifically, there is a growing concern that spine care practitioners may preferentially choose more costly or invasive procedures in a fee-for-service system, irrespective of the underlying lumbar disorder being treated. (1) Were proportions of interbody fusions higher in the fee-for-service setting as opposed to the salaried Department of Defense setting? (2) Were the odds of interbody fusion increased in a fee-for-service setting after controlling for indications for surgery? Patients surgically treated for lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis (2006-2014) were identified. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the surgery was performed in the fee-for-service setting (beneficiaries receive care at a civilian facility with expenses covered by TRICARE insurance) or at a Department of Defense facility (direct care). There were 28,344 patients in the entire study, 21,290 treated in fee-for-service and 7054 treated in Department of Defense facilities. Differences in the rates of fusion-based procedures, discectomy, and decompression between both healthcare settings were assessed using multinomial logistic regression to adjust for differences in case-mix and surgical indication. TRICARE beneficiaries treated for lumbar spinal disorders in the fee-for-service setting had higher odds of receiving interbody fusions (fee-for-service: 7267 of 21,290 [34%], direct care: 1539 of 7054 [22%], odds ratio [OR]: 1.25 [95% confidence interval 1.20-1.30], p < 0.001). Purchased care patients were more likely to receive interbody fusions for a diagnosis of disc herniation (adjusted OR 2.61 [2.36-2.89], p < 0.001) and for spinal stenosis (adjusted OR 1.39 [1.15-1.69], p < 0.001); however, there was no difference for patients with spondylolisthesis (adjusted OR 0.99 [0.84-1.16], p = 0.86). The

  20. Effects of a Commercial Insurance Policy Restriction on Lumbar Fusion in North Carolina and the Implications for National Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, Richard A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Carey, Timothy S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Mirza, Sohail K.

    2015-01-01

    Study design Analysis of the State Inpatient Database of North Carolina, 2005–2012, and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, including all inpatient lumbar fusion admissions from non-federal hospitals. Objective To examine the influence of a major commercial policy change that restricted lumbar fusion for certain indications, and to forecast the potential impact if the policy were adopted nationally. Summary of Background Data Few studies have examined the effects of recent changes in commercial coverage policies that restrict the use of lumbar fusion. Methods We included adults undergoing elective lumbar fusion or re-fusion operations in North Carolina. We aggregated data into a monthly time series to report changes in the rates and volume of lumbar fusion operations for disc herniation or degeneration, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or revision fusions. Time series regression models were used to test for significant changes in the use of fusion operation following a major commercial coverage policy change initiated on January 1st, 2011. Results There was a substantial decline in the use of lumbar fusion for disc herniation or degeneration following the policy change on January 1st, 2011. Overall rates of elective lumbar fusion operations in North Carolina (per 100,000 residents) increased from 103.2 in 2005 to 120.4 in 2009, before declining to 101.9 by 2012. The population rate (per 100,000 residents) of fusion among those under age 65 increased from 89.5 in 2005 to 101.2 in 2009, followed by a sharp decline to 76.8 by 2012. There was no acceleration in the already increasing rate of fusion for spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or revision procedures, but there was a coincident increase in decompression without fusion. Conclusions This commercial insurance policy change had its intended effect of reducing fusion operations for indications with less evidence of effectiveness without changing rates for other indications or resulting in an overall reduction in

  1. Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

    2013-10-01

    This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases.

  2. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a subject with orthopedic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ungermann, Cathryn M; Gras, Laura Z

    2011-12-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the effect of therapeutic riding with a subject who had an orthopedic diagnosis. This is a single-subject case report. The study was conducted at an equestrian facility with an indoor riding arena. The subject was a 59-year-old woman with grade I spondylolisthesis at L4/L5 and multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis in central and foraminal canals. The subject had an anterior cervical fusion of C3-C7. The subject has been ambulating with a straight cane due to her history of frequent falls. Gait, agility, strength, range of motion, and balance testing were performed. The subject had impairments of bilateral lower extremities with an ataxic gait pattern and was at risk for continued falls according to the balance measures. The intervention comprised therapeutic riding sessions 3 times a week for 20 minutes for 4 weeks. Each riding session was immediately followed by a 10-minute independent walking program with a metronome for rhythmic auditory stimulation. The outcome measures were as follows: Manual muscle testing and range of motion of the lower extremities, Gait Speed Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Four-Square Step Test, Chair Stand Test, Single Leg Stance. Improvements were seen in lower extremity strength and range of motion and balance. The subject improved on balance scores, placing her out of the risk for falls category. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation improved lower extremity range of motion, strength, and balance with this subject.

  3. Orthopaedic Considerations for the Adult With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy T; Cepela, Daniel J; Uhl, Richard L; Lozman, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable group of collagen-related disorders that affects up to 50,000 people in the United States. Although the disease is most symptomatic in childhood, adults with osteogenesis imperfecta also are affected by the sequelae of the disease. Orthopaedic manifestations include posttraumatic and accelerated degenerative joint disease, kyphoscoliosis, and spondylolisthesis. Other manifestations of abnormal collagen include brittle dentition, hearing loss, cardiac valve abnormalities, and basilar invagination. In general, nonsurgical treatment is preferred for management of acute fractures. High rates of malunion, nonunion, and subsequent deformity have been reported with both closed and open treatment. When surgery is necessary, surgeons should opt for load-sharing intramedullary devices that span the entire length of the bone; locking plates and excessively rigid fixation generally should be avoided. Arthroplasty may be considered for active patients, but the procedure frequently is associated with complications in this patient population. Underlying deformities, such as malunion, bowing, rotational malalignment, coxa vara, and acetabular protrusio, pose specific surgical challenges and underscore the importance of preoperative planning.

  4. Ureter Injury as a Complication of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Choon Keun

    2017-06-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a commonly used surgical method of achieving lumbar interbody fusion. There have been some reports about complications of oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the L2-L3 level. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports about ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion. We report a case of ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion to share our experience. A 78-year-old male patient presented with a history of lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication. He was diagnosed with spinal stenosis at L2-L3, L4-L5 level and spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 level. Symptoms were not improved after several months of medical treatments. Then, oblique lumbar interbody fusion was performed at L2-L3, L4-L5 level. During the surgery, anesthesiologist noticed hematuria. A retrourethrogram was performed immediately by urologist, and ureter injury was found. Ureteroureterostomy and double-J catheter insertion were performed. The patient was discharged 2 weeks after surgery without urologic or neurologic complications. At 2 months after surgery, an intravenous pyelogram was performed, which showed an intact ureter. Our study shows that a low threshold of suspicion of ureter injury and careful manipulation of retroperitoneal fat can be helpful to prevent ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the upper level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical results of dynamic nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases with instability: Minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hideki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Morishita, Yuichirou; Sakai, Tsubasa; Huang, George; Kida, Hirotaka; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background When spinal fusion is applied to degenerative lumbar spinal disease with instability, adjacent segment disorder will be an issue in the future. However, decompression alone could cause recurrence of spinal canal stenosis because of increased instability on operated segments and lead to revision surgery. Covering the disadvantages of both procedures, we applied nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System (Ulrich Medical, Ulm, Germany) and decompression. Methods The surgical results of 52 patients (35 men and 17 women) with a minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed: 10 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, 15 with lumbar canal stenosis with disc herniation, 20 with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 6 with disc herniation, and 1 with lumbar discopathy. Results The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was improved, from 14.4 ± 5.3 to 25.5 ± 2.8. The improvement rate was 76%. Range of motion of the operated segments was significantly decreased, from 9.6° ± 4.2° to 2.0° ± 1.8°. Only 1 patient had adjacent segment disease that required revision surgery. There was only 1 screw breakage, but the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions Over a minimum 2-year follow-up, the results of nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for unstable degenerative lumbar disease were good. It is necessary to follow up the cases with a focus on adjacent segment disorders in the future. PMID:25802671

  6. Explanatory Versus Pragmatic Trials: An Essential Concept in Study Design and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Merali, Zamir; Wilson, Jefferson R

    2017-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials often represent the highest level of clinical evidence available to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention in clinical medicine. Although the process of randomization serves to maximize internal validity, the external validity, or generalizability, of such studies depends on several factors determined at the design phase of the trial including eligibility criteria, study setting, and outcomes of interest. In general, explanatory trials are optimized to demonstrate the efficacy of an intervention in a highly selected patient group; however, findings from these studies may not be generalizable to the larger clinical problem. In contrast, pragmatic trials attempt to understand the real-world benefit of an intervention by incorporating design elements that allow for greater generalizability and clinical applicability of study results. In this article we describe the explanatory-pragmatic continuum for clinical trials in greater detail. Further, a well-accepted tool for grading trials on this continuum is described, and applied, to 2 recently published trials pertaining to the surgical management of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis.

  7. Sagittal imbalance treated with L5 pedicle subtraction osteotomy with short lumbar fusion from L4 to sacrum using four screws into L4 for enhanced fixation two additional vertebral screws: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kuenzang; Otsuki, Bungo; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Tanida, Shimei; Masamoto, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2018-02-07

    To report on suggested technique with four screws in a single vertebra (two pedicle screws and two direct vertebral body screws) for enhanced fixation with just one level cranially to a pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). A 60-year-old woman underwent L4/5 fusion surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Two years later, she was unable to stand upright even for a short time because of lumbar kyphosis caused by subsidence of the fusion cage and of Baastrup syndrome in the upper lumbar spine [sagittal vertical axis (SVA) of 114 mm, pelvic incidence of 75°, and lumbar lordosis (LL) of 41°]. She underwent short-segment fusion from L4 to the sacrum with L5 pedicle subtraction osteotomy. We reinforced the construct with two vertebral screws at L4 in addition to the conventional L4 pedicle screws. After the surgery, her sagittal parameters were improved (SVA, 36 mm; LL, 54°). Two years after the corrective surgery, she maintained a low sagittal vertical axis though high residual pelvic tilt indicated that the patient was still compensating for residual sagittal misalignment. PSO surgery for sagittal imbalance usually requires a long fusion at least two levels above and below the osteotomy site to achieve adequate stability and better global alignment. However, longer fixation may decrease the patients' quality of life and cause a proximal junctional failure. Our novel technique may shorten the fixation area after osteotomy surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  8. Does Discontinuing Teriparatide Treatment and Replacing It with Bisphosphonate Maintain the Volume of the Bone Fusion Mass after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion in Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to determine whether discontinuing teriparatide treatment and replacing it with bisphosphonate treatment maintains the volume of the fusion mass after posterolateral fusion (PLF) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical data support the efficacy of parathyroid hormone (PTH) for lumbar PLF. However, the use of PTH is limited to 2 years. We treated 19 women diagnosed with osteoporosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis with teriparatide (20 µg daily subcutaneously). All patients underwent one-level instrumented PLF. Teriparatide was used during 2 months prior to surgery and more than 8 months after surgery. After discontinuing teriparatide treatment, all patients used bisphosphonate (17.5 mg risedronate weekly, oral administration). Area of the fusion mass across the transverse processes at one segment was determined on an anteroposterior radiograph at 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. We followed 19 patients for 3 years. The average duration of teriparatide treatment was 11.5 months. The bone union rate was 95%. The average area of the bone fusion mass was not significantly different between the right and left sides at 1, 2, or 3 years after surgery ( p >0.05). This study showed that replacing teriparatide treatment with bisphosphonate maintained the bone fusion mass volume after PLF in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. [Discomforts and injuries of the spine and medical examinations in young talented female gymnasts].

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, H-C; Horstmann, T

    2005-06-01

    The distribution of pain and injuries in gymnasts is dependent on the quality of training, but also on sport-medical supervision. In a retrospective analysis 41 female gymnasts aged 11 +/- 2.8 years training 14 h/week filled in a questionnaire on pain and injuries as well as on frequency of sports medical and spine specific examinations. 14 reported partly recurring pain mainly in the lumbar spine and 10 injuries mainly in the cervical spine. Medical treatment needed 6 after recurring pain and 6 after the injuries. Except 3 gymnasts all had been investigated medically at least once, in the mean 1.5 years, after beginning with intensive training. The clinical investigation included an investigation of the spine in 64 % out of which (2/3) received additional x-ray diagnostics. Only among the older participants scoliosis and spondylolisthesis where found twice each. Though no connection between pain or injury was found in relation to previous medical investigation, a thorough clinical and in case of doubt additional radiological investigation of the spine should be performed before intensive training.

  10. Spondylolysis: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, C; Herring, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To provide an understanding of the current concepts in the natural history, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis based on the available medical literature. Methods—Articles were selected for review by the following methods: (a) MEDLINE searches with review of abstracts to select relevant articles; (b) review of multiple textbooks considered likely to contain information on spondylolysis; (c) review of references in articles identified by (a) and (b). Over 125 articles were ultimately reviewed fully. Publications were selected for inclusion in this article on the basis of perceived scientific and historical merit, particularly as thought to be relevant to achieving the stated purpose of this review. As no controlled clinical trials were identified, this could not be used as an inclusion criterion. Conclusions—Isthmic spondylolysis is considered to represent a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of the neural arch. There is a relatively high incidence of radiographically identified spondylolysis in the general population, but the vast majority of these lesions probably occur without associated symptoms. Symptomatic pars lesions appear to be particularly a clinical problem in adolescents, especially adolescent athletes. The optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithms are not well identified in the current literature. Multiple imaging studies may have a role in the diagnosis of a pars lesion, and treatment seems likely to require at least relative rest and physical rehabilitation with consideration of bracing or, rarely, surgical intervention depending on the clinical context. Key Words: spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; spine; back; neural arch; pars interarticularis PMID:11131228

  11. Spine problems in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Sucato, Daniel J; Micheli, Lyle J; Estes, A Reed; Tolo, Vernon T

    2012-01-01

    As the number of young people involved in sports activities increases, acute and chronic back pain has become more common. With a careful medical history and physical examination, along with the judicious use of imaging modalities, the causes of back pain can be correctly diagnosed and treated so that young athletes can quickly return to sports participation. Although most back pain in these young patients is muscular in origin, findings that should trigger increased concern include night pain, marked hamstring tightness, pain with lumbar spine hyperextension, or any neurologic finding. When recently developed vague back pain is present, a delay in radiographic imaging is warranted. With new back pain after trauma, AP and lateral radiographs of the symptomatic spinal area are indicated. CT, bone scans, and MRI should be reserved for special circumstances. Spondylolysis is the most common bony cause of back pain in young athletes. Spondylolysis can be treated with activity limitation, a specific exercise program, a thoracolumbar orthosis, and/or surgery. Treatment should be based on the amount of pain as well as the desire of the young athlete to continue in the sports activity that caused the pain. Other significant causes of back pain that require more extensive treatment in these young athletes include spondylolisthesis, lumbar disk disorders, and sacral stress fractures. It is anticipated that nearly all young athletes can return to sports activity after successful treatment. Even if surgical treatment is needed, return to all sports is expected, with the occasional exception of collision sports.

  12. Intra-observer reproducibility and interobserver reliability of the radiographic parameters in the Spinal Deformity Study Group's AIS Radiographic Measurement Manual.

    PubMed

    Dang, Natasha Radhika; Moreau, Marc J; Hill, Douglas L; Mahood, James K; Raso, James

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective cross-sectional assessment of the reproducibility and reliability of radiographic parameters. To measure the intra-examiner and interexaminer reproducibility and reliability of salient radiographic features. The management and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) depends on accurate and reproducible radiographic measurements of the deformity. Ten sets of radiographs were randomly selected from a sample of patients with AIS, with initial curves between 20 degrees and 45 degrees. Fourteen measures of the deformity were measured from posteroanterior and lateral radiographs by 2 examiners, and were repeated 5 times at intervals of 3-5 days. Intra-examiner and interexaminer differences were examined. The parameters include measures of curve size, spinal imbalance, sagittal kyphosis and alignment, maximum apical vertebral rotation, T1 tilt, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, and skeletal age. Intra-examiner reproducibility was generally excellent for parameters measured from the posteroanterior radiographs but only fair to good for parameters from the lateral radiographs, in which some landmarks were not clearly visible. Of the 13 parameters observed, 7 had excellent interobserver reliability. The measurements from the lateral radiograph were less reproducible and reliable and, thus, may not add value to the assessment of AIS. Taking additional measures encourages a systematic and comprehensive assessment of spinal radiographs.

  13. Facet orientation and tropism: Associations with asymmetric lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle parameters in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Xu, W B; Chen, S; Fan, S W; Zhao, F D; Yu, X J; Hu, Z J

    2016-08-10

    Many studies have explored the relationship between facet tropism and facet joint osteoarthritis, disc degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and paraspinal muscles have not been studied. To analyze the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and parameters of paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain. Ninety-five patients with chronic low back pain were consecutively enrolled. Their facet joint angles were measured on computed tomography (CT) while gross cross-sectional area (GCSA), functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and T2 signal intensity of lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The GCSA and FCSA were significantly smaller for multifidus muscle (P< 0.001), but significantly larger for erector spinae and psoas muscles (P< 0.001), in coronally-orientated group than those in sagittally-orientated group. The differences of bilateral GCSA and FCSA of multifidus muscle were significantly larger in facet tropism group than those in no facet tropism group (P= 0.009 and P= 0.019). Muscular asymmetries may develop in the lumbar region of the spine, which are associated with facet asymmetry in patients with chronic low back pain. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the causal relationship between facet orientation and tropism and muscular asymmetry in future.

  14. Transient paraplegia due to accidental intrathecal bupivacaine infiltration following pre-emptive analgesia in a patient with missed sacral dural ectasia.

    PubMed

    Kanna, P Rishimugesh; Sekar, Chelliah; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Rajasekaran, Shanmughanathan

    2010-11-15

    A case report with review of the literature. To highlight the need for careful magnetic resonance imaging evaluation for the presence of incidental lumbosacral dural anomalies before attempting caudal epidural interventions. Pre-emptive analgesia through the caudal epidural route provides good postoperative pain relief in spine surgeries. Several precautions have been advised in the literature. Presence of sacral-dural ectasia should be considered a relative contraindication for this procedure. A 50-year old woman underwent posterior instrumented spinal fusion for L4-L5 spondylolisthesis under general anesthesia. She received single shot caudal epidural analgesia at the start of the procedure. After complete emergence from anesthesia, she had complete motor and sensory loss below the T12 spinal level, which reversed to normal neurology in 6 hours. Retrospective evaluation of the patient's magnetic resonance imaging showed an ectatic, low lying lumbosacral dural sac which had been overlooked in the initial evaluation. The drugs given by the caudal route have been accidentally administered into the thecal sac causing a brief period of neurologic deficit. This unexpected complication has been reported only in the pediatric literature before. It is important to look for the presence of lumbosacral dural anomalies before planning caudal epidural injections in adults also. Sacral dural ectasia and other lumbosacral anomalies must be recognized as contraindications for caudal epidural pre-emptive analgesia for spine surgery. Other modes of postoperative pain relief should be tried in these patients.

  15. [Radiological study on the n-HA/PA66 cage used in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion].

    PubMed

    Sang, Pei-ming; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Bin-hui; Cai, Chang; Gu, Shi-rong; Zhou, Min

    2014-08-01

    To explore the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) cage on recovering and maintaining lumbar curvature, lumbar heights and fusion rate when used in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. From February to July 2012, 50 patients with degenerative lumbar disease(lumbar disc herniation in 32 cases and lumbar spondylolisthesis in 18 cases) were treated with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using the n-HA/PA66 cage, and their preoperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were analyzed. The patients were followed up for 2, 4, 6 and 8 months after operation, during which the CR and CT film of lumbar vertebra were checked to get relative height of vertebral space, Taillard index,index of lumbar spinal curvature,angle of segmental and full lumbar lordosis. The data were analyzed respectively with pair t-test, analysis of variance or LSD-t-test. All the patients were followed up, and the duraion ranged from 8 to 13 months, with a mean of 11.32 months. There were significant differences in relative height of vertebral space, Taillard index, index of lumbar spinal curvature, angle of segmental and full lumbar lordosis after surgery, but there were no significant differences in different periods after operation. The fusion time of lumbar ranged from 4 to 8 months. The n-HA/PA66 cage can recover and maintain lumbar normal stability with higher rate of fusion and less complications.

  16. New generation intraoperative three-dimensional imaging (O-arm) in 100 spine surgeries: does it change the surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward Rainier G; Polly, David W

    2014-02-01

    The O-arm (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA), an intraoperative CT scan imaging system, may provide high-quality imaging information to the surgeon. To our knowledge, its impact on spine surgery has not been studied. We reviewed 100 consecutive spine surgical procedures which utilized the new generation mobile intraoperative CT imaging system (O-arm). The most common diagnoses were degenerative conditions (disk disease, spondylolisthesis, stenosis and acquired kyphosis), seen in 49 patients. The most common indication for imaging was spinal instrumentation in 81 patients (74 utilized pedicle screws). In 52 (70%) of these, the O-arm was used to assess screw position after placement; in 22 (30%), it was coupled with Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Inc.) to guide screw placement. Another indication was to assess adequacy of spinal decompression in 38 patients; in 19 (50%) of these, intrathecal contrast material was used to obtain an intraoperative CT myelogram. In 20 patients O-arm findings led to direct surgeon intervention in the form of screw removal/repositioning (n=13), further decompression (n=6), interbody spacer repositioning (n=1), and removal of kyphoplasty trocar (n=1). In 20% of spine surgeries, the procedure was changed based on O-arm imaging findings. We found the O-arm to be useful for assessment of instrumentation position, adequacy of spinal decompression, and confirmation of balloon containment and cement filling in kyphoplasty. When used with navigation for image-guided surgery, it obviated the need for registration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Retroperitoneal haematoma in a postoperative ALIF patient taking rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Deekonda, Praveena; Stokes, Oliver M; Chan, Daniel

    2016-11-02

    Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are being increasingly used in the secondary prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients taking NOACs are difficult to manage perioperatively, and several unexpected complications have been reported in these patients. We report a case of a rivaroxaban-induced retroperitoneal haematoma in a 72-year-old man who underwent an L5/S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for grade 1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. The patient suffered from atrial fibrillation and was taking rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, for thromboembolic risk reduction. In accordance with perioperative Novel Oral Anticoagulant (NOAC) guidelines, rivaroxaban was stopped 2 days preoperatively and restarted on the third postoperative day. The patient presented on the ninth postoperative day, complaining of severe left iliac fossa pain, nausea, and vomiting, accompanied by swelling and bruising around the surgical site. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large expanding retroperitoneal haematoma. The patient was taken back to theatre for an evacuation of the haematoma and subsequently recovered without any further complications. This is the first case of a rivaroxaban-induced retroperitoneal haematoma reported in the literature, secondary to elective spinal surgery. This report adds to the body of evidence on the risk of postoperative bleeding in patients taking NOACs. If patients on NOACs present with abdominal symptoms following anterior approach to the lumbar spine, treating clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for retroperitoneal haematoma.

  18. Effects of Strontium Ranelate on Spinal Interbody Fusion Surgery in an Osteoporotic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Ho, Natalie Yi-Ju; Lai, Po-Liang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Niu, Chi-Chien; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that afflicts millions of people around the world, and a variety of spinal integrity issues, such as degenerative spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis, are frequently concomitant with osteoporosis and are sometimes treated with spinal interbody fusion surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strontium ranelate (SrR) treatment of osteoporosis in improving bone strength, promoting bone remodeling, and reducing the risk of fractures, but its effects on interbody fusion surgery have not been adequately investigated. SrR-treated rats subjected to interbody fusion surgery exhibited significantly higher lumbar vertebral bone mineral density after 12 weeks of treatment than rats subjected to the same surgery but not treated with SrR. Furthermore, histological and radiographic assessments showed that a greater amount of newly formed bone tissue was present and that better fusion union occurred in the SrR-treated rats than in the untreated rats. Taken together, these results show significant differences in bone mineral density, PINP level, histological score, SrR content and mechanical testing, which demonstrate a relatively moderate effect of SrR treatment on bone strength and remodeling in the specific context of recovery after an interbody fusion surgery, and suggest the potential of SrR treatment as an effective adjunct to spinal interbody fusion surgery for human patients. PMID:28052066

  19. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    SKRZYPIEC, Daniel M.; NAGEL, Katrin; SELLENSCHLOH, Kay; KLEIN, Anke; PÜSCHEL, Klaus; MORLOCK, Michael M.; HUBER, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32–42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and ‘mild’ grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  20. Effects of viewing an evidence-based video decision aid on patients' treatment preferences for spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon D; Spratt, Kevin F; Blood, Emily A; Tosteson, Tor D; Tosteson, Anna N A; Weinstein, James N

    2011-08-15

    Secondary analysis within a large clinical trial. To evaluate the changes in treatment preference before and after watching a video decision aid as part of an informed consent process. A randomized trial with a similar decision aid in herniated disc patients had shown decreased rate of surgery in the video group, but the effect of the video on expressed preferences is not known. Subjects enrolling in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) with intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, or degenerative spondylolisthesis at 13 multidisciplinary spine centers across the United States were given an evidence-based videotape decision aid viewed prior to enrollment as part of informed consent. Of the 2505 patients, 86% (n = 2151) watched the video and 14% (n = 354) did not. Watchers shifted their preference more often than nonwatchers (37.9% vs. 20.8%, P < 0.0001) and more often demonstrated a strengthened preference (26.2% vs. 11.1%, P < 0.0001). Among the 806 patients whose preference shifted after watching the video, 55% shifted toward surgery (P = 0.003). Among the 617 who started with no preference, after the video 27% preferred nonoperative care, 22% preferred surgery, and 51% remained uncertain. After watching the evidence-based patient decision aid (video) used in SPORT, patients with specific lumbar spine disorders formed and/or strengthened their treatment preferences in a balanced way that did not appear biased toward or away from surgery.

  1. Pneumocranium secondary to halo vest pin penetration through an enlarged frontal sinus.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Min Lee; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Saw, Lim Beng; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2009-07-01

    We present a case report of a patient with pneumocranium secondary to halo vest pin penetration and a review of literature. The objectives of this study are to report a rare complication of halo vest pin insertion and to discuss methods of prevention of this complication. Halo vest orthosis is a commonly used and well-tolerated upper cervical spinal stabilizing device. Reports of complications related to pin penetration is rare and from our review, there has been no reports of pneumocranium occurring from insertion of pins following standard anatomical landmarks. A 57-year-old male sustained a type 1 traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2/C3 following a motor vehicle accident. During application of the halo vest, penetration of the left anterior pin through the abnormally enlarged frontal sinus occurred. The patient developed headache, vomiting and CSF rhinorrhoea over his left nostril. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 1 week. This resulted in resolution of his symptoms as well as the pneumocranium. In conclusion, complications of halo vest pin penetration are rare and need immediate recognition. Despite the use of anatomical landmarks, pin penetration is still possible due to aberrant anatomy. All patients should have a skull X-ray with a radio-opaque marker done prior to placement of the halo vest pins and halo vest pins have to be inserted by experienced personnel to enable early detection of pin penetration.

  2. Automatic lumbar spine measurement in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yunxiang; Zheng, Dong; Liao, Shu; Peng, Zhigang; Yan, Ruyi; Liu, Junhua; Dong, Zhongxing; Gong, Liyan; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Zhan, Yiqiang; Fei, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Accurate lumbar spine measurement in CT images provides an essential way for quantitative spinal diseases analysis such as spondylolisthesis and scoliosis. In today's clinical workflow, the measurements are manually performed by radiologists and surgeons, which is time consuming and irreproducible. Therefore, automatic and accurate lumbar spine measurement algorithm becomes highly desirable. In this study, we propose a method to automatically calculate five different lumbar spine measurements in CT images. There are three main stages of the proposed method: First, a learning based spine labeling method, which integrates both the image appearance and spine geometry information, is used to detect lumbar and sacrum vertebrae in CT images. Then, a multiatlases based image segmentation method is used to segment each lumbar vertebra and the sacrum based on the detection result. Finally, measurements are derived from the segmentation result of each vertebra. Our method has been evaluated on 138 spinal CT scans to automatically calculate five widely used clinical spine measurements. Experimental results show that our method can achieve more than 90% success rates across all the measurements. Our method also significantly improves the measurement efficiency compared to manual measurements. Besides benefiting the routine clinical diagnosis of spinal diseases, our method also enables the large scale data analytics for scientific and clinical researches.

  3. Distal junctional failure secondary to L5 vertebral fracture—a report of two rare cases

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiong Hao; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2017-01-01

    Distal junctional failure (DJF) with fracture at the last instrumented vertebra is a rare occurrence. In this case report, we present two patients with L5 vertebral fracture post-instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. The first patient is a 78-year-old female who had multi-level degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis and degenerative scoliosis involving levels T12 to L5. She underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) from T12 to L5, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) at L2/3 and L4/5. Six months after her operation, she presented with a fracture of the L5 vertebral body necessitating revision of the L5 pedicle screws, with additional TLIF of L5/S1. The second patient is a 71-year-old female who underwent decompression and TLIF of L3/4 and L4/5 for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Six months after the surgery, she developed a fracture of the L5 vertebral body with loosening of the L5 screws. The patient declined revision surgery despite being symptomatic. DJF remains poorly understood as its rare incidence precludes sufficiently powered studies within a single institution. This report aims to contribute to the currently scarce literature on DJF. PMID:28435925

  4. Traumatic Lumbosacral Spondyloptosis in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Morais, Barbara Albuquerque; Brock, Roger Schmidt; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2018-05-30

    A 4-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department after having been buried beneath a wall. A computed tomography scan revealed anterior grade V L5-S1 spondylolisthesis, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a traumatic rupture of the fibrous annulus of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc and lesion of the anterior longitudinal and yellow ligaments. The patient underwent anterior and posterior fixation. Four months later she was able to walk independently, despite a persistent left foot drop. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on lumbosacral spondyloptosis in the pediatric population published between 1990 and 2017. We found 16 cases, 86.6% of which were male, with a mean patient age of 16 ± 5.05 years. Most patients underwent spine instrumentation. Based on the data reviewed, the neurological status at admission might be a valid predictor of outcome. Pedicle screws are a safe and reliable procedure for stable fixation of the spine in these cases. The removal of screws is discouraged. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Unspecific chronic low back pain – a simple functional classification tested in a case series of patients with spinal deformities

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Up to now, chronic low back pain without radicular symptoms is not classified and attributed in international literature as being "unspecific". For specific bracing of this patient group we use simple physical tests to predict the brace type the patient is most likely to benefit from. Based on these physical tests we have developed a simple functional classification of "unspecific" low back pain in patients with spinal deformities. Methods Between January 2006 and July 2007 we have tested 130 patients (116 females and 14 males) with spinal deformities (average age 45 years, ranging from 14 years to 69) and chronic unspecific low back pain (pain for > 24 months) along with the indication for brace treatment for chronic unspecific low back pain. Some of the patients had symptoms of spinal claudication (n = 16). The "sagittal realignment test" (SRT) was applied, a lumbar hyperextension test, and the "sagittal delordosation test" (SDT). Additionally 3 female patients with spondylolisthesis were tested, including one female with symptoms of spinal claudication and 2 of these patients were 14 years of age and the other 43yrs old at the time of testing. Results 117 Patients reported significant pain release in the SRT and 13 in the SDT (>/= 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS). 3 Patients had no significant pain release in both of the tests (< 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS). Pain intensity was high (3,29) before performing the physical tests (VRS-scale 0–5) and low (1,37) while performing the physical test for the whole sample of patients. The differences where highly significant in the Wilcoxon test (z = -3,79; p < 0,0001). In the 16 patients who did not respond to the SRT in the manual investigation we found hypermobility at L5/S1 or a spondylolisthesis at level L5/S1. In the other patients who responded well to the SRT loss of lumbar lordosis was the main issue, a finding which, according to scientific literature, correlates well with low back pain

  6. Is the use of minimally invasive fusion technologies associated with improved outcomes after elective interbody lumbar fusion? Analysis of a nationwide prospective patient-reported outcomes registry.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Parker, Scott L; Mummaneni, Praveen; Knightly, John; Pfortmiller, Deborah; Foley, Kevin; Asher, Anthony L

    2017-07-01

    Over the last decade, clinical investigators and biomedical industry groups have used significant resources to develop advanced technologies that enable less invasive spine fusions. These minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technologies often require increased expenditures by hospitals and payers. Although several small single center studies have suggested MIS technologies decrease surgical morbidity and reduce hospital stay, evidence documenting benefit from a patient perspective remains limited. Furthermore, MIS outcomes have yet to be evaluated from the perspective of multiple practice types representing the broad spectrum of US spine surgery. This study aimed to examine a population of patients who underwent one- or two-level interbody lumbar fusion diagnosed with lumbar stenosis or Grade 1 spondylolisthesis in an observational, prospective national registry for the purposes of determining how MIS and traditional open technologies affect postsurgical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This study used observational analysis of prospectively collected data. The sample consisted of cases from the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N 2 QOD). Numeric rating scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, EuroQol-5D, return to work, and perioperative morbidity were the outcome measures. The N 2 QOD is a prospective PROs registry enrolling patients undergoing elective spine surgery from 60 hospitals in 27 US states via representative sampling. We analyzed the N 2 QOD aggregate dataset (2010-2014) to identify one- and two-level lumbar interbody fusion procedures performed for lumbar stenosis or Grade 1 spondylolisthesis with 12 months' follow-up where surgical instrumentation and implant types were clearly identified. Perioperative and 1-year outcomes were compared between cases performed with MIS enabling technologies versus traditional open technologies before and after propensity matching. There were 467 (24%) patients who underwent

  7. Unspecific chronic low back pain - a simple functional classification tested in a case series of patients with spinal deformities.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2009-02-17

    Up to now, chronic low back pain without radicular symptoms is not classified and attributed in international literature as being "unspecific". For specific bracing of this patient group we use simple physical tests to predict the brace type the patient is most likely to benefit from. Based on these physical tests we have developed a simple functional classification of "unspecific" low back pain in patients with spinal deformities. Between January 2006 and July 2007 we have tested 130 patients (116 females and 14 males) with spinal deformities (average age 45 years, ranging from 14 years to 69) and chronic unspecific low back pain (pain for > 24 months) along with the indication for brace treatment for chronic unspecific low back pain. Some of the patients had symptoms of spinal claudication (n = 16). The "sagittal realignment test" (SRT) was applied, a lumbar hyperextension test, and the "sagittal delordosation test" (SDT). Additionally 3 female patients with spondylolisthesis were tested, including one female with symptoms of spinal claudication and 2 of these patients were 14 years of age and the other 43yrs old at the time of testing. 117 Patients reported significant pain release in the SRT and 13 in the SDT (> or = 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS). 3 Patients had no significant pain release in both of the tests (< 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS).Pain intensity was high (3,29) before performing the physical tests (VRS-scale 0-5) and low (1,37) while performing the physical test for the whole sample of patients. The differences where highly significant in the Wilcoxon test (z = -3,79; p < 0,0001).In the 16 patients who did not respond to the SRT in the manual investigation we found hypermobility at L5/S1 or a spondylolisthesis at level L5/S1. In the other patients who responded well to the SRT loss of lumbar lordosis was the main issue, a finding which, according to scientific literature, correlates well with low back pain. The 3 patients who did not

  8. [Direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis using a pedicle screw-laminar hook system by paramedian approach].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yong-hua; Tang, Hong-chao; Jin, Cai-yi

    2011-08-01

    To discuss the indication and clinical effect of direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis by screw-laminar hook system. From August 2003 to December 2008, 28 patients (13 males and 15 females,ranging in age from 15 and 26 years, averaged 21.6 years) with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with isthmic bone grafting and internal fixation with a pedicle screw-laminar hook system. Three patients had spondylolysis at L3, L4; 5 patients had spondylolysis at L4, L5; 8 patients had spondylolysis at L4; and 12 patients had spondylolysis at L5. All the patients had low back pain and lasted over 6 months. According to preoperative and postoperative plain radiograph, CT scan and Macnab criteria, the fusion rate and clinical effect of this technique were evaluated. All the patients were followed up with a mean period of 14.9 months, ranging from 9 to 24 months. All the patients had bony union according to the X-rays and CT scan. According to the calculation results of Macnab criteria, 22 patients got an excellent result, 5 good and 1 fair. The direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis with pedicle screw-laminar hook system can shorten length of operation,decrease blood loss, preserve more posterior structures of spine and avoid iatrogenic instability of spine. The postoperative immediate stability of vertebral segment is acquired and the mobility of adjacent intervertebral discs is reserved. The screw-laminar hook system for the treatment of adolescent spondylolisthesis can get satisfactory clinical results.

  9. Spinal Fusion for Chronic Low Back Pain: A ‘Magic Bullet’ or Wishful Thinking?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common, disabling and costly health problem. The treatment of chronic low back is difficult and is often ineffective. For treatment to be effective the cause of the pain has to be established but unfortunately in 80% to 95% of the patients the cause cannot be determined despite the existence of modern imaging techniques. A pathoanatomical diagnosis which fits into a classical disease model where successful treatment can be carried out, can only be made in 5% to 7% of the patients. The back pain in the rest of the patients where no pathoanatomical diagnosis can be made is often labelled, unscientifically, as chronic low back pain. Despite the existence of sophisticated imaging techniques and a plethora of diagnostic test the source of pain in patients with nonspecific back pain cannot be established. There exist no causal relationship between imaging findings of degenerated disc, lumbar facet arthritis, spondylosis, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, to the pain in these patients. Surgical treatment of non-specific back pain where no pathoanatomical diagnosis has been established is bound to fail. Therefore the outcome of spinal fusion in these patients can be no better than nonsurgical treatment. Spinal fusion is a major surgery which can be associated with significant morbidity and occasionally with mortality. Yet there is rapid rise in the rates of spinal fusion. There is a growing tension between ethics and conflicts of interest for surgeons. The spine, unfortunately, has been labelled as a profit centre and there are allegations of conflicts of interest in the relationship of doctors with the multi-billion dollar spinal devices industry. The devices industry has a significant influence on not only research publications in peer review journals but also on decisions made by doctors which can have a detrimental effect on the welfare of the patient. PMID:28435551

  10. Pedicle screw fixation in spinal disorders: a European view.

    PubMed

    Boos, N; Webb, J K

    1997-01-01

    Continuing controversy over the use of pedicular fixation in the United States is promoted by the lack of governmental approval for the marketing of these devices due to safety and efficacy concerns. These implants have meanwhile become an invaluable part of spinal instrumentation in Europe. With regard to the North American view, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews that consider the historical evolution of pedicle screw systems, the rationales for their application, and the clinical outcome from a European perspective. This literature review suggests that pedicular fixation is a relatively safe procedure and is not associated with a significantly higher complication risk than non-pedicular instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation provides short, rigid segmental stabilization that allows preservation of motion segments and stabilization of the spine in the absence of intact posterior elements, which is not possible with non-pedicular instrumentation. Fusion rates and clinical outcome in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures appear to be superior to that achieved using other forms of treatment. For the correction of spinal deformity (i.e., scoliosis, kyphosis, spondylolisthesis, tumor), pedicular fixation provides the theoretical benefit of rigid segmental fixation and of facilitated deformity correction by a posterior approach, but the clinical relevance so far remains unknown. In low-back pain disorders, a literature analysis of 5,600 cases of lumbar fusion with different techniques reveals a trend that pedicle screw fixation enhances the fusion rate but not clinical outcome. The most striking finding in the literature is the large range in the radiological and clinical results. For every single fusion technique poor and excellent results have been described. This review argues that European spine surgeons should begin to back up the evident benefits of pedicle screw systems for specific spinal disorders by controlled prospective clinical trials. This may

  11. Sagittal imbalance in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and outcomes after simple decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Shin, E Kyung; Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Choi, Yunhee; Yim, Dahae; Jung, Whei; Park, Sung Bae; Moon, Jung Hyeon; Heo, Won; Kim, Sung-Mi

    2017-02-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common lumbar degenerative disease, and sagittal imbalance is uncommon. Forward-bending posture, which is primarily caused by buckling of the ligamentum flavum, may be improved via simple decompression surgery. The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for sagittal imbalance and to describe the outcomes of simple decompression surgery. This is a retrospective nested case-control study PATIENT SAMPLE: This was a retrospective study that included 83 consecutive patients (M:F=46:37; mean age, 68.5±7.7 years) who underwent decompression surgery and a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The primary end point was normalization of sagittal imbalance after decompression surgery. Sagittal imbalance was defined as a C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) ≥40 mm on a 36-inch-long lateral whole spine radiograph. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for sagittal imbalance. Bilateral decompression was performed via a unilateral approach with a tubular retractor. The SVA was measured on serial radiographs performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The prognostic factors for sagittal balance recovery were determined based on various clinical and radiological parameters. Sagittal imbalance was observed in 54% (45/83) of patients, and its risk factors were old age and a large mismatch between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis. The 1-year normalization rate was 73% after decompression surgery, and the median time to normalization was 1 to 3 months. Patients who did not experience SVA normalization exhibited low thoracic kyphosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.10) (p<.01) and spondylolisthesis (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.17-0.61) before surgery. Sagittal imbalance was observed in more than 50% of LSS patients, but this imbalance was correctable via simple decompression surgery in 70% of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Assessment of the surgeon radiation exposure during a minimally invasive TLIF: Comparison between fluoroscopy and O-arm system].

    PubMed

    Grelat, M; Zairi, F; Quidet, M; Marinho, P; Allaoui, M; Assaker, R

    2015-08-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with a minimally invasive approach (MIS TLIF) has become a very popular technique in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine, as it allows a decrease in muscle iatrogenic. However, iterative radiological controls inherent to this technique are responsible for a significant increase in exposure to ionizing radiation for the surgeon. New techniques for radiological guidance (O-arm navigation-assisted) would overcome this drawback, but this remains unproven. To analyze the exposure of the surgeon to intraoperative X-ray during a MIS TLIF under fluoroscopy and under O-arm navigation-assisted. This prospective study was conducted at the University Hospital of Lille from February to May 2013. Twelve patients underwent a MIS TLIF for the treatment of low-grade spondylolisthesis; six under standard fluoroscopy (group 1) and six under O-arm system (group 2). Passive dosimeters (rings and glasses) and active dosimeters for thorax were used to measure the radiation exposure of the surgeon. For group 1, the average time of fluoroscopy was 3.718 minutes (3.13-4.56) while no radioscopy was perform on group 2. For the first group, the average exposure dose was 12 μSv (5-20 μSv) on the thorax, 1168 μSv (510-2790 μSv) on the main hand and 179 μSv (103-486 μSv) on the lens. The exposure dose was measured zero on the second group. The maximum recommended doses can be reached, mainly for the lens. In addition to the radioprotection measures, O-arm navigation systems are safe alternatives to significantly reduce surgeon exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The Incidence of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after the Use of a Versatile Dynamic Hybrid Stabilization Device in Lumbar Stenosis: Results of a 5–8-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dobran, Mauro; Esposito, Domenico Paolo; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo; Iacoangeli, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study with long-term follow-up. Purpose To evaluate the long-term incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and clinical outcomes in a consecutive series of patients who underwent spinal decompression associated with dynamic or hybrid stabilization with a Flex+TM stabilization system (SpineVision, Antony, France) for lumbar spinal stenosis. Overview of Literature The incidence of ASD and clinical outcomes following dynamic or hybrid stabilization with the Flex+TM system used for lumbar spinal stenosis have not been well investigated. Methods Twenty-one patients with lumbar stenosis and probable post-decompressive spinal instability underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by spinal stabilization using the Flex+TM stabilization system. The indication for a mono-level dynamic stabilization was a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating evidence of severe disc disease associated with severe spinal stenosis. The hybrid stabilization (rigid-dynamic) system was used for multilevel laminectomies with associated initial degenerative scoliosis, first-grade spondylolisthesis, or rostral pathology. Results The improvement in Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores at follow-up were statistically significant (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). At the 5–8-year follow-up, clinical examination, MRI, and X-ray findings showed an ASD complication with pain and disability in one of 21 patients. The clinical outcomes were similar in patients treated with dynamic or hybrid fixation. Conclusions Patients treated with laminectomy and Flex+TM stabilization presented a satisfactory clinical outcome after 5–8 years of follow-up, and ASD incidence in our series was 4.76% (one patient out of 21). We are aware that this is a small series, but our long-term follow-up may be sufficient to contribute to the expanding body of literature on the development of symptomatic ASD associated with dynamic or hybrid fixation

  14. Minimally Invasive Direct Lateral Interbody Fusion (MIS-DLIF): Proof of Concept and Perioperative Results.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hamid; Abbasi, Ali

    2017-01-14

    Minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion (MIS-DLIF) is a novel approach for fusions of the lumbar spine. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first nine patients who underwent this procedure. In this study we establish the safety and efficacy of this approach. MIS-DLIF was performed on 15 spinal levels in nine patients who failed to respond to conservative therapy for the treatment of a re-herniated disk, spondylolisthesis, or other severe disk disease of the lumbar spine. We recorded surgery time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time, patient-reported pain, and complications. Throughout the MIS-DLIF procedure, the surgeon is aided by biplanar fluoroscopic imaging to place an interbody graft or cage into the disc space through the interpleural space. A discectomy is performed in the same minimally invasive fashion. The procedure is usually completed with posterior pedicle screw fixation. MIS-DLIF took 44/85 minutes, on average, for 1/2 levels, with 54/112 ml of blood loss, and 0.3/1.7 days of hospital stay. Four of nine patients did not require overnight hospitalization and were discharged two to four hours after surgery. We did not encounter any clinically significant complications. At more than ninety days post surgery, the patients reported a statistically significant reduction of 4.5 points on a 10-point sliding pain scale. MIS-DLIF with pedicle screw fixation is a safe and clinically effective procedure for fusions of the lumbar spine. The procedure overcomes many of the limitations of the current minimally invasive approaches to the lumbar spine and is technically straightforward. MIS-DLIF has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs relative to the current standard of care and therefore warrants further investigation. We are currently expanding this study to a larger cohort and documenting long-term outcome data.

  15. Lumbar stenosis surgery: Spine surgeons not insurance companies should decide when enough is better than too much.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar surgery for spinal stenosis is the most common spine operation being performed in older patients. Nevertheless, every time we want to schedule surgery, we confront the insurance industry. More often than not they demand patients first undergo epidural steroid injections (ESI); clearly they are not aware of ESI's lack of long-term efficacy. Who put these insurance companies in charge anyway? We did. How? Through performing too many unnecessary or overly extensive spinal operations (e.g., interbody fusions and instrumented fusions) without sufficient clinical and/or radiographic indications. Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) are being offered decompressions alone and/or unnecessarily extensive interbody and/or instrumented fusions. Furthermore, a cursory review of the literature largely demonstrates comparable outcomes for decompressions alone vs. decompressions/in situ fusions vs. interbody/instrumented fusions. Too many older patients are being subjected to unnecessary lumbar spine surgery, some with additional interbody/non instrumented or instrumented fusions, without adequate clinical/neurodiagnostic indications. The decision to perform spine surgery for lumbar stenosis/DS, including decompression alone, decompression with non instrumented or instrumented fusion should be in the hands of competent spinal surgeons with their patients' best outcomes in mind. Presently, insurance companies have stepped into the "void" left by spinal surgeons' failing to regulate when, what type, and why spinal surgery is being offered to patients with spinal stenosis. Clearly, spine surgeons need to establish guidelines to maximize patient safety and outcomes for lumbar stenosis surgery. We need to remove insurance companies from their present roles as the "spinal police."

  16. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using non resorbable poly-ether-ether-ketone versus resorbable poly-L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide fusion devices. Clinical outcome at a minimum of 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jiya, Timothy U; Smit, T; van Royen, B J; Mullender, M

    2011-04-01

    Previous papers on resorbable poly-L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide (PLDLLA) cages in spinal fusion have failed to report adequately on patient-centred clinical outcome measures. Also comparison of PLDLLA cage with a traditionally applicable counterpart has not been previously reported. This is the first randomized prospective study that assesses clinical outcome of PLDLLA cage compared with a poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) implant. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to undergo instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) whereby either a PEEK cage or a PLDLLA cage was implanted. Clinical outcome based on visual analogue scale scores for leg pain and back pain, as well as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and SF-36 questionnaires were documented and analysed. When compared with preoperative values, all clinical parameters have significantly improved in the PEEK group at 2 years after surgery with the exception of SF-36 general health, SF-36 mental health and SF-36 role emotional scores. No clinical parameter showed significant improvement at 2 years after surgery compared with preoperative values in the PLDLLA patient group. Only six patients (50%) in the PLDLLA group showed improvement in the VAS scores for leg and back pain as well as the ODI, as opposed to 10 patients (71%) in the PEEK group. One-third of the patients in the PLDLLA group actually reported worsening of their pain scores and ODI. Three cases of mild to moderate osteolysis were seen in the PLDLLA group. Following up on our preliminary report, these 2-year results confirm the superiority of the PEEK implant to the resorbable PLDLLA implant in aiding spinal fusion and alleviating symptoms following PLIF in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with either canal stenosis or foramen stenosis or both and emanating from a single lumbar segment.

  17. Change of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum after Indirect Decompression Using Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

    2017-02-01

    Retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a 10-year follow-up. Extreme lateral interbody fusion provides minimally invasive treatment of the lumbar spine; this anterior fusion without direct posterior decompression, so-called indirect decompression, can achieve pain relief. Anterior fusion may restore disc height, stretch the flexure of the ligamentum flavum, and increase the spinal canal diameter. However, changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a long follow-up have not yet been reported. We evaluated 10 patients with L4 spondylolisthesis who underwent stand-alone anterior interbody fusion using the iliac crest bone. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 10 years after surgery. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1-2 to L5-S1 was calculated using a Picture Archiving and Communication System. Spinal fusion with correction loss (average, 4.75 mm anterior slip) was achieved in all patients 10 years postsurgery. The average CSAs of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1-2 to L5-S1 were 150 mm 2 and 78 mm 2 , respectively. The average CSA of the ligamentum flavum at L4-5 (30 mm 2 ) (fusion level) was significantly less than that at L1-2 to L3-4 or L5-S1. Although patients had an average anterior slip of 4.75 mm, the average CSA of the dural sac at L4-5 was significantly larger than at the other levels. Spinal stability induced a lumbar ligamentum flavum change and a sustained remodeling of the spinal canal, which may explain the long-term pain relief after indirect decompression fusion surgery.

  18. Considering Spine Surgery: A Web-Based Calculator for Communicating Estimates of Personalized Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Haley; Tosteson, Tor D; Zhao, Wenyan; Pearson, Loretta; Mycek, Kristina; Scherer, Emily; Weinstein, James N; Pearson, Adam; Abdu, William; Schwarz, Susan; Kelly, Michael; McGuire, Kevin; Milam, Alden; Lurie, Jon D

    2018-06-05

    Prospective evaluation of an informational web-based calculator for communicating estimates of personalized treatment outcomes. To evaluate the usability, effectiveness in communicating benefits and risks, and impact on decision quality of a calculator tool for patients with intervertebral disc herniations, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis who are deciding between surgical and non-surgical treatments. The decision to have back surgery is preference-sensitive and warrants shared decision-making. However, more patient-specific, individualized tools for presenting clinical evidence on treatment outcomes are needed. Using Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) data, prediction models were designed and integrated into a web-based calculator tool: http://spinesurgerycalc.dartmouth.edu/calc/. Consumer Reports subscribers with back-related pain were invited to use the calculator via email, and patient participants were recruited to use the calculator in a prospective manner following an initial appointment at participating spine centers. Participants completed questionnaires before and after using the calculator. We randomly assigned previously validated questions that tested knowledge about the treatment options to be asked either before or after viewing the calculator. 1,256 Consumer Reports subscribers and 68 patient participants completed the calculator and questionnaires. Knowledge scores were higher in the post-calculator group compared to the pre-calculator group, indicating that calculator usage successfully informed users. Decisional conflict was lower when measured following calculator use, suggesting the calculator was beneficial in the decision-making process. Participants generally found the tool helpful and easy to use. While the calculator is not a comprehensive decision aid, it does focus on communicating individualized risks and benefits for treatment options. Moreover, it appears to be helpful in achieving the goals of more

  19. Early versus late initiation of rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oestergaard, Lisa G; Christensen, Finn B; Nielsen, Claus V; Bünger, Cody E; Fruensgaard, Soeren; Sogaard, Rikke

    2013-11-01

    Economic evaluation conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. To examine the cost-effectiveness of initiating rehabilitation 6 weeks after surgery as opposed to 12 weeks after surgery. In a previously reported randomized controlled trial, we assessed the impact of timing of rehabilitation after a lumbar spinal fusion and found that a fast-track strategy led to poorer functional ability. Before making recommendations, it seems relevant to address the societal perspective including return to work, quality of life, and costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis and a cost-utility analysis were conducted. Eighty-two patients undergoing instrumented lumbar spinal fusion due to degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis (grade I or II) were randomized to an identical protocol of 4 sessions of group-based rehabilitation and were instructed in home exercises focusing on active stability training. Outcome parameters included functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and quality-adjusted life years. Health care and productivity costs were estimated from national registries and reported in euros. Costs and effects were transformed into net benefit. Bootstrapping was used to estimate 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The fast-track strategy tended to be costlier by €6869 (95% CI, -4640 to 18,378) while at the same time leading to significantly poorer outcomes of functional disability by -9 points (95% CI, -18 to -3) and a tendency for a reduced gain in quality-adjusted life years by -0.04 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.01). The overall probability for the fast-track strategy being cost-effective does not reach 10% at conventional thresholds for cost-effectiveness. Initiating rehabilitation at 6 weeks as opposed to 12 weeks after surgery is on average more costly and less effective. The uncertainty of this result did not seem to be sensitive to methodological issues, and clinical managements who have already adapted fast-track rehabilitation

  20. Clinical outcomes of a polyaxial interspinous fusion system.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Joseph A; Liang, Kevin; Ohnmeiss, Donna D; Gordon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Early interspinous process fixation constructs utilize rigid fixation plates with immobile spikes which increase the difficulty of device implantation when anatomic variations are encountered. Second generation systems have been designed with polyaxial properties with the goal of accommodating natural osseous anatomic variations to achieve optimal implant placement and fixation integrity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients treated with this device to supplement the biomechanical data from previous studies. A retrospective, non-randomized, single-center chart review at or beyond the one year postoperative time point was conducted to collect preoperative and perioperative data on patients treated with a polyaxial intraspinous fixation system. A postoperative numerical pain rating scale and modified MacNab classification score were obtained from each patient in the cohort via phone survey. A total of 53 patients were included in the study. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range 1-7 days). There were no reported perioperative blood transfusions or cases of radiographic fracture/migration of the device at the 6 week post-operative time point. There was a significant improvement in pain index score in the overall patient study group and a satisfactory (excellent or good) MacNab result was obtained in 48% of all patients. Patients with preoperative pain scores greater than 8/10 reported more pain improvement than patients with preoperative pain scores less than 5 (0 points, p = 0.96, n = 8). Patients with a BMI less than 30 had significantly better MacNab outcome classifications than patients with a BMI greater than 30. The polyaxial interspinous fusion system produces significant clinical improvement when employed to treat patients with stenosis, herniated disc, or low grade spondylolisthesis. This device can be implanted with a low complication rate and short postoperative hospital admission time. Patients with high pre

  1. Clinical and radiographic assessment of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using HEALOS collagen-hydroxyapatite sponge with autologous bone marrow aspirate.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason D; Swearingen, Alan B; Chaput, Christopher D; Rahm, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Studies have suggested that the use of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) with HEALOS (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA), a collagen-hydroxyapatite sponge (CHS), is an effective substitute for autologous iliac crest bone graft when used in fusion procedures of the lumbar spine. To assess clinical and radiographic outcomes after implantation of BMA/CHS in patients undergoing transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with posterolateral fusion (PLF). Case series radiographic outcome study. Twenty patients. Radiographs/computed tomography (CT) scans. From September 2003 to October 2004, 20 patients (22 interbody levels) were implanted with BMA/CHS via TLIF/PLF with interbody cages and posterior pedicle screws. All patients were retrospectively identified and invited for a 2-year prospective follow-up. Plain radiographs with dynamic films and CT scans were taken, and fusion was assessed in a blinded manner. Follow-up averaged 27 months (range: 24-29). Primary diagnosis included spondylolisthesis (17 patients), scoliosis with asymmetric collapse (2 patients), and postdiscectomy foraminal stenosis (1 patient). The overall fusion rate was 95% (21/22 levels, 19/20 patients). Anteriorly bridging bone was observed in 91% of the anteriorly fused levels (20/22), of which 65% (13/20) occurred through and around the cage and 35% (7/20) around the cage only. Unilateral or bilateral bridging of the posterior fusion masses was observed in 91% (20/22), with 55% occurring bilaterally (12/22). In 4 (18%) cases, bridging only occurred either posteriorly (2 cases) or anteriorly (2 cases). Complications included one deep wound infection. At the 2-year follow-up, BMA/CHS showed acceptable fusion rates in patients undergoing TLIF/PLF, and can be considered as an alternative source of graft material.

  2. Middle Pleistocene lower back and pelvis from an aged human individual from the Sima de los Huesos site, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carretero, José Miguel; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bérmudez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-01-01

    We report a nearly complete lumbar spine from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) that is assigned to the previously published SH male Pelvis 1 [Arsuaga JL, et al. (1999). Nature 399: 255–258]. The “SH Pelvis 1 individual” is a unique nearly complete lumbo-pelvic complex from the human Middle Pleistocene fossil record, and offers a rare glimpse into the anatomy and past lifeways of Homo heidelbergensis. A revised reconstruction of Pelvis 1, together with the current fossil evidence, confirms our previous hypothesis that the morphology of this pelvis represents the primitive pattern within the genus Homo. Here we argue that this primitive pattern is also characterized by sexual dimorphism in the pelvic canal shape, implying complicated deliveries. In addition, this individual shows signs of lumbar kyphotic deformity, spondylolisthesis, and Baastrup disease. This suite of lesions would have postural consequences and was most likely painful. As a result, the individual’s daily physical activities would have been restricted to some extent. Reexamination of the age-at-death agrees with this individual being over 45 y old, relying on the modern human pattern of changes of the articular surfaces of the os coxae. The presence of degenerative pathological lesions and the advanced age-at-death of this individual make it the most ancient postcranial evidence of an aged individual in the human fossil record. Additional nonpathological SH lumbo-pelvic remains are consistent with previous hypotheses, suggesting a less-pronounced sagittal spinal curvature in Neandertals compared with Homo sapiens. PMID:20937858

  3. Swespine: the Swedish spine register : the 2012 report.

    PubMed

    Strömqvist, Björn; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Jönsson, Bo; Sandén, Bengt

    2013-04-01

    Swespine, the Swedish National Spine Register, has existed for 20 years and is in general use within the country since over 10 years regarding degenerative lumbar spine disorders. Today there are protocols for registering all disorders of the entire spinal column. Patient-based pre- and postoperative questionnaires, completed before surgery and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Among patient-based data are VAS pain, ODI, SF-36 and EQ-5D. Postoperatively evaluation of leg and back pain as compared to preoperatively ("global assessment"), overall satisfaction with outcome and working conditions are registered in addition to the same parameters as preoperatively evaluation. A yearly report is produced including an analytic part of a certain topic, in this issue disc prosthesis surgery. More than 75,000 surgically treated patients are registered to date with an increasing number yearly. The present report includes 7,285 patients; 1-, 2- and 5-year follow-up data of previously operated patients are also included for lumbar disorders as well as for disc prosthesis surgery. For the degenerative lumbar spine disorders (disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis and DDD) significant improvements are seen in all aspects as exemplified by pronounced improvement regarding EQ-5D and ODI. Results seem to be stable over time. Spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery. Disc prosthesis surgery yields results on a par with fusion surgery in disc degenerative pain. The utility of spine surgery is well documented by the results. Results of spine surgery as documented on a national basis can be utilized for quality assurance and quality improvement as well as for research purposes, documenting changes over time and bench marking when introducing new surgical techniques. A basis for international comparisons is also laid.

  4. Racial Variation in Treatment Preferences and Willingness to Randomize in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Arega, Addisalem; Birkmeyer, Nancy J. O.; Lurie, Jon D. N.; Tosteson, Tor; Gibson, Jennifer; Taylor, Brett; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Analysis of baseline data for patients enrolled in SPORT, a project conducting three randomized and three observational cohort studies of surgical and non-operative treatments for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Objective To explore racial variation in treatment preferences and willingness to be randomized. Summary of Background Data Increasing minority participation in research has been a priority at the NIH. Prior studies have documented lower rates of participation in research and preferences for invasive treatment among African Americans. Methods Patients enrolled in SPORT (March 2000-February 2005) that reported data on their race (n=2323) were classified as White (87%), Black (8%) or Other (5%). Treatment preferences (non-operative, unsure, surgical), and willingness to be randomized were compared among these groups while controlling for baseline differences using multivariate logistic regression. Results There were numerous significant differences in baseline characteristics among the racial groups. Following adjustment for these differences, Blacks remained less likely to prefer surgical treatment among both IDH (White: 55%, Black: 37%, Other: 55%, p=0.023) and SpS/DS (White: 46%, Black: 30%, Other: 43%, p=0.017) patients. Higher randomization rates among Black IDH patients (46% vs. 30%) were no longer significant following adjustment (OR=1.45, p=0.235). Treatment preference remained a strong independent predictor of randomization in multivariate analyses for both IDH (unsure OR = 3.88, p<0.001 and surgical OR=0.23, p<0.001) and SpS/DS (unsure OR = 6.93, p<0.001 and surgical OR= 0.45, p<0.001) patients. Conclusions Similar to prior studies, Black participants were less likely than Whites or Others to prefer surgical treatment; however, they were no less likely to agree to be randomized. Treatment preferences were strongly related to both race and willingness to be randomized

  5. A comprehensive review of pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of pain associated with different spinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, Giancarlo; Spinnato, Paolo; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Bazzocchi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of pain associated with different spinal conditions. The mechanisms of action and biological effects are shortly discussed to provide the scientific basis for this radiofrequency modality. Methods: We systematically searched for clinical studies on spinal clinical conditions using PRF. We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed) database. We classified the information in one table focusing on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other types of studies. Date of last electronic search was October 2016. Results: We found four RCTs that evaluated the efficacy of PRF on cervical radicular pain and five observational studies. Two trials and three observational studies were conducted in patients with facet pain. For disc-related pathology, we found one RCT with PRF applied intradiscally and three RCTs for dorsal root ganglia PRF modulation lumbosacral radicular pain. For sacroiliac joint pain, spondylolisthesis, malignancies and other minor spinal pathology, limited studies were conducted. Conclusion: From the available evidence, the use of PRF to the dorsal root ganglion in cervical radicular pain is compelling. With regard to its lumbosacral counterpart, the use of PRF cannot be similarly advocated in view of the absence of standardization of PRF parameters, enrolment criteria and different methods in reporting results; but, the evidence is interesting. The use of PRF in lumbar facet pain was found to be less effective than conventional RF techniques. For the other different spinal conditions, we need further studies to assess the effectiveness of PRF. Advances in knowledge: The use of PRF in lumbar facet pain was found to be less effective than conventional RF techniques. For the other different spinal conditions, we need further studies to assess the effectiveness of PRF. PMID:28186832

  6. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. Methods: A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage <30%). Altogether 207 healthy adults were chosen as the control group. All patients and the control group took lumbosacral lateral radiographs. Seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters, including PI, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), L5 incidence, L5 slope, and sacral table angle (STA), were measured in the lateral radiographs. All the parameters aforementioned were compared between the two subgroups and between the spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t-test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P < 0.05) in the spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P < 0.001) in the spondylolysis group. Conclusions: Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population. PMID:27174324

  7. Dysplastic spondylolysis is caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tao; Yang, Liu; Cai, Wanshi; Guo, Sen; Yu, Ping; Li, Jinchen; Hu, Xueyu; Yan, Ming; Shao, Qianzhi; Jin, Yan; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a fracture in part of the vertebra with a reported prevalence of about 3–6% in the general population. Genetic etiology of this disorder remains unknown. The present study was aimed at identifying genomic mutations in patients with dysplastic spondylolysis as well as the potential pathogenesis of the abnormalities. Whole-exome sequencing and functional analysis were performed for patients with spondylolysis. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation (c.2286A > T; p.D673V) in the sulfate transporter gene SLC26A2 in five affected subjects of a Chinese family. Two additional mutations (e.g., c.1922A > G; p.H641R and g.18654T > C in the intron 1) in the gene were identified by screening a cohort of 30 unrelated patients with the disease. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SLC26A2 is abundantly expressed in the lumbosacral spine of the mouse embryo at day 14.5. Sulfate uptake activities in CHO cells transfected with mutant SLC26A2 were dramatically reduced compared with the wild type, confirming the pathogenicity of the two missense mutations. Further analysis of the gene–disease network revealed a convergent pathogenic network for the development of lumbosacral spine. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first identification of autosomal dominant SLC26A2 mutations in patients with dysplastic spondylolysis, suggesting a new clinical entity in the pathogenesis of chondrodysplasia involving lumbosacral spine. The analysis of the gene–disease network may shed new light on the study of patients with dysplastic spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis as well as high-risk individuals who are asymptomatic. PMID:26077908

  8. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage <30%). Altogether 207 healthy adults were chosen as the control group. All patients and the control group took lumbosacral lateral radiographs. Seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters, including PI, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), L5 incidence, L5 slope, and sacral table angle (STA), were measured in the lateral radiographs. All the parameters aforementioned were compared between the two subgroups and between the spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t- test. There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P < 0.05) in the spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P < 0.001) in the spondylolysis group. Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population.

  9. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Malham, Greg; Seex, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine is common in the ageing population, and is one of the most frequent causes of disability. Lumbar spondylosis may result in mechanical back pain, radicular and claudicant symptoms, reduced mobility and poor quality of life. Surgical interbody fusion of degenerative levels is an effective treatment option to stabilize the painful motion segment, and may provide indirect decompression of the neural elements, restore lordosis and correct deformity. The surgical options for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine include: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), oblique lumbar interbody fusion/anterior to psoas (OLIF/ATP), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The indications may include: discogenic/facetogenic low back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis, lumbar degenerative spinal deformity including symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. In general, traditional posterior approaches are frequently used with acceptable fusion rates and low complication rates, however they are limited by thecal sac and nerve root retraction, along with iatrogenic injury to the paraspinal musculature and disruption of the posterior tension band. Minimally invasive (MIS) posterior approaches have evolved in an attempt to reduce approach related complications. Anterior approaches avoid the spinal canal, cauda equina and nerve roots, however have issues with approach related abdominal and vascular complications. In addition, lateral and OLIF techniques have potential risks to the lumbar plexus and psoas muscle. The present study aims firstly to comprehensively review the available literature and evidence for different lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) techniques. Secondly, we propose a set of recommendations and guidelines

  10. Retrospective exploration of risk factors for L5 radiculopathy following lumbar floating fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamagata, Masatsune; Ikeda, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Fumitake; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Takane; Ohtori, Seiji

    2015-10-17

    Lumbar floating fusion occasionally causes postoperative adjacent segment disorder (ASD) at lumbosacral level, causing L5 spinal nerve disorder by L5-S1 foraminal stenosis. The disorder is considered to be one of the major outcomes of L5-S1 ASD, which has not been evaluated yet. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of postoperative L5 spinal nerve disorder after lumbar interbody fusion extending to the L5 vertebra. We evaluated 125 patients with a diagnosis of spondylolisthesis who underwent floating fusion surgery with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with average postoperative period of 25.2 months. The patients were regarded as symptomatic with postoperative L5 spinal nerve disorder such as radicular pain/numbness in the lower limbs and/or motor dysfunction. We estimated and compared the wedging angle (frontal view) and height (lateral view) of the lumbosacral junction in pre- and postoperative plain X-ray images and the foraminal ratio (ratio of the narrower foraminal diameter to the wider diameter in the craniocaudal direction) in the preoperative magnetic resonance image. Risk factors for the incidence of L5 spinal nerve disorder were explored using multivariate logistic regression. Eight of the 125 patients (6.4%) were categorized as symptomatic, an average of 13.3 months after surgery. The wedging angle was significantly higher, and the foraminal ratio was significantly decreased in the symptomatic group (both P < 0.05) compared to the asymptomatic group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of possible risk factors revealed that the wedging angle, foraminal ratio, and multileveled fusion were statistically significant. Higher wedging angle and lower foraminal ratio in the lumbosacral junction were significantly predictive for the incidence of L5 nerve root disorder as well as multiple-leveled fusion. These findings indicate that lumbosacral fixation should be considered for patients with these risk factors even

  11. Increased Patient Enrollment to a Randomized Surgical Trial Through Equipoise Polling of an Expert Surgeon Panel.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Schwartz, J Sanford; Benzel, Edward C; Magge, Subu N; Coumans, Jean Valery; Harrington, J Fred; Gelbs, Jared C; Whitmore, Robert G; Butler, William E; Barker, Fred G

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether patients who learned the views of an expert surgeons' panel's assessment of equipoise between 2 alternative operative treatments had increased likelihood of consenting to randomization. Difficulty obtaining patient consent to randomization is an important barrier to conducting surgical randomized clinical trials, the gold standard for generating clinical evidence. Observational study of the rate of patient acceptance of randomization within a 5-center randomized clinical trial comparing lumbar spinal decompression versus lumbar spinal decompression plus instrumented fusion for patients with symptomatic grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis. Eligible patients were enrolled in the trial and then asked to accept randomization. A panel of 10 expert spine surgeons was formed to review clinical information and images for individual patients to provide an assessment of suitability for randomization. The expert panel vote was disclosed to the patient by the patient's surgeon before the patient decided whether to accept randomization or not. Randomization acceptance among eligible patients without expert panel review was 40% (19/48) compared with 81% (47/58) among patients undergoing expert panel review (P < 0.001). Among expert-reviewed patients, randomization acceptance was 95% when all experts or all except 1 voted for randomization, 75% when 2 experts voted against randomization, and 20% with 3 or 4 votes against (P < 0.001 for trend). Patients provided with an expert panel's assessment of their own suitability for randomization were twice as likely to agree to randomization compared with patients receiving only their own surgeon's recommendation.

  12. The evaluation of lumbar paraspinal muscle quantity and quality using the Goutallier classification and lumbar indentation value.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Koji; Chen, Jessica; Stone, Michael; Arakelyan, Anush; Paholpak, Permsak; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-05-01

    The cross-sectional area and fat infiltration are accepted as standard parameters for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of muscle degeneration. However, they are time-consuming, which prevents them from being used in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between lumbar muscle degeneration and spinal degenerative disorders, using lumbar indentation value (LIV) as quantitative and Goutallier classification as qualitative measures. This is a retrospective analysis of kinematic magnetic resonance images (kMRI). Two-hundred and thirty patients with kMRIs taken in weight-bearing positions were selected randomly. The LIV and Goutallier classification were evaluated at L4-5. The correlation of these two parameters with patients' age, gender, lumbar lordosis (LL), range of motion, disc degeneration, disc height, and Modic change were analyzed. There was no significant trend of LIV among the different grades of Goutallier classification (p = 0.943). There was a significant increase in age with higher grades of Goutallier classification (p < 0.001). In contrast, there was no correlation between LIV and age (p = 0.799). The Goutallier classification positively correlated with LL (r = 0.377) and severe disc degeneration (r = 0.249). The LIV positively correlated with LL (r = 0.476) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (r = 0.184). Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.026), gender (p = 0.003), and LIV (p < 0.001) were significant predictors for patients with low LL (< 10°). Lumbar muscle quantity and quality showed specific correlation with age and spine disorders. Additionally, LL can be predicted by the muscle quantity, but not the quality. These time-saving evaluation tools potentially accelerate the study of lumbar muscles. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  13. Middle Pleistocene lower back and pelvis from an aged human individual from the Sima de los Huesos site, Spain.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carretero, José Miguel; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bérmudez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-10-26

    We report a nearly complete lumbar spine from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) that is assigned to the previously published SH male Pelvis 1 [Arsuaga JL, et al. (1999). Nature 399: 255-258]. The "SH Pelvis 1 individual" is a unique nearly complete lumbo-pelvic complex from the human Middle Pleistocene fossil record, and offers a rare glimpse into the anatomy and past lifeways of Homo heidelbergensis. A revised reconstruction of Pelvis 1, together with the current fossil evidence, confirms our previous hypothesis that the morphology of this pelvis represents the primitive pattern within the genus Homo. Here we argue that this primitive pattern is also characterized by sexual dimorphism in the pelvic canal shape, implying complicated deliveries. In addition, this individual shows signs of lumbar kyphotic deformity, spondylolisthesis, and Baastrup disease. This suite of lesions would have postural consequences and was most likely painful. As a result, the individual's daily physical activities would have been restricted to some extent. Reexamination of the age-at-death agrees with this individual being over 45 y old, relying on the modern human pattern of changes of the articular surfaces of the os coxae. The presence of degenerative pathological lesions and the advanced age-at-death of this individual make it the most ancient postcranial evidence of an aged individual in the human fossil record. Additional nonpathological SH lumbo-pelvic remains are consistent with previous hypotheses, suggesting a less-pronounced sagittal spinal curvature in Neandertals compared with Homo sapiens.

  14. Adjunctive vancomycin powder in pediatric spine surgery is safe.

    PubMed

    Gans, Itai; Dormans, John P; Spiegel, David A; Flynn, John M; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Campbell, Robert M; Baldwin, Keith D

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic level II cohort study. To evaluate the safety of adjunctive local application of vancomycin powder (VP) for infection prophylaxis in posterior instrumented thoracic and lumbar spine wounds in pediatric patients weighing more than 25 kg. Spine surgeons have largely turned to vancomycin prophylaxis in an attempt to decrease the incidence of late surgical site infection and acute surgical site infection from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In adult patients, the adjunctive local application of VP with an intravenous cephalosporin has been shown to decrease postsurgical wound infection rates significantly; however, the safety of VP as an adjunct in pediatric spine surgery has not been reported. We reviewed data collected under a systematic protocol specifically designed to monitor the safety profile of VP. We measured changes in creatinine and systemic vancomycin levels after intrawound application of 500 mg of unreconstituted VP during spine deformity correction surgery in patients weighing more than 25 kg (patients also received routine intravenous cephalosporin prophylaxis). Laboratory values were measured preoperatively and on postoperative days 1 and 4. Any adverse reactions and infections through available follow-up (2-8 mo) were recorded. Eighty-seven consecutive pediatric patients with spinal deformity weighing more than 25 kg who received intraoperative VP during a 9-month period were identified. Sixty-three percent of the patients in this series had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 15% congenital scoliosis, 15% neuromuscular scoliosis, and 5% spondylolisthesis. The average change in creatinine levels between the preoperative and postoperative day 1 draw was -0.03 and between the preoperative and postoperative day 4 draw was -0.075. The postoperative systemic vancomycin levels remained undetectable. None of the patients experienced nephrotoxicity or red man syndrome. Three of the 87 patients developed a surgical site infection. In this

  15. Does hybrid fixation prevent junctional disease after posterior fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders? A minimum 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Baioni, Andrea; Di Silvestre, Mario; Greggi, Tiziana; Vommaro, Francesco; Lolli, Francesco; Scarale, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Medium- to long-term retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcome in the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with hybrid posterior fixation. Thirty patients were included with the mean age of 47.8 years (range 35 to 60 years). All patients underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation using hybrid fixation for lumbar stenosis with instability (13 cases), degenerative spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade I (6 cases), degenerative disc disease of one or more adjacent levels in six cases and mild lumbar degenerative scoliosis in five patients. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry disability index (ODI), Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. All patients were assessed by preoperative, postoperative and follow-up standing plain radiographs and lateral X-rays with flexion and extension. Adjacent disc degeneration was also evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years, we observed on X-rays and/or MRI 3 cases of adjacent segment disease (10.0 %): two of them (6.6 %) presented symptoms and recurred a new surgery. The last patient (3.3 %) developed asymptomatic retrolisthesis of L3 not requiring revision surgery. The mean preoperative ODI score was 67.6, RMDQ score was 15.1, VAS back pain score was 9.5, and VAS leg pain score was 8.6. Postoperatively, these values improved to 28.1, 5.4, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively, and remained substantially unchanged at the final follow-up: (27.7, 5.2, 2.9, and 2.7, respectively). After 5-year follow-up, hybrid posterior lumbar fixation presented satisfying clinical outcomes in the treatment of degenerative disease.

  16. Potential and Limitations of Neural Decompression in Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gernot; Perrech, Moritz; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Hussain, Ibrahim; Pennicooke, Brenton; Maryam, Farah; Avila, Mauricio J; Härtl, Roger

    2017-05-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (ELIF) is a powerful tool for interbody fusion and coronal deformity correction. However, evidence regarding the success of ELIF in decompressing foraminal, lateral recess, and central canal stenosis is lacking. We performed a systematic review of current literature on the potential and limitations of ELIF to indirectly decompress neural elements. A literature search using PubMed, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Information on study design, sample size, population, procedure, number and location of involved levels, follow-up time, and complications as well as information on conflict of interest was extracted and evaluated. We selected 20 publications including 1080 patients for review. Most publications (90%) were retrospective case series. Most frequent indications for ELIF included degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative scoliosis. Most studies revealed significant improvement in radiographic and clinical outcome after ELIF. Mean foraminal area, central canal area, and subarticular diameter increased by 31.6 mm 2 , 28.5 mm 2 , and 0.85 mm. ELIF successfully improved foraminal stenosis. Contradictory results were found for indirect decompression of central canal stenosis. Data on lateral recess stenosis were scarce. Current data suggest ELIF to be an efficient technique in decompression of foraminal stenosis. Evidence on decompression of central canal or lateral recess stenosis via ELIF is low, and results are inconsistent. Most studies are limited by study design, sample size, and potential conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Auto-tracking system for human lumbar motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Fuge; Zhang, Da; Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Zhao, Lifeng; Wang, Dongjun; Bi, Zhenggang; Hu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Previous lumbar motion analyses suggest the usefulness of quantitatively characterizing spine motion. However, the application of such measurements is still limited by the lack of user-friendly automatic spine motion analysis systems. This paper describes an automatic analysis system to measure lumbar spine disorders that consists of a spine motion guidance device, an X-ray imaging modality to acquire digitized video fluoroscopy (DVF) sequences and an automated tracking module with a graphical user interface (GUI). DVF sequences of the lumbar spine are recorded during flexion-extension under a guidance device. The automatic tracking software utilizing a particle filter locates the vertebra-of-interest in every frame of the sequence, and the tracking result is displayed on the GUI. Kinematic parameters are also extracted from the tracking results for motion analysis. We observed that, in a bone model test, the maximum fiducial error was 3.7%, and the maximum repeatability error in translation and rotation was 1.2% and 2.6%, respectively. In our simulated DVF sequence study, the automatic tracking was not successful when the noise intensity was greater than 0.50. In a noisy situation, the maximal difference was 1.3 mm in translation and 1° in the rotation angle. The errors were calculated in translation (fiducial error: 2.4%, repeatability error: 0.5%) and in the rotation angle (fiducial error: 1.0%, repeatability error: 0.7%). However, the automatic tracking software could successfully track simulated sequences contaminated by noise at a density ≤ 0.5 with very high accuracy, providing good reliability and robustness. A clinical trial with 10 healthy subjects and 2 lumbar spondylolisthesis patients were enrolled in this study. The measurement with auto-tacking of DVF provided some information not seen in the conventional X-ray. The results proposed the potential use of the proposed system for clinical applications.

  18. Postoperative dysesthesia in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zhengfeng

    2016-05-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (misTLIF) can potentially lead to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) injury which may cause postoperative dysesthesia (POD). The purpose of retrospective study was to describe the uncommon complication of POD in misTLIF. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 539 patients were treated with misTLIF in investigator group. POD was defined as dysesthetic pain or burning dysesthesia at a proper DRG innervated region, whether spontaneous or evoked. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, central non-opioid analgesic agent, neuropathic pain drugs and/or intervertebral foramen block were selectively used to treat POD. There were five cases of POD (5/539, 0.9 %), which consisted of one patient in recurrent lumbar disc herniation (1/36, 3 %), one patient in far lateral lumbar disc herniation (1/34, 3 %), and 3 patients in lumbar spondylolisthesis (3/201, 1 %). Two DRG injury cases were confirmed by revision surgery. After the treatment by drugs administration plus DRG block, all patients presented pain relief with duration from 22 to 50 days. A gradual pain moving to distal end of a proper DRG innervated region was found as the beginning of end. Although POD is a unique and rare complication and maybe misdiagnosed as nerve root injury in misTLIF, combination drug therapy and DRG block have an effective result of pain relief. The appearance of a gradual pain moving to distal end of a proper DRG innervated region during recovery may be used as a sign for the good prognosis.

  19. Smartphone apps for spinal surgery: is technology good or evil?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng Juong; Brady, Richard R; Subramanian, Ashok S

    2016-05-01

    The increased utilization of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps) provides opportunity for doctors, including spinal surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of the medical app sector remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards spinal surgery and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for spinal surgery-themed apps, using the disease terms Spinal Surgery, Back Surgery, Spine, Disc Prolapse, Sciatica, Radiculopathy, Spinal Stenosis, Scoliosis, Spinal Fracture and Spondylolisthesis. A total of 78 individual spinal surgery themed apps were identified, of which there were six duplicates (N = 72). According to app store classifications, there were 57 (79 %) medical themed apps, 11 (15 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business and 3 (4 %) education themed apps. Forty-five (63 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.62 to £47.99. Only 44 % of spinal surgery apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 56 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. This is the first study to specifically address the characteristics of apps related to spinal surgery. We found that nearly half of spinal surgery apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over app content and evidence base for their use. We recommend increased regulation of spinal surgical apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  20. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study

    PubMed Central

    Jaremko, Jacob Lester; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N.; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin; O’Brien, Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and growing awareness has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiologic beaking, and spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid’s bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  1. Clinical classification in low back pain: best-evidence diagnostic rules based on systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tom; Laslett, Mark; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-05-12

    Clinical examination findings are used in primary care to give an initial diagnosis to patients with low back pain and related leg symptoms. The purpose of this study was to develop best evidence Clinical Diagnostic Rules (CDR] for the identification of the most common patho-anatomical disorders in the lumbar spine; i.e. intervertebral discs, sacroiliac joints, facet joints, bone, muscles, nerve roots, muscles, peripheral nerve tissue, and central nervous system sensitization. A sensitive electronic search strategy using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases was combined with hand searching and citation tracking to identify eligible studies. Criteria for inclusion were: persons with low back pain with or without related leg symptoms, history or physical examination findings suitable for use in primary care, comparison with acceptable reference standards, and statistical reporting permitting calculation of diagnostic value. Quality assessments were made independently by two reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Clinical examination findings that were investigated by at least two studies were included and results that met our predefined threshold of positive likelihood ratio ≥ 2 or negative likelihood ratio ≤ 0.5 were considered for the CDR. Sixty-four studies satisfied our eligible criteria. We were able to construct promising CDRs for symptomatic intervertebral disc, sacroiliac joint, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation with nerve root involvement, and spinal stenosis. Single clinical test appear not to be as useful as clusters of tests that are more closely in line with clinical decision making. This is the first comprehensive systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that evaluate clinical examination findings for their ability to identify the most common patho-anatomical disorders in the lumbar spine. In some diagnostic categories we have sufficient evidence to recommend a CDR. In others, we have only

  2. [Unusual cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas--case reports].

    PubMed

    Wach, M; Dmoszyńska, A; Wasik-Szczepanek, E; Skomra, D

    2000-01-01

    We describe 4 cases of non-Hodkin's lymphomas that were interesting because of their curiosal clinical courses and spontaneous complete remissions during the course of high malignancy lymphoma. We present three of them for the first time in Poland. Case 1: a 61-year old woman was admitted to the hospital because of the headache, lasting for 4 months before hospitalization and right hemiparesis. CT scans revealed the presence of tumor in the temporo-occipital region. The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was established at histopathological examination of the postoperative material. Co60--therapy of these region was applied after the operation with good response. Case 2: a 38-year woman was admitted to the hospital because of L5-S1 spondylolisthesis to operate it. During the hospitalization haemolytic anaemia of unknown origin, thrombocytopoenia, splenomegaly, fever and rising acute insufficiency of kidneys, heart, liver and CNS were occurred. The patient died, despite applying corticosteroidotherapy. The diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma was established at postmortem examination. Case 3: a 51-year old woman was admitted to the hospital with diagnosis: anaplastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma B-cell type high malignancy established after the double histopathological examination of lymph nodes and biopsy of the lung. At the admission to the Department of Haematology we stated absolute regression of these changes. The patient had been only observed in the Outpatient Department over 1 year. She died after 6 months since the beginning of the relapse despite intensive chemotherapy. Case 4: a 43-year old man was admitted to the hospital because of great hyperleukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis: chronic prolymphocytic leukaemia was established. The cerebrospinal fluid examination showed presence of mononuclears which infiltrated CNS. CT scans of the brain revealed leucaemic infiltrations of the hemispheres and cerebellum. The patient died despite

  3. A Narrative Review of Lumbar Fusion Surgery With Relevance to Chiropractic Practice.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Clinton J; Wakefield, Pamela J; Bub, Glenn A; Toombs, James D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to describe the most common spinal fusion surgical procedures, address the clinical indications for lumbar fusion in degeneration cases, identify potential complications, and discuss their relevance to chiropractic management of patients after surgical fusion. The PubMed database was searched from the beginning of the record through March 31, 2015, for English language articles related to lumbar fusion or arthrodesis or both and their incidence, procedures, complications, and postoperative chiropractic cases. Articles were retrieved and evaluated for relevance. The bibliographies of selected articles were also reviewed. The most typical lumbar fusion procedures are posterior lumbar interbody fusion, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, transforaminal interbody fusion, and lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Fair level evidence supports lumbar fusion procedures for degenerative spondylolisthesis with instability and for intractable low back pain that has failed conservative care. Complications and development of chronic pain after surgery is common, and these patients frequently present to chiropractic physicians. Several reports describe the potential benefit of chiropractic management with spinal manipulation, flexion-distraction manipulation, and manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion low back pain. There are no published experimental studies related specifically to chiropractic care of postfusion low back pain. This article describes the indications for fusion, common surgical practice, potential complications, and relevant published chiropractic literature. This review includes 10 cases that showed positive benefits from chiropractic manipulation, flexion-distraction, and/or manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion lumbar pain. Chiropractic care may have a role in helping patients in pain who have undergone lumbar fusion surgery.

  4. Planning the Surgical Correction of Spinal Deformities: Toward the Identification of the Biomechanical Principles by Means of Numerical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Fabio; Bassani, Tito; La Barbera, Luigi; Ottardi, Claudia; Schlager, Benedikt; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Villa, Tomaso; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    In decades of technical developments after the first surgical corrections of spinal deformities, the set of devices, techniques, and tools available to the surgeons has widened dramatically. Nevertheless, the rate of complications due to mechanical failure of the fixation or the instrumentation remains rather high. Indeed, basic and clinical research about the principles of deformity correction and the optimal surgical strategies (i.e., the choice of the fusion length, the most appropriate instrumentation, and the degree of tolerable correction) did not progress as much as the implantable devices and the surgical techniques. In this work, a software approach for the biomechanical simulation of the correction of patient-specific spinal deformities aimed to the identification of its biomechanical principles is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstructions of the spinal anatomy obtained from biplanar radiographic images. A user-friendly graphical user interface allows for the planning of the desired deformity correction and to simulate the implantation of pedicle screws. Robust meshing of the instrumented spine is provided by using consolidated computational geometry and meshing libraries. Based on a finite element simulation, the program is able to predict the loads and stresses acting in the instrumentation as well as those in the biological tissues. A simple test case (reduction of a low-grade spondylolisthesis at L3–L4) was simulated as a proof of concept, and showed plausible results. Despite the numerous limitations of this approach which will be addressed in future implementations, the preliminary outcome is promising and encourages a wide effort toward its refinement. PMID:26579518

  5. Effects of Viewing an Evidence-Based Video Decision Aid on Patients’ Treatment Preferences for Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Blood, Emily A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis within a large clinical trial Objective To evaluate the changes in treatment preference before and after watching a video decision aid as part of an informed consent process. Summary of Background Data A randomized trial with a similar decision aid in herniated disc patients had shown decreased rate of surgery in the video group, but the effect of the video on expressed preferences is not known. Methods Subjects enrolling in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) with intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SPS), or degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) at thirteen multidisciplinary spine centers across the US were given an evidence-based videotape decision aid viewed prior to enrollment as part of informed consent. Results Of the 2505 patients, 86% (n=2151) watched the video and 14% (n=354) did not. Watchers shifted their preference more often than non-watchers(37.9% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.0001) and more often demonstrated a strengthened preference (26.2% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.0001). Among the 806 patients whose preference shifted after watching the video, 55% shifted toward surgery (p=0.003). Among the 617 who started with no preference, after the video 27% preferred non-operative care, 22% preferred surgery, and 51% remained uncertain. Conclusion After watching the evidence-based patient decision aid (video) used in SPORT, patients with specific lumbar spine disorders formed and/or strengthened their treatment preferences in a balanced way that did not appear biased toward or away from surgery. PMID:21358485

  6. Ventral Dural Injury After Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, JaeChil; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jo, Hyunjin

    2017-02-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) through the oblique corridor between the aorta and anterior border of psoas muscle is favored among spinal surgeons who employ minimally invasive techniques. We report a case of ventral dural tear after OLIF that was associated with the inaccurate trajectory direction of endplate preparation. This is the first report to our knowledge of ventral dural tear associated with OLIF. A 72-year-old woman presented with right leg pain and numbness. X-rays showed degenerative spondylolisthesis and loss of disc height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right-sided paracentral disc herniation at the L3-L4 level and foraminal disc herniation at L4-L5. The initial surgical plan was OLIF of L3-L4 and L4-L5 after percutaneous screw fixation without laminectomy. With the patient in the lateral position, discectomy and endplate preparation were done successfully at the L3-L4 level, and the same procedure was done at the L4-L5 level for OLIF. A sharp Cobbs elevator for endplate preparation triggered a ventral dural defect at the L4-L5 level. We changed the patient's position to attempt dural repair. The ventral dural defect could not be repaired because it was too large. After the herniated rootlets were repositioned, TachoComb was patched over the defect site. Postoperatively, the patient has no definite neurologic deficits. When a surgeon performs OLIF, ventral dural injury should be avoided during the procedure of endplate preparation and contralateral annular release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Ketorolac Injected via Patient Controlled Analgesia Postoperatively on Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Park, Moon-Soo; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Lumbar spinal fusions have been performed for spinal stability, pain relief and improved function in spinal stenosis, scoliosis, spinal fractures, infectious conditions and other lumbar spinal problems. The success of lumbar spinal fusion depends on multifactors, such as types of bone graft materials, levels and numbers of fusion, spinal instrumentation, electrical stimulation, smoking and some drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). From January 2000 to December 2001, 88 consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. One surgeon performed all 88 posterolateral spinal fusions with instrumentation and autoiliac bone graft. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (n=30) was infused with ketorolac and fentanyl intravenously via patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively and the second group (n=58) was infused only with fentanyl. The spinal fusion rates and clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared. The incidence of incomplete union or nonunion was much higher in the ketorolac group, and the relative risk was approximately 6 times higher than control group (odds ratio: 5.64). The clinical outcomes, which were checked at least 1 year after surgery, showed strong correlations with the spinal fusion status. The control group (93.1%) showed significantly better clinical results than the ketorolac group (77.6%). Smoking had no effect on the spinal fusion outcome in this study. Even though the use of ketorolac after spinal fusion can reduce the need for morphine, thereby decreasing morphine related complications, ketorolac used via PCA at the immediate postoperative state inhibits spinal fusion resulting in a poorer clinical outcome. Therefore, NSAIDs such as ketorolac, should be avoided after posterolateral spinal fusion. PMID:15861498

  8. Indications, benefits, and risks of Pilates exercise for people with chronic low back pain: a Delphi survey of Pilates-trained physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness of Pilates exercise for treating people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) is yet to be established. Understanding how to identify people with CLBP who may benefit, or not benefit, from Pilates exercise and the benefits and risks of Pilates exercise will assist in trial design. The purpose of this study was to establish a consensus regarding the indications, contraindications, and precautions of Pilates exercise and the potential benefits and risks of Pilates exercise for people with CLBP. A panel of 30 Australian physical therapists experienced in the use of Pilates exercise were surveyed using the Delphi technique. Three electronic questionnaires were used to collect participant opinions. Answers to open-ended questions were analyzed thematically, combined with research findings, and translated into statements about Pilates exercise. Participants then rated their level of agreement with statements using a 6-point Likert scale. Consensus was achieved when 70% of panel members agreed or disagreed with an item. Thirty physical therapists completed the 3 questionnaires. Consensus was reached on 100% of items related to the benefits, indications, and precautions of Pilates exercise, on 50% of items related to risks, and on 56% of items related to contraindications. Participants agreed that people who have poor body awareness and maladaptive movement patterns may benefit from Pilates exercise, whereas those with pre-eclampsia, unstable spondylolisthesis, or a fracture may not benefit. Participants also agreed that Pilates exercise may improve functional ability, movement confidence, body awareness, posture, and movement control. The findings reflect the opinions of only 30 Australian physical therapists and not all health professionals nationally or internationally. These findings, therefore, need to be verified in future research trials. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and precautions of

  9. The natural history and long-term follow-up of Scheuermann kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Murray, P M; Weinstein, S L; Spratt, K F

    1993-02-01

    Sixty-seven patients who had a diagnosis of Scheuermann kyphosis and a mean angle of kyphosis of 71 degrees were evaluated after an average follow-up of thirty-two years (range, ten to forty-eight years) after the diagnosis. All sixty-seven patients completed a questionnaire; fifty-four had a physical examination and radiographs; fifty-two, pulmonary function testing; and forty-five, strength-testing of the trunk muscles. The results were compared with those in a control group of thirty-four subjects who were matched for age and sex. The patients who had Scheuermann kyphosis had more intense back pain, jobs that tended to have lower requirements for activity, less range of motion of extension of the trunk and less-strong extension of the trunk, and different localization of the pain. No significant differences between the patients and the control subjects were demonstrated for level of education, number of days absent from work because of low-back pain, extent that the pain interfered with activities of daily living, presence of numbness in the lower extremities, self-consciousness, self-esteem, social limitations, use of medication for back pain, or level of recreational activities. Also, the patients reported little preoccupation with their physical appearance. Normal or above-normal averages for pulmonary function were found in patients in whom the kyphosis was less than 100 degrees. Patients in whom the kyphosis was more than 100 degrees and the apex of the curve was in the first to eighth thoracic segments had restrictive lung disease. Five patients had an unexplained, mildly abnormal neurological examination. Mild scoliosis was common; spondylolisthesis was not observed.

  10. The Predictive Value of Preoperative Health-Related Quality-of-Life Scores on Postoperative Patient-Reported Outcome Scores in Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Luo, Nan; Chin, Sze Yung; Lau, Eugene Tze Chun; Wang, Pei; Kumar, Naresh; Lau, Leok-Lim; Ruiz, John Nathaniel; Thambiah, Joseph Shanthakumar; Liu, Ka-Po Gabriel; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: A single-center, retrospective cohort study. Objective: To predict patient-reported outcomes (PROs) using preoperative health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) scores by quantifying the correlation between them, so as to aid selection of surgical candidates and preoperative counselling. Methods: All patients who underwent single-level elective lumbar spine surgery over a 2-year period were divided into 3 diagnosis groups: spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. Patient characteristics and health scores (Oswestry Low Back Pain and Disability Index [ODI], EQ-5D, and Short Form-36 version 2 [SF-36v2]) were collected at 6 and 24 months and compared between the 3 diagnosis groups. Multivariate modelling was performed to investigate the predictive value of each parameter, particularly preoperative ODI and EQ-5D, on postoperative ODI and EQ-5D scores for all the patients. Results: ODI and EQ-5D at 6 and 24 months improved significantly for all patients, especially in the disc herniation group, compared to the baseline. The magnitude of improvement in ODI and EQ-5D was predictable using preoperative ODI, EQ-5D, and SF-36v2 Mental Component Score. At 6 months, 1-point baseline ODI predicts for 0.7-point increase in changed ODI, and a 0.01-point increase in baseline EQ-5D predicts for 0.01-point decrease in changed EQ-5D score. At 24 months, 1-point baseline ODI predicts for 1-point increase in changed ODI, and a 0.01-point increase in baseline EQ-5D predicts for 0.009-point decrease in changed EQ-5D. A younger age is shown to be a positive predictor of ODI at 24 months. Conclusions: Poorer baseline health scores predict greater improvement in postoperative PROs at 6 and 24 months after the surgery. HRQoL scores can be used to decide on surgery and in preoperative counselling. PMID:29662746

  11. Lumbar degenerative spinal deformity: Surgical options of PLIF, TLIF and MI-TLIF

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Hee, Hwan Tak

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is common in ageing populations. It causes disturbing back pain, radicular symptoms and lowers the quality of life. We will focus our discussion on the surgical options of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for lumbar degenerative spinal deformities, which include symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. Through a description of each procedure, we hope to illustrate the potential benefits of TLIF over PLIF. In a retrospective study of 53 ALIF/PLIF patients and 111 TLIF patients we found reduced risk of vessel and nerve injury in TLIF patients due to less exposure of these structures, shortened operative time and reduced intra-operative bleeding. These advantages could be translated to shortened hospital stay, faster recovery period and earlier return to work. The disadvantages of TLIF such as incomplete intervertebral disc and vertebral end-plate removal and potential occult injury to exiting nerve root when under experienced hands are rare. Hence TLIF remains the mainstay of treatment in degenerative deformities of the lumbar spine. However, TLIF being a unilateral transforaminal approach, is unable to decompress the opposite nerve root. This may require contralateral laminotomy, which is a fairly simple procedure. The use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) to treat degenerative lumbar spinal deformity is still in its early stages. Although the initial results appear promising, it remains a difficult operative procedure to master with a steep learning curve. In a recent study comparing 29 MI-TLIF patients and 29 open TLIF, MI-TLIF was associated with longer operative time, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, with no difference in SF-36 scores at six months and two years. Whether it can replace traditional TLIF as the surgery of choice for

  12. The Predictive Value of Preoperative Health-Related Quality-of-Life Scores on Postoperative Patient-Reported Outcome Scores in Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Luo, Nan; Chin, Sze Yung; Lau, Eugene Tze Chun; Wang, Pei; Kumar, Naresh; Lau, Leok-Lim; Ruiz, John Nathaniel; Thambiah, Joseph Shanthakumar; Liu, Ka-Po Gabriel; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2018-04-01

    A single-center, retrospective cohort study. To predict patient-reported outcomes (PROs) using preoperative health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) scores by quantifying the correlation between them, so as to aid selection of surgical candidates and preoperative counselling. All patients who underwent single-level elective lumbar spine surgery over a 2-year period were divided into 3 diagnosis groups: spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. Patient characteristics and health scores (Oswestry Low Back Pain and Disability Index [ODI], EQ-5D, and Short Form-36 version 2 [SF-36v2]) were collected at 6 and 24 months and compared between the 3 diagnosis groups. Multivariate modelling was performed to investigate the predictive value of each parameter, particularly preoperative ODI and EQ-5D, on postoperative ODI and EQ-5D scores for all the patients. ODI and EQ-5D at 6 and 24 months improved significantly for all patients, especially in the disc herniation group, compared to the baseline. The magnitude of improvement in ODI and EQ-5D was predictable using preoperative ODI, EQ-5D, and SF-36v2 Mental Component Score. At 6 months, 1-point baseline ODI predicts for 0.7-point increase in changed ODI, and a 0.01-point increase in baseline EQ-5D predicts for 0.01-point decrease in changed EQ-5D score. At 24 months, 1-point baseline ODI predicts for 1-point increase in changed ODI, and a 0.01-point increase in baseline EQ-5D predicts for 0.009-point decrease in changed EQ-5D. A younger age is shown to be a positive predictor of ODI at 24 months. Poorer baseline health scores predict greater improvement in postoperative PROs at 6 and 24 months after the surgery. HRQoL scores can be used to decide on surgery and in preoperative counselling.

  13. Risk of infectious complications associated with blood transfusion in elective spinal surgery-a propensity score matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Oichi, Takeshi; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Although the negative aspects of blood transfusion are increasingly recognized, less is known about transfusion-related risks in spinal surgery. This study was designed to determine whether perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with increased risk of infectious complications after elective spinal surgery. A retrospective cohort study with propensity score matched analysis was carried out. Data of patients with spinal canal stenosis and spondylolisthesis who underwent elective lumbar surgeries (decompression or fusion) were obtained from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, a nationwide administrative inpatient database in Japan. Clinical outcomes included in-hospital death and the occurrence of infectious complications (surgical site infection [SSI], respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and sepsis). Patients' clinical information, including sex, age, type of hospital, preoperative comorbidities, duration of anesthesia, cell saver use, and volume of allogeneic blood transfused, were investigated. Patients transfused with >840 mL (6 units) were excluded. Propensity scores for receiving transfusion were calculated, with one-to-one matching based on estimated propensity scores to adjust for patients' baseline characteristics. The proportions of complications were compared in patients with and without transfusions. This study was funded by grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Of the 84,650 patients identified, 5,289 patients (6.1%) received transfusions, with 4,436 (5.2%) receiving up to 840 mL. One-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 4,275 pairs with and without transfusion. Patients transfused were at increased risk of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.5; p<.001) and urinary tract infection (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2; p<.001) than those not transfused. Allogeneic blood transfusion after elective lumbar surgery was associated with increased risks of SSI and

  14. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  15. Modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Ko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Hara, Nobuhiro; Ogiwara, Satoshi; Terayama, Sei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2009-06-01

    The authors developed an original procedure, modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty (MFRS) for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. The first step is to cut the spinous process in an L-shape, which is caudally reflected. This procedure allows easy access to the spinal canal, including lateral recesses, and makes it easy to perform a trumpet-style decompression of the nerve roots without violating the facet joints. After the decompression of neural tissues, the spinous process is anatomically restored (spinoplasty). The clinical outcomes at 2 years were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale and patients' satisfaction. Radiological follow-up included radiographs and CT. Between January 2000 and December 2002, 109 patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication with or without mild spondylolisthesis underwent MFRS. Of these, 101 were followed up for at least 2 years (follow-up rate 93%). The average score on the self-administered JOA scale in 89 patients without comorbidity causing gait disturbance improved from 13.3 preoperatively to 22.9 at 2 years' follow-up. Neurogenic intermittent claudication disappeared in all cases. The patients' assessment of treatment satisfaction was "satisfied" in 74 cases, "slightly satisfied" in 12, "slightly dissatisfied" in 2, and "dissatisfied" in 1 case. In 16 cases (18%), a minimum progression of slippage occurred, but no symptomatic instability or recurrent stenosis was observed. Computed tomography showed that the lateral part of the facet joints was well preserved, and the mean residual ratio was 80%. The MFRS technique produces an adequate and safe decompression of the spinal canal, even in patients with narrow and steep facet joints in whom conventional fenestration is technically demanding.

  16. The Influence of Pelvic Incidence and Lumbar Lordosis Mismatch on Development of Symptomatic Adjacent Level Disease Following Single-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Tempel, Zachary J; Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Bolinger, Bryan D; Khattar, Nicolas K; Parry, Philip V; Chang, Yue-Fang; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2017-06-01

    Annual incidence of symptomatic adjacent level disease (ALD) following lumbar fusion surgery ranges from 0.6% to 3.9% per year. Sagittal malalignment may contribute to the development of ALD. To describe the relationship between pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch and the development of symptomatic ALD requiring revision surgery following single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylosis and/or low-grade spondylolisthesis. All patients who underwent a single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at either L4/5 or L5/S1 between July 2006 and December 2012 were analyzed for pre- and postoperative spinopelvic parameters. Using univariate and logistic regression analysis, we compared the spinopelvic parameters of those patients who required revision surgery against those patients who did not develop symptomatic ALD. We calculated the predictive value of PI-LL mismatch. One hundred fifty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. The results noted that, for a 1° increase in PI-LL mismatch (preop and postop), the odds of developing ALD requiring surgery increased by 1.3 and 1.4 fold, respectively, which were statistically significant increases. Based on our analysis, a PI-LL mismatch of >11° had a positive predictive value of 75% for the development of symptomatic ALD requiring revision surgery. A high PI-LL mismatch is strongly associated with the development of symptomatic ALD requiring revision lumbar spine surgery. The development of ALD may represent a global disease process as opposed to a focal condition. Spine surgeons may wish to consider assessment of spinopelvic parameters in the evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine pathology. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  17. Lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of decision-making in spinal surgery with specialty and emotional involvement-the Indications in Spinal Surgery (INDIANA) survey.

    PubMed

    Sollmann, Nico; Morandell, Carmen; Albers, Lucia; Behr, Michael; Preuss, Alexander; Dinkel, Andreas; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-03-01

    Although recent trials provided level I evidence for the most common degenerative lumbar spinal disorders, treatment still varies widely. Thus, the Indications in Spinal Surgery (INDIANA) survey explores whether decision-making is influenced by specialty or personal emotional involvement of the treating specialist. Nationwide, neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons specialized in spine surgery were asked to answer an Internet-based questionnaire with typical clinical patient cases of lumbar disc herniation (DH), lumbar spinal stenosis (SS), and lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (SL). The surgeons were assigned to counsel a patient or a close relative, thus creating emotional involvement. This was achieved by randomly allocating the surgeons to a patient group (PG) and relative group (RG). We then compared neurosurgeons to orthopedic surgeons and the PG to the RG regarding treatment decision-making. One hundred twenty-two spine surgeons completed the questionnaire (response rate 78.7%). Regarding DH and SS, more conservative treatment among orthopedic surgeons was shown (DH: odds ratio [OR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-9.7, p = 0.001; SS: OR 3.9, CI 1.8-8.2, p < 0.001). However, emotional involvement (PG vs. RG) did not affect these results for any of the three cases (DH: p = 0.213; SS: p = 0.097; SL: p = 0.924). The high response rate indicates how important the issues raised by this study actually are for dedicated spine surgeons. Moreover, there are considerable variations in decision-making for the most common degenerative lumbar spinal disorders, although there is high-quality data from large multicenter trials available. Emotional involvement, though, did not influence treatment recommendations.

  19. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  20. Zoledronic acid infusion for lumbar interbody fusion in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chao-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Hsien-Ta; Li, Hung-Yu; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Chen, Yi-Chu

    2014-11-01

    Clinical outcomes of intravenous (IV) infusion of zoledronic acid (ZOL) for lumbar interbody fusion surgery (LIFS) remain unknown. We investigated the efficacy of IV ZOL on clinical outcome and bone fusion after LIFS. We retrospectively analyzed 64 patients with both degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis and osteoporosis who underwent LIFS from January 2007 to April 2010. All patients were followed up for 2 y. Thirty-two were treated with an IV infusion of ZOL 3 d after surgery and a second injection 1 y later, and the other 32 patients did not receive ZOL. Preoperatively and every 3 mo postoperatively, oswestry disability index questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg were compared. Preoperative and final postoperative follow-up to evaluate for subsequent compression fractures were also performed. Pedicle screw loosening, cage subsidence, and fusion rate were documented 2 y after surgery. At 2-y follow-up, a solid fusion was achieved in 75% of the ZOL group and only 56% of the control group. At final follow up, the incidence of final subsequent vertebral compression fractures (19% of the ZOL group and 51% of the control group, P = 0.006), pedicle screw loosening (18% of the ZOL group and 45% of the control group, P = 0.03), and cage subsidence >2 mm (28% of the ZOL group and only 54% of the control group, P = 0.04) were significantly lower in the ZOL group than in the control group. The ZOL group demonstrated improvement in VAS (for leg pain VAS, 2/10 for the ZOL group and 5/10 for the control group; for back pain VAS, 2/10 for the ZOL group and 6/10 for the control group) and oswestry disability index scores (7/25 for the ZOL group and 16/25 for the control group). ZOL treatment has beneficial effects on instrumented LIFS both radiographic and clinically. Thus, ZOL treatment can be recommended for osteoporosis patients undergoing LIFS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Paul C.; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Background This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. Methods A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ≥2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. Results In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal

  2. Two-year Outcomes from a Single Surgeon's Learning Curve Experience of Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion without Intraoperative Neuromonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ahtziri; Miller, Larry E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is a newer procedure that avoids the psoas and lumbosacral plexus due to its oblique trajectory into the retroperitoneal space. While early experience with OLIF is reassuring, the longer-term clinical efficacy has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to describe two-year clinical outcomes with OLIF performed by a single surgeon during the learning curve without the aid of the neuromonitoring. Materials and methods Chart review was performed for the consecutive patients who underwent OLIF by a single surgeon. Back pain severity on a visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at six weeks, three months, six months, one year and two years. Results A total of 21 patients (38 levels) were included in this study. The indications for surgery were degenerative disc disease (n=10, 47.6%), spondylolisthesis (n=9, 42.9%) and spinal stenosis (n=6, 28.6%). The median operating room time was 351 minutes (interquartile range (IQR): 279-406 minutes), blood loss was 40 ml (IQR: 30-150 ml), and hospital stay was 2.0 days (IQR: 1.0-3.5 days). The complication rate was 9.5%, both venous injuries. There were no other perioperative complications. Back pain severity decreased by 70%, on average, over two years (p <0.001). A total of 17 (81%) patients reported at least a two-point decrease from the baseline. The ODI scores decreased by 55%, on average, over two years (p <0.001), with 16 (76%) patients reporting at least a 15-point decrease from the baseline. Over two years, no symptomatic pseudarthrosis, hardware failure, reoperations, or additional complications were reported. Conclusions The oblique lateral interbody fusion performed without the intraoperative neuromonitoring was safe and clinically efficacious for up to two years. The complication rate in this cohort is similar to other published OLIF series and appears acceptable when

  3. Lumbar Spine Surgery in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joshua E; Hughes, Alexander; Sama, Andrew; Weinstein, Joseph; Kaplan, Leon; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P

    2015-10-21

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was <2 in thirteen patients, 2 in thirty patients, 2.5 in twenty-three patients, and ≥3 in thirty patients. The primary indication for surgery was spinal stenosis in seventy-two patients, spondylolisthesis in seventeen patients, and coronal and/or sagittal deformity in seven patients. There were nineteen early complications, including postoperative infections requiring surgical irrigation and debridement and long-term antibiotics in ten patients. The visual analog scale for back pain improved from 7.4 cm preoperatively to 1.8 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The visual analog scale for lower-limb pain improved from 7.7 cm preoperatively to 2.3 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The Oswestry Disability Index score dropped from 54.1 points to 17.7 points at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary score improved from 26.6 points preoperatively to 30.5 points postoperatively (p < 0.05). Twenty patients required revision surgery. Risks for further surgery included a Parkinson disease severity stage of ≥3 (p < 0.05), a history of diabetes mellitus, treatment for osteoporosis, and a combined anterior and posterior approach. Despite a higher rate of complications than in the general population, the

  4. PREPARE: presurgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lindbäck, Yvonne; Tropp, Hans; Enthoven, Paul; Abbott, Allan; Öberg, Birgitta

    2017-12-15

    Surgery because of disc herniation or spinal stenosis results mostly in large improvement in the short-term, but mild to moderate improvements for pain and disability at long-term follow-up. Prehabilitation has been defined as augmenting functional capacity before surgery, which may have beneficial effect on outcome after surgery. The aim was to study if presurgery physiotherapy improves function, pain, and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery. A single-blinded, two-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 197 patients were consecutively included at a spine clinic. The inclusion criteria were patients scheduled for surgery because of disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease (DDD), 25-80 years of age. Primary outcome was Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes were pain intensity, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, fear avoidance, physical activity, and treatment effect. Patients were randomized to either presurgery physiotherapy or standardized information, with follow-up after the presurgery intervention as well as 3 and 12 months post surgery. The study was funded by regional research funds for US$77,342. No conflict of interest is declared. The presurgery physiotherapy group had better ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) back pain, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), EQ-VAS, Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity (FABQ-PA), Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression scores and activity level compared with the waiting-list group after the presurgery intervention. The improvements were small, but larger than the study-specific minimal clinical important change (MCIC) in VAS back and leg pain, EQ-5D, and FABQ-PA, and almost in line with MCIC in ODI and Physical Component Summary (PCS) in the physiotherapy group. Post surgery, the only difference between the groups was higher activity level in the physiotherapy group

  5. Degenerative lumbar scoliosis in elderly patients: dynamic stabilization without fusion versus posterior instrumented fusion.

    PubMed

    Di Silvestre, Mario; Lolli, Francesco; Bakaloudis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation is currently the most widely accepted technique for degenerative lumbar scoliosis in elderly patients. However, a high incidence of complications has been reported in most series. Dynamic stabilization without fusion in patients older than 60 years has not previously been compared with the use of posterior fusion in degenerative lumbar scoliosis. To compare dynamic stabilization without fusion and posterior instrumented fusion in the treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis in elderly patients, in terms of perioperative findings, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. A retrospective study. Fifty-seven elderly patients were included. There were 45 women (78%) and 12 men (22%) with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 61-78 years). All patients had degenerative de novo lumbar scoliosis, associated with vertebral canal stenosis in 51 cases (89.4%) and degenerative spondylolisthesis in 24 patients (42.1%). Clinical (Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire) and radiological (scoliosis and lordosis corrections) outcomes as well as incidence of complications. Patients were divided into two groups: 32 patients (dynamic group) had dynamic stabilization without fusion and 25 patients (fusion group) underwent posterior instrumented fusion. All the patients' medical records and X-rays were reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up questionnaires were obtained to evaluate clinical outcomes. At an average follow-up of 64 months (range, 42-90 months), clinical results improved similarly in both groups of patients. Statistically superior scoliosis and final lordosis corrections were achieved with posterior fusion (56.9% vs. 37.3% and -46.8° vs. -35.8°, respectively). However, in the dynamic group, incidence of overall complications was lower (25% vs. 44%), and fewer patients required revision surgery (6.2% vs. 16%). Furthermore, lower average values of operative

  6. Trends in isolated lumbar spinal stenosis surgery among working US adults aged 40-64 years, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Raad, Micheal; Donaldson, Callum J; El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Sciubba, Daniel M; Riley, Lee H; Neuman, Brian J; Kebaish, Khaled M; Skolasky, Richard L

    2018-05-25

    OBJECTIVE Recommendations for the surgical treatment of isolated lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (i.e., in the absence of concomitant scoliosis or spondylolisthesis) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate trends in the surgical treatment of isolated LSS in US adults and determine implications for outcomes. METHODS The authors analyzed inpatient and outpatient claims from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database for 20,279 patients aged 40-64 years who underwent surgery for LSS between 2010 and 2014. Only patients with continuous 12-month insurance coverage after surgery were included. The rates of decompression with arthrodesis versus decompression only and of simple (1- or 2-level, single-approach) versus complex (> 2-level or combined-approach) arthrodesis were analyzed by year and geographic region. These trends were further analyzed with respect to complications, length of hospital stay, payments made to the hospital, and patient discharge status. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The proportion of patients who underwent decompression with arthrodesis compared with decompression only increased significantly and linearly from 2010 to 2014 (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.10). Arthrodesis was more likely to be complex rather than simple with each subsequent year (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.33-1.49). This trend was accompanied by an increased likelihood of postoperative complications (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), higher costs (payments increased by a mean of US$1633 per year; 95% CI 1327-1939), and greater likelihood of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility as opposed to home (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03-1.20). The South and Midwest regions of the US had the highest proportions of patients undergoing arthrodesis (48% and 42%, respectively). The mean length of hospital stay did not change significantly (p = 0.324). CONCLUSIONS From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of adults undergoing decompression with

  7. Pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis as a predictor of outcomes in National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Hsu, Wellington K; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-04-01

    It is currently unknown how pre-existing lumbar spine conditions may affect the medical evaluation, draft status, and subsequent career performance of National Football League (NFL) players. To determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis affects a player's draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Cohort study; Level 3. The investigators evaluated the written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective NFL players from a single franchise during the NFL Scouting Combine from 2003 to 2011. Players with a reported lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate imaging were included in this study. Athletes were then matched to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis by age, position, year, and round drafted. Career statistics and performance scores were calculated. Of a total of 2965 athletes evaluated, 414 were identified as having a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Players without a lumbar spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than were those with a diagnosis (80.2% vs. 61.1%, respectively, P < .001). Drafted athletes with pre-existing lumbar spine injuries had a decrease in the number of years played compared with the matched control group (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively, P = .001), games played (46.5 vs. 50.8, respectively, P = .0001), and games started (28.1 vs. 30.6, respectively, P = .02) but not performance score (1.4 vs. 1.8, respectively, P = .13). Compared with controls, players were less likely to be drafted if they had been diagnosed with spondylosis (62.37% vs. 78.55%), a lumbar herniated disc (60.27% vs. 78.43%), or spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis (64.44% vs. 78.15%) (P < .001 for all), but there was no appreciable effect on career performance; however, the diagnosis of spondylolysis was associated with a decrease in career longevity (P < .05). Notably, 2 athletes who had undergone posterior lateral lumbar fusion were drafted. One played in 125 games, and the other is still active and has

  8. Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Lyman, Stephen; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-04-01

    The National Football League holds an annual combine where individual teams evaluate college football players The abstract goes here and covers two columns. likely to be drafted for physical skills, review players' medical history and imaging studies, and perform a physical examination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of specific diagnoses and surgical procedures on the likelihood of playing and length of career in the league by position. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database for all players reviewed at the annual National Football League Combine by the medical staff of 1 National Football League team from 1987 to 2000 was created, including each player's orthopaedic rating, diagnoses, surgical procedures, number of games played, and number of seasons played in the National Football League. Athletes were grouped by position as follows: offensive backfield, offensive receiver, offensive line, quarterback, tight end, defensive line, defensive secondary, linebacker, and kicker. The percentage of athletes who played in the National Football League was calculated by position for each specific diagnosis and surgery. The effect of injury on the likelihood of playing in the league varied by position. Anterior cruciate ligament injury significantly lowered the likelihood of playing in the league for defensive linemen (P = .03) and linebackers (P = .04). Meniscal injury significantly reduced the probability of playing (P < .05) and length of career (P = .002) for athletes in the defensive secondary. Shoulder instability had a significant effect on playing in the league for offensive (P = .03) and defensive linemen (P = .02), and shortened the length of career for defensive linemen (P = .016). Spondylolisthesis did not significantly reduce the chance of playing in the league for any position, while a history of spondylolysis had a significant effect for running backs (P = .01). Miscellaneous injuries (eg. acromioclavicular joint, knee medial

  9. Thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses: clinical outcomes and predictive radiographic factors for progression of deformity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Dryden, R; Tsirikos, A I

    2016-02-01

    Clinical and radiological data were reviewed for all patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) with thoracolumbar kyphosis managed non-operatively or operatively in our institution. In all 16 patients were included (eight female: eight male; 50% male), of whom nine had Hurler, five Morquio and two Hunter syndrome. Six patients were treated non-operatively (mean age at presentation of 6.3 years; 0.4 to 12.9); mean kyphotic progression +1.5(o)/year; mean follow-up of 3.1 years (1 to 5.1) and ten patients operatively (mean age at presentation of 4.7 years; 0.9 to 14.4); mean kyphotic progression 10.8(o)/year; mean follow-up of 8.2 years; 4.8 to 11.8) by circumferential arthrodesis with posterior instrumentation in patients with flexible deformities (n = 6). In the surgical group (mean age at surgery of 6.6 years; 2.4 to 16.8); mean post-operative follow-up of 6.3 years (3.5 to 10.3), mean pre-operative thoracolumbar kyphosis of 74.3(o) (42(o) to 110(o)) was corrected to mean of 28.6(o) (0(o) to 65(o)) post-operatively, relating to a mean deformity correction of 66.9% (31% to 100%). Surgical complications included a deep wound infection treated by early debridement, apical non-union treated by posterior re-grafting, and stable adjacent segment spondylolisthesis managed non-operatively. Thoracolumbar kyphosis > +38(o) at initial presentation was identified as predicting progressively severe deformity with 90% sensitivity and 83% specificity. This study demonstrates that severe thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with MPS can be effectively treated by circumferential arthrodesis. Severity of kyphosis at initial presentation may predict progression of thoracolumbar deformity. Patients with MPS may be particularly susceptible to post-operative complications due to the underlying connective tissue disorder and inherent immunological compromise. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed for all patients with mucopolysaccharidoses with thoracolumbar kyphosis managed non

  10. Score distribution of the scoliosis research society health-related quality of life in different subgroups of adolescent subjects unaffected by scoliosis in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weifei; Du, Yuanli; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire performance in normal adolescents without scoliosis to establish a normative baseline useful for evaluating the discriminate validity of the SRS-22 in primary adolescent scoliosis; and (2) investigate impact of age and sex on SRS-22 in an adolescent population unaffected by scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire is widely used to measure health-related quality of life of patients with spinal disease including scoliosis and lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, normal data, which are very important, when comparing patients and nonpatients, are few, little, and there are few studies about factors that may affect SRS questionnaire performance. The adolescent population was from 14 schools located in 7 provinces. A total of 2008 adolescents (961 females, 1026 males, 21 unknown; mean age, 14.3 yr; range, 11-20) completed the simplified Chinese version of SRS-22 questionnaire and demographic questions. Surveys were stratified into 8 age-sex groups for analysis: male/female; 12 to 13.4, 13.5 to 14.9, 15 to 15.9, and more than 16 years of age. Post hoc testing and the Tukey least significant difference were used to compare differences between any 2 of the 4 age groups. Self-image scores in males were higher than those in females (P < 0.01). Pain domain scores were significantly higher in males than those in females in the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old subgroup, whereas other subgroups showed no obvious differences. The function domain scores in males who were aged 15 to 15.9 years and those older than 16 years were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mental health domain scores among age-sex subgroups, with the exception of the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old group. This is the first study to characterize the sex and age influence on the SRS-22 scores in normal population. Age and sex have an important

  11. Quality of life in children and adolescents undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    McKean, Greg M; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life measurements evaluate surgical results from patients' reported outcomes. To assess the impact of spinal deformity treatment using the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire. SRS-22 data was collected in 545 consecutive patients (425 females-120 males) pre-operatively, 6-, 12- and 24-months post-operatively. Variables included type and age of surgery (mean: 15.14 ± 2.07 years), gender, diagnosis and year of surgery. Age at surgery was divided in: 10-12, 13-15, and 15-19 years. Mean pre-operative SRS-22 scores for the whole group were: function 3.77 ± 0.75; pain 3.7 ± 0.97; self-image 3.14 ± 0.66; mental health 3.86 ± 0.77; total 3.62 ± 0.66. Mean 2-year post-operative scores were: function 4.39 ± 0.42; pain 4.59 ± 0.56; self-image 4.39 ± 0.51; mental health 4.43 ± 0.56; satisfaction 4.81 ± 0.40; total 4.52 ± 0.37 (p< 0.0001). Males performed better at 2-years post-surgery (4.62 ± 0.25) compared to females (4.49 ± 0.39), (p= 0.004). Patients with spondylolisthesis performed worse pre-operatively (2.93 ± 0.26) compared to other diagnoses (p< 0.0001). This did not impact 2-year post-operative outcomes. There were no significant changes regarding age or year of surgery, type of operation or between the 3 age groups. All individual domains and total SRS-22 scores improved significantly with incremental change during post-operative follow-up. Patient satisfaction was very high for all individual diagnosis. 2-year post-operative outcomes compared favorably to reported SRS-22 scores in healthy adolescents.

  12. Novel spinal instrumentation to enhance osteogenesis and fusion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Talcott, Michael R; Moran, Daniel W; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Instrumented spinal fusion continues to exhibit high failure rates in patients undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion or pseudarthrosis revision; with Grade II or higher spondylolisthesis; or in those possessing risk factors such as obesity, tobacco use, or metabolic disorders. Direct current (DC) electrical stimulation of bone growth represents a unique surgical adjunct in vertebral fusion procedures, yet existing spinal fusion stimulators are not optimized to enhance interbody fusion. To develop an advanced method of applying DC electrical stimulation to promote interbody fusion, a novel osteogenic spinal system capable of routing DC through rigid instrumentation and into the vertebral bodies was fabricated. A pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility of osteogenic instrumentation and compare the ability of osteogenic instrumentation to promote successful interbody fusion in vivo to standard spinal instrumentation with autograft. METHODS Instrumented, single-level, posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with autologous graft was performed at L4-5 in adult Toggenburg/Alpine goats, using both osteogenic spinal instrumentation (plus electrical stimulation) and standard spinal instrumentation (no electrical stimulation). At terminal time points (3 months, 6 months), animals were killed and lumbar spines were explanted for radiographic analysis using a SOMATOM Dual Source Definition CT Scanner and high-resolution Microcat II CT Scanner. Trabecular continuity, radiodensity within the fusion mass, and regional bone formation were examined to determine successful spinal fusion. RESULTS Quantitative analysis of average bone density in pedicle screw beds confirmed that electroactive pedicle screws used in the osteogenic spinal system focally enhanced bone density in instrumented vertebral bodies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of high-resolution CT scans of explanted lumbar spines further demonstrated that the osteogenic spinal system induced solid

  13. Comparison of fusion rate and clinical results between CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 bioactive glass ceramics spacer with titanium cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kong, Chang-Bae; Yang, Jae Jun; Shim, Hee-Jong; Koo, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Jeehyoung; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2016-11-01

    The CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics spacer generates chemical bonding to adjacent bones with high mechanical stability to produce a union with the end plate, and ultimately stability. The authors aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics with a titanium cage that is widely used for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery in the clinical field. This is a prospective, stratified randomized, multicenter, single-blinded, comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial. The present study was conducted in four hospitals and enrolled a total of 86 patients between 30 and 80 years of age who required one-level PLIF due to severe spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or huge disc herniation. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate was assessed at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate and the area of fusion, subsidence of each CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics and titanium cage, and the extent of osteolysis were evaluated using a dynamic plain radiography and a three-dimensional computed tomography at 12 months after surgery. The present study was supported by BioAlpha, and some authors (JHL, C-KL, and B-SC) have stock ownership (<10,000 US dollars). From the plain radiography results, the 6-month fusion rates for the bioactive glass ceramics group and the titanium group were 89.7% and 91.4%, respectively. In addition, the 12-month fusion rates based on CT scan were 89.7% and 91.2%, respectively, showing no significant difference. However, the bone fusion area directly attached to the end plate of either bioactive glass ceramics or the titanium cage was significantly higher in the bioactive glass ceramics group than in the titanium group. The ODI, SF-36, back pain, and lower limb pain in both groups significantly improved

  14. Association of catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic variants with outcome in patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feng; Belfer, Inna; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Banco, Robert; Martha, Julia F; Tighioughart, Hocine; Tromanhauser, Scott G; Jenis, Louis G; Kim, David H

    2010-11-01

    Surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) has been associated with highly variable results in terms of postoperative pain relief and functional improvement. Many experts believe that DDD should be considered a chronic pain disorder as opposed to a degenerative disease. Genetic variation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with variation in human pain sensitivity and response to analgesics in previous studies. To determine whether genetic variation of COMT is associated with clinical outcome after surgical treatment for DDD. Prospective genetic association study. Sixty-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar DDD. Diagnosis was based on documentation of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) present for a minimum of 6 months and unresponsive to supervised nonoperative treatment, including activity modification, medication, physical therapy, and/or injection therapy. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed intervertebral disc desiccation, tears, and/or collapse without focal herniation, nerve root compression, stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, or alternative diagnoses. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog score (VAS) for LBP. Surgical treatment included 65 instrumented fusions and four disc arthroplasty procedures. All patients completed preoperative and 1-year postoperative ODI questionnaires. DNA was extracted from a sample of venous blood, and genotype analysis was performed for five common COMT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Potential genetic association between these COMT SNPs and the primary outcome variable, 1-year change in ODI, was investigated using both single-marker and haplotype association analyses. Association with VAS scores for LBP was analyzed as a secondary outcome variable. Single-marker analysis revealed that the COMT SNP rs4633 was significantly associated with greater improvement in ODI score 1 year after surgery (p=.03), with

  15. An analysis of postoperative thigh symptoms after minimally invasive transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Cummock, Matthew D; Vanni, Steven; Levi, Allan D; Yu, Yong; Wang, Michael Y

    2011-07-01

    The minimally invasive transpsoas interbody fusion technique requires dissection through the psoas muscle, which contains the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus posteriorly and genitofemoral nerve anteriorly. Retraction of the psoas is becoming recognized as a cause of transient postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness. However, few reports have described the nature of thigh symptoms after this procedure. The authors performed a review of patients who underwent the transpsoas technique for lumbar spondylotic disease, disc degeneration, and spondylolisthesis treated at a single academic medical center. A review of patient charts, including the use of detailed patient-driven pain diagrams performed at equal preoperative and follow-up intervals, investigated the survival of postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness of the iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles in the follow-up period on the ipsilateral side of the surgical approach. Over a 3.2-year period, 59 patients underwent transpsoas interbody fusion surgery. Of these, 62.7% had thigh symptoms postoperatively. New thigh symptoms at first follow-up visit included the following: burning, aching, stabbing, or other pain (39.0%); numbness (42.4%); paresthesias (11.9%); and weakness (23.7%). At 3 months postoperatively, these percentages decreased to 15.5%, 24.1%, 5.6%, and 11.3%, respectively. Within the patient sample, 44% underwent a 1-level, 41% a 2-level, and 15% a 3-level transpsoas operation. While not statistically significant, thigh pain, numbness, and weakness were most prevalent after L4-5 transpsoas interbody fusion at the first postoperative follow-up. The number of lumbar levels that were surgically treated had no clear association with thigh symptoms but did correlate directly with surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and length of hospital stay. Transpsoas interbody fusion is associated with high rates of immediate postoperative thigh symptoms. While larger

  16. A study on difference and importance of sacral slope and pelvic sacral angle that affect lumbar curvature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoung; Lee, Minsun; Kwon, Byongan

    2014-01-01

    Individual pelvic sacral angle was measured, compared and analyzed for the 6 male and female adults who were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and mild spondylolisthesis in accordance with spinal parameters, pelvic parameters and occlusion state of sacroiliac joint presented by the author of this thesis based on the fact that the degree of lumbar excessive lordosis that was one of the causes for lumbar pain was determined by sacral slope. The measured values were compared with the standard values of the average normal range from 20 s to 40 s of normal Koreans stated in the study on the change in lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope in accordance with the age by Oh et al. [5] and sacral slope and pelvic sacral slope of each individual of the subjects for measurement were compared. Comparing the difference between the two tilt angles possessed by an individual is a comparison to determine how much the sacroiliac joint connecting pelvis and sacral vertebrae compensated and corrected the sacral vertebrae slope by pelvic tilt under the condition of synarthrodial joint.Under the condition that the location conforming to the line in which the sagittal line of gravity connects with pelvic ASIS and pubic pubic tuberele is the neutral location of pelvic tilt, sacral slope being greater than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic anterior tilting, whereas sacral slope being smaller than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic posterior tilting. On that account, male B, female A and female C had a pelvic posterior tilting of 16 degrees, 1 degree and 5 degrees respectively, whereas male A, male C and female B had a pelvic anterior tilting of 3 degrees, 9 degrees and 4 degrees respectively. In addition, the 6 patients the values of lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope that were almost twice as much as the normal standard values of Koreans. It is believed that this is because the pelvic sacral slope maintaining an angle that is

  17. Minimally invasive resection of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts via a contralateral approach: review of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, Hamdi G; Hitchon, Patrick W; Awe, Olatilewa; Noeller, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to determine patient-related outcomes after minimally invasive surgical (MIS) lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst excision via a tubular working channel and a contralateral facet-sparing approach. All the patients with a symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst who underwent surgery at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with an MIS excision via a contralateral approach were treated between July 2010 and August 2014. There was a total of 13 cases. Each patient was evaluated with preoperative neurological examinations, lumbar spine radiography, MRI, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. The patients were evaluated postoperatively with neurological examinations and VAS and Macnab scores. The primary outcomes were improvement in VAS and Macnab scores. Secondary outcomes were average blood loss, hospital stay duration, and operative times. There were 5 males and 8 females. The mean age was 66 years, and the mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m(2). Sixty-nine percent (9 of 13) of the cysts were at L4-5. Most patients had low-back pain and radicular pain, and one-third of them had Grade 1 spondylolisthesis. The mean (± SD) follow-up duration was 20.8 ± 16.9 months. The mean Macnab score was 3.4 ± 1.0, and the VAS score decreased from 7.8 preoperatively to 2.9 postoperatively. The mean operative time was 123 ± 30 minutes, with a mean estimated blood loss of 44 ± 29 ml. Hospital stay averaged 1.5 ± 0.7 days. There were no complications noted in this series. The MIS excision of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts via a contralateral approach offers excellent exposure to the cyst and spares the facet joint at the involved level, thus minimizing risk of instability, blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay. Prospective randomized trials with longer follow-up times and larger cohorts are needed to conclusively determine the superiority of the contralateral MIS approach over others, including open or ipsilateral minimally invasive surgery.

  18. Increased incidence of pseudarthrosis after unilateral instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar spondylosis: Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Gologorsky, Yakov; Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Moore, Max; Arginteanu, Marc; Moore, Frank; Steinberger, Alfred

    2014-10-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with segmental pedicular instrumentation is a well established procedure used to treat lumbar spondylosis with or without spondylolisthesis. Available biomechanical and clinical studies that compared unilateral and bilateral constructs have produced conflicting data regarding patient outcomes and hardware complications. A prospective cohort study was undertaken by a group of neurosurgeons. They prospectively enrolled 80 patients into either bilateral or unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation groups (40 patients/group). Demographic data collected for each group included sex, age, body mass index, tobacco use, and Workers' Compensation/litigation status. Operative data included segments operated on, number of levels involved, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications. Long-term outcomes (hardware malfunction, wound dehiscence, and pseudarthrosis) were recorded. For all patients, preoperative baseline and 6-month postoperative scores for Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcomes were recorded. Patient follow-up times ranged from 37 to 63 months (mean 52 months). No patients were lost to follow-up. The patients who underwent unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation (unilateral cohort) were slightly younger than those who underwent bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation (bilateral cohort) (mean age 42 vs. 47 years, respectively; p = 0.02). No other significant differences were detected between cohorts with regard to demographic data, mean number of lumbar levels operated on, or distribution of the levels operated on. Estimated blood loss was higher for patients in the bilateral cohort, but length of stay was similar for patients in both cohorts. The incidence of pseudarthrosis was significantly higher among patients in the unilateral cohort (7 patients [17.5%]) than among those in the bilateral cohort (1 patient [2.5%]) (p = 0.02). Wound dehiscence occurred for

  19. Management of Hangman's Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Hamadi; Schroeder, Gregory D; Shi, Weilong J; Kepler, Christopher K; Kurd, Mark F; Fleischman, Andrew N; Kandziora, Frank; Chapman, Jens R; Benneker, Lorin M; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a common cervical spine fracture; however, to date there is limited data available to guide the treatment of these injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the literature and clinical outcomes associated with the surgical and nonsurgical management of hangman's fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX) for all articles describing the treatment of hangman's fractures in 2 or more patients. Risk of nonunion, mortality, complications, and treatment failure (defined as the need for surgery in the nonsurgically managed patients and the need for revision surgery for any reason in the surgically managed patients) was compared for operative and nonoperative treatment methods using a generalized linear mixed model and odds ratio analysis. Overall, 25 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in our quantitative analysis. Bony union was the principal outcome measure used to assess successful treatment. All studies included documented fracture union and were included in statistical analyses. The overall union rate for 131 fractures treated nonsurgically was 94.14% [95% confidence interval (CI), 76.15-98.78]. The overall union rate for 417 fractures treated surgically was 99.35% (95% CI, 96.81-99.87). Chance of nonunion was lower in those patients treated surgically (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.71). There was not a significant difference in mortality between patients treated surgically (0.16%; 95% CI, 0.01%-2.89%) and nonsurgically (1.04%; 95% CI, 0.08%-11.4%) (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.01-2.11). Treatment failure was less likely in the surgical treatment group (0.12%; 95% CI, 0.01%-2.45%) than the nonsurgical treatment group (0.71%; 95% CI, 0.28%-15.75%) (odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.56). Hangman's fractures are common injuries, and surgical treatment leads to an increase in the rate of

  20. Two-year Outcomes from a Single Surgeon's Learning Curve Experience of Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion without Intraoperative Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kamal; Fonseca, Ahtziri; Miller, Larry E

    2017-12-22

    Introduction Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is a newer procedure that avoids the psoas and lumbosacral plexus due to its oblique trajectory into the retroperitoneal space. While early experience with OLIF is reassuring, the longer-term clinical efficacy has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to describe two-year clinical outcomes with OLIF performed by a single surgeon during the learning curve without the aid of the neuromonitoring. Materials and methods Chart review was performed for the consecutive patients who underwent OLIF by a single surgeon. Back pain severity on a visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at six weeks, three months, six months, one year and two years. Results A total of 21 patients (38 levels) were included in this study. The indications for surgery were degenerative disc disease (n=10, 47.6%), spondylolisthesis (n=9, 42.9%) and spinal stenosis (n=6, 28.6%). The median operating room time was 351 minutes (interquartile range (IQR): 279-406 minutes), blood loss was 40 ml (IQR: 30-150 ml), and hospital stay was 2.0 days (IQR: 1.0-3.5 days). The complication rate was 9.5%, both venous injuries. There were no other perioperative complications. Back pain severity decreased by 70%, on average, over two years (p <0.001). A total of 17 (81%) patients reported at least a two-point decrease from the baseline. The ODI scores decreased by 55%, on average, over two years (p <0.001), with 16 (76%) patients reporting at least a 15-point decrease from the baseline. Over two years, no symptomatic pseudarthrosis, hardware failure, reoperations, or additional complications were reported. Conclusions The oblique lateral interbody fusion performed without the intraoperative neuromonitoring was safe and clinically efficacious for up to two years. The complication rate in this cohort is similar to other published OLIF series and appears acceptable when

  1. Use of an ultrasonic osteotome device in spine surgery: experience from the first 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Ohnmeiss, Donna D; Lieberman, Isador H

    2013-12-01

    The ultrasonic BoneScalpel is a tissue-specific device that allows the surgeon to make precise osteotomies while protecting collateral or adjacent soft tissue structures. The device is comprised of a blunt ultrasonic blade that oscillates at over 22,500 cycles/s with an imperceptible microscopic amplitude. The recurring impacts pulverize the noncompliant crystalline structure resulting in a precise cut. The more compliant adjacent soft tissue is not affected by the ultrasonic oscillation. The purpose of this study is to report the experience and safety of using this ultrasonic osteotome device in a variety of spine surgeries. Data were retrospectively collected from medical charts and surgical reports for each surgery in which the ultrasonic scalpel was used to perform any type of osteotomy (facetectomy, laminotomy, laminectomy, en bloc resection, Smith Petersen osteotomy, pedicle subtraction osteotomy, etc.). The majority of patients had spinal stenosis, degenerative or adolescent scoliosis, pseudoarthrosis, adjacent segment degeneration, and spondylolisthesis et al. Intra-operative complications were also recorded. A total of 128 consecutive patients (73 female, 55 male) beginning with our first case experience were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range 12-85 years). Eighty patients (62.5 %) had previous spine surgery and/or spinal deformity. The ultrasonic scalpel was used at all levels of the spine and the average levels operated on each patient were 5. The mean operation time (skin to skin) was 4.3 h and the mean blood loss was 425.4 ml. In all cases, the ultrasonic scalpel was used to create the needed osteotomies to facilitate the surgical procedure without any percussion on the spinal column or injury to the underlying nerves. There was a noticeable absence of bleeding from the cut end of the bone consistent with the ultrasonic application. There were 11 instances of dural injuries (8.6 %) and two of which were directly

  2. Indices of Paraspinal Muscles Degeneration: Reliability and Association With Facet Joint Osteoarthritis: Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Klindukhov, Alexander; Li, Ling; Linov, Lina

    2016-11-01

    A reliability and cross-sectional observational study. To introduce a scoring system for visible fat infiltration in paraspinal muscles; to evaluate intertester and intratester reliability of this system and its relationship with indices of muscle density; to evaluate the association between indices of paraspinal muscle degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis. Current evidence suggests that the paraspinal muscles degeneration is associated with low back pain, facet joint osteoarthritis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative disc disease. However, the evaluation of paraspinal muscles on computed tomography is not radiological routine, probably because of absence of simple and reliable indices of paraspinal degeneration. One hundred fifty consecutive computed tomography scans of the lower back (N=75) or abdomen (N=75) were evaluated. Mean radiographic density (in Hounsfield units) and SD of the density of multifidus and erector spinae were evaluated at the L4-L5 spinal level. A new index of muscle degeneration, radiographic density ratio=muscle density/SD of density, was calculated. To evaluate the visible fat infiltration in paraspinal muscles, we proposed a 3-graded scoring system. The prevalence of facet joint osteoarthritis was also evaluated. Intraclass correlation and κ statistics were used to evaluate inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Logistic regression examined the association between paraspinal muscle indices and facet joint osteoarthritis. Intra-rater reliability for fat infiltration score (κ) ranged between 0.87 and 0.92; inter-rater reliability between 0.70 and 0.81. Intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation) for mean density of paraspinal muscles ranged between 0.96 and 0.99, inter-rater reliability between 0.95 and 0.99; SD intra-rater reliability ranged between 0.82 and 0.91, inter-rater reliability between 0.80 and 0.89. Significant associations (P<0.01) were found between facet joint osteoarthritis, fat infiltration score, and

  3. Efficacy of 25-OH Vitamin D3 prophylactic administration for reducing lameness in broilers grown on wire flooring.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Blankenship, J; Pevzner, I Y; Turner, B J

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is the most common cause of lameness in commercial broilers. Growing broilers on wire flooring provides an excellent experimental model for reproducibly triggering significant levels of lameness attributable to BCO. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of adding HyD (25-OH vitamin D3) to the drinking water as a preventative/prophylactic treatment for lameness. Broiler chicks were reared on 5 x 10 ft flat wire floor panels within 6 environmental chambers. Three chambers were supplied with tap water (Control group) and the remaining chambers were supplied with HyD (HyD group: 0.06 mL HyD solution/L water; dosing based on the HyD Solution label to provide 33.9 μg 25-OHD3/L) from d 1 through 56. Feed was provided ad libitum and was formulated to meet or exceed minimum standards for all ingredients, including 5,500 IU vitamin D3/kg. Lameness initially was detected on d 28, and the cumulative incidence of lameness on d 56 was higher in the Control group than in the HyD group (34.7 vs. 22.7%, respectively; P = 0.03; Z-test of proportions; chambers pooled). The most prevalent diagnoses for lame birds were osteochondrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) of the proximal femora (52%) and tibiae (79%), accompanied by minor incidences of tibial dyschondroplasia (0.33%), spondylolisthesis, or kinky back (0.67%), and twisted legs (1%). Broilers that survived to d 56 without developing lameness did not differ in BW when compared by group within a gender. The wire flooring model imposes a rigorous, sustained challenge that undoubtedly is much more severe than typically would be experienced by broilers under normal commercial conditions. Therefore the encouraging response to HyD supplementation in the present study supports the potential for 25-OH vitamin D3 to attenuate outbreaks of lameness caused by BCO in commercial broiler flocks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel; Høy, Kristian; Eiskjaer, Søren P; Christensen, Finn B

    2007-10-15

    Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range, 20-65 years); 61% were females, 49% were smokers, 30% had primary diagnosis of isthmic spondylolisthesis, 35% had disc degeneration and no previous surgery, and 35% had disc degeneration and previous surgery. Eighty-two percent of patients have had symptoms for more than 2 years and 50% were out of the labor market due to sickness. The EQ-5D instrument was applied for the measurement of health-related quality of life and costs (2004 U.S. dollars) were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. Productivity costs were valued by the Friction Cost method, and both costs and effects were discounted. Arithmetic means and 95% bias-corrected, bootstrapped confidence intervals were reported. Nonparametric statistics were used for tests of statistical significance. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis was conducted and reported using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. The circumferential group demonstrated clinical superiority over the posterolateral fusion group in functional outcome (P < 0.01), fusion rate (P < 0.04), and number of reoperations (P < 0.01) among others. Cost-utility analysis demonstrated circumferential fusion

  5. PREPARE: Pre-surgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Lindbäck, Yvonne; Tropp, Hans; Enthoven, Paul; Abbott, Allan; Öberg, Birgitta

    2016-07-11

    Current guidelines for the management of patients with specific low back pain pathology suggest non-surgical intervention as first-line treatment, but there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations of the content in the non-surgical intervention. Opinions regarding the dose of non-surgical intervention that should be trialled prior to decision making about surgery intervention vary. The aim of the present study is to investigate if physiotherapy administrated before surgery improves function, pain and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery. The patients are followed over two years. A secondary aim is to study what factors predict short and long term outcomes. This study is a single blinded, 2-arm, randomized controlled trial with follow-up after the completion of pre-surgery intervention as well as 3, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. The study will recruit men and women, 25 to 80 years of age, scheduled for surgery due to; disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease. A total of 202 patients will be randomly allocated to a pre-surgery physiotherapy intervention or a waiting list group for 9 weeks. The waiting-list group will receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will receive physiotherapy 2 times per week, consisting of a stratified classification treatment, based on assessment findings. One of the following treatments will be selected; a) Specific exercises and mobilization, b) Motor control exercises or c) Traction. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will also be prescribed a tailor-made general supervised exercise program. The physiotherapist will use a behavioral approach aimed at reducing patient fear avoidance and increasing activity levels. They will also receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. Primary

  6. Mitigating adverse event reporting bias in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Joshua D; McGowan, Kevin B; Halevi, Marci; Gerling, Michael C; Sharan, Alok D; Whang, Peter G; Maislin, Greg

    2013-08-21

    Recent articles in the lay press and literature have raised concerns about the ability to report honest adverse event data from industry-sponsored spine surgery studies. To address this, clinical trials may utilize an independent Clinical Events Committee (CEC) to review adverse events and readjudicate the severity and relatedness accordingly. We are aware of no prior study that has quantified either the degree to which investigator bias is present in adverse event reporting or the effect that an independent CEC has on mitigating this potential bias. The coflex Investigational Device Exemption study is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing coflex (Paradigm Spine) stabilization with lumbar spinal fusion to treat spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis. Investigators classified the severity of adverse events (mild, moderate, or severe) and their relationship to the surgery and device (unrelated, unlikely, possibly, probably, or definitely). An independent CEC, composed of three spine surgeons without affiliation to the study sponsor, reviewed and reclassified all adverse event reports submitted by the investigators. The CEC reclassified the level of severity, relation to the surgery, and/or relation to the device in 394 (37.3%) of 1055 reported adverse events. The proportion of adverse events that underwent reclassification was similar in the coflex and fusion groups (37.9% compared with 36.0%, p = 0.56). The CEC was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 10.7) times more likely to upgrade than downgrade the adverse event. The CEC was 7.3 (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.6) times more likely to upgrade than downgrade the relationship to the surgery and 11.6 (95% CI, 7.5 to 18.8) times more likely to upgrade than downgrade the relationship to the device. The status of the investigator's financial interest in the company had little effect on the reclassification of adverse events. Thirty-seven percent of adverse events were reclassified by the CEC; the large majority

  7. Validity of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system based on patient-reported improvement after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takahito; Okuda, Shinya; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Yamashita, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Tomiya; Wada, Eiji; Oda, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system is a physician-based outcome that has been used to evaluate treatment effectiveness after lumbar surgery. However, patient-centered evaluation becomes increasingly important. There is no study that has examined the relationship between the JOA scoring system and patients' self-reported improvement. The purpose of the present study was to validate the JOA scoring system for assessment of patient-reported improvement after lumbar surgery. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The patient sample included 273 mail-in responders of the 466 consecutive patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis between 1996 and 2008 in a single hospital. The outcome measures were the JOA scoring system and patients' self-reported improvement. Two hundred seventy three patients were divided into five anchoring groups based on self-reported improvement from "Much better" to "Much worse." Outcomes (ie, recovery rate, amount of change from preoperative condition, and postoperative score) based on the JOA scoring system were compared among groups. Using the patient's self-reported improvement scale as an anchor, the association among each of the outcomes was examined. The cutoff point and the area under the curve (AUC) that differentiated "Improved" from "Neither improved nor worse" was calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The recovery rate and postoperative score were significantly different in 9 of 10 pairs of anchoring groups. The amount of change was significantly different in six pairs. Spearman correlation coefficient for the 5-point scale anchors of patients' self-reported improvement was 0.20 (p=.001) for the baseline score, 0.31 (p<.001) for the amount of change, 0.55 (p<.001) for the recovery rate, and 0.56 (p<.001) for the postoperative score. According to ROC analysis, the best cutoff points and AUCs were 13 points and 0

  8. Comparative Prospective Study Reporting Intraoperative Parameters, Pedicle Screw Perforation, and Radiation Exposure in Navigation-Guided versus Non-navigated Fluoroscopy-Assisted Minimal Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kundnani, Vishal; Dutta, Shumayou; Patel, Ankit; Mehta, Gaurav; Singh, Mahendra

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To compare intraoperative parameters, radiation exposure, and pedicle screw perforation rate in navigation-guided versus non-navigated fluoroscopy-assisted minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Overview of Literature The poor reliability of fluoroscopy-guided instrumentation and growing concerns about radiation exposure have led to the development of navigation-guided instrumentation techniques in MIS TLIF. The literature evaluating the efficacy of navigation-guided MIS TLIF is scant. Methods Eighty-seven patients underwent navigation- or fluoroscopy-guided MIS TLIF for symptomatic lumbar/lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Demographics, intraoperative parameters (surgical time, blood loss), and radiation exposure (sec/mGy/Gy.cm2 noted from C-arm for comparison only) were recorded. Computed tomography was performed in patients in the navigation and non-navigation groups at postoperative 12 months and reviewed by an independent observer to assess the accuracy of screw placement, perforation incidence, location, grade (Mirza), and critical versus non-critical neurological implications. Results Twenty-seven patients (male/female, 11/16; L4–L5/L5–S1, 9/18) were operated with navigation-guided MIS TLIF, whereas 60 (male/female, 25/35; L4–L5/L5–S1, 26/34) with conventional fluoroscopy-guided MIS TILF. The use of navigation resulted in reduced fluoroscopy usage (dose area product, 0.47 Gy.cm2 versus 2.93 Gy.cm2), radiation exposure (1.68 mGy versus 10.97 mGy), and fluoroscopy time (46.5 seconds versus 119.08 seconds), with p-values of <0.001. Furthermore, 96.29% (104/108) of pedicle screws in the navigation group were accurately placed (grade 0) (4 breaches, all grade I) compared with 91.67% (220/240) in the non-navigation group (20 breaches, 16 grade I+4 grade II; p=0.114). None of the breaches resulted in a corresponding neurological deficit or required revision. Conclusions Navigation

  9. Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siewe, Jan; Bredow, Jan; Oppermann, Johannes; Koy, Timmo; Delank, Stefan; Knoell, Peter; Eysel, Peer; Sobottke, Rolf; Zarghooni, Kourosh; Röllinghoff, Marc

    2014-09-05

    The 360° fusion of lumbar segments is a common and well-researched therapy to treat various diseases of the spine. But it changes the biomechanics of the spine and may cause adjacent segment disease (ASD). Among the many techniques developed to avoid this complication, one appears promising. It combines a rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system (hybrid instrumentation, "topping off"). However, its clinical significance is still uncertain due to the lack of conclusive data. The study is a randomized, therapy-controlled, two-centre trial conducted in a clinical setting at two university hospitals. If they meet the criteria, outpatients presenting with degenerative disc disease, facet joint arthrosis or spondylolisthesis will be included in the study and randomized into two groups: a control group undergoing conventional fusion surgery (PLIF - posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion), and an intervention group undergoing fusion surgery using a new flexible pedicle screw system (PLIF + "topping off"), which was brought on the market in 2013. Follow-up examination will take place immediately after surgery, after 6 weeks and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. An ongoing assessment will be performed every year.Outcome measurements will include quality of life and pain assessments using validated questionnaires (ODI - Ostwestry Disability Index, SF-36™ - Short Form Health Survey 36, COMI - Core Outcome Measure Index). In addition, clinical and radiologic ASD, sagittal balance parameters and duration of work disability will be assessed. Inpatient and 6-month mortality, surgery-related data (e.g., intraoperative complications, blood loss, length of incision, surgical duration), postoperative complications (e.g. implant failure), adverse events, and serious adverse events will be monitored and documented throughout the study. New hybrid "topping off" systems might improve the outcome of lumbar spine fusion. But to date, there is a serious lack of and a great need

  10. Bilateral versus unilateral interlaminar approach for bilateral decompression in patients with single-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a multicenter retrospective study of 175 patients on postoperative pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    den Boogert, Hugo F; Keers, Joost C; Marinus Oterdoom, D L; Kuijlen, Jos M A

    2015-09-01

    The bilateral and unilateral interlaminar techniques for bilateral decompression both demonstrate good results for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Although there is some discussion about which approach is more effective, studies that directly compare these two popular techniques are rare. To address this shortcoming, this study compares postoperative functional disability, pain, and patient satisfaction among patients with single-level DLSS who underwent bilateral decompression using either a bilateral or unilateral approach. This retrospective study included patients who underwent operations between November 1, 2009, and October 1, 2011. These patients underwent single-level bilateral decompressive surgery using either the bilateral or unilateral interlaminar approach at one of 5 participating hospitals. Exclusion criteria included previous lumbar surgery, additional disc surgery, and spondylolisthesis requiring fusion surgery. Primary outcome measures included bodily pain (as reported using the visual analog scale [VAS]), the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In addition, reductions in leg and back symptoms and the patient's general evaluation of the procedure were queried. Finally, patient satisfaction and surgical parameters were evaluated. Questionnaires were sent to each patient's home, and electronic patient files were used to collect the data. One hundred and seventy-five patients returned the questionnaire (74.4% response rate; 68 and 107 patients who underwent the bilateral or unilateral approach, respectively). Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range 34-89 years), and the mean follow-up period was 14.2 months (range 3.3-27.4 years). There were no significant differences in ODI (20.3 vs 22.6 for the bilateral and unilateral approaches, respectively), RMDQ (3.99 vs 4.8, respectively), or pain scores between treatment groups. Back symptoms were reduced in 74.8% (bilateral: 74

  11. Association between vertebral cross-sectional area and lumbar lordosis angle in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wren, Tishya A L; Aggabao, Patricia C; Poorghasamians, Ervin; Chavez, Thomas A; Ponrartana, Skorn; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    and spondylolisthesis.

  12. Association between vertebral cross-sectional area and lumbar lordosis angle in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aggabao, Patricia C.; Poorghasamians, Ervin; Chavez, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. PMID:28245271

  13. Lumbar spinal fusion. Outcome in relation to surgical methods, choice of implant and postoperative rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Finn Bjarke

    2004-10-01

    were included in the investigation from 1979 to 1999. Each had prior to inclusion at least 2 years of CLBP and had therefore been subjected to most of the conservative treatment leg pain, due to localized isthmic spondylolisthesis grades I-II or primary or secondary degeneration. PATIENT-BASED FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME: Patients' self-reported parameters should include the impact of CLBP on daily activity, work and leisure time activities, anxiety/depression, social interests and intensity of back and leg pain. Between 1993 and 2003 approximately 1400 lumbar spinal fusion patients completed the Dallas Pain Questionnaire under prospective design studies. In 1996, the Low Back Pain Rating scale was added to the standard questionnaire packet distributed among spinal fusion patients. In our experience, these tools are valid instruments for clinical assessment of candidates for spinal fusion procedures. It is extremely difficult to interpret radiographs of both lumbar posterolateral fusion and anterior interbody fusion. Plain radiographs are clearly not the perfect media for analysis of spinal fusion, but until new and better diagnostic methods are available for clinical use, radiographs will remain the golden standard. Therefore, the development of a detailed reliable radiographic classification system is highly desirable. The classification used in the present thesis for the evaluation of posteroalteral spinal fusion, both with and without instrumentation, demonstrated good interobserver and intraobserver agreement. The classification showed acceptable reliability and may be one way to improve interstudy and intrastudy correlation of radiologic outcomes after posterolateral spinal fusion. Radiology-based evaluation of anterior lumbar interbody fusion is further complicated when cages are employed. The use of different cage designs and materials makes it almost impossible to establish a standard radiological classification system for anterior fusions. BONE-SCREW INTERFACE

  14. Development and Validation of a Prediction Model for Pain and Functional Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Khor, Sara; Lavallee, Danielle; Cizik, Amy M; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Howe, Christopher R; Lu, Dawei; Mohit, A Alex; Oskouian, Rod J; Roh, Jeffrey R; Shonnard, Neal; Dagal, Armagan; Flum, David R

    2018-03-07

    Functional impairment and pain are common indications for the initiation of lumbar spine surgery, but information about expected improvement in these patient-reported outcome (PRO) domains is not readily available to most patients and clinicians considering this type of surgery. To assess population-level PRO response after lumbar spine surgery, and develop/validate a prediction tool for PRO improvement. This statewide multicenter cohort was based at 15 Washington state hospitals representing approximately 75% of the state's spine fusion procedures. The Spine Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program and the survey center at the Comparative Effectiveness Translational Network prospectively collected clinical and PRO data from adult candidates for lumbar surgery, preoperatively and postoperatively, between 2012 and 2016. Prediction models were derived for PRO improvement 1 year after lumbar fusion surgeries on a random sample of 85% of the data and were validated in the remaining 15%. Surgical candidates from 2012 through 2015 were included; follow-up surveying continued until December 31, 2016, and data analysis was completed from July 2016 to April 2017. Functional improvement, defined as a reduction in Oswestry Disability Index score of 15 points or more; and back pain and leg pain improvement, defined a reduction in Numeric Rating Scale score of 2 points or more. A total of 1965 adult lumbar surgical candidates (mean [SD] age, 61.3 [12.5] years; 944 [59.6%] female) completed baseline surveys before surgery and at least 1 postoperative follow-up survey within 3 years. Of these, 1583 (80.6%) underwent elective lumbar fusion procedures; 1223 (77.3%) had stenosis, and 1033 (65.3%) had spondylolisthesis. Twelve-month follow-up participation rates for each outcome were between 66% and 70%. Improvements were reported in function, back pain, and leg pain at 12 months by 306 of 528 surgical patients (58.0%), 616 of 899 patients (68.5%), and 355 of 464 patients (76

  15. [Axial lumbar interbody fusion: prospective monocentric study].

    PubMed

    Stulík, J; Adámek, S; Barna, M; Kaspříková, N; Polanecký, O; Kryl, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic results in the patients who underwent L5-S1 fixation using the technique of percutaneous lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). The study comprised 23 patients, 11 women and 12 men, who ranged from age of 21 to 63 years, with an average of 48.2 years. In all patients surgical posterior stabilisation involving the L5-S1 segment had previously been done. The initial indications for surgery were L5-S1 spondylolisthesis in 20 and L5-S1 spondylosis and stenosis in three patients. The AxiaLIF technique for L5-S1 fixation was indicated in overweight patients and in those after repeated abdominal or retroperitoneal surgery. A suitable position and shape of the sacrum or lumbosacral junction was another criterion. The patients were evaluated between 26 and 56 months (average, 40.4 months) after primary surgery and, on the basis of CT and radiographic findings, bone union and lumbosacral junction stability were assessed. The clinical outcome was investigated using the ODI and VAS systems and the results were statistically analysed by the Wilcoxon test for paired samples with statistical significance set at a level of 0.05. The average VAS value was 6.6 before surgery and, after surgery, 5.2 at three months, 4.2 at six months, 3.1 at one year, 2.9 at two years and 2.1 at three years (n=18). At two post-operative years, improvement in the VAS value by 56.1% was recorded. The average pre-operative ODI value was 25.1; the post-operative values were 17.0 at six months, 12.3 at one year, 10.6 at two years and 8.2 at three years (n=18). At two years after surgery the ODI value improved by 57.8%. To the question concerning their willingness to undergo, with acquired experience, surgery for the same diagnosis, 21 patients (91.3%) gave an affirmative answer. Neither screw breakage nor neurovascular damage or rectal injury was found. CT scans showed complete interbody bone fusion in 22 of the 23 patients (95

  16. A prospective, multi-institutional comparative effectiveness study of lumbar spine surgery in morbidly obese patients: does minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion result in superior outcomes?

    PubMed

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Carr, Kevin; Thompson, Paul; Hoang, Kimberly; Darlington, Timothy; Perez, Edgar; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Cheng, Joseph; Isaacs, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Obese and morbidly obese patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery are a challenge to the operating surgeon. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and open-TLIF have been performed for many years with good results; however, functional outcomes after lumbar spine surgery in this subgroup of patients remain poorly understood. Furthermore, whether index MIS-TLIF or open-TLIF for the treatment of degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in morbidly obese results in superior postoperative functional outcomes remains unknown. A total of 148 (MIS-TLIF: n = 40, open-TLIF: n = 108) obese and morbidly obese patients undergoing index lumbar arthrodesis for low back pain and/or radiculopathy between January 2003 and December 2010 were selected from a multi-institutional prospective data registry. We collected and analyzed data on patient demographics, postoperative complications, back pain, leg pain, and functional disability over 2 years. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and back and leg pain numerical rating scores before surgery and then at 12 and 24 months after surgery. Clinical outcomes and complication rates were compared between both patient cohorts. Compared with preoperative status, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain, ODI, and SF-36 physical component score/mental component score were improved in both groups. Both MIS-TLIF and open-TLIF patients showed similar 2-year improvement in VAS for back pain (MIS-TLIF: 2.42 ± 3.81 vs. open-TLIF: 2.33 ± 3.67, P = 0.89), VAS for leg pain (MIS-TLIF: 3.77 ± 4.53 vs. open-TLIF: 2.67 ± 4.10, P = 0.18), ODI (MIS-TLIF: 11.61 ± 25.52 vs. open-TLIF: 14.88 ± 22.07, P = 0.47), and SF-36 physical component score (MIS-TLIF: 8.61 ± 17.72 vs. open-TLIF: 7.61 ± 15.55, P = 0.93), and SF-36 mental component score (MIS-TLIF: 4.35 ± 22.71 vs. open-TLIF: 5.96 ± 21.09, P = 0.69). Postoperative complications

  17. Dynamic stabilization using the Dynesys system versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease: a clinical and radiological outcomes-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Chi Heon; Park, Sung-Bae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Hyun-Jib; Lee, Soo-Eon

    2016-01-01

    United States is the biggest market for Dynesys, no eligible study from the United States was found, and 4 of 8 enrolled studies were performed in China. The results must be interpreted with caution because of publication bias. During Dynesys implantation, surgeons have to decide the length of the spacer and cord pretension. These values are debatable and can vary according to the surgeon's experience and the patient's condition. Differences between the surgical procedures were not considered in this study. CONCLUSIONS Fusion still remains the method of choice for advanced degeneration and gross instability. However, spinal degenerative disease with or without Grade I spondylolisthesis, particularly in patients who require a quicker recovery, will likely constitute the main indication for PDS using the Dynesys system.

  18. Interpedicular height as a predictor of radicular pain in adult degenerative scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Chang, Jodie; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Steger-May, Karen; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Dorward, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Context Spine surgeons must correlate clinical presentation with radiographic findings in a patient-tailored approach. Despite the prevalence of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), there are few radiographic markers to predict presence of radiculopathy. Emerging data suggest that spondylolisthesis, obliquity, foraminal stenosis and curve concavity may be associated with radiculopathy in ADS. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if radicular pain in ADS is associated with reduced interpedicular heights (IPHs) as measured on routine radiographs. Study Design/Setting Retrospective case-controlled study. Patient Sample The authors carried out a retrospective chart review at a tertiary care referral center that included ADS patients referred to scoliosis surgeons between 2012 and 2014. Inclusion criteria included patients with ADS and no prior thoraco-lumbar surgery. Data were collected from initial spine surgeon clinic notes and radiographs. Outcome Measures Clinical outcome data included presence, side(s) and level(s) of radicular pain; presence of motor deficits; and presence of sensory deficits. Methods Variables included age, gender, Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire data, and radiographic measurements. Radiographic measurements included Cobb angles and L1 to S1 IPHs on upright and supine radiographs. Associations between variables and outcome measures were assessed with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Authors have no conflicts of interests relevant to this study. Results A total of 200 patients with an average age of 51 years met the inclusion criteria. 60/200 presented with radicular pain. Increased age was associated with radicular pain, weakness and sensory deficits. Patients that were 55 years or older were approximately 8 times more likely to have a radicular pain (OR = 7.96, 95% CI 3.73, 17.0; p <0.001), 5 times more likely to have a motor deficit (OR = 5, 95

  19. The fate of prospective spine studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2015-03-01

    There has been concern expressed about research ethics with respect to not fully reporting data collected during clinical studies. One site available for all clinical trials is ClinicalTrials.gov. The original purpose of this site was to facilitate patients seeking a trial for the treatment of their particular condition. The internationally available site offers general information about the study, sponsor name, principal investigator, patient selection criteria, enrollment goal, study design, outcome measures, participating centers, initiation date, date posted, date completed, and other pertinent data. The site can be used to identify studies conducted for a particular condition or intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fate of spine-related studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov, with particular focus on the publication rate of completed trials. Analysis and classification of clinical studies posted on an international research registry Web page and literature search for related publications. Not applicable. The primary outcome measure was publication of the study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Multiple searches were conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov Web site to identify studies related to commonly treated spinal conditions, including herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. Studies related to tumors, fractures, or that included nonspine conditions were not included. For studies classified as completed more than 18 months before this review, literature searches were conducted to determine if the results of the study had been published and factors related to publication. The author has no financial conflict related to this work. There were 263 spine-related studies identified from searches on the ClinicalTrials.gov site. Data on the site had the studies classified as follows: 72 completed, 70 active, not recruiting (generally indicates collecting follow-up data), 74 recruiting, 11 recruiting by

  20. A perioperative cost analysis comparing single-level minimally invasive and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kern; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Fineberg, Steven J; Oglesby, Mathew; Pelton, Miguel A; Andersson, Gunnar B; Isayeva, Darya; Jegier, Briana J; Phillips, Frank M

    2014-08-01

    Emerging literature suggests superior clinical short- and long-term outcomes of MIS (minimally invasive surgery) TLIFs (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) versus open fusions. Few studies to date have analyzed the cost differences between the two techniques and their relationship to acute clinical outcomes. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in hospitalization costs and payments for patients treated with primary single-level MIS versus open TLIF. The impact of clinical outcomes and their contribution to financial differences was explored as well. This study was a nonrandomized, nonblinded prospective review. Sixty-six consecutive patients undergoing a single-level TLIF (open/MIS) were analyzed (33 open, 33 MIS). Patients in either cohort (MIS/open) were matched based on race, sex, age, smoking status, medical comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity index), payer, and diagnosis. Every patient in the study had a diagnosis of either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis and stenosis. Operative time (minutes), length of stay (LOS, days), estimated blood loss (EBL, mL), anesthesia time (minutes), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, and hospital cost/payment amount were assessed. The MIS and open TLIF groups were compared based on clinical outcomes measures and hospital cost/payment data using SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. The two groups were compared using bivariate chi-squared analysis. Mann-Whitney tests were used for non-normal distributed data. Effect size estimate was calculated with the Cohen d statistic and the r statistic with a 95% confidence interval. Average surgical time was shorter for the MIS than the open TLIF group (115.8 minutes vs. 186.0 minutes respectively; p=.001). Length of stay was also reduced for the MIS versus the open group (2.3 days vs. 2.9 days, respectively; p=.018). Average anesthesia time and EBL were also lower in the MIS group (p<.001). VAS scores decreased for both groups, although these

  1. Use of liposomal bupivacaine in the postoperative management of posterior spinal decompression.

    PubMed

    Grieff, Anthony N; Ghobrial, George M; Jallo, Jack

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim in this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of long-acting liposomal bupivacaine in comparison with bupivacaine hydrochloride for lowering postoperative analgesic usage in the management of posterior cervical and lumbar decompression and fusion. METHODS A retrospective cohort-matched chart review of 531 consecutive cases over 17 months (October 2013 to February 2015) for posterior cervical and lumbar spinal surgery procedures performed by a single surgeon (J.J.) was performed. Inclusion criteria for the analysis were limited to those patients who received posterior approach decompression and fusion for cervical or lumbar spondylolisthesis and/or stenosis. Patients from October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013, received periincisional injections of bupivacaine hydrochloride, whereas after January 1, 2014, liposomal bupivacaine was solely administered to all patients undergoing posterior approach cervical and lumbar spinal surgery through the duration of treatment. Patients were separated into 2 groups for further analysis: posterior cervical and posterior lumbar spinal surgery. RESULTS One hundred sixteen patients were identified: 52 in the cervical cohort and 64 in the lumbar cohort. For both cervical and lumbar cases, patients who received bupivacaine hydrochloride required approximately twice the adjusted morphine milligram equivalent (MME) per day in comparison with the liposomal bupivacaine groups (5.7 vs 2.7 MME, p = 0.27 [cervical] and 17.3 vs 7.1 MME, p = 0.30 [lumbar]). The amounts of intravenous rescue analgesic requirements were greater for bupivacaine hydrochloride in comparison with liposomal bupivacaine in both the cervical (1.0 vs 0.39 MME, p = 0.31) and lumbar (1.0 vs 0.37 MME, p = 0.08) cohorts as well. None of these differences was found to be statistically significant. There were also no significant differences in lengths of stay, complication rates, or infection rates. A subgroup analysis of both cohorts of opiate-naive versus

  2. Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome under local Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    hidden zone” of Macnab (Figure 2).8, 9 The average follow up time was, average 40 months, minimum 12 months. Outcome data at each visit included Macnab, VAS and ODI. Fig. 1 A diagnostic and therapeutic epidural gram may help identify unrecognized lateral recess stenosis underestimated by MRI. An excellent result from a therapeutic block lends excellent prognosis for a more lasting and “permanent” result from transforaminal endoscopic lateral recess decompression. Fig. 2 Kambin's Triangle provides access to the “hidden zone” of Macnab by foraminoplasty. The foramen and lateral recess is decompressed by removing the ventral aspect and tip of the superior articular process to gain access to the axilla between the traversing and exiting nerve. FBSS contains patho-anatomy in the axilla between the traversing and exiting nerve that hides the pain generators of FBSS. Results The average pre-operative VAS improved from 7.2 to 4.0, and ODI 48% to 31%. While temporary dysesthesia occurred in 4 patients in the early post-operative period, all were happy, as all received additional relief of their pre-op symptoms. They were also relieved to be able to avoid “open” decompression or fusion surgery. Conclusions / Level of Evidence 3 The transforaminal endoscopic approach is effective for FBSS due to residual/recurrent HNP and lateral stenosis. Failed initial index surgery may involve failure to recognize patho-anatomy in the axilla of the foramen housing the traversing and the exiting nerve, including the DRG, which is located cephalad and near the tip of SAP.10 The transforaminal endoscopic approach effectively decompresses the foramen and does not further destabilize the spine needing stabilization.11 It also avoids going through the previous surgical site. Clinical Relevance Disc narrowing as a consequence of translaminar discectomy and progressive degenerative narrowing and spondylolisthesis (Figure 3) as a natural history of degenerative disc disease can lead to central

  3. [Figures of first laureates of the Wiktor Dega medal (XXXVII Jubilee Congress of Polish Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Society, 10-13 September 2008)].

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; Rapała, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    Figures of two outstanding orthopaedists Professor Stefan Malawski and Professor Jerzy Król rewarded with the medal of the name of Wiktor Degi were described. The medal is being granted by the Chapter of the Medal as regarding for outstanding achievements for the Polish and world orthopaedics and rehabilitation. Profesor Stefan Kazimierz Malawski was born 26. 12. 1920 in the Vilnius area. In Vilnius he stated his medical studies, which he continued in Lwow and graduated in 1946 at the Marie Curie Skłodowska in Lublin. Professor Malawski's main field of interest were related to the problems related to tuberculosis of bones and joints and trauma of the lumbar and cervical spine. In the problems of bone tuberculosis he remains an unquestioned authority in Poland. His deep understanding of these clinical problems can be found in his text-book "Tuberculosis of bones and joints", which was printed in 1976. The information pertaining diagnosis and surgical treatment remain extremely valuable today. Another field of interest of Professor Malawski are pathologies of the spine. Disc disease, neoplasms of the spine, spinal stenosis and infections of the spine, spondylolisthesis are among many of his interests. This very wide field of interest can be dound in his 3 tome publication Spondyloorthopedics. His 166 papars printed in Poland and abroad bear proof of the Professors wide field of interest and deep knowledge. Professor Malawski was the first surgeon in Poland to perform surgery on the front elements of the spine in tuberculotic paraplegia. In 1958 he implemented surgical treatment of spine tumor--both primary and metastatic, by resecting them and stabilizing the spine with grafts. In the early 70's he focused on spinal stenosis. In the years 1982-1986 he was the Chairman of the Board of the Polish Orthopedic and Trauma Society. Professor Malawski introdued a modern set of Rules and Regulations, greatly simplifying the decision making process during General assemblies

  4. Endoscopic foraminal decompression for failed back surgery syndrome under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Anthony; Gore, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    (Figure 2).(8, 9) The average follow up time was, average 40 months, minimum 12 months. Outcome data at each visit included Macnab, VAS and ODI. Fig. 1A diagnostic and therapeutic epidural gram may help identify unrecognized lateral recess stenosis underestimated by MRI. An excellent result from a therapeutic block lends excellent prognosis for a more lasting and "permanent" result from transforaminal endoscopic lateral recess decompression.Fig. 2Kambin's Triangle provides access to the "hidden zone" of Macnab by foraminoplasty. The foramen and lateral recess is decompressed by removing the ventral aspect and tip of the superior articular process to gain access to the axilla between the traversing and exiting nerve. FBSS contains patho-anatomy in the axilla between the traversing and exiting nerve that hides the pain generators of FBSS. The average pre-operative VAS improved from 7.2 to 4.0, and ODI 48% to 31%. While temporary dysesthesia occurred in 4 patients in the early post-operative period, all were happy, as all received additional relief of their pre-op symptoms. They were also relieved to be able to avoid "open" decompression or fusion surgery. The transforaminal endoscopic approach is effective for FBSS due to residual/recurrent HNP and lateral stenosis. Failed initial index surgery may involve failure to recognize patho-anatomy in the axilla of the foramen housing the traversing and the exiting nerve, including the DRG, which is located cephalad and near the tip of SAP.(10) The transforaminal endoscopic approach effectively decompresses the foramen and does not further destabilize the spine needing stabilization.(11) It also avoids going through the previous surgical site. Disc narrowing as a consequence of translaminar discectomy and progressive degenerative narrowing and spondylolisthesis (Figure 3) as a natural history of degenerative disc disease can lead to central and lateral stenosis. The MRI may underestimate the degree of stenosis from a bulging or a