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Sample records for sports doping control

  1. Biomarker monitoring in sports doping control.

    PubMed

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf

    2012-06-01

    Biomarker monitoring can be considered a new era in the effort against doping. Opposed to the old concept in doping control of direct detection of a prohibited substance in a biological sample such as urine or blood, the new paradigm allows a personalized longitudinal monitoring of biomarkers that indicate non-physiological responses independently of the used doping technique or substance, and may cause sanctioning of illicit practices. This review presents the development of biomarker monitoring in sports doping control and focuses on the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport as the current concept of the World Anti Doping Agency for the detection of blood doping (hematological module). The scope of the article extends to the description of novel biomarkers and future concepts of application.

  2. Prevalence of doping in sports: doping control in Norway, 1977-1995.

    PubMed

    Bahr, R; Tjørnhom, M

    1998-01-01

    To examine the results from doping controls conducted by the Norwegian Confederation of Sport (NCS) from 1977 to 1995. Data were collected by combining three computerized databases and manual records on samples taken and results from analyses in the International Olympic Committee (IOC)-accredited laboratories in London, Huddinge, Cologne, and Oslo. Samples were declared positive if they contained any banned substance on the IOC list that was in effect at any given time. A total of 15,208 samples were taken; most of them (12,870; 85%) were from Norwegian athletes (90% unannounced tests) belonging to national federations under NCS jurisdiction (NCS members), 461 (3%) were from external Norwegian athletes (either users of private gyms or athletes in organized sports federations not affiliated with the NCS), and 1,874 (12%) were from foreign athletes (three cases with unknown affiliation). There were 130 positive samples and 24 refusals among NCS members (1.2%; men, 1.4%; women, 0.3%), 86 positive samples and 8 refusals among external Norwegian athletes (20%; men, 24%; women, 8%), and 39 positive samples and 1 refusal among foreign athletes (1.6%; men, 2.1%; women, 0.7%). A gradual decrease in the percentage of positive samples was observed among NCS members as testing frequency was increased gradually from 1987 to 1995 in the three high-prevalence sports: powerlifting, weightlifting, and athletics. An increase in the test frequency of doping tests was associated with a decrease in the percentage of positive samples in targeted sports.

  3. Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules.

  4. [Doping in disabled sports. Doping control activities at the Paralympic Games 1984-2008 and in Germany 1992-2008].

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Hemmersbach, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-12-15

    Activities concerning the fight against doping with regard to the Paralympic Games have been initiated in 1984, when first doping controls were conducted. The foundation of the International Paralympic Committee exactly 20 years ago (1989) considerably supported systematic sports drug-testing programs specifically designed to meet the particular challenges related to disabled sports, which yielded a variety of adverse analytical findings (e.g., with anabolic steroids, diuretics, corticosteroids, and stimulants) especially at Paralympic Summer Games. In Germany, doping controls for handicapped athletes were established in 1992 and have been conducted since by the National Paralympic Committee Germany and the National Anti-Doping Agency. Also here, various analogies in terms of antidoping rule violations were found in comparison to doping controls of nondisabled athletes. In the present article, available numbers of samples analyzed at Paralympic Summer and Winter Games as well as within the doping control program for disabled sports in Germany are summarized, and particularities concerning sample collection and the doping method termed boosting are presented.

  5. A call for policy guidance on psychometric testing in doping control in sport.

    PubMed

    Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual

  6. Gene doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  7. Affinity-based biosensors in sport medicine and doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Franco; Antiochia, Riccarda; Botrè, Francesco; Favero, Gabriele; Tortolini, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Affinity-based biosensors (ABBs) have started to be considered in sport medicine and doping control analysis because they are cheap, easy to use and sufficiently selective analytical devices, characterized by a reversible interaction with the analyte under investigation allowing the use of the same sensor for multiple analyses. In this review we describe the main categories of substances reported in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List and how ABBs may contribute to their detection. Although several ABBs proposed in the last few years display limit of detections that are in principle matching the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements, their application in the framework of 'traditional' antidoping tests seems quite unlikely, mainly because of the still insufficient selectivity especially in the case of 'pseudo-endogenous' compounds, and on the lack of complete information regarding potential matrix effects in real samples and following their routine use. At the same time, ABBs could contribute to fill a significant information gap concerning complementary evidence that can be obtained from their use 'on the spot', as well as to preselect a risk population of individuals to be targeted for a full antidoping test; while in sport medicine they could contribute to obtaining analytical information of physiological relevance from the measurement of specific parameters or markers before, during and after physical exercise.

  8. [Doping, sport and addiction--any links?].

    PubMed

    Foucart, J; Verbanck, P; Lebrun, P

    2015-01-01

    Sport is widely encouraged as it is beneficial for health. However, high-performance sport is more and more associated to rather suspicious practices; doping is one of the best example. From a physician point of view, the use of doping agents is obviously a major concern because taking such products often induce serious adverse effects on health. The present manuscript aims to inform physicians about the most frequent doping practices. It also points out that intensive sport can generate an "addictive" behavior sharing with "common"addictions a loss of practice control, a lack of interest in other activities and even a sport's practice detrimental to athlete's health. Analysis of the doping issue needs to take this reality into account as some doping products display an established " addictive" effect.

  9. Genes in sport and doping.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, A; Kaliszewski, P; Majorczyk, E; Zembroń-Łacny, A

    2013-09-01

    Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes' genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes' genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques.

  10. GENES IN SPORT AND DOPING

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszewski, P.; Majorczyk, E.; Zembroń-Łacny, A.

    2013-01-01

    Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes’ genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes’ genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques. PMID:24744482

  11. [Anti-doping control and public health: limits to the exposure of human health to risk in the name of sporting glory].

    PubMed

    Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2013-10-01

    Given the current regulatory environment surrounding doping in the world, and in view of the recurring scandals linking leading athletes in a variety of sports with doping, this paper aims to provide some thoughts on the relationship between doping and public health, taking as base reference the risks doping poses to health and considering the regulatory options that have been adopted by the international community and the sports federations to control and supervise this unsporting and risky practice. The text seeks to reflect on the necessary balance between sport and health, as well as on the role of the state in preserving this balance.

  12. [Doping in sports. Cases reported to the Poison Control Center of Marseille from 1992 to 2000].

    PubMed

    Spadari, M; Coja, C; Rodor, F; Monnier, B; Affaton, M F; Arditti, J; Hayek-Lanthois, M; David, J M; Valli, M

    2001-11-24

    To study the doping substances used in sport and their toxicity. Retrospective analysis from January 1992 to December 2000 of the cases of use of doping substances in sport reported by telephone to the anti-poison center in Marseilles. Fifty-one cases were reported concerning 48 men and 3 women with a mean age of 30, ranging from 10 to 55 years. Sixty-three percent of cases were reported over the last four years. The sport practiced was bodybuilding, except in 2 cases (cycling in one case and running in the other). The products used were mainly anabolizing hormones (15 times), clenbuterol (14 times) and creatine (7 times). A third of cases concerned associations of substances and 19 cases presented with symptomatology. The diversity in nature and status of the substances mentioned and their association requires enhanced vigilance with regard to the use of drugs in sport. The recent measures voted within the framework of the anti-doping law dated 23/3/99 are aimed at increasing surveillance with the development of anti-doping antennae.

  13. Distribution of caffeine levels in urine in different sports in relation to doping control before and after the removal of caffeine from the WADA doping list.

    PubMed

    Van Thuyne, W; Delbeke, F T

    2006-09-01

    Caffeine concentrations were measured in the urine of 4633 athletes tested for doping control in the Ghent Doping Control Laboratory in 2004. Determination of these concentrations was done using an alkaline extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (9 : 1; v/v) followed by high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The method was validated according to ISO 17 025 standards (International Organisation for Standardisation). Quantification was done by using a linear calibration curve in the range from 0 to 20 microg/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.10 microg/ml. Because the results were not normally distributed, transformation of the data was done to evaluate the difference in detected concentrations in several sports. This resulted in an overall average concentration of 1.12 +/- 2.68 microg/ml. Comparison of the most frequently tested sports in 2004 demonstrated that caffeine concentrations in samples originating from power lifters are significantly higher in comparison to urines taken in other sports. Also, a significant difference between caffeine concentrations found in cycling and concentrations found in other sports, including athletics and some ball sports, was observed. A comparison was made between results obtained in 2004 and results obtained before the removal of caffeine from the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) doping list indicating that average caffeine concentrations decreased after the withdrawal of caffeine from the list of prohibited substances. The overall percentage of positive samples between the two periods remained the same although the percentage of positive samples noticed in cycling increased after the removal of caffeine from the doping list.

  14. Biomarkers: unrealized potential in sports doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Teale, Phil; Barton, Chris; Driver, Philip M; Kay, Richard G

    2009-09-01

    The fight against doping in sport using analytical chemistry is a mature area with a history of approximately 100 years in horse racing and at least 40 years in human sport. Over that period, the techniques used and the breadth of coverage have developed significantly. These improvements in the testing methods have been matched by the increased sophistication of the methods, drugs and therapies available to the cheat and, as a result, testing has been a reactive process constantly adapting to meet new threats. Following the inception of the World Anti-Doping Agency, research into the methods and technologies available for human doping control have received coordinated funding on an international basis. The area of biomarker research has been a major beneficiary of this funding. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the application of biomarkers to doping control and to assess the impact this could make in the future.

  15. Doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Baron, D A; Foley, T

    2009-10-01

    Regardless of one's stance on the topic, drugs are an important issue in sports. Sports pages in newspapers around the globe routinely report on athletes at every level ofcompetition using performance enhancing substances to gain an unfair advantage over their competitors. The level of sophistication in beating drug testing, and developing "next-generation" agents continues to raise. The relative paucity of well designed research has been an additional factor impeding attempts to adequately address the problem. Very limited funds are currently available to conduct the necessary research. Without credible data, athletes are more vulnerable to the claims made by those benefiting from the sales of these compounds. Many younger fans and those dreaming of a similar future admire highly successful professional athletes. A strong, consistent statement admonishing drug use is needed. Actions speak louder than words. Every time a successful athlete is caught using PE drugs, every effort to diminish drug use is negatively impacted. The "win at all cost" and "second place is the first loser" mentality needs to be continually challenged by words and actions in youth sports at every level of competition. Finally, the war on drugs in sports needs to be a coordinated, well organized international undertaking as sports play an important role in virtually every culture. If we are to maintain the integrity of competition and protect the health of the athletes, we must dramatically increase our efforts to eliminate performance enhancing drugs as an acceptable option for any athlete. Sports science professionals and sports psychiatrists need to work with coaches, trainers, athletes, and national governing bodies to educating athletes on the effects of performance enhancing drug use. To achieve this important goal everyone involved in sports needs to be knowledgeable on the negative impact this has on all aspects of organized sports. It is a difficult challenge, but one that must be

  16. Doping and thrombosis in sports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Historically, humans have long sought to enhance their "athletic" performance to increase body weight, aggressiveness, mental concentration and physical strength, contextually reducing fatigue, pain, and improving recovery. Although regular training is the mainstay for achieving these targets, the ancillary use of ergogenic aids has become commonplace in all sports. The demarcation between ergogenic aids and doping substances or practices is continuously challenging and mostly based on perceptions regarding the corruption of the fairness of competition and the potential side effects or adverse events arising from the use of otherwise unnecessary ergogenic substances. A kaleidoscope of side effects has been associated with the use of doping agents, including behavioral, skeletal, endocrinologic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and cardiovascular imbalances. Among the various doping substances, the most striking association with thrombotic complications has been reported for androgenic anabolic steroids (i.e., cardiomyopathy, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, myocardial infarction [MI], intracardiac thrombosis, stroke, venous thromboembolism [VTE], limb arterial thrombosis, branch retinal vein occlusion, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and blood boosting (i.e., VTE and MI, especially for epoetin and analogs). The potential thrombotic complication arising from misuse of other doping agents such as the administration of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, cocaine, and platelet-derived preparations is instead speculative or anecdotal at best. The present article provides an overview on the epidemiological association as well as the underlying biochemical and biological mechanisms linking the practice of doping in sports with the development of thrombosis. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. [Doping. High-tech cheating in sport].

    PubMed

    Striegel, H; Simon, P

    2007-07-01

    Today, doping is no longer limited to the classical drugs with well known effects and side effects. Older generation anabolic steroids are used mainly in fitness and recreational sports. In contrast, due to doping tests, substances used in competitive sports include peptide hormones, medications not yet approved, and even specially developed drugs, such as designer steroids. Of the peptide hormones, particularly growth hormones (human growth hormone), erythropoietin and generics, insulin, and presumably insulin-like growth factor 1 are used. Substance groups potentially relevant for doping are selective androgen receptor modulators and gene therapy drugs. For most of these, there is no knowledge about side effects in healthy individuals, and no adequate doping tests. Therefore, anti-doping measures cannot rely solely on the continual improvement of doping analyses, but should include increased measures for doping prevention. Not only sports organizations, but also governmental agencies should be involved in developing and implementing these measures.

  18. Self-control, self-regulation, and doping in sport: a test of the strength-energy model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derwin K; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Dimmock, James A; Donovan, Robert J; Keatley, David A; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-04-01

    We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes' behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or "doping." Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a "lollipop" decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the "lollipop" protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.

  19. [Medicolegal aspects of doping in sports].

    PubMed

    Pruvost, J; Depiesse, F

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the medico-legal aspects of national and international procedures for monitoring prescription drug use by competing athletes. We studied the French law No. 99-223 of March 23, 1999, relating to the protection of the health of athletes? We also studied annual statistics from the Ministry of Sports concerning anti-doping controls, substances detected by the National Doping Control Laboratory and penalties applied since 2000, as well as the World Anti-Doping Code, which came into effect on January 1, 2004, and should be universally applied by 2006. Athletes registered with a federation or unregistered athletes taking part in competitions approved by sporting federations can use prescription drugs but must follow strict rules. Athletes under investigation for drug use must declare all drugs or products recently taken. The use of prescription drugs not on the list of the prohibited substances is allowed, but evidence of the use of such drugs is the responsibility of the prescriber. A medical practitioner in France who considers it essential to prescribe prohibited drugs or drugs under certain restrictions must systematically inform the athlete about the regulations by providing various certificates and forms. For international athletes, a form authorizing therapeutic use must be submitted to the validation committee of the applicable international federation. Disciplinary, ordinal and penal sanctions are also described. Prescription drug use by an athlete is never a light matter and always engages the responsibility of the doctor. Anti-doping controls and sanctions encourage physicians to comply scrupulously with the medico-legal rules set forth by the public health code and the world anti-doping code.

  20. Current trends in mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins: Application to veterinary and sports-doping control.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Irene; Blokland, Marco; Nessen, Merel A; Sterk, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Detection of misuse of peptides and proteins as growth promoters is a major issue for sport and food regulatory agencies. The limitations of current analytical detection strategies for this class of compounds, in combination with their efficacy in growth-promoting effects, make peptide and protein drugs highly susceptible to abuse by either athletes or farmers who seek for products to illicitly enhance muscle growth. Mass spectrometry (MS) for qualitative analysis of peptides and proteins is well-established, particularly due to tremendous efforts in the proteomics community. Similarly, due to advancements in targeted proteomic strategies and the rapid growth of protein-based biopharmaceuticals, MS for quantitative analysis of peptides and proteins is becoming more widely accepted. These continuous advances in MS instrumentation and MS-based methodologies offer enormous opportunities for detection and confirmation of peptides and proteins. Therefore, MS seems to be the method of choice to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of peptide and proteins with growth-promoting properties. This review aims to address the opportunities of MS for peptide and protein analysis in veterinary control and sports-doping control with a particular focus on detection of illicit growth promotion. An overview of potential peptide and protein targets, including their amino acid sequence characteristics and current MS-based detection strategies is, therefore, provided. Furthermore, improvements of current and new detection strategies with state-of-the-art MS instrumentation are discussed for qualitative and quantitative approaches. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors, Sport and Doping.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sansone, Massimiliano; Sansone, Andrea; Ceci, Roberta; Duranti, Guglielmo; Borrione, Paolo; Crescioli, Clara; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil) are drugs commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. PDE5i are not prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) but are alleged to be frequently misused by healthy athletes to improve sporting performance. In vitro and in vivo studies have reported various effects of PDE5i on cardiovascular, muscular, metabolic, and neuroendocrine systems and the potential, therefore, to enhance performance of healthy athletes during training and competition. This suggests well-controlled research studies to examine the ergogenic effects of PDE5i on performance during activities that simulate real sporting situations are warranted to determine if PDE5i should be included on the prohibited WADA list. In the meantime, there is concern that some otherwise healthy athletes will continue to misuse PDE5i to gain an unfair competitive advantage over their competitors.

  2. Mildronate (Meldonium) in professional sports - monitoring doping control urine samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Dib, Josef; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    To date, substances such as Mildronate (Meldonium) are not on the radar of anti-doping laboratories as the compound is not explicitly classified as prohibited. However, the anti-ischemic drug Mildronate demonstrates an increase in endurance performance of athletes, improved rehabilitation after exercise, protection against stress, and enhanced activations of central nervous system (CNS) functions. In the present study, the existing evidence of Mildronate's usage in sport, which is arguably not (exclusively) based on medicinal reasons, is corroborated by unequivocal analytical data allowing the estimation of the prevalence and extent of misuse in professional sports. Such data are vital to support decision-making processes, particularly regarding the ban on drugs in sport. Due to the growing body of evidence (black market products and athlete statements) concerning its misuse in sport, adequate test methods for the reliable identification of Mildronate are required, especially since the substance has been added to the 2015 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) monitoring program. In the present study, two approaches were established using an in-house synthesized labelled internal standard (Mildronate-D3 ). One aimed at the implementation of the analyte into routine doping control screening methods to enable its monitoring at the lowest possible additional workload for the laboratory, and another that is appropriate for the peculiar specifics of the analyte, allowing the unequivocal confirmation of findings using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (HILIC-HRMS). Here, according to applicable regulations in sports drug testing, a full qualitative validation was conducted. The assay demonstrated good specificity, robustness (rRT=0.3%), precision (intra-day: 7.0-8.4%; inter-day: 9.9-12.9%), excellent linearity (R>0.99) and an adequate lower limit of detection (<10 ng/mL). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mildronate (Meldonium) in professional sports – monitoring doping control urine samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography – high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Görgens, Christian; Dib, Josef; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    To date, substances such as Mildronate (Meldonium) are not on the radar of anti‐doping laboratories as the compound is not explicitly classified as prohibited. However, the anti‐ischemic drug Mildronate demonstrates an increase in endurance performance of athletes, improved rehabilitation after exercise, protection against stress, and enhanced activations of central nervous system (CNS) functions. In the present study, the existing evidence of Mildronate's usage in sport, which is arguably not (exclusively) based on medicinal reasons, is corroborated by unequivocal analytical data allowing the estimation of the prevalence and extent of misuse in professional sports. Such data are vital to support decision‐making processes, particularly regarding the ban on drugs in sport. Due to the growing body of evidence (black market products and athlete statements) concerning its misuse in sport, adequate test methods for the reliable identification of Mildronate are required, especially since the substance has been added to the 2015 World Anti‐Doping Agency (WADA) monitoring program. In the present study, two approaches were established using an in‐house synthesized labelled internal standard (Mildronate‐D3). One aimed at the implementation of the analyte into routine doping control screening methods to enable its monitoring at the lowest possible additional workload for the laboratory, and another that is appropriate for the peculiar specifics of the analyte, allowing the unequivocal confirmation of findings using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography‐high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (HILIC‐HRMS). Here, according to applicable regulations in sports drug testing, a full qualitative validation was conducted. The assay demonstrated good specificity, robustness (rRT=0.3%), precision (intra‐day: 7.0–8.4%; inter‐day: 9.9–12.9%), excellent linearity (R>0.99) and an adequate lower limit of detection (<10 ng/mL). © 2015 The Authors

  4. Cannabis in sport: anti-doping perspective.

    PubMed

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsibility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of cannabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete's health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology.

  5. Gene doping in sport - perspectives and risks.

    PubMed

    Brzeziańska, E; Domańska, D; Jegier, A

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years considerable progress regarding the knowledge of the human genome map has been achieved. As a result, attempts to use gene therapy in patients' management are more and more often undertaken. The aim of gene therapy is to replace defective genes in vivo and/or to promote the long-term endogenous synthesis of deficient protein. In vitro studies improve the production of human recombinant proteins, such as insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and erythropoietin (EPO), which could have therapeutic application. Unfortunately, genetic methods developed for therapeutic purposes are increasingly being used in competitive sports. Some new substances (e.g., antibodies against myostatin or myostatin blockers) might be used in gene doping in athletes. The use of these substances may cause an increase of body weight and muscle mass and a significant improvement of muscle strength. Although it is proven that uncontrolled manipulation of genetic material and/or the introduction of recombinant proteins may be associated with health risks, athletes are increasingly turning to banned gene doping. At the same time, anti-doping research is undertaken in many laboratories around the world to try to develop and refine ever newer techniques for gene doping detection in sport. Thanks to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and other sports organizations there is a hope for real protection of athletes from adverse health effects of gene doping, which at the same time gives a chance to sustain the idea of fair play in sport.

  6. Doping in sport: effects, harm and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, V

    2015-03-01

    Doping in sport is a widespread problem not just among elite athletes, but even more so in recreational sports. In scientific literature, major emphasis is placed on doping detection, whereas detrimental effects of doping agents on athletes' health are seldom discussed. Androgenic anabolic steroids are well known for their positive effects on muscle mass and strength. Human growth hormone also increases muscle mass, although the majority of that is an increase in extracellular fluid and not the functional muscle mass. In recreational athletes, growth hormone does not have major effect on muscle strength, power or aerobic capacity, but stimulates anaerobic exercise capacity. Erythropoietin administration increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood improving endurance measures, whereas systemic administration of beta-adrenergic agonists may have positive effect on sprint capacity, and beta-adrenergic antagonists reduce muscle tremor. Thus, there are certain drugs that can improve selective aspects of physical performance. However, most of the doping agents exert serious side-effects, especially when used in combination, at high doses and for a long duration. The extent of long-term health consequences is difficult to predict, but likely to be substantial, especially when gene doping is considered. This review summarises the main groups of doping agents used by athletes, with the main focus on their effects on athletic performance and adverse effects. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. The psychology behind doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Ehrnborg, Christer; Rosén, Thord

    2009-08-01

    Drugs and methods to improve physical performance among athletes have been used since the beginning of sport history, but the use of performance enhancing drugs has not always been regarded as cheating. In short, the motives for doping are improving and maintaining physical functioning, coping with the social/psychological pressures and striving for social and psychological goals, including economic benefits. Factors such as, "doping dilemma", "win at all costs", cost versus benefit, and the specificity of some specific doping agents, also play major roles. It seems that action on the athletes' attitude about the achievement of physical improvement and creating effective methods to reveal the drug abuse, are two main ways in winning the struggle against doping.

  8. Hormones as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  9. Alternative medicine and doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Koh, Benjamin; Freeman, Lynne; Zaslawski, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore doping risk-taking behaviours may occur because of the potential financial, social and performance gains and the optimistically biased interpretation (that trying alternatives is part of the "spirit of sport") and doping risk-taking behaviours may occur.This discussion paper seeks to situate the reader in a world where elite level sports and CAM intersects. It posits that an understanding of the underlying motivation for CAM use and doping is currently lacking and that anti-doping rules need to be repositioned in the context of the emerging phenomenon and prevalence of CAM use.

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  11. Confidentiality, disclosure and doping in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, M; Phillips, N

    2011-03-01

    The manner in which healthcare and medical professionals serve their athlete patients is governed by a variety of relevant codes of conduct. A range of codified rules is presented that refer both the welfare of the patient and the maintaining of confidentiality, which is at the heart of trustworthy relations. The 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), however, appears to oblige all healthcare professionals not to assist athletes if they are known to be engaged in doping behaviours under fear of removal from working with athletes from the respective sports. In contrast, serving the best interests of their athlete patients may oblige healthcare professionals to give advice and guidance, not least in terms of harm minimisation. In so far as the professional conduct of a healthcare professional is guided both by professional code and World Anti-Doping Code, they are obliged to fall foul of one or the other. We call for urgent and pressing inter-professional dialogue with the World Anti-Doping Agency to clarify this situation.

  12. Sports doping: emerging designer and therapeutic β2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Georgakopoulos, C; Sterk, S; Nielen, M W F

    2013-10-21

    Beta2-adrenergic agonists, or β2-agonists, are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptom-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. The use of β2-agonists is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to claimed anabolic effects, and also, is prohibited as growth promoters in cattle fattening in the European Union. This paper reviews the last seven-year (2006-2012) literature concerning the development of novel β2-agonists molecules either by modifying the molecule of known β2-agonists or by introducing moieties producing indole-, adamantyl- or phenyl urea derivatives. New emerging β2-agonists molecules for future therapeutic use are also presented, intending to emphasize their potential use for doping purposes or as growth promoters in the near future. © 2013.

  13. Sport, Society, and Anti-Doping Policy: An Ethical Overview.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, Andrew J; McNamee, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the philosophical and ethical underpinnings of anti-doping policy. The nature of sport and its gratuitous logic is explored. The doping rules in sport, such as the Prohibited List, are ways of drawing a line to facilitate a certain sort of competition. Sports can be understood as a means of testing the natural physical abilities of the athlete, combined with the hard work they put into improving their performance. A test promoted by the anti-doping laws. Permitting certain forms of performance enhancement would threaten the special nature of such a test. Doping can be seen as a threat to the integrity of sport, not just because of the rule breaking doping currently entails. The chapter explores the ethical issues that arise with such forms of enhancement, such as fairness, harms to health, and indeed a refusal to accept human limitations. Finally, the criteria upon which a substance or method may be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is addressed. The 3-part criteria, concerning (1) enhancement, (2) health, and (3) the spirit of sport are described, and literature that takes a critical line is addressed. Particular reference is made to the public health agenda explicit within anti-doping policy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping.

  15. [Are newspapers a reliable source of information about doping in sports?].

    PubMed

    Durrieu, Geneviève; Gorsse, Elisabeth; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    To study the coverage by French newspapers of doping in sports, we performed a systematic review of articles appearing between January and March 2003 on the following French websites: L'Equipe, Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, La Dépêche du Midi and Agence France-Presse (AFP). We recorded a total of 58 articles about doping. Among them, 48 (83%) were collected from the AFP news. L'Equipe, a French sports newspaper, published seven articles (12%). Most of the recorded data reported results of worldwide antidoping control (71%). No information about new drugs was found. The analysis of the selected articles pointed out the following: (i) the seriousness of observations related to doping since, during this 3-month period, we noted two deaths of athletes; (ii) the risks associated with the use of dietary supplements, particularly products including amphetamine derivatives; (iii) the interest in judicial investigation as an information source about doping in sports (investigation of suspicious deaths of Italian football players); and (iv) identification of the sports involved in doping (cycling, but also athletics, football, rugby). Systematic analysis of newspaper reports can be considered as a relevant method for monitoring the pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology of doping in sports.

  16. Prevalence of doping use in elite sports: a review of numbers and methods.

    PubMed

    de Hon, Olivier; Kuipers, Harm; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of doping in elite sports is relevant for all those involved in sports, particularly for evaluating anti-doping policy measures. Remarkably, few scientific articles have addressed this subject so far, and the last review dates back to 1997. As a consequence, the true prevalence of doping in elite sports is unknown. Even though it is virtually impossible to uncover the exact prevalence of a prohibited activity such as doping, various methods are available to uncover parts of this particular problem, which enables the circumvention (to a certain degree) of the issues of truthfulness, definition problems and the limits of pharmacological evidence. This review outlines the various methods that exist and presents the scarce data available in this area. It is concluded that a combination of questionnaires using the Randomised Response Technique and models of biological parameters is able to provide the statistical possibilities to reveal accurate estimates of this often undisclosed practice. Data gathered in this way yield an estimation of 14-39% of current adult elite athletes who intentionally used doping. These period prevalences have been found in specific sub-groups of elite athletes, and the available data suggest that the prevalence of doping is considerably different between sub-groups with varying types of sport, levels and nationalities. The above-mentioned figure of 14-39% is likely to be a more accurate reflection of the prevalence of intentional doping in elite sports than that provided by doping control test results (estimate of doping: 1-2% annually) or questionnaire-based research (estimations between 1 and 70% depending on sport, level and exact definitions of intent and doping). In the future, analytical science may play a more important role in this topic if it may become feasible to detect very low concentrations of prohibited substances in sewage systems downstream of major sporting events. However, it is clear that current doping

  17. Indirect androgen doping by oestrogen blockade in sports

    PubMed Central

    Handelsman, D J

    2008-01-01

    Androgens can increase muscular mass and strength and remain the most frequently abused and widely available drugs used in sports doping. Banning the administration of natural or synthetic androgens has led to a variety of strategies to circumvent the ban of the most effective ergogenic agents for power sports. Among these, a variety of indirect androgen doping strategies aiming to produce a sustained rise in endogenous testosterone have been utilized. These include oestrogen blockade by drugs that act as oestrogen receptor antagonists (antioestrogen) or aromatase inhibitors. The physiological and pharmacological basis for the effects of oestrogen blockade in men, but not women, are reviewed. PMID:18500381

  18. Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Catlin, D H; Fitch, K D; Ljungqvist, A

    2008-08-01

    The fight against doping in sports commenced as a result of the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games in 1960. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission (IOC-MC) which had the task of designing a strategy to combat the misuse of drugs in Olympic Sport. Some International Sport Federations (IF) and National Sports Federations followed suit, but progress was modest until the world's best male sprinter was found doped with anabolic steroids at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988. Further progress was made following the cessation of the cold war in 1989 and in 1999 public authorities around the world joined the Olympic Movement in a unique partnership by creating WADA--the 'World Anti-Doping Agency'. The troubled history of the anti-doping fight from the 1960s until today is reviewed. In particular, the development of detection methods for an ever increasing number of drugs that can be used to dope is described, as are the measures that have been taken to protect the health of the athletes, including those who may need banned substances for medical reasons.

  19. Doping in sports in ancient and recent times.

    PubMed

    Conti, Andrea A

    2010-01-01

    Doping in sports is the use of forbidden techniques and/or the assumption of prohibited substances by athletes in order to increase physical performances. The origin of the word doping is today still discussed; however some sources indicate that an African tribe, the Kaffirs, gave the name of "dop" to a beverage that was largely consumed in religious ceremonies as a stimulant drink. Diet modifications were among the most widely used procedures to increase physical performance in sports in the classical world. Beside diet measures, the assumption of "magical" potions deriving from the vegetable and animal realms to improve physical fitness and sportive performance is documented both in ancient Greece and Rome. The composition of these preparations is not yet fully clear, but they probably contained stimulants such as alcohol or hallucinating mushrooms. Vegetal stimulants were largely used in the nineteenth century, a period in which pharmacology and laboratory medicine were established and achieved remarkable scientific results. In the twentieth century different chronological and operative phases may be detected in the evolution of doping practices. To prevent these practices, from the sixties an intense struggle against doping in sports was begun at an international level. Doping in sports is unfair with respect to competitors and dangerous for health.

  20. [Forensic-medical diagnostics of doping cases in sports].

    PubMed

    Khodasevich, L S; Kuzin, S G; Khodasevich, A L

    2013-01-01

    The present review of the literature is focused on the problem of forensic-medical diagnostics of doping cases in sports, with special reference to the main classes of pharmaceutical products forbidden for use by the International Olympic Committee. The main causes of death among the athletes as a result of using doping substances are considered. Much attention is given to adverse reactions induced by long-time intake of anabolic steroids many of which can be identified at autopsy.

  1. Proteases in doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Thevis, M; Maurer, J; Kohler, M; Geyer, H; Schänzer, W

    2007-07-01

    Urine manipulation in sports drug testing has become a serious problem for doping control laboratories, and recent scandals in elite endurance sports have revealed the problem of urine manipulation presumably using proteases, which will impede the detection of drugs such as erythropoietin (EPO) or other peptide hormones. Using commonly accepted analytical strategies, a protocol was developed enabling the determination of elevated protease activities in doping control specimens followed by the visualization of protein degradation and identification of proteases such as chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain. Therefore, protease detection kits based on fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled casein were employed, and protease concentrations greater than 15 microg/mL of urine entailed subsequent 1-dimensional gel electrophoretic visualization of urinary proteins. The presence of 20 microg of proteases per mL of urine caused a complete degradation of proteins usually observed in urinary matrices ("trace of burning"), while respective proteases were still detected in spiked urine samples after 10 days of storage at + 4 and - 20 degrees C. Identification of target proteases at respective molecular weights was accomplished using bottom-up sequencing approaches based on in-gel digestion of separated enzymes followed by capillary liquid chromatography--Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

  2. [Sports and athletes deserve doping hunting].

    PubMed

    Gremion, G; Saugy, M

    2013-07-17

    This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions!

  3. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  4. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  5. GENE DOPING IN SPORT – PERSPECTIVES AND RISKS

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziańska, E; Domańska, D

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years considerable progress regarding the knowledge of the human genome map has been achieved. As a result, attempts to use gene therapy in patients’ management are more and more often undertaken. The aim of gene therapy is to replace defective genes in vivo and/or to promote the long-term endogenous synthesis of deficient protein. In vitro studies improve the production of human recombinant proteins, such as insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and erythropoietin (EPO), which could have therapeutic application. Unfortunately, genetic methods developed for therapeutic purposes are increasingly being used in competitive sports. Some new substances (e.g., antibodies against myostatin or myostatin blockers) might be used in gene doping in athletes. The use of these substances may cause an increase of body weight and muscle mass and a significant improvement of muscle strength. Although it is proven that uncontrolled manipulation of genetic material and/or the introduction of recombinant proteins may be associated with health risks, athletes are increasingly turning to banned gene doping. At the same time, anti-doping research is undertaken in many laboratories around the world to try to develop and refine ever newer techniques for gene doping detection in sport. Thanks to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and other sports organizations there is a hope for real protection of athletes from adverse health effects of gene doping, which at the same time gives a chance to sustain the idea of fair play in sport. PMID:25435666

  6. Doping control analyses in horseracing: a clinician's guide.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2014-04-01

    Doping(1) in sports is highly detrimental, not only to the athletes involved but to the sport itself as well as to the confidence of the spectators and other participants. To protect the integrity of any sport, there must be in place an effective doping control program. In human sports, a 'top-down' and generally unified approach is taken where the rules and regulations against doping for the majority of elite sport events held in any country are governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, in horseracing, there is no single organisation regulating this form of equestrian sport; instead, the rules and regulations are provided by individual racing authorities and so huge variations exist in the doping control programs currently in force around the world. This review summarises the current status of doping control analyses in horseracing, from sample collection, to the analyses of the samples, and to the need for harmonisation as well as exploring some of the difficulties currently faced by racing authorities, racing chemists and regulatory veterinarians worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. General practitioners and doping in sport: attitudes and experience

    PubMed Central

    Laure, P; Binsinger, C; Lecerf, T; Ayotte, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the attitudes to, and knowledge of, doping in sport of French general practitioners (GPs), and their contact with drug taking athletes on an everyday basis. Methods: A total of 402 GPs were randomly selected from all over France and interviewed by telephone, using a prepared script. Results: The response rate was 50.5% (153 men and 49 women; mean (SD) age 45.6 (5.6) years). Of the respondents, 73% confirmed that they had the list of banned products, and only 34.5% stated that they were aware of the latest French law, brought into effect in March 1999, concerning the fight against doping. Some 11% had directly encountered a request for prescription of doping agents over the preceding 12 months (the requested substances were mainly anabolic steroids, stimulants, and corticosteroids), and 10% had been consulted by an athlete who was using doping drugs and was frightened of the health risks (the substances used were mainly anabolic steroids). Over half (52%) of the GPs favoured the prescription of drug substitutions to athletes who used doping agents. According to 87.5% of respondents, doping is a public health problem, and 80% stated that doping is a form of drug addiction. Most (89%) said that a GP has a role to play in doping prevention, but 77% considered themselves poorly prepared to participate in its prevention. Conclusion: The results suggest that (a) GPs have limited knowledge of doping and (b) are confronted with doping in their daily practice, at least occasionally. PMID:12893720

  8. Linking Narcissism, Motivation, and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes.

    PubMed

    Matosic, Doris; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Boardley, Ian David; Stenling, Andreas; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-12-01

    Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated-directly and indirectly-with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

  9. The prevalence of doping in Flanders in comparison to the prevalence of doping in international sports.

    PubMed

    Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T

    2003-11-01

    For many years, doping has been considered a major problem in sports. Recent doping cases have shocked the general public and press reports have further generated the idea that a great number of athletes are doped. In this study statistical data provided by the International Olympic Committee (1996 - 2000) to IOC accredited laboratories and results from the Flemish anti-doping program (1993 - 2000) are discussed. During these periods, the average percentage positive samples in the IOC accredited laboratories and in Flanders were 1.8 % and 4.1 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples was significantly higher for in-competition than for out-of-competition samples. During the period 1993 - 2000, doping was detected in all sports in Flanders, for which a representative number of samples (n > 50) was tested except mini-soccer, where no positive doping samples were found. The use of doping among male athletes is significantly higher than for female athletes. Bodybuilding and power lifting had the highest incidence of positive cases in Flanders. The distribution of detected drugs among the different groups of prohibited substances shows a significant increase in the number of samples containing cannabis over the last years. The occurrence of cannabis in all sports and the high frequency of detection in Flanders, indicate that cannabis is predominantly misused as a "social" drug rather than for doping purposes. In Flanders, multiple prohibited substances were detected in 41 % of all positive cases. At least 27.6 % out of those were due to co-administration of drugs.

  10. Perspective of pharmacists in Qatar regarding doping and anti-doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Mottram, David; Khalifa, Sherief; Alemrayat, Bayan; Rahhal, Alaa; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the current knowledge and perceptions of pharmacists in Qatar with regard to the use of drugs in sport and to explore their views on the introduction of education and training in the area of sports pharmacy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted targeting both hospital and community pharmacists in Qatar. A questionnaire consisting of three domains pertaining to participants' knowledge, perceived role of healthcare professionals, and attitudes towards educational needs on the use of drugs in sports was developed and validated. The online survey link and paper-based questionnaires were distributed to the target population. Data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized for the analyses, where P<0.05 indicates statistical significance. A total of 300 pharmacists responded to the survey. Respondents had a limited awareness of doping and anti-doping and achieved an average knowledge score of 53.2% regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes, particularly with respect to over-the-counter medicines and supplements. The majority (81.7%) of the pharmacists expressed an interest in receiving education and training on sports pharmacy. Specialized training programs are warranted to ensure that pharmacists have the knowledge and skills required to provide athletes with accurate information about anti-doping issues and the safe and effective use of medicines in sport. The development of these programs should be supported by national pharmacy policy makers and designed in collaboration with anti-doping agencies and sports pharmacy experts and educators.

  11. Detection of Stimulants and Narcotics by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Sports Doping Control.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Brian D; Kucherova, Yulia; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Sports drug testing laboratories are required to detect several classes of compounds that are prohibited at all times, which include anabolic agents, peptide hormones, growth factors, beta-2 agonists, hormones and metabolic modulators, and diuretics/masking agents. Other classes of compounds such as stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, and glucocorticoids are also prohibited, but only when an athlete is in competition. A single class of compounds can contain a large number of prohibited substances and all of the compounds should be detected by the testing procedure. Since there are almost 70 stimulants on the prohibited list it can be a challenge to develop a single screening method that will optimally detect all the compounds. We describe a combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing method for detection of all the stimulants and narcotics on the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Urine for LC-MS/MS testing does not require sample pretreatment and is a direct dilute and shoot method. Urine samples for the GC-MS method require a liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride.

  12. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    PubMed

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-08-01

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p < 0.05). Younger female athletes and those with higher SCSRF score are found to be less prone to doping behavior. When models were adjusted for personal opinion about doping presence in sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no

  13. Differential analysis of the doping behaviour templates in three types of sports.

    PubMed

    Rodek, Jelena; Idrizović, Kemal; Zenić, Natasa; Perasović, Benjamin; Kondric, Miran

    2013-05-01

    Conducted researches recognize various risk factors, as well as protective factors against doping behaviour in different sports i.e. sports disciplines or activities. The main goal of this research was to identify the correlation between selected socio-demographic, health-related, and sports-related predictors with doping factors in three different types of sports, which are (1) highly energetic demanding sports (weightlifting), (2) highly technical demanding sports (racquet sports), and (3) highly tactical demanding sports (sailing). The research consisted of three separate studies, each one of them researching one of the sports. The sample of subjects included altogether 293 athletes, senior level competitors (older than 18years of age). In total, the sample comprised three homogenous sub-samples, as follows: athletes in highly energetic demanding sports (weightlifters and power lifters; N=27), athletes in highly technical demanding sports (table tennis, tennis and badminton players; N=188), and athletes in highly tactical demanding sports (sailing; N=78). The first study involved weightlifters where we should point out the existence of high doping behaviour In this study, religiousness was interpreted as the most significant protective factor against doping behaviour, while sports factors are not found to be significantly related to doping. The study involving racquet sport athletes suggests a high risk of doping behaviour among those athletes who observe doping behaviour in their sport. We noticed low levels of athletes' trust in their coaches' and physicians' opinions on doping issues. This is an issue which should be researched in the future, because the underlying cause has not been studied as yet. Briefly, it seems that either the athletes are not convinced of their coaches '/physicians' expertise regarding doping issues, and/or they do not believe in their good intentions. It is particularly important, as the previous research has shown that with the

  14. Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players.

    PubMed

    Al Ghobain, M; Konbaz, M S; Almassad, A; Alsultan, A; Al Shubaili, M; AlShabanh, O

    2016-04-16

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence and address the attitudes and knowledge of using prohibited substances (doping) among sport players in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey carried out using systematic random sampling technique among Saudi players of variable sports attending the sport clubs, stadiums, and sport fields (70 sport clubs, 22 types of sports belong to 22 Saudi sport federations were visted in 18 cities from all regions of Saudi Arabia). A total of 1142 male sport players were interviewed with main age of 24. The prevalence of using prohibited substances (doping) was 4.3 %. The main reason for using prohibited substances was to improve performance (69 %). The prevalence of using food supplements (not prohibited) was 38.4 %. Among the players, 30 % of them believe that such behavior is against the spirit of sport while 70 % of the players are aware of punishment against doping. 65 % of players admitted that they received advice on prohibited substances. Higher rate of using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi players was associated with low education, age below 20 years, previous use of food supplements and lack of punishment awareness. Using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi sport players is common. Players believe that such use is against the spirit of the sport and they are aware about its punishment, despite this, they are still using prohibited substances.

  15. Sport Nutrition and Doping in Tennis: An Analysis of Athletes’ Attitudes and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key Points The incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females. Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes’ trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping. There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808

  16. Self-determined motivation in sport predicts anti-doping motivation and intention: a perspective from the trans-contextual model.

    PubMed

    Chan, D K C; Dimmock, J A; Donovan, R J; Hardcastle, S; Lentillon-Kaestner, V; Hagger, M S

    2015-05-01

    Motivation in sport has been frequently identified as a key factor of young athletes' intention of doping in sport, but there has not been any attempt in scrutinizing the motivational mechanism involved. The present study applied the trans-contextual model of motivation to explain the relationship between motivation in a sport context and motivation and the social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention) from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in an anti-doping context. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Questionnaire data was collected from 410 elite and sub-elite young athletes in Australia (Mean age [17.7±3.9 yr], 55.4% male, Years in sport [9.1±3.2]). We measured the key model variables of study in relation to sport motivation (Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire), and the motivation (adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire) and social cognitive patterns (the theory of planned behavior questionnaire) of doping avoidance. The data was analyzed by variance-based structural equation modeling with bootstrapping of 999 replications. The goodness-of-fit of the hypothesized model was acceptable. The bootstrapped parameter estimates revealed that autonomous motivation and amotivation in sport were positively associated with the corresponding types of motivation for the avoidance of doping. Autonomous motivation, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control in doping avoidance fully mediated the relationship between autonomous motivation in sport and intention for doping avoidance. The findings support the tenets of the trans-contextual model, and explain how motivation in sport is related to athletes' motivation and intention with respect to anti-doping behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sport Medicine and doping in sports: survey on knowledge and attitudes].

    PubMed

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Diallo, Boubacar; Fall, Assane; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Cissè, Fallou; Faye, Babacar

    2005-01-01

    Doping in sports is as old as sports, but it grew considerably during the 20th century with the arrival in stadiums during the 1990s of amphetamines and anabolic steroids as well as such peptide hormones as erythropoietin. The international fight against doping took a giant step forward in 1999 with the creation of the world antidoping agency (WADA). This study is part of that fight. It follows an earlier survey of retail pharmacists in Senegal and aims to evaluate the knowledge about doping of doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sports Medicine and to assess their attitude towards this phenomenon. Its goal is to determine how best to involve them in preventive actions. We conducted a survey in 2001 and randomly selected and interviewed 60 of the 92 doctors in the association. The questionnaire focused on three areas: their knowledge of doping, their attitudes to it, and the means of prevention that they proposed. The results showed that only 11 of the 60 doctors knew the definition of doping and 15% of doctors could not cite any family of doping products. They were aware mainly of testosterone and other anabolic steroids (84.3%), then amphetamines and other stimulants (64.7%), and finally peptide hormones (58.8%). The subjects mentioned blood doping and pharmacological manipulations as forbidden methods. They considered that the four groups of drugs most often used by athletes for doping were, in descending order, anabolic steroids, stimulants, peptide hormones and corticoids. Eighty per cent of doctors think that Senegalese athletes use doping products and that the sports most involved are football, wrestling, track and field and basketball. They also think that doping is a form of drug addiction and a public health problem. Eleven doctors (18%) said they had been contacted for information on use of doping products. The interviewees consider that the three best methods of prevention include information about side effects, unannounced urine and

  19. Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use.

  20. Telmisartan as metabolic modulator: a new perspective in sports doping?

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The World Antidoping Agency (WADA) has introduced some changes in the 2012 prohibited list. Among the leading innovations to the rules are that both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ [PPAR-δ]-5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase [AMPK] agonist) and GW1516 (PPAR-δ-agonist) are no longer categorized as gene doping substances in the new 2012 prohibited list but as metabolic modulators in the class "Hormone and metabolic modulators." This may also be valid for the angotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan. It has recently been shown that telmisartan might induce similar biochemical, biological, and metabolic changes (e.g., mitochondrial biogenesis and changes in skeletal muscle fiber type) as those reported for the former call of substances. We suspect that metabolic modulators abuse such as telmisartan might become a tangible threat in sports and should be thereby targeted as an important antidoping issue. The 2012 WADA prohibited list does not provide telmisartan for a potential doping drug, but arguments supporting the consideration to include them among "metabolic modulators" are at hand.

  1. Growth hormone in sports: detecting the doped or duped.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ken K Y; Nelson, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Doping with growth hormone (GH) is banned; however, there is anecdotal evidence that it is widely abused. GH is reportedly often used in combination with anabolic steroids at high doses for several months. Development of a robust test for detecting GH has been challenging since recombinant human 22-kDa GH used in doping is indistinguishable analytically from endogenous GH and there are wide physiological fluctuations in circulating GH concentrations. One approach to GH testing is based on measurement of different circulating GH isoforms using immunoassays that differentiate between 22-kDa and other GH isoforms. Administration of 22-kDa GH results in a change in its abundance relative to other endogenous pituitary GH isoforms. The differential isoform method is, however, limited by its short time window of detection. A second approach that extends the time window of detection is based on detection of increased levels of circulating GH-responsive proteins, such as the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and collagen peptides. As age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers, a test based on these markers must take these factors into account. Extensive data now validate the GH-responsive marker approach, and implementation is largely dependent on establishing an assured supply of standardized assays. Robust tests are available to detect GH and enforce the ban on its abuse in sports. Novel approaches that include gene expression and proteomic profiling must continue to be pursued to expand the repertoire of testing approaches available and to maintain deterrence of GH doping. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, sociodemographic and sport-specific factors. Methods Elite athletes (N = 187; mean age = 22 ± 2.3; 64% male) representing one of the three racket sports, table tennis, badminton, and tennis, completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on substance use habits. Athletes in this sample had participated in at least one of the two most recent competitions at the highest national level and had no significant difference in competitive achievement or status within their sport. Results A significant proportion of athletes (46% for both sexes) reported using nutritional supplements. Between 10% and 24% of the studied males would use doping if the practice would help them achieve better results in competition and if it had no negative health consequences; a further 5% to 10% indicated potential doping behaviour regardless of potential health hazards. Females were generally less oriented toward SUM than their male counterparts with no significant differences between sports, except for badminton players. Substances that have no direct effect on sport performance (if timed carefully to avoid detrimental effects) are more commonly consumed (20% binge drink at least once a week and 18% report using opioids), whereas athletes avoid substances that can impair and threaten athletic achievement by decreasing physical capacities (e.g. cigarettes), violating anti-doping codes or potentially transgressing substance control laws (e.g. opiates and cannabinoids). Regarding doping issues, athletes' trust in their coaches and physicians is low. Conclusion SUM in sports spreads beyond doping-prone sports and drugs that

  3. Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach.

    PubMed

    Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Petroczi, Andrea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Ostojic, Zdenko

    2011-10-11

    Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, sociodemographic and sport-specific factors. Elite athletes (N=187; mean age=22±2.3; 64% male) representing one of the three racket sports, table tennis, badminton, and tennis, completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on substance use habits. Athletes in this sample had participated in at least one of the two most recent competitions at the highest national level and had no significant difference in competitive achievement or status within their sport. A significant proportion of athletes (46% for both sexes) reported using nutritional supplements. Between 10% and 24% of the studied males would use doping if the practice would help them achieve better results in competition and if it had no negative health consequences; a further 5% to 10% indicated potential doping behaviour regardless of potential health hazards. Females were generally less oriented toward SUM than their male counterparts with no significant differences between sports, except for badminton players. Substances that have no direct effect on sport performance (if timed carefully to avoid detrimental effects) are more commonly consumed (20% binge drink at least once a week and 18% report using opioids), whereas athletes avoid substances that can impair and threaten athletic achievement by decreasing physical capacities (e.g. cigarettes), violating anti-doping codes or potentially transgressing substance control laws (e.g. opiates and cannabinoids). Regarding doping issues, athletes' trust in their coaches and physicians is low. SUM in sports spreads beyond doping-prone sports and drugs that enhance athletic performance. Current anti-doping

  4. Doping in sports and its spread to at-risk populations: an international review

    PubMed Central

    BARON, DAVID A; MARTIN, DAVID M; ABOL MAGD, SAMIR

    2007-01-01

    Doping is now a global problem that follows international sporting events worldwide. International sports federations, led by the International Olympic Committee, have for the past half century attempted to stop the spread of this problem, with little effect. It was expected that, with educational programs, testing, and supportive medical treatment, this substance-abusing behavior would decrease. Unfortunately, this has not been the case. In fact, new, more powerful and undetectable doping techniques and substances are now abused by professional athletes, while sophisticated networks of distribution have developed. Professional athletes are often the role models of adolescent and young adult populations, who often mimic their behaviors, including the abuse of drugs. This review of doping within international sports is to inform the international psychiatric community and addiction treatment professionals of the historical basis of doping in sport and its spread to vulnerable athletic and non-athletic populations. PMID:18235871

  5. Evaluation of West-Austrian junior athletes' knowledge regarding doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Fürhapter, Christina; Blank, Cornelia; Leichtfried, Veronika; Mair-Raggautz, Maria; Müller, David; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    An important factor while developing efficient doping prevention strategies is to identify relevant target groups, to evaluate the state of knowledge about this topic as well as to evaluate motivations behind using prohibited substances. Measures to prevent doping substances abuse have to be supported in early stages of childhood. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the knowledge of Tyrolean junior athletes about doping in sport. Next to the knowledge, their attitudes in regard to doping practices have also been a focus of this project. Within a prospective cross-sectional study, Tyrolean junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years (n = 408) were anonymously questioned by distributing questionnaires in three Tyrolean sport schools as well as two Tyrolean sport-training centers. To collect the data, an anonymous questionnaire with close-ended questions was used. Next to sociodemographic data, questions also evaluated the knowledge about prohibited substances as well as attitudes and behaviors towards doping. The concept was set up based on contents of comparable studies and publications. The knowledge about doping among junior athletes was moderate. The consumer behavior of the young athletes on the other hand has turned out to be satisfactory. Nevertheless, the overall knowledge especially regarding potential negative side effects of doping agents is poor. To incorporate an effective doping-prevention strategy, improved education, particularly in terms of side effects, is clearly needed. To achieve sustainable doping-prevention effects, focus has to be generally set on education within the frame of junior competitive sport.

  6. Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself. Objectives The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability – athlete's personality – situation triangle. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures. Results Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related. Conclusion The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by

  7. [Anti-doping policy development process in the sports world (1968~1999): focusing on IOC activities and passive response from Korea].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the anti-doping policy promoted by the IOC historical sociologically focusing on the period from 1968 to 1999. Public opinion surrounding doping control has emerged as a large amount of drug possession by athletes who had participated in the 1952 Olympics was caught, as well as following the accident where an athlete had died during the competition as a result of doping. From 1960, as many doping cases in sports games were exposed, several international organizations proclaimed fight against doping in order to seek a preventive measure. In 1961, the IOC newly established a medical commission within the organization. It was decided to implement doping control and female sex testing at the same time for all athletes who participated in the 1967 Olympics, and they were implemented from 1968 winter and summer Olympic Games. In 1971, the provisions for the tests were prescribed as mandatory on the IOC charter. From 1989, the OCT system was introduced as a measure to overcome limitations of the detection during competition period. As political problems and limitations emerged, WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was established in 1999 to professionally manage and push for doping control. Female sex testing policy contributed to preventing males from participating in female competition by deceiving their gender to some extent. However, it was abolished due to strong public condemnation such as women's rights issues, social stigma and pain, and gender discrimination debate. In 1984, a doping control center was established in Korea, which enabled drug use or doping in the sports world to emerge to the surface in our society. Korea Sports Council and KOC articles of association that supervise doping related matters of Korean athletes were revised in 1990. The action of inserting doping related issue in the articles of association was taken 20 years after the start of IOC doping policy. Beginning with two international competitions in the 1980s, Korean

  8. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics, gene doping, and athleticogenomics.

    PubMed

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2010-03-01

    Hugh Montgomery's discovery of the first of more than 239 fitness genes together with rapid advances in human gene therapy have created a prospect of using genes, genetic elements, and cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This brief overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and predicts a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The World Anti-Doping Code in sport: Update for 2015.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Some athletes cheat by using drugs or medical methods such as transfusion to enhance their performance. However, this may put their health at risk. The World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits certain methods and drugs that may enhance performance, harm the athlete or violate the spirit of sport. Some may be banned only during competitions, but others are banned at all times. Prohibited substances include over-the-counter and prescription medicines. It is therefore important for athletes and health professionals to check what is permitted. There are many resources available through organisations such as the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  10. Challenges and threats to implementing the fight against doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2014-05-01

    Prominent doping cases in certain sports have recently raised public awareness of doping and reinforced the perception that doping is widespread. Efforts to deal with doping in sport have intensified in recent years, yet the general public believes that the 'cheaters' are ahead of the testers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to change the antidoping strategy. For example, the increase in the number of individual drug tests conducted between 2005 and 2012 was approximately 90 000 and equivalent to an increase of about 50%, yet the number of adverse analytical findings remained broadly the same. There is also a strikingly different prevalence of doping substances and methods in sports such as a 0.03% prevalence of anabolic steroids in football compared to 0.4% in the overall WADA statistics. Future efforts in the fight against doping should therefore be more heavily based on preventative strategies such as education and on the analysis of data and forensic intelligence and also on the experiences of relevant stakeholders such as the national antidoping organisations, the laboratories, athletes or team physicians and related biomedical support staff. This strategy is essential to instigate the change needed to more effectively fight doping in sport.

  11. Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches.

    PubMed

    Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key PointsAlthough most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition.The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmersThe data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming.We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among

  12. Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key Points Although most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition. The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmers The data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among

  13. Can We Better Integrate the Role of Anti-Doping in Sports and Society? A Psychological Approach to Contemporary Value-Based Prevention.

    PubMed

    Petróczi, Andrea; Norman, Paul; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In sport, a wide array of substances with established or putative performance-enhancing properties is used. Most substances are fully acceptable, whilst a defined set, revised annually, is prohibited; thus, using any of these prohibited substances is declared as cheating. In the increasingly tolerant culture of pharmacological and technical human enhancements, the traditional normative approach to anti-doping, which involves telling athletes what they cannot do to improve their athletic ability and performance, diverges from the otherwise positive values attached to human improvement and enhancement in society. Today, doping is the epitome of conflicting normative expectations about the goal (performance enhancement) and the means by which the goal is achieved (use of drugs). Owing to this moral-functional duality, addressing motivations for doping avoidance at the community level is necessary, but not sufficient, for effective doping prevention. Relevant and meaningful anti-doping must also recognise and respect the values of those affected, and consolidate them with the values underpinning structural, community level anti-doping. Effective anti-doping efforts are pragmatic, positive, preventive, and proactive. They acknowledge the progressive nature of how a "performance mindset" forms in parallel with the career transition to elite level, encompasses all levels and abilities, and directly addresses the reasons behind doping use with tangible solutions. For genuine integration into sport and society, anti-doping should consistently engage athletes and other stakeholders in developing positive preventive strategies to ensure that anti-doping education not only focuses on the intrinsic values associated with the spirit of sport but also recognises the values attached to performance enhancement, addresses the pressures athletes are under, and meets their needs for practical solutions to avoid doping. Organisations involved in anti- doping should avoid the image of

  14. Clarification of the Relationship between Awareness of Doping of Competitive Sports Coaches and Their Instructions to Prevent Doping.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Horio, Ikuo; Goto, Masahiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Izushi, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    It has been 6 years since the establishment of the position of "sports pharmacist" as one type of pharmacist. In the sporting world of Japan, sports pharmacists are expected to promote athletes' awareness of antidoping regulations and provide them with relevant education. However, currently, these pharmacists' main duty is to provide athletes and their coaches with guidance on medication. Using a model for the prediction of athletes' actions, we have worked to promote athletes' awareness of antidoping regulations and encourage sports pharmacists to perform relevant activities, such as antidoping education. As a result, we clarified that athletes' awareness regarding antidoping rules influences their actions when experiencing minor illnesses. In addition, we have proposed approaches to encourage athletes to undertake antidoping activities. The present study aimed to clarify competitive sports coaches' awareness of antidoping regulations, the instructions that those coaches give athletes when they experience minor illnesses, and coaches' awareness of athletes' usage of drugs and supplements. Analysis using a model for the prediction of actions revealed that to promote coaches' awareness of antidoping regulations, education aimed at raising their level of knowledge of doping is warranted. Furthermore, coaches were aware of the necessity of continuously providing athletes with antidoping instructions, but they did not keep sufficient track of athletes' usage of drugs and supplements. To encourage sports coaches to perform antidoping activities, it is effective to provide them with opportunities to develop their knowledge of doping prevention in their areas.

  15. Opinion paper: scientific, philosophical and legal consideration of doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Negro, Massimo; Marzullo, Natale; Caso, Francesca; Calanni, Luca; D'Antona, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    The term doping is generally used to indicate practices based on the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) or the abuse of medical therapies. Mostly analysed by doctors and officials, doping nevertheless also requires a philosophical consideration to avoid being simplistically portrayed as an isolated practice. To do this, we need to pay attention to the contradictions and paradoxes in the modern approach to doping in sport. In this context, doping is not only relevant to the health of an individual involved in the violation of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) criteria, but it actually represents a double-edged phenomenon containing ethical and legal points of view. Several philosophical items affect the ethics of doping. While, indeed, through a deontological vision it is easy to morally condemn an athlete who takes the decision to turn to doping, the same condemnation becomes difficult when the practice of doping is compared with the strong social demand of winners in every field of life. This point must be considered to prevent doping from becoming accepted as a daily practice to excel at all costs and regarded not only as normal but as a necessity for those participating in sport at both an amateur and professional level. Furthermore, a complete discussion on doping has to consider not only the philosophy of performance-enhancing drug abuse, but also the widespread practice of an inappropriate and excessive intake of certain dietary supplements with the unique and obsessive purpose (similar to doping) of increasing physical or mental performance. Based on the above, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical opinion of the doping problem and its related practices and analyze possible solutions considering issues that go beyond the impact of doping on health and reflect on whether it is right or not that an athlete does all he can to improve his performance.

  16. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Ortiz, Christian Mañas; Baladía, Eduard; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-10-04

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  17. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mañas Ortiz, Christian; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. PMID:28976928

  18. Determination of urinary concentrations of pseudoephedrine and cathine after therapeutic administration of pseudoephedrine-containing medications to healthy subjects: implications for doping control analysis of these stimulants banned in sport.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Osquel; Goudreault, Danielle; Carbó Banús, Marcel-lí; Ayotte, Christiane; Mazzoni, Irene; Boghosian, Thierry; Rabin, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Due to its stimulatory effects on the central nervous system, and its structural similarity to banned stimulants such as ephedrine and methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine (PSE) at high doses is considered as an ergogenic aid for boosting athletic performance. However, the status of PSE in the International Standard of the Prohibited List as established under the World Anti-Doping Code has changed over the years, being prohibited until 2003 at a urinary cut-off value of 25 µg/ml, and then subsequently removed from the Prohibited List during the period 2004-2009. The re-consideration of this position by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) List Expert Group has led to the reintroduction of PSE in the Prohibited List in 2010. In this manuscript, we present the results of two WADA-sponsored clinical studies on the urinary excretion of PSE and its metabolite cathine (CATH) following the oral administration of different PSE formulations to healthy individuals at therapeutic regimes. On this basis, the current analytical urinary threshold for the detection of PSE as a doping agent in sport has been conservatively established at 150 µg/ml Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Motivational and social cognitive predictors of doping intentions in elite sports: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, V; Lazuras, L; Tsorbatzoudis, H; Rodafinos, A

    2013-10-01

    Doping use is an important issue in both competitive and non-competitive sports, and poses potentially irreversible health consequences to users. Scholars increasingly call for theory-driven studies on the psychosocial processes underlying doping use that will inform subsequent policy-making and prevention interventions. The aim of the study was to implement an integrative theoretical model to assess the direct and indirect effects of motivational variables, moral orientations, and social cognitions on doping intentions. A randomly selected and representative sample of 750 elite athletes anonymously completed a battery of questionnaires on motivational and moral constructs, and social cognitions related to doping. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and multiple mediation modeling were used. The effects of achievement goals and moral orientations were significantly mediated by attitudinal, normative, and self-efficacy beliefs, in both lifetime ever and never doping users. Moral orientations indirectly predicted the doping intentions of never users, but did not predict ever users' doping intentions. Achievement goals and sportspersonship orientations influence doping intentions indirectly, through the effects of attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs. Sportspersonship (moral) orientations were relevant to doping intentions among athletes with no prior experiences with doping, while achievement goals and situational temptation were relevant to both lifetime never and ever dopers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A false start in the race against doping in sport: concerns with cycling's biological passport.

    PubMed

    Hailey, Nicholas

    2011-11-01

    Professional cycling has suffered from a number of doping scandals. The sport's governing bodies have responded by implementing an aggressive new antidoping program known as the biological passport. Cycling's biological passport marks a departure from traditional antidoping efforts, which have focused on directly detecting prohibited substances in a cyclist's system. Instead, the biological passport tracks biological variables in a cyclist's blood and urine over time, monitoring for fluctuations that are thought to indirectly reveal the effects of doping. Although this method of indirect detection is promising, it also raises serious legal and scientific concerns. Since its introduction, the cycling community has debated the reliability of indirect biological-passport evidence and the clarity, consistency, and transparency of its use in proving doping violations. Such uncertainty undermines the legitimacy of finding cyclists guilty of doping based on this indirect evidence alone. Antidoping authorities should address these important concerns before continuing to pursue doping sanctions against cyclists solely on the basis of their biological passports.

  1. Sports doping in the adolescent: the Faustian conundrum of Hors de Combat.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R

    2010-06-01

    The drive toward success in sports and the need for a cosmetically acceptable appearance have driven many adolescents to take a wide variety of so-called doping substances. The consumption of these chemicals in the hope and hype of improved sports performance, fueled by the easing of government restrictions on their proof of safety and efficacy, has resulted in an explosion of so-called ergogenic products available to our youth. Agents that have been used include anabolic steroids, anabolic-like agents, designer steroids, creatine, protein and amino acid supplements, minerals, antioxidants, stimulants, blood doping, erythropoietin, beta-blockers, and others. The use of these agents has considerable potential to cause physical and psychological damage. Use and misuse of drugs in this sports doping process should be discouraged. This discussion reviews some of the agents that are currently being used. Clinicians providing sports medicine care to youth, whether through anticipatory guidance or direct sports medicine management, should educate their young patients about the hype and hyperbole of these products that may keep them out instead of in the game at considerable financial cost to the unwary consumer.

  2. Clenbuterol - regional food contamination a possible source for inadvertent doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Guddat, S; Fußhöller, G; Geyer, H; Thomas, A; Braun, H; Haenelt, N; Schwenke, A; Klose, C; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2012-06-01

    The misuse of the sympathomimetic and anabolic agent clenbuterol has been frequently reported in professional sport and in the livestock industry. In 2010, a team of athletes returned from competition in China and regular doping control samples were taken within the next two days. All urine samples contained low amounts (pg/ml) of clenbuterol, drawing the attention to a well-known problem: the possibility of an unintended clenbuterol intake with food. A warning that Chinese meat is possibly contaminated with prohibited substances according to international anti-doping regulations was also given by Chinese officials just before the Bejing Olympic Games in 2008. To investigate if clenbuterol can be found in human urine, a study was initiated comprising 28 volunteers collecting urine samples after their return from China. For the quantification of clenbuterol at a low pg/ml level, a very sensitive and specific isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed using liquid/liquid re-extraction for clean-up with a limit of detection and quantification of 1 and 3 pg/ml, respectively. The method was validated demonstrating good precision (intra-day: 2.9-5.5 %; inter-day: 5.1-8.8%), accuracy (89.5-102.5%) and mean recovery (81.4%). Clenbuterol was detectable in 22 (79%) of the analyzed samples, indicating a general food contamination problem despite an official clenbuterol prohibition in China for livestock. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The list of prohibited substances and methods in sport: structure and review process by the world anti-doping agency.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Irene; Barroso, Osquel; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (the List) is the International Standard that determines what is prohibited in sport in- and out-of-competition. The official text of the List is produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. The drafting of the annual List is a highly interactive and consultative process involving scientific and medical experts in anti-doping, sport federations and governments. In this article, the elements that compose the List as well as the process behind its annual revision and update are presented.

  4. Doping in sport: a review of medical practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Susan H; McKenna, Jim

    2011-05-01

    Central to the work of many medical practitioners is the provision of pharmaceutical support for patients. Patients can include athletes who are subject to anti-doping rules and regulations which prohibit the use of certain substances in and out of competition. This paper examines the evidence on medical practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards doping in sport. A systematic search strategy was followed. Research questions and relevance criteria were developed a priori. Potentially relevant studies were located through electronic and hand searches limited to English language articles published between 1990 and 2010. Articles were assessed for relevance by two independent assessors and the results of selected studies were abstracted and synthesised. Outcomes of interest were knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in relation to doping in sport. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were examined in detail. Samples reflected a range of medical practitioners drawn from the UK, France (2), Greece, Italy and Ireland. The investigations varied with respect to outcome focus and quality of evidence presented. Whilst the extant empirical research posits a negative attitude towards illegal performance enhancement combined with a positive inclination towards doping prevention, it also exposes a limited knowledge of anti-doping rules and regulations. Insufficient education, leading to a lack of awareness and understanding, could render this professional group at risk of doping offences considering Article 2.8 of the World Anti-Doping Agency Code (WADC). Moreover, in light of the incongruence between professional medical codes and WADC Article 2.8, medical professionals may face doping dilemmas and therefore further discourse is required. At present, the current evidence-base makes it difficult to plan developmentally appropriate education to span the exposure spectrum. Addressing this situation appears warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.

  7. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s statement on the pharmacist’s role in anti-doping. Students’ knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844

  8. Genetic enhancement in sport: just another form of doping?

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2012-12-01

    Patented genetic technologies such as the ACTN3 genetic test are adding a new dimension to the types of performance enhancement available to elite athletes. Organized sports organizations and governments are seeking to prevent athletes' use of biomedical enhancements. This paper discusses how these interdiction efforts will affect the use and availability of genetic technologies that can enhance athletic performance. The paper provides a working definition of enhancement, and in light of that definition and the concerns of the sports community, reviews genetic enhancement as a result of varied technologies, including, genetic testing to identify innate athletic ability, performance-enhancing drugs developed with genetic science and technology, pharmacogenetics, enhancement through reproductive technologies, somatic gene transfer, and germ line gene transfer.

  9. Controlling Molecular Doping in Organic Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ian E; Moulé, Adam J

    2017-11-01

    The field of organic electronics thrives on the hope of enabling low-cost, solution-processed electronic devices with mechanical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties not available from inorganic semiconductors. A key to the success of these aspirations is the ability to controllably dope organic semiconductors with high spatial resolution. Here, recent progress in molecular doping of organic semiconductors is summarized, with an emphasis on solution-processed p-type doped polymeric semiconductors. Highlighted topics include how solution-processing techniques can control the distribution, diffusion, and density of dopants within the organic semiconductor, and, in turn, affect the electronic properties of the material. Research in these areas has recently intensified, thanks to advances in chemical synthesis, improved understanding of charged states in organic materials, and a focus on relating fabrication techniques to morphology. Significant disorder in these systems, along with complex interactions between doping and film morphology, is often responsible for charge trapping and low doping efficiency. However, the strong coupling between doping, solubility, and morphology can be harnessed to control crystallinity, create doping gradients, and pattern polymers. These breakthroughs suggest a role for molecular doping not only in device function but also in fabrication-applications beyond those directly analogous to inorganic doping. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Council of Europe and Sport, 1966-1998. Volume III: Texts of the Anti-Doping Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This document presents texts in the field of sports and doping that were adopted by various committees of the Council of Europe. The seven sections present: (1) "Texts Adopted by the Committee of Ministers, 1996-1988"; (2) "Texts Adopted at the Conferences of European Ministers Responsible for Sport Since 1978" and…

  11. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports?

    PubMed

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-11-01

    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p < 0.0001) with a mean of 219 (10^3/μL) on day 0 changing to 23 120 (10^3/μL) on day 14 and 29 310 (10^3/μL) on day 35. We conclude that RBC-MPs seem to be a promising biomarker for doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice.

  13. Complementary stable carbon isotope ratio and amount of substance measurements in sports anti-doping.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Adam T; George, Adrian V

    2012-12-01

    The detection of steroids originating from synthetic precursors against a background of their chemically identical natural analogues has proven to be a significant challenge for doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The complementary application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) has been demonstrated to provide specific detection of endogenous steroid misuse for improved anti-doping analysis. Markers of synthetically derived steroids are reviewed on the basis of abnormal urinary excretions and low (13)C content. A combinatorial approach is presented for the interpretation of GC-MS and GC-C-IRMS data in the anti-doping context. This methodology can allow all relevant information concerning an individual's metabolism to be assessed in order to make an informed decision with respect to a doping violation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Urine analysis concerning xenon for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Piper, Thomas; Geyer, Hans; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Schneemann, Julia; Kienbaum, Peter; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-01-15

    On September 1(st) 2014, a modified Prohibited List as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) became effective featuring xenon as a banned substance categorized as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activator. Consequently, the analysis of xenon from commonly provided doping control specimens such as blood and urine is desirable, and first data on the determination of xenon from urine in the context of human sports drug testing, are presented. In accordance to earlier studies utilizing plasma as doping control matrix, urine was enriched to saturation with xenon, sequentially diluted, and the target analyte was detected as supported by the internal standard d6 -cyclohexanone by means of gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) using headspace injection. Three major xenon isotopes at m/z 128.9, 130.9 and 131.9 were targeted in (pseudo) selected reaction monitoring mode enabling the unambiguous identification of the prohibited substance. Assay characteristics including limit of detection (LOD), intraday/interday precision, and specificity as well as analyte recovery under different storage conditions were determined. Proof-of-concept data were generated by applying the established method to urine samples collected from five patients before, during and after (up to 48 h) xenon-based general anesthesia. Xenon was traceable in enriched human urine samples down to the detection limit of approximately 0.5 nmol/mL. The intraday and interday imprecision values of the method were found below 25%, and specificity was demonstrated by analyzing 20 different blank urine samples that corroborated the fitness-for-purpose of the analytical approach to unequivocally detect xenon at non-physiological concentrations in human urine. The patients' urine specimens returned 'xenon-positive' test results up to 40 h post-anesthesia, indicating the limits of the expected doping control detection window. Since xenon has been considered a prohibited substance

  15. Growth hormone doping in sports: a critical review of use and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Gerhard P

    2012-04-01

    GH is believed to be widely employed in sports as a performance-enhancing substance. Its use in athletic competition is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and athletes are required to submit to testing for GH exposure. Detection of GH doping is challenging for several reasons including identity/similarity of exogenous to endogenous GH, short half-life, complex and fluctuating secretory dynamics of GH, and a very low urinary excretion rate. The detection test currently in use (GH isoform test) exploits the difference between recombinant GH (pure 22K-GH) and the heterogeneous nature of endogenous GH (several isoforms). Its main limitation is the short window of opportunity for detection (~12-24 h after the last GH dose). A second test to be implemented soon (the biomarker test) is based on stimulation of IGF-I and collagen III synthesis by GH. It has a longer window of opportunity (1-2 wk) but is less specific and presents a variety of technical challenges. GH doping in a larger sense also includes doping with GH secretagogues and IGF-I and its analogs. The scientific evidence for the ergogenicity of GH is weak, a fact that is not widely appreciated in athletic circles or by the general public. Also insufficiently appreciated is the risk of serious health consequences associated with high-dose, prolonged GH use. This review discusses the GH biology relevant to GH doping; the virtues and limitations of detection tests in blood, urine, and saliva; secretagogue efficacy; IGF-I doping; and information about the effectiveness of GH as a performance-enhancing agent.

  16. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-03-27

    Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p < .001), indicating that the young men who were more dissatisfied with their bodies were more likely to support the use of doping in sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p < .01) and vitamin/mineral supplements (ηp2 = .01, p < .01) were also significantly more supportive of doping in sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.

  17. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). Results There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p < .001), indicating that the young men who were more dissatisfied with their bodies were more likely to support the use of doping in sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p < .01) and vitamin/mineral supplements (ηp2 = .01, p < .01) were also significantly more supportive of doping in sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). Conclusions These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men. PMID:24670105

  18. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Heck, Philipp; Ziegler, Matthias

    2014-01-30

    Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes' intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes' attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (rtt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available "open source". The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs.

  19. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes’ intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes’ attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt  = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available “open source”. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865

  20. Is the Fight against Doping in Sport a Legal Minefield like Any Other?

    PubMed

    Haas, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector, because there is no supranational authority of public international law capable of dealing with it. Thus, responsibility has to be assumed by a private law entity. This in turn requires complicated contractual agreements by which duties and responsibilities are transferred from the individual to the national level and from there to the top of the pyramid. In practice, this process is not only difficult and cumbersome, it also leads to an accumulation of power at the top of the sports pyramid that must be contained by organizational checks and balances, such as access to justice and the rule of law, accountability, transparency, and possibilities for the respective stakeholders to partake in the decision-making process. The weighting of all these different aspects is demanding and further complicated by the regulatory reach of the various national lawmakers. Since national laws differ considerably and a harmonized legislative approach is nowhere near in sight, a global approach in the fight against doping must push back national laws and legal concepts as much as possible. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on all these legal challenges. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Recombinant erythropoietin and analogues: a challenge for doping control.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J A; Belalcazar, V; de Bolos, C; Gutiérrez, R; Llop, E; Segura, J

    2004-04-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) increases the number of circulating erythrocytes and thus muscle oxygenation. The availability of the recombinant protein (rEPO) has increased the risk of its illegal use in sports, its detection being a difficult challenge. Five different hematopoietic parameters were initially chosen as indirect markers of rEPO abuse: concentration of serum EPO, concentration of serum-soluble transferrin receptors (sTFr), hematocrit, percentage of reticulocytes, and percentage of macrocytes. New models considering only hemoglobin, serum EPO concentration, and percentage of reticulocytes are simpler and seem to be more sensitive when low doses of rEPO are used. A more direct method of urine analysis (isoelectrofocusing, double blotting, and chemiluminescent detection) based on the charge differences between rEPO and endogenous EPO, related to their carbohydrate composition, provides proof of rEPO use. Furthermore, this approach permits the detection of darbepoetin, a direct analogue of EPO also known as NESP ("new erythropoiesis stimulating protein"). Recently a protein conjugate, "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" (SEP), containing precision-length, monodisperse, negatively charged polymers instead of oligosaccharides has been synthesized. Finally, EPO-mimetics are molecules capable of acting as EPO in dimerizing the EPO receptor. Two kinds of EPO-mimetics have been described: peptides and nonpeptides. The enhancement of oxygen availability to muscles by rEPO, analogues, and mimetics constitutes one of the main challenges to doping control. Major steps have already been developed for detection ofrEPO and some analogues. In the near future, the transfection to an athlete's body of genes that code for erythropoietin might be an emerging doping issue, and sports authorities have incorporated "gene doping" among the prohibited practices.

  2. Beyond antidoping and harm minimisation: a stakeholder-corporate social responsibility approach to drug control for sport.

    PubMed

    Mazanov, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Debate about the ethics of drug control in sport has largely focused on arguing the relative merits of the existing antidoping policy or the adoption of a health-based harm minimisation approach. A number of ethical challenges arising from antidoping have been identified, and a number of, as yet, unanswered questions remain for the maturing ethics of applying harm minimisation principles to drug control for sport. This paper introduces a 'third approach' to the debate, examining some implications of applying a stakeholder theory of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the issue of doping in sport. The introduction of the stakeholder-CSR model creates an opportunity to challenge the two dominant schools by enabling a different perspective to contribute to the development of an ethically robust drug control for sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Demographic factors influencing the GH system: Implications for the detection of GH doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2009-08-01

    Application of methods for detecting GH doping depend on being able to discriminate between abnormal levels due to doping and normal physiological levels of circulating proteins that change in response to exogenous administration. Constituents of the IGF and collagen systems have been shown to be promising markers of GH abuse. Their ultimate utility, however, depends on identification of the factors that regulate their concentrations in blood. Among these are demographic factors that are known to influence these markers in the general population. In a large cross-sectional study of the GH-responsive markers in over 1000 elite athletes from 12 countries representing 4 major ethnic groups and 10 sport types, we have shown that there is a significant negative correlation between age and all the IGF and collagen markers we studied, with a rapid decrease in early adolescence. Age was the major contribution to the variability, equivalent to >80% of the attributable variation in IGF-I and the collagen markers. The IGF axis markers were all significantly higher in women, and the collagen markers significantly higher in men, however, the contribution of gender was smaller than that of age, except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. BMI had a minor contribution to variability of the GH-responsive markers. After adjustment for the confounding influences of age, gender and BMI, the effect of ethnicity in elite athletes was trivial except for IGFBP-3 and ALS, which were both lower in Africans and higher in Caucasians. Compared to age and gender, the contribution of sport type was also modest. Our findings on the influence of age, gender, BMI and sport type have also been confirmed in a study of mostly Caucasian elite athletes in the post-competition setting. In conclusion, age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers, whereas ethnicity and sport type have a minor influence. Therefore, a test based on IGF-I and the collagen markers must take age

  4. Controlled cobalt doping of magnetosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Sarah; Williams, Wyn; Telling, Neil; Van Der Laan, Gerrit; Harrison, Andrew; Ward, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize iron into magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles that are surrounded by lipid vesicles. These 'magnetosomes' have considerable potential for use in bio- and nanotechnological applications because of their narrow size and shape distribution and inherent biocompatibility. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by chemical doping would greatly expand these applications; however, the controlled doping of magnetosomes has so far not been achieved. Here, we report controlled in vivo cobalt doping of magnetosomes in three strains of the bacterium Magnetospirillum. The presence of cobalt increases the coercive field of the magnetosomes--that is, the field necessary to reverse their magnetization--by 36-45%, depending on the strain and the cobalt content. With elemental analysis, X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism, we estimate the cobalt content to be between 0.2 and 1.4%. These findings provide an important advance in designing biologically synthesized nanoparticles with useful highly tuned magnetic properties.

  5. Psychological mechanisms underlying doping attitudes in sport: motivation and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ken; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Gerrard, David; Lonsdale, Chris

    2013-08-01

    We examined whether constructs outlined in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), namely, autonomy-supportive and controlling motivational climates and autonomous and controlled motivation, were related to attitudes toward performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sport and drug-taking susceptibility. We also investigated moral disengagement as a potential mediator. We surveyed a sample of 224 competitive athletes (59% female; M age = 20.3 years; M = 10.2 years of experience participating in their sport), including 81 elite athletes. Using structural equation modeling analyses, our hypothesis proposing positive relationships with controlling climates, controlled motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was largely supported, whereas our hypothesis proposing negative relationships among autonomous climate, autonomous motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was not supported. Moral disengagement was a strong predictor of positive attitudes toward PEDs, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of PEDs susceptibility. These findings are discussed from both motivational and moral disengagement viewpoints.

  6. Doping control container for urine stabilization: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsivou, Maria; Giannadaki, Evangelia; Hooghe, Fiona; Roels, Kris; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Garribba, Flaminia; Lyris, Emmanouil; Deventer, Koen; Mazzarino, Monica; Donati, Francesco; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Van Eenoo, Peter; Georgakopoulos, Costas G; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Urine collection containers used in the doping control collection procedure do not provide a protective environment for urine, against degradation by microorganisms and proteolytic enzymes. An in-house chemical stabilization mixture was developed to tackle urine degradation problems encountered in human sport samples, in cases of microbial contamination or proteolytic activity. The mixture consists of antimicrobial substances and protease inhibitors for the simultaneous inactivation of a wide range of proteolytic enzymes. It has already been tested in lab-scale, as part of World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) funded research project, in terms of efficiency against microbial and proteolytic activity. The present work, funded also by WADA, is a follow-up study on the improvement of chemical stabilization mixture composition, application mode and limitation of interferences, using pilot urine collection containers, spray-coated in their internal surface with the chemical stabilization mixture. Urine in plastic stabilized collection containers have been gone through various incubation cycles to test for stabilization efficiency and analytical matrix interferences by three WADA accredited Laboratories (Athens, Ghent, and Rome). The spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture was tested against microorganism elimination and steroid glucuronide degradation, as well as enzymatic breakdown of proteins, such as intact hCG, recombinant erythropoietin and small peptides (GHRPs, ipamorelin), induced by proteolytic enzymes. Potential analytical interferences, observed in the presence of spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture, were recorded using routine screening procedures. The results of the current study support the application of the spray-coated plastic urine container, in the doping control collection procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; White, Janet M.

    This chapter--new to the "Yearbook"--discusses all court cases reported in 1986 that involved student athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, interscholastic sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. It does not, however,…

  8. High-sensitivity chemiluminescence immunoassays for detection of growth hormone doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin; Suhr, Jennifer; Ernst, Andrea; Wu, Zida; Keller, Alexandra; Strasburger, Christian J; Bergmann, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is abused in sports, but adequate routine doping tests are lacking. Analysis of serum hGH isoform composition has been shown to be effective in detecting rhGH doping. We developed and validated selective immunoassays for isoform analysis with potential utility for screening and confirmation in doping tests. Monoclonal antibodies with preference for pituitary hGH (phGH) or rhGH were used to establish 2 pairs of sandwich-type chemiluminescence assays with differential recognition of rhGH (recA and recB) and phGH (pitA and pitB). We analyzed specimens from volunteers before and after administration of rhGH and calculated ratios between the respective rec- and pit-assay results. Functional sensitivities were <0.05 microg/L, with intra- and interassay imprecision < or =8.4% and < or =13.7%, respectively. In 2 independent cohorts of healthy subjects, rec/pit ratios (median range) were 0.84 (0.09-1.32)/0.81 (0.27-1.21) (recA/pitA) and 0.68 (0.08-1.20)/0.80 (0.25-1.36) (recB/pitB), with no sex difference. In 20 recreational athletes, ratios (median SD) increased after a single injection of rhGH, reaching 350% (73%) (recA/pitA) and 400% (93%) (recB/pitB) of baseline ratios. At a moderate dose (0.033 mg/kg), mean recA/pitA and recB/pitB ratios remained significantly increased for 18 h (men) and 26 h (women). After high-dose rhGH (0.083 mg/kg), mean rec/pit ratios remained increased for 32 h (recA/pitA) and 34 h (recB/pitB) in men and were still increased after 36 h in women. Using sensitive chemiluminescence assays with preferential recognition of phGH or rhGH, detection of a single injection of rhGH was possible for up to 36 h.

  9. Trafficking of drug candidates relevant for sports drug testing: detection of non-approved therapeutics categorized as anabolic and gene doping agents in products distributed via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    Identifying the use of non-approved drugs by cheating athletes has been a great challenge for doping control laboratories. This is due to the additional complexities associated with identifying relatively unknown and uncharacterized compounds and their metabolites as opposed to known and well-studied therapeutics. In 2010, the prohibited drug candidates and gene doping substances AICAR and GW1516, together with the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-2866 were obtained by the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory from Internet suppliers and their structure, quantity, and formulation elucidated. All three compounds proved authentic as determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry and comparison to reference material. While AICAR was provided as a colourless powder in 100 mg aliquots, GW1516 was obtained as an orange/yellow suspension in water/glycerol (150 mg/ml), and MK-2866 (25 mg/ml) was shipped dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300. In all cases, the quantified amounts were considerably lower than indicated on the label. The substances were delivered via courier, with packaging identifying them as containing 'amino acids' and 'green tea extract', arguably to circumvent customs control. Although all of the substances were declared 'for research only', their potential misuse in illicit performance-enhancement cannot be excluded; moreover sports drug testing authorities should be aware of the facile availability of black market copies of these drug candidates. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Doping control analysis of trimetazidine and characterization of major metabolites using mass spectrometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Gerd; Koch, Anja; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since January 2014, the anti-anginal drug trimetazidine [1-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl)-piperazine] has been classified as prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), necessitating specific and robust detection methods in sports drug testing laboratories. In the present study, the implementation of the intact therapeutic agent into two different initial testing procedures based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is reported, along with the characterization of urinary metabolites by electrospray ionization-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry. For GC-MS analyses, urine samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation, while LC-MS/MS analyses were conducted by established 'dilute-and-inject' approaches. Both screening methods were validated for trimetazidine concerning specificity, limits of detection (0.5-50 ng/mL), intra-day and inter-day imprecision (<20%), and recovery (41%) in case of the GC-MS-based method. In addition, major metabolites such as the desmethylated trimetazidine and the corresponding sulfoconjugate, oxo-trimetazidine, and trimetazidine-N-oxide as identified in doping control samples were used to complement the LC-MS/MS-based assay, although intact trimetazidine was found at highest abundance of the relevant trimetazidine-related analytes in all tested sports drug testing samples. Retrospective data mining regarding doping control analyses conducted between 1999 and 2013 at the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory concerning trimetazidine revealed a considerable prevalence of the drug particularly in endurance and strength sports accounting for up to 39 findings per year. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  12. Screening for the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and its major metabolites in human doping controls.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ines; Wintermeyer, Annette; Bender, Katja; Jübner, Martin; Thomas, Andreas; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-09-01

    Referred to as 'spice', several new drugs, advertised as herbal blends, have appeared on the market in the last few years, in which the synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and a C(8) homologue of CP 47,497 were identified as major active ingredients. Due to their reported cannabis-like effects, many European countries have banned these substances. The World Anti-Doping Agency has also explicitly prohibited synthetic cannabinoids in elite sport in-competition. Since urine specimens have been the preferred doping control samples, the elucidation of the metabolic pathways of these substances is of particular importance to implement them in sports drug testing programmes. In a recent report, an in vitro phase-I metabolism study of JWH-018 was presented yielding mainly hydroxylated and N-dealkylated metabolites. Due to these findings, a urine sample of a healthy man declaring to have smoked a 'spice' product was screened for potential phase-I and -II metabolites by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry in the present report. The majority of the phase-I metabolites observed in earlier in vitro studies of JWH-018 were detected in this urine specimen and furthermore most of their respective monoglucuronides. As no intact JWH-018 was detectable, the monohydroxylated metabolite being the most abundant one was chosen as a target analyte for sports drug testing purposes; a detection method was subsequently developed and validated in accordance to conventional screening protocols based on enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The method was applied to approximately 7500 urine doping control samples yielding two JWH-018 findings and demonstrated its capability for a sensitive and selective identification of JWH-018 and its metabolites in human urine. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantification of urinary AICAR concentrations as a matter of doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Beuck, Simon; Eickhoff, Jens Christian; Guddat, Sven; Krug, Oliver; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Influencing the endurance in elite sports is one of the key points in modern sports science. Recently, a new class of prohibited substances reached in the focus of doping control laboratories and their misuse was classified as gene doping. The adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase activator 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) was found to significantly enhance the endurance even in sedentary mice after treatment. Due to endogenous production of AICAR in healthy humans, considerable amounts were present in the circulation and, thus, were excreted into urine. Considering these facts, the present study was initiated to fix reference values of renally cleared AICAR in elite athletes. Therefore a quantitative analytical method by means of isotope-dilution liquid chromatography (analytical column: C6-phenyl) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, after a sample preparation consisting of a gentle dilution of native urine, was developed. Doping control samples of 499 athletes were analysed, and AICAR concentrations in urine were determined. The mean AICAR value for all samples was 2,186 ng/mL with a standard deviation of 1,655 ng/mL. Concentrations were found to differ depending on gender, type of sport and type of sample collection (in competition/out of competition). The method was fully validated for quantitative purposes considering the parameters linearity, inter- (12%, 7% and 10%) and intraday precision (14%, 9% and 12%) at low, mid and high concentration, robustness, accuracy (approx. 100%), limit of quantification (100 ng/mL), stability and ion suppression effects, employing an in-house synthesised (13)C(5)-labelled AICAR as internal standard.

  14. Associations between Self-Control, Practice, and Skill Level in Sport Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesqui, Rafael A. B.; Young, Bradley W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the association between self-control (SC) variables and (a) sport-specific practice amounts, (b) engagement in various practice contexts, (c) threats to commitment to one's sport, and (d) skill development using the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) in a diverse sport sample. Method: Two hundred…

  15. Discordant genotyping results using DNA isolated from anti-doping control urine samples.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism is known to correlate to urinary concentration of testosterone-glucuronide and hence this genotype exerts a large impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, a biomarker for testosterone doping. The objective of this study was to assess if DNA isolated from athletes' urine samples (n = 713) obtained in routine doping controls could be targeted for genotyping analysis for future integration in the athlete's passport. A control population (n = 21) including both urine and blood DNA was used for genotyping concordance test. Another aim was to study a large group (n = 596) of authentic elite athletes in respect of urinary steroid profile in relation to genetic variation. First we found that the genotype results when using urine-derived DNA did not correlate sufficiently with the genotype obtained from whole blood DNA. Secondly we found males with one or two UGT2B17 alleles had higher T/E (mean 1.63 ± 0.93) than females (mean 1.28 ± 1.08), p˂0.001. Unexpectedly, we found that several male del/del athletes in power sports had a T/E ˃1. If men in power sport exert a different urinary steroid profile needs to be further investigated. The other polymorphisms investigated in the CYP17A1, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 genes did not show any associations with testosterone and epitestosterone concentrations. Our results show that genotyping using urine samples according to our method is not useful in an anti-doping setting. Instead, it is of importance for the anti-doping test programs to include baseline values in the ABP to minimize any putative impact of genotype. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S

    2017-08-01

    To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels. Reasons in defence of the ADRV focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement. An a priori assessment of the "need", "risk" and "consequence" of using a substance was not commonplace; further strengthening calls for increasing the reach of anti-doping education. The findings also deconstruct the view that "doped" athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.

  17. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-06-17

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.

  18. Sport Hunting, Predator Control and Conservation of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S.; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  19. The problem of anti-doping control of luteinizing hormone in boxing.

    PubMed

    Llouquet, Jean Louis; Crepin, Nathalie; Lasne, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is physiologically produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Male athletes may use pharmaceutical LH for doping since it increases the production of testosterone by testes. This hormone is thus on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances prohibited for males. Anti-doping laboratories perform the assay of this hormone in urine and report abnormally elevated results. We observed a highly significant prevalence of abnormal results in samples taken after a boxing match. Comparison of the descriptive statistics for 426 LH values observed in boxing and other sports showed significant differences. An experimental study comparing urinary LH levels in 17 boxers before and after a match demonstrated a clear increase after the match. The same observation was made for urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in all of the eight boxers tested for this other pituitary gonadotropin. These observations have consequences for anti-doping controls, as the reference range for urinary LH levels must take into account the specificities of boxers. They also suggest consequences for the health of boxers. Although to our knowledge such observations have never been described, other pituitary disorders have been reported. Our results deserve further investigation from a medical point of view. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cadwallader, Amy B; de la Torre, Xavier; Tieri, Alessandra; Botrè, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow and sodium excretion to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids. There are several major categories of this drug class and the compounds vary greatly in structure, physicochemical properties, effects on urinary composition and renal haemodynamics, and site and mechanism of action. Diuretics are often abused by athletes to excrete water for rapid weight loss and to mask the presence of other banned substances. Because of their abuse by athletes, diuretics have been included on The World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances; the use of diuretics is banned both in competition and out of competition and diuretics are routinely screened for by anti-doping laboratories. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology and toxicology of diuretics and discusses their application in sports. The most common analytical strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the WADA are discussed along with the challenges laboratories face for the analysis of this diverse class of drugs. PMID:20718736

  1. Doping control, providing whereabouts and the importance of privacy for elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Diane; de Hon, Olivier; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2014-03-01

    To improve anti-doping efforts in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the World Anti-Doping Program, in which (among others) regulations for providing athletes' whereabouts are described. Because the effectiveness and efficiency of this system depends on the co-operation and compliance of athletes, the perspective of elite athletes is important. This paper answers the following research questions: What is the perspective of Dutch elite athletes on the current whereabouts system in general and how important is their privacy in providing whereabouts in particular? In addition, this study explores how far the whereabouts system can be developed in the future. Are athletes willing to accept greater invasions of their privacy in order to reduce administrative effort and whereabouts failures? A structured questionnaire was completed by 129 Dutch elite athletes registered in the national and/or international testing pool. The results of this study indicate widespread dissatisfaction with the whereabouts system. Most respondents support anti-doping testing in general, but many athletes feel that WADA's whereabouts system is unacceptable in several respects. In terms of physical privacy, there was a great dissatisfaction. Nearly half of the athletes felt that the '1-hour time slot' limits their freedom, but on the other hand, most athletes disagreed with the statement that the distinction between their sport and private life is disturbed. For almost one in three respondents, the whereabouts system has a negative influence on the pleasure they experience in being an elite athlete. In terms of informational privacy, almost all athletes had confidence in the confidential treatment of their whereabouts information. Almost all athletes would accept giving their phone number to Doping Control Officials, but only half of the athletes would accept sharing their location on their mobile phone. Furthermore, almost two in ten of the athletes would accept wearing a

  2. [Sport and health].

    PubMed

    Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan

    2009-02-01

    The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a

  3. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision

  4. Reversible and Precisely Controllable p/n-Type Doping of MoTe2 Transistors through Electrothermal Doping.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Che-Yi; Chen, Chang-Hung; Lien, Chen-Hsin; Jian, Wen-Bin; Ueno, Keiji; Suen, Yuen-Wuu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Lin, Yen-Fu

    2018-03-01

    Precisely controllable and reversible p/n-type electronic doping of molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe 2 ) transistors is achieved by electrothermal doping (E-doping) processes. E-doping includes electrothermal annealing induced by an electric field in a vacuum chamber, which results in electron (n-type) doping and exposure to air, which induces hole (p-type) doping. The doping arises from the interaction between oxygen molecules or water vapor and defects of tellurium at the MoTe 2 surface, and allows the accurate manipulation of p/n-type electrical doping of MoTe 2 transistors. Because no dopant or special gas is used in the E-doping processes of MoTe 2 , E-doping is a simple and efficient method. Moreover, through exact manipulation of p/n-type doping of MoTe 2 transistors, quasi-complementary metal oxide semiconductor adaptive logic circuits, such as an inverter, not or gate, and not and gate, are successfully fabricated. The simple method, E-doping, adopted in obtaining p/n-type doping of MoTe 2 transistors undoubtedly has provided an approach to create the electronic devices with desired performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Anabolic Steroids: Metabolism, Doping and Detection in Human and Equestrian Sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicman, A. T.; Houghton, E.; Gower, D. B.

    This chapter highlights the important aspects of detection of doping with synthetic anabolic steroids and discusses some of the problems with, and solutions to, the detection of misuse of the naturally occurring ones.

  6. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

    2009-06-01

    The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates.

  7. [Validation of a sport injury locus of control scale].

    PubMed

    Paquet, Y

    2008-04-01

    In the area of health psychology, locus of control (LOC) [Psychol Monogr 80 (1966) 1-28] has consistently been considered as a dimension of personality which may entail many potential benefits for the individual. Originally, the LOC by Rotter [Psychol Monogr 80 (1966) 1-28] is a unidimensional concept. He defines: on one hand individuals with an internal LOC who establish a link between their behavior and the reinforcement obtained, and on the other hand, individuals with an external LOC who do not establish any link between their behavior and the reinforcement obtained. However, since Rotter, other authors like Levenson [Distinctions within the concept of internal-external control: development of a new scale. In: Proceedings of the 80th annual convention of the American psychological association. 1972. p. 261-2] have claimed a multidimensional concept with three factors: the internal (I), powerful other (P), and chance (C). The MHLCS was constructed with three factors, according to Levenson's model. Numerous scales have been designed in order to assess health-related LOC. The most widely used is the MHLCS [Health Educ Monogr 6 (1978) 160-170]. According to Lecocq [La réhabilitation après la blessure. In: Manuel de psychologie du sport : l'intervention auprès du sportif. Paris: Revue EPS; 2003. p. 377-402], such a multidimensional view would allow in-depth examinations of sport injuries. Indeed, from a theoretical perspective, sport participants with high LOC ratings are assumed to suffer less frequent injuries than those scoring low on this dimension. The purpose of the present paper is to present an adapted version of the MHLCS in French language. For Bruchon-Schweitzer [Bruchon-Schweitzer M, Dantzer R. Introduction à la psychologie de la santé. Paris: Presses universitaires de France; 1994], the three factors (I, P, and C) are independent or a little intercorrelated. Therefore, two models of sport injury LOC scale have been studied: the first with three

  8. Youth Sports/Athletic Programs--Local or National Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick

    The author (1) explains a system analysis approach developed by the Sports Institute for Research through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for working with government, business, and service organizations in sport-related areas; (2) examines the distinction between professional athletics and amateur sport; (3) discusses conflict resolution by…

  9. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K S

    1984-05-01

    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Role of capillary electrophoresis in the fight against doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher R

    2013-08-06

    At present the role of capillary electrophoresis in the detection of doping agents in athletes is, for the most part, nonexistent. More traditional techniques, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, remain the gold standard of antidoping tests. This Feature will investigate the in-roads that capillary electrophoresis has made, the limitations that the technique suffers from, and where the technique may grow into being a key tool for antidoping analysis.

  11. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 −xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt–iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  12. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J M; Coker, V S; Moise, S; Wincott, P L; Vaughan, D J; Tuna, F; Arenholz, E; van der Laan, G; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Telling, N D

    2013-06-06

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 -xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt-iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe(2+) site with Co(2+), with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites.

  13. [Interdisciplinary strategies versus doping].

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A; Schöffel, Norman

    2010-06-01

    Doping is a phenomenon which in the past years through the various incidences in professional cycling has come more and more into the focus of the public interest. Whilst in the young past the problems were to define the term "doping" exactly, today's problem is to prevent adolescents and children of doping. This shall be achieved by carrying out controls and serious sanctions for doping violations. Scientific research proved that doping usage can be avoided by broad specific prevention measures. In general, the earlier the athletes dope the higher the risk to become addicted later on in life to other legal or illegal drugs. The aim of this review is to analyse the prevalence of doping regarding youth-, competitive-, high performance and recreational sports and to examine further aspects of doping abuse, risks of addiction, the legal situation, current strategies in the fight against doping and to enhance chances of further doping prevention opportunities. By means of this data an all-embracing view should be given over the current situation, problems and prospects in German-speaking countries.

  14. Are Sports and Games Effective for Fitness and Weight Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Although traditional aerobic activities such as running, cycling, and swimming may effectively increase activity and aerobic fitness, they may not be suitable or attractive for many people who would rather participate in sports and games. However, some HPER professionals believe that sports and games are not as effective for fitness and weight…

  15. Interpretation of urinary concentrations of pseudoephedrine and its metabolite cathine in relation to doping control.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Van Eenoo, P; Baele, G; Pozo, O J; Van Thuyne, W; Delbeke, F T

    2009-05-01

    Until the end of 2003 a urinary concentration of pseudoephedrine exceeding 25 microg/mL was regarded as a doping violation by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Since its removal from the prohibited list in 2004 the number of urine samples in which pseudoephedrine was detected in our laboratory increased substantially. Analysis of 116 in-competition samples containing pseudoephedrine in 2007 and 2008, revealed that 66% of these samples had a concentration of pseudoephedrine above 25 microg/mL. This corresponded to 1.4% of all tested in competition samples in that period. In the period 2001-2003 only 0.18% of all analysed in competition samples contained more than 25 microg/mL. Statistical comparison of the two periods showed that after the removal of pseudoephedrine from the list its use increased significantly. Of the individual sports compared between the two periods, only cycling is shown to yield a significant increase.Analysis of excretion urine samples after administration of a therapeutic daily dose (240 mg pseudoephedrine) in one administration showed that the threshold of 25 microg/mL can be exceeded. The same samples were also analysed for cathine, which has currently a threshold of 5 microg/mL on the prohibited list. The maximum urinary concentration of cathine also exceeded the threshold for some volunteers. Comparison of the measured cathine and pseudoephedrine concentrations only indicated a poor correlation between them. Hence, cathine is not a good indicator to control pseudopehedrine intake. To control the (ab)use of ephedrines in sports it is recommended that WADA reintroduce a threshold for pseudoephedrine. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  17. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciT

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentrationmore » in porous semiconductor thin films.« less

  18. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  19. Effects of sport expertise on representational momentum during timing control.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro; Ikudome, Sachi; Unenaka, Satoshi; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-01

    Sports involving fast visual perception require players to compensate for delays in neural processing of visual information. Memory for the final position of a moving object is distorted forward along its path of motion (i.e., "representational momentum," RM). This cognitive extrapolation of visual perception might compensate for the neural delay in interacting appropriately with a moving object. The present study examined whether experienced batters cognitively extrapolate the location of a fast-moving object and whether this extrapolation is associated with coincident timing control. Nine expert and nine novice baseball players performed a prediction motion task in which a target moved from one end of a straight 400-cm track at a constant velocity. In half of the trials, vision was suddenly occluded when the target reached the 200-cm point (occlusion condition). Participants had to press a button concurrently with the target arrival at the end of the track and verbally report their subjective assessment of the first target-occluded position. Experts showed larger RM magnitude (cognitive extrapolation) than did novices in the occlusion condition. RM magnitude and timing errors were strongly correlated in the fast velocity condition in both experts and novices, whereas in the slow velocity condition, a significant correlation appeared only in experts. This suggests that experts can cognitively extrapolate the location of a moving object according to their anticipation and, as a result, potentially circumvent neural processing delays. This process might be used to control response timing when interacting with moving objects.

  20. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  1. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    PubMed

    Švorc, Ĺubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-02

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays.

  2. Infectious Diseases Associated With Organized Sports and Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Davies, H Dele; Jackson, Mary Anne; Rice, Stephen G

    2017-10-01

    Participation in organized sports has a variety of health benefits but also has the potential to expose the athlete to a variety of infectious diseases, some of which may produce outbreaks. Major risk factors for infection include skin-to-skin contact with athletes who have active skin infections, environmental exposures and physical trauma, and sharing of equipment and contact with contaminated fomites. Close contact that is intrinsic to team sports and psychosocial factors associated with adolescence are additional risks. Minimizing risk requires leadership by the organized sports community (including the athlete's primary care provider) and depends on outlining key hygiene behaviors, recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of common sports-related infections, and the implementation of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.

  4. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport. PMID:26583139

  5. Detecting peptidic drugs, drug candidates and analogs in sports doping: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    With the growing availability of mature systems and strategies in biotechnology and the continuously expanding knowledge of cellular processes and involved biomolecules, human sports drug testing has become a considerably complex field in the arena of analytical chemistry. Proving the exogenous origin of peptidic drugs and respective analogs at lowest concentration levels in biological specimens (commonly blood, serum and urine) of rather limited volume is required to pursue an action against cheating athletes. Therefore, approaches employing chromatographic-mass spectrometric, electrophoretic, immunological and combined test methods have been required and developed. These allow detecting the misuse of peptidic compounds of lower (such as growth hormone-releasing peptides, ARA-290, TB-500, AOD-9604, CJC-1295, desmopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones, synacthen, etc.), intermediate (e.g., insulins, IGF-1 and analogs, 'full-length' mechano growth factor, growth hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, erythropoietin, etc.) and higher (e.g., stamulumab) molecular mass with desired specificity and sensitivity. A gap between the technically possible detection and the day-to-day analytical practice, however, still needs to be closed.

  6. Doping control by ALD surface functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel

    2015-02-10

    Systems and methods for producing a material of desired thickness. Deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition are alter to control the thickness of deposited material. A funtionalization species inhibits the deposition reaction.

  7. Effect of patellar strap and sports tape on pain in patellar tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A; Zwerver, J; Diercks, R; Tak, I; van Berkel, S; van Cingel, R; van der Worp, H; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2016-10-01

    Numerous athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) use a patellar strap or sports tape during sports. This study's aim was to investigate the short-term effect of these orthoses on patellar tendon pain. Participants performed the single-leg decline squat, vertical jump test, and triple-hop test under four different conditions (patellar strap, sports tape, placebo, and control). Subsequently, participants practiced sports as usual for 2 weeks; during 1 week, they were assigned to one of the four conditions. Pain was measured with the visual analog scale (VAS). In total, 97 athletes with PT [61% male, age 27.0 (SD8.1), VISA-P 58.5 (SD12.7)] were analyzed. On the single-leg decline squat, the VAS pain score reduced significantly in the patellar strap (14 mm, P = 0.04) and the sports tape condition (13 mm, P = 0.04), compared with control, but not placebo. A significant decrease in VAS pain during sports was found in the sports tape (7 mm, P = 0.04) and placebo group (6 mm, P = 0.04). The VAS pain score two hours after sports decreased significantly in the patellar strap, sports tape and placebo group (8-mm, P < 0.001, 10 mm, P = 0.001 and 7 mm, P = 0.03, respectively). This study's findings indicate that an orthosis (including placebo tape) during sports can reduce pain in PT patients in the short term. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Associations Between Self-Control, Practice, and Skill Level in Sport Expertise Development.

    PubMed

    Tedesqui, Rafael A B; Young, Bradley W

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between self-control (SC) variables and (a) sport-specific practice amounts, (b) engagement in various practice contexts, (c) threats to commitment to one's sport, and (d) skill development using the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) in a diverse sport sample. Two hundred forty-four athletes (47% female; M age  = 21.96 years, SD = 6.98 years; 68.8% individual sports and 31.2% team sports; 13.77 [SD = 8.12] hr/week of sport-specific practice) completed a survey composed of the BSCS and practice-related measures. Three skill groups (basic/intermediate, advanced, expert) were informed by athletes' self-reported highest level of competition. Separate analyses were conducted for juniors (aged 12-17 years) and seniors (aged 18-43 years). A 2-factor model (self-discipline and impulse control) fit the BSCS data. Fewer thoughts of quitting from one's sport were associated with higher self-discipline in juniors and seniors and were also related to higher impulse control in seniors. Greater practice amounts were associated with higher self-discipline; however, only seniors showed such associations in voluntary practice contexts. For juniors and seniors, impulse control was associated with more voluntary practicing. There were, however, no skill-group differences for levels of self-discipline or impulse control. Self-discipline and impulse control may be dispositional characteristics associated with how athletes engage in practice and avert conditions that threaten their sport commitment. SC dispositions may relate to practice amounts differently in juniors and seniors, depending on the requirements for self-regulation in a practice context.

  9. The importance of reference materials in doping-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Lindsey G; Kazlauskas, Rymantas

    2011-08-01

    Currently a large range of pure substance reference materials are available for calibration of doping-control methods. These materials enable traceability to the International System of Units (SI) for the results generated by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratories. Only a small number of prohibited substances have threshold limits for which quantification is highly important. For these analytes only the highest quality reference materials that are available should be used. Many prohibited substances have no threshold limits and reference materials provide essential identity confirmation. For these reference materials the correct identity is critical and the methods used to assess identity in these cases should be critically evaluated. There is still a lack of certified matrix reference materials to support many aspects of doping analysis. However, in key areas a range of urine matrix materials have been produced for substances with threshold limits, for example 19-norandrosterone and testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio. These matrix-certified reference materials (CRMs) are an excellent independent means of checking method recovery and bias and will typically be used in method validation and then regularly as quality-control checks. They can be particularly important in the analysis of samples close to threshold limits, in which measurement accuracy becomes critical. Some reference materials for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis are available and a matrix material certified for steroid delta values is currently under production. In other new areas, for example the Athlete Biological Passport, peptide hormone testing, designer steroids, and gene doping, reference material needs still need to be thoroughly assessed and prioritised.

  10. An Intervention to Optimize Coach Motivational Climates and Reduce Athlete Willingness to Dope (CoachMADE): Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Cluster Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Quested, Eleanor; Patterson, Laurie; Smith, Brendan J; Whitaker, Lisa; Pavlidis, George; Kaffe, Stela

    2017-01-01

    Field-based anti-doping interventions in sport are scarce and focus on athletes. However, coaches are recognized as one of the most significant source of influence in terms of athletes' cognitions, affect, and behavior. In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster randomized control trial which aims to contrast the relative effects of a 'motivation and anti-doping' intervention program for coaches against an information-based anti-doping control program. In developing the motivation content of our intervention, we drew from Self-Determination Theory. The project is currently ongoing in Australia and has recently started in the United Kingdom and Greece. We aim to recruit 120 coaches and approximately 1200 of their athletes across the three countries. Various assessments will be taken from both coaches and athletes prior to the intervention, immediately after the 12-week intervention and at a 2-month follow up. The intervention comprises face-to-face workshops and weekly activities which are supported by printed and online material. The project aims to identify communication strategies that coaches can use to support athletes' motivation in sport and also to promote self-determined reasons for athletes to comply with doping regulations. Trial Registration: The trial is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12616001688471.

  11. Quality Control in the Administration of Sport Management Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Dennie Ruth

    2004-01-01

    The quality of an intern's learning experience is the joint responsibility of the academic internship coordinator, the administrator of the sport management program, and the agency supervisor. The purpose of this article is to identify the areas of administrative concern in the three major components of an internship: the institution granting…

  12. Ego depletion in sports: highlighting the importance of self-control strength for high-level sport performance.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure. The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of ego depletion in the field of sports and exercise and to discuss the recent research and controversies surrounding it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Autonomic cardiovascular control and sports classification in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between the classification systems used in wheelchair sports and cardiovascular function in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods 26 wheelchair rugby (C3-C8) and 14 wheelchair basketball (T3-L1) were assessed for their International Wheelchair Rugby and Basketball Federation sports classification. Next, athletes were assessed for resting and reflex cardiovascular and autonomic function via the change (delta) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) in response to sit-up, and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), respectively. Results There were no differences in supine, seated, or delta SBP and HR between different sport classes in rugby or basketball (all p > 0.23). Athletes with autonomically complete injuries (SSR score 0-1) exhibited a lower supine SBP, seated SBP and delta SBP compared to those with autonomically incomplete injuries (SSR score >1; all p < 0.010), independent of sport played. There was no association between self-report OH and measured OH (χ 2  =   1.63, p = 0.20). Conclusion We provide definitive evidence that sports specific classification is not related to the degree of remaining autonomic cardiovascular control in Paralympic athletes with SCI. We suggest that testing for remaining autonomic function, which is closely related to the degree of cardiovascular control, should be incorporated into sporting classification. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury is a debilitating condition that affects the function of almost every physiological system. It is becoming increasingly apparent that spinal cord injury induced changes in autonomic and cardiovascular function are important determinants of sports performance in athletes with spinal cord injury. This study shows that the current sports classification systems used in wheelchair rugby and basketball do not accurately reflect autonomic and cardiovascular function and thus are placing some

  14. Application of the Athlete's Performance Passport for Doping Control: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Iljukov, Sergei; Bermon, Stephane; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-01-01

    The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called "athlete's performance passport" (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances. By these means, an athlete with unusual deviations from his predicted performances was identified. Subsequent target testing using blood testing and the athlete biological passport resulted in an anti-doping rule violation procedure and suspension of the athlete. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the APP approach where athlete's performance is monitored and might serve as an example for the practical implementation of the method.

  15. Application of the Athlete's Performance Passport for Doping Control: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Iljukov, Sergei; Bermon, Stephane; Schumacher, Yorck O.

    2018-01-01

    The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called “athlete's performance passport” (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances. By these means, an athlete with unusual deviations from his predicted performances was identified. Subsequent target testing using blood testing and the athlete biological passport resulted in an anti-doping rule violation procedure and suspension of the athlete. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the APP approach where athlete's performance is monitored and might serve as an example for the practical implementation of the method. PMID:29651247

  16. Simultaneous detection of xenon and krypton in equine plasma by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for doping control.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Choi, Timmy L S; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-02-01

    Xenon can activate the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). As such, it has been allegedly used in human sports for increasing erythropoiesis. Krypton, another noble gas with reported narcosis effect, can also be expected to be a potential and less expensive erythropoiesis stimulating agent. This has raised concern about the misuse of noble gases as doping agents in equine sports. The aim of the present study is to establish a method for the simultaneous detection of xenon and krypton in equine plasma for the purpose of doping control. Xenon- or krypton-fortified equine plasma samples were prepared according to reported protocols. The target noble gases were simultaneously detected by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using headspace injection. Three xenon isotopes at m/z 129, 131, and 132, and four krypton isotopes at m/z 82, 83, 84, and 86 were targeted in selected reaction monitoring mode (with the precursor ions and product ions at identical mass settings), allowing unambiguous identification of the target analytes. Limits of detection for xenon and krypton were about 19 pmol/mL and 98 pmol/mL, respectively. Precision for both analytes was less than 15%. The method has good specificity as background analyte signals were not observed in negative equine plasma samples (n = 73). Loss of analytes under different storage temperatures has also been evaluated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Controlling the dual mechanisms of oxide interface doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Weitao; Cen, Cheng

    The formation of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces involves multiple electronic and structural causes. The interplay between them makes the investigation of individual mechanism very challenging. Here we demonstrate the nanoscale selective control of two interface doping pathways: charge transfers from surface adsorbed protons and oxygen vacancies created in LaAlO3 layers. The selective control is achieved by combining intensive electric field generated by conducting AFM probe which controls both the creation/migration of oxygen vacancies and the surface proton density, with plasma assisted surface hydroxylation and solvent based proton solvation that act mainly on surface adsorbates. Robust nanoscale reversible metal-insulator transition was achieved at the interfaces with the LaAlO3 layer thicker than the critic thickness. Different combinations of the experimental methods and doping mechanisms enable highly flexible tuning of the 2DEG's carrier density, mobility and sensitivity to ambient environments. The reversible and independent controls of surface states and vacancies add to the fundamental material research capabilities and can benefit future exploration of designed 2DEG nanoelectronics.

  18. Process Control in Production-Worthy Plasma Doping Technology

    SciT

    Winder, Edmund J.; Fang Ziwei; Arevalo, Edwin

    2006-11-13

    As the semiconductor industry continues to scale devices of smaller dimensions and improved performance, many ion implantation processes require lower energy and higher doses. Achieving these high doses (in some cases {approx}1x1016 ions/cm2) at low energies (<3 keV) while maintaining throughput is increasingly challenging for traditional beamline implant tools because of space-charge effects that limit achievable beam density at low energies. Plasma doping is recognized as a technology which can overcome this problem. In this paper, we highlight the technology available to achieve process control for all implant parameters associated with modem semiconductor manufacturing.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament- specialized post-operative return-to-sports (ACL-SPORTS) training: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is standard practice for athletes that wish to return to high-level activities; however functional outcomes after ACLR are poor. Quadriceps strength weakness, abnormal movement patterns and below normal knee function is reported in the months and years after ACLR. Second ACL injuries are common with even worse outcomes than primary ACLR. Modifiable limb-to-limb asymmetries have been identified in individuals who re-injure after primary ACLR, suggesting a neuromuscular training program is needed to improve post-operative outcomes. Pre-operative perturbation training, a neuromuscular training program, has been successful at improving limb symmetry prior to surgery, though benefits are not lasting after surgery. Implementing perturbation training after surgery may be successful in addressing post-operative deficits that contribute to poor functional outcomes and second ACL injury risk. Methods/Design 80 athletes that have undergone a unilateral ACLR and wish to return to level 1 or 2 activities will be recruited for this study and randomized to one of two treatment groups. A standard care group will receive prevention exercises, quadriceps strengthening and agility exercises, while the perturbation group will receive the same exercise program with the addition of perturbation training. The primary outcomes measures will include gait biomechanics, clinical and functional measures, and knee joint loading. Return to sport rates, return to pre-injury level of activity rates, and second injury rates will be secondary measures. Discussion The results of this ACL-Specialized Post-Operative Return To Sports (ACL-SPORTS) Training program will help clinicians to better determine an effective post-operative treatment program that will improve modifiable impairments that influence outcomes after ACLR. Trial registration Randomized Control Trial NIH 5R01AR048212-07. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01773317 PMID:23522373

  20. Quantifying cobalt in doping control urine samples--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krug, Oliver; Kutscher, Daniel; Piper, Thomas; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since first reports on the impact of metals such as manganese and cobalt on erythropoiesis were published in the late 1920s, cobaltous chloride became a viable though not widespread means for the treatment of anaemic conditions. Today, its use is de facto eliminated from clinical practice; however, its (mis)use in human as well as animal sport as an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent has been discussed frequently. In order to assess possible analytical options and to provide relevant information on the prevalence of cobalt use/misuse among athletes, urinary cobalt concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from four groups of subjects. The cohorts consisted of (1) a reference population with specimens of 100 non-elite athletes (not being part of the doping control system), (2) a total of 96 doping control samples from endurance sport athletes, (3) elimination study urine samples collected from six individuals having ingested cobaltous chloride (500 µg/day) through dietary supplements, and (4) samples from people supplementing vitamin B12 (cobalamin) at 500 µg/day, accounting for approximately 22 µg of cobalt. The obtained results demonstrated that urinary cobalt concentrations of the reference population as well as the group of elite athletes were within normal ranges (0.1-2.2 ng/mL). A modest but significant difference between these two groups was observed (Wilcoxon rank sum test, p < 0.01) with the athletes' samples presenting slightly higher urinary cobalt levels. The elimination study urine specimens yielded cobalt concentrations between 40 and 318 ng/mL during the first 6 h post-administration, and levels remained elevated (>22 ng/mL) up to 33 h. Oral supplementation of 500 µg of cobalamin did not result in urinary cobalt concentrations > 2 ng/mL. Based on these pilot study data it is concluded that measuring the urinary concentration of cobalt can provide information indicating the use

  1. Analytical approaches for the detection of emerging therapeutics and non-approved drugs in human doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    The number and diversity of potentially performance-enhancing substances is continuously growing, fueled by new pharmaceutical developments but also by the inventiveness and, at the same time, unscrupulousness of black-market (designer) drug producers and providers. In terms of sports drug testing, this situation necessitates reactive as well as proactive research and expansion of the analytical armamentarium to ensure timely, adequate, and comprehensive doping controls. This review summarizes literature published over the past 5 years on new drug entities, discontinued therapeutics, and 'tailored' compounds classified as doping agents according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency, with particular attention to analytical strategies enabling their detection in human blood or urine. Among these compounds, low- and high-molecular mass substances of peptidic (e.g. modified insulin-like growth factor-1, TB-500, hematide/peginesatide, growth hormone releasing peptides, AOD-9604, etc.) and non-peptidic (selective androgen receptor modulators, hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers, siRNA, S-107 and ARM036/aladorian, etc.) as well as inorganic (cobalt) nature are considered and discussed in terms of specific requirements originating from physicochemical properties, concentration levels, metabolism, and their amenability for chromatographic-mass spectrometric or alternative detection methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications and biomonitoring issues of recombinant erythropoietins for doping control.

    PubMed

    Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Kouretas, Demetrios; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Fitch, Kenneth; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides

    2011-02-01

    The biochemical actions and side effects of recombinant erythropoietins (rhEPOs), their analogs and mimetics, their misuse as doping agents, and the principal analytical strategies developed to identify them in athletes' biologic fluids are reviewed. Patients who experience a range of pathologies have benefited from the administration of rhEPOs to correct severe anemia. Currently, monitoring the biologic effect of rhEPO in patients under treatment is by measuring the hemoglobin concentration. However, it may be valuable to directly monitor the actual levels of the administered drug and determine a dose-dependent correlation with any clinical adverse effect observed. This may permit the adoption of a patient-specific administration regime. Currently, the method of detecting EPO approved for doping control is an isoelectric-focusing, double-blotting, chemiluminescence assay based on charge differences between isoforms of rhEPOs and endogenous EPO in urine. The advantages and limitations of this method are presented. A new approach using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a complementary tool to the established method is discussed. The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry for the direct detection of the rhEPO molecules may prove to be promising. Indirect evidence of rhEPO abuse by athletes is based on the analysis of blood parameters (hemoglobin hematocrit, reticulocytes, macrocytes, etc) and serum markers (concentration of EPO and serum transferrin receptors, etc). Enrichment of the screened parameters with gene or biochemical markers revealing altered erythropoiesis and adoption of longitudinal monitoring of athletes' hematologic and biochemical parameters could also be a complementary approach in the fight against doping.

  3. Detection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by mass spectrometry procedures in doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Delahaut, Philippe; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering manipulation of athletic performance via small interfering (si)RNA is an emerging field in sports drug testing. Due to the potential to principally knock down every target gene in the organism by means of the RNA interference pathway, this facet of gene doping has become a realistic scenario. In the present study, two distinct model siRNAs comprising 21 nucleotides were designed as double strands which were perfect counterparts to a sequence of the respective messenger RNA coding the muscle regulator myostatin of Rattus norvegicus. Several modified nucleotides were introduced in both the sense and the antisense strand comprising phosphothioates, 2'-O-methylation, 2'-fluoro-nucleotides, locked nucleic acids and a cholesterol tag at the 3'-end. The model siRNAs were applied to rats at 1 mg/kg (i.v.) and blood as well as urine samples were collected. After isolation of the RNA by means of a RNA purification kit, the target analytes were detected by liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Analytes were detected as modified nucleotides after alkaline hydrolysis, as intact oligonucleotide strands (top-down) and by means of denaturing SDS-PAGE analysis. The gel-separated siRNA was further subjected to in-gel hydrolysis with different RNases and subsequent identification of the fragments by untargeted LC-HRMS analysis (bottom-up, 'experimental RNomics'). Combining the results of all approaches, the identification of several 3'-truncated urinary metabolites was accomplished and target analytes were detected up to 24 h after a single administration. Simultaneously collected blood samples yielded no promising results. The methods were validated and found fit-for-purpose for doping controls. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkman, Jeroen

    2005-03-01

    Erbium is a rare-earth metal that, when incorporated in a solid, can emit light at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. It plays a key role in current day telecommunication technology as the principle ingredient of optical fiber amplifiers. In this thesis the control of the Er spontaneous emission in three different types of microphotonic materials is described. Part I of this thesis focuses on the effect of a metallo-dielectric interface on the spontaneous emission of optical emitters in silica glass. It is shown that Er ions near a Ag interface can couple to surface plasmons (SPs) via a near-field interaction. By coupling SPs out into the far field, large changes in the Er photoluminescence emission distribution, spectra, and polarization can be observed. The excitation of SPs also results in an increase of the Er photoluminescence decay rate. The observed decay rates are in good agreement with calculations based on a classical dipole oscillator model. From the change in photoluminescence decay rate of Si nanocrystals near a Ag interface it is shown that Si nanocrystals can efficiently excite SPs and have an internal quantum efficiency of 77 %. Part II focuses on the effect of a microcavity on the spontaneous emission of Er and describes how ion implantation can be used to dope dielectric microresonators with optically active Er ions. The fabrication and characterization of an Er ion-implanted silica microsphere resonator is described that shows lasing at 1.5 μm when pumped above its lasing threshold. Ion implantation is also used to dope toroidal microcavities on a Si chip with Er. The microtoroids are doped by either pre-implantation into the SiO2 base material, or by post-implantation in a fully fabricated microtoroid. The optical activation of Er ions in the microtoroid is investigated and Er lasing at 1.5 μm is observed for both types of microcavities with the lowest threshold (4.5 μW) for the pre-implanted microtoroids. Part III describes the fabrication of an Er-doped

  5. Moderate intensity sports and exercise is associated with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, S F; Hedderson, M M; Brown, S D; Sternfeld, B; Chasan-Taber, L; Feng, J; Adams, J; Ching, J; Crites, Y; Quesenberry, C P; Ferrara, A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the association of regular, unsupervised sports and exercise during pregnancy, by intensity level, with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Prospective cohort study of 971 women who, shortly after being diagnosed with GDM, completed a Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire assessing moderate and vigorous intensity sports and exercise in the past 3 months. Self-monitored capillary glucose values were obtained for the 6-week period following the questionnaire, with optimal glycaemic control defined≥80% values meeting the targets<5.3mmol/L for fasting and <7.8mmol/L 1-hour after meals. Logistic regression estimated the odds of achieving optimal control; linear regression estimated activity level-specific least square mean glucose, as well as between-level mean glucose differences. For volume of moderate intensity sports and exercise ([MET×hours]/week), the highest quartile, compared to the lowest, had significantly increased odds of optimal control (OR=1.82 [95% CI: 1.06-3.14] P=0.03). There were significant trends for decreasing mean 1-hour post breakfast, lunch and dinner glycaemia with increasing quartile of moderate activity (all P<0.05). Any participation in vigorous intensity sports and exercise was associated with decreased mean 1-hour post breakfast and lunch glycaemia (both P<0.05). No associations were observed for fasting. Higher volumes of moderate intensity sports and exercise, reported shortly after GDM diagnosis, were significantly associated with increased odds of achieving glycaemic control. Clinicians should be aware that unsupervised moderate intensity sports and exercise performed in mid-pregnancy aids in subsequent glycaemic control among women with GDM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Michel; Martinent, Guillaume; Drapeau, Martin; Chahraoui, Khadija; Vacher, Philippe; de Roten, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control) and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six (N = 296) athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles) of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports. PMID:29312070

  7. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michel; Martinent, Guillaume; Drapeau, Martin; Chahraoui, Khadija; Vacher, Philippe; de Roten, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control) and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six ( N = 296) athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles) of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports.

  8. European Anti-Doping Charter for Sport. Recommendation No. R(84)19 Adopted by the Committee of Miniters of the Council of Europe on September 25, 1984 and Explanatory Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Effective action against doping in competitive sports requires cooperative action, not only between governments and non-governmental organizations, but also internationally. Guidelines are set forth for actions to be taken to prevent the use of drugs by athletes. Part 1 delineates measures to be taken by governments. These include legislative…

  9. An Intervention to Optimize Coach Motivational Climates and Reduce Athlete Willingness to Dope (CoachMADE): Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gucciardi, Daniel F.; Backhouse, Susan H.; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Quested, Eleanor; Patterson, Laurie; Smith, Brendan J.; Whitaker, Lisa; Pavlidis, George; Kaffe, Stela

    2018-01-01

    Field-based anti-doping interventions in sport are scarce and focus on athletes. However, coaches are recognized as one of the most significant source of influence in terms of athletes’ cognitions, affect, and behavior. In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster randomized control trial which aims to contrast the relative effects of a ‘motivation and anti-doping’ intervention program for coaches against an information-based anti-doping control program. In developing the motivation content of our intervention, we drew from Self-Determination Theory. The project is currently ongoing in Australia and has recently started in the United Kingdom and Greece. We aim to recruit 120 coaches and approximately 1200 of their athletes across the three countries. Various assessments will be taken from both coaches and athletes prior to the intervention, immediately after the 12-week intervention and at a 2-month follow up. The intervention comprises face-to-face workshops and weekly activities which are supported by printed and online material. The project aims to identify communication strategies that coaches can use to support athletes’ motivation in sport and also to promote self-determined reasons for athletes to comply with doping regulations. Trial Registration: The trial is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12616001688471. PMID:29375428

  10. Characterization of two major urinary metabolites of the PPARdelta-agonist GW1516 and implementation of the drug in routine doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Möller, Ines; Thomas, Andreas; Beuck, Simon; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Bornatsch, Wolfgang; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    Since January 2009, the list of prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency includes new therapeutics such as the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-delta agonist GW1516, which is categorized as a gene doping substance. GW1516 has completed phase II and IV clinical trials regarding dyslipidemia and the regulation of the lipoprotein transport in metabolic syndrome conditions; however, its potential to also improve athletic performance due to the upregulation of genes associated with oxidative metabolism and a modified substrate preference that shifted from carbohydrate to lipid consumption has led to a ban of this compound in elite sport. In a recent report, two presumably mono-oxygenated and bisoxygenated urinary metabolites of GW1516 were presented, which could serve as target analytes for doping control purposes after full characterization. Hence, in the present study, phase I metabolism was simulated by in vitro assays employing human liver microsomal fractions yielding the same oxygenation products, followed by chemical synthesis of the assumed structures of the two abundant metabolic reaction products. These allowed the identification and characterization of mono-oxygenated and bisoxygenated metabolites (sulfoxide and sulfone, respectively) as supported by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry with higher-energy collision-induced dissociation, tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Since urine samples have been the preferred matrix for doping control purposes, a method to detect the new target GW1516 in sports drug testing samples was developed in accordance to conventional screening procedures based on enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry. Validation was performed for specificity, limit of detection (0.1 ng/ml), recovery (72%), intraday and interday

  11. Gene doping.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2010-01-01

    Gene doping abuses the legitimate approach of gene therapy. While gene therapy aims to correct genetic disorders by introducing a foreign gene to replace an existing faulty one or by manipulating existing gene(s) to achieve a therapeutic benefit, gene doping employs the same concepts to bestow performance advantages on athletes over their competitors. Recent developments in genetic engineering have contributed significantly to the progress of gene therapy research and currently numerous clinical trials are underway. Some athletes and their staff are probably watching this progress closely. Any gene that plays a role in muscle development, oxygen delivery to tissues, neuromuscular coordination, or even pain control is considered a candidate for gene dopers. Unfortunately, detecting gene doping is technically very difficult because the transgenic proteins expressed by the introduced genes are similar to their endogenous counterparts. Researchers today are racing the clock because assuring the continued integrity of sports competition depends on their ability to develop effective detection strategies in preparation for the 2012 Olympics, which may mark the appearance of genetically modified athletes.

  12. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 2: Detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin by flow cytofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Donati, Francesco; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    This work presents an analytical procedure for the identification and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins, based on flow cytofluorimetry. Flow cytofluorimetric detection is carried out following labelling by two distinct fluorescent reagents, an anti-haemoglobin antibody, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated, and an anti-poly(ethylene glycol) antibody, streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugated. This experimental strategy allows the detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins in aqueous media, including plasma; the efficacy of the proposed approach has been verified on whole blood samples added with the liposomal formulation (ex-vivo). Additionally, the proposed technique allows the characterization of several key parameters in the study of liposomal haemoglobins, including, for instance (1) the determination of the degree of haemoglobin entrapment by liposomes; (2) the poly(ethylene glycol) insertion efficiency; and (3) the evaluation of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins stability following storage at 4 °C, allowing to follow both the process of haemoglobin loss from liposomes and the liposome degradation. The procedure is proposed for the detection and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin formulations to control their misuse in sport, but is also suggested for further applications in biological and clinical laboratory investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Optimal doping control of magnetic semiconductors via subsurfactant epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu; van Benthem, Klaus; Chisholm, Matthew F; Weitering, Hanno H

    2008-02-15

    "Subsurfactant epitaxy" is established as a conceptually new approach for introducing manganese as a magnetic dopant into germanium. A kinetic pathway is devised in which the subsurface interstitial sites on Ge(100) are first selectively populated with Mn, while lateral diffusion and clustering on or underneath the surface are effectively suppressed. Subsequent Ge deposition as a capping layer produces a novel surfactantlike phenomenon as the interstitial Mn atoms float towards newly defined subsurface sites at the growth front. Furthermore, the Mn atoms that failed to float upwards are uniformly distributed within the Ge capping layer. The resulting doping levels of order 0.25 at. % would normally be considered too low for ferromagnetic ordering, but the Curie temperature exceeds room temperature by a comfortable margin. Subsurfactant epitaxy thus enables superior dopant control in magnetic semiconductors.

  14. Leisure sports and postural control: can a black belt protect your balance from aging?

    PubMed

    Krampe, Ralf T; Smolders, Caroline; Doumas, Michail

    2014-03-01

    To determine potential benefits of intensive leisure sports for age-related changes in postural control, we tested 3 activity groups comprising 70 young (M = 21.67 years, SD = 2.80) and 73 older (M = 62.60 years, SD = 5.19) men. Activity groups were martial artists, who held at least 1st Dan (black belt), sportive individuals exercising sports without explicit balance components, and nonsportive controls. Martial artists had an advantage over sportive individuals in dynamic posture tasks (upright stance on a sway-referenced platform), and these 2 active groups showed better postural control than nonsportive participants. Age-related differences in postural control were larger in nonsportive men compared with the 2 active groups, who were similar in this respect. In contrast, negative age differences in other sensorimotor and cognitive functions did not differ between activity groups. We concluded that individuals engaging in intensive recreational sports have long-term advantages in postural control. However, even in older martial artists with years of practice in their sports, we observed considerable differences favoring the young. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Cervicovestibular rehabilitation in sport-related concussion: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathryn J; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Barlow, Karen; Boyd, Lara; Kang, Jian; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-09-01

    Concussion is a common injury in sport. Most individuals recover in 7-10 days but some have persistent symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine if a combination of vestibular rehabilitation and cervical spine physiotherapy decreased the time until medical clearance in individuals with prolonged postconcussion symptoms. This study was a randomised controlled trial. Consecutive patients with persistent symptoms of dizziness, neck pain and/or headaches following a sport-related concussion (12-30 years, 18 male and 13 female) were randomised to the control or intervention group. Both groups received weekly sessions with a physiotherapist for 8 weeks or until the time of medical clearance. Both groups received postural education, range of motion exercises and cognitive and physical rest until asymptomatic followed by a protocol of graded exertion. The intervention group also received cervical spine and vestibular rehabilitation. The primary outcome of interest was medical clearance to return to sport, which was evaluated by a study sport medicine physician who was blinded to the treatment group. In the treatment group, 73% (11/15) of the participants were medically cleared within 8 weeks of initiation of treatment, compared with 7% (1/14) in the control group. Using an intention to treat analysis, individuals in the treatment group were 3.91 (95% CI 1.34 to 11.34) times more likely to be medically cleared by 8 weeks. A combination of cervical and vestibular physiotherapy decreased time to medical clearance to return to sport in youth and young adults with persistent symptoms of dizziness, neck pain and/or headaches following a sport-related concussion. NCT01860755. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Rogue athletes and recombinant DNA technology: challenges for doping control.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2007-10-01

    The quest for athletic excellence holds no limit for some athletes, and the advances in recombinant DNA technology have handed these athletes the ultimate doping weapons: recombinant proteins and gene doping. Some detection methods are now available for several recombinant proteins that are commercially available as pharmaceuticals and being abused by dopers. However, researchers are struggling to come up with efficient detection methods in preparation for the imminent threat of gene doping, expected in the 2008 Olympics. This Forum article presents the main detection strategies for recombinant proteins and the forthcoming detection strategies for gene doping as well as the prime analytical challenges facing them.

  17. Impurity doping: a novel strategy for controllable synthesis of functional lanthanide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-06-07

    Many technological nanomaterials are intentionally 'doped' by introducing appropriate amounts of foreign elements into hosts to impart electronic, magnetic and optical properties. In fact, impurity doping was recently found to have significant influence on nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. In this feature article, we provide an overview of the most recent progresses in doping-induced control of phase structures, sizes, shapes, as well as performances of functional nanomaterials for the first time. Two kinds of impurity doping strategies, including the homo-valence ion doping and hetero-valence ion doping, are discussed in detail. We lay emphases on impurity doping induced modifications of microstructures and optical properties of upconversion (UC) lanthanide (Ln(3+)) NCs, but do not limit to them. In addition, we also illustrate the control of Ln(3+) activator distribution in the core@shell architecture, which has recently provided scientists with new opportunities for designing and tuning the multi-color emissions of Ln(3+)-doped UC NCs. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of this novel impurity doping strategy are pointed out.

  18. [Construction-cost assessment of a program designed to promote physical and sports activities and prevent doping behaviors: PN-APSD - on 2002-2007].

    PubMed

    Bérard, A; Bréchat, P-H; Rymer, R; Londsdorfer, J

    2009-02-01

    According to the framework legislation promulgated as part of the reform of finance laws in France, quality is a mandatory feature of all governmental actions. In this context, this work was conducted to assess the construction cost of a national health program designed to promote physical and sports activities and prevent doping behaviors. This program was considered to have the characteristic features of a successful governmental health intervention. Four cost categories were evaluated: cost of the activity itself, transportation costs, communication costs and promotion costs. It was found that the program costs for 2002-2007 were 100,000 euro, with 15% of the costs in the communication category. Economic elements could be associated with factors of successful health service interventions in order to help decision makers responsible for the public interest and the consistency of public health actions.

  19. Health, integrity, and doping in sports for children and young adults. A resolution of the European Academy of Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Francis P; Hoyer, Peter; Mazur, Artur; Siderius, Liesbeth; Grosek, Stefan; Stiris, Tom; Neubauer, David

    2017-06-01

    The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is dedicated to promoting healthy lifestyles for children from birth into young adulthood. Physical exercise and leisure are essential to the development of healthy bodies, strong minds, and social skills. All children, without regard to their physical or mental capacities, should be provided with the time, the leadership, the facilities, and the equipment needed to exercise through sports while enjoying playing, even competing, in an environment appropriate to their capacities and aspirations. During exercise and sports, children should be assured of a safe and an appropriate environment that protects and promotes their human rights. Top sports that engage the best competitive athletes in an age group, in a region, in a country, or in the world should provide role models and even dreams for all children. These top sports, however, are also most usually surrounded by large political, economic, and/or business interests where only the best can compete while at times exacting a too high physical and/or psychological cost for those who have survived the cut, made the grade. Alongside this more and more children are being raised in environments with fewer open spaces as well as inside a media and digital culture making significantly less room for the enjoyment of physical exercise and leisure. Children's diets have also been changed dramatically by a significant intake of calorierich foods, which often have little nutritional value and which even a child's high metabolism rates not able to burn off efficiently. Conclusion With this Resolution, the EAP is calling for a renewed look at the role of sports and leisure in the lives of children and, by implication, at the way we structure, finance, and promote sports in Europe. The EAP is also asking that this Resolution be adopted by all organizers of sports involving children and young adults in Europe (and beyond), be that on the playground, in schools, in clubs, or in

  20. Improving the implementation of responsible alcohol management practices by community sporting clubs: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco; Sidey, Maree; McElduff, Patrick; Wiggers, John H

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm among members of sporting groups and at sporting venues, sporting clubs frequently fail to implement alcohol management practices consistent with liquor legislation and best practice guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a multi-strategy intervention in improving the implementation of responsible alcohol management practices by sports clubs. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 87 football clubs, with half randomised to receive a multi-strategy intervention to support clubs to implement responsible alcohol management practices. The 2-year intervention, which was based on implementation and capacity building theory and frameworks, included project officer support, funding, accreditation rewards, printed resources, observational audit feedback, newsletters, training and support from state sporting organisations. Interviews were undertaken with club presidents at baseline and post-intervention to assess alcohol management practice implementation. Post-intervention, 88% of intervention clubs reported implementing '13 or more' of 16 responsible alcohol management practices, which was significantly greater than the proportion of control groups reporting this level of implementation (65%) [odds ratio: 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.2); P = 0.04]. All intervention components were considered highly useful and three-quarters or more of clubs rated the amount of implementation support to be sufficient. The multi-strategy intervention was successful in improving alcohol management practices in community sports clubs. Further research is required to better understand implementation barriers and to assess the long-term sustainability of the change in club alcohol management practices. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Brief History of Anti-Doping.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The fight against doping in sport as we know it today commenced by the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission in 1961 following the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games the year before. After a slow start, the fight got under way as from the early 1970s under the leadership of the IOC and of the International Association of Athletics Federations. Despite a lack of understanding and weak support even from the sports community, a series of measures were taken during the 1970s and 1980s which still form cornerstones of today's anti-doping strategy. In addition to information and education campaigns, the most important examples are the introduction of procedural rules for doping controls, the establishment and follow-up of a list of prohibited substances and methods, the accreditation of doping control laboratories, the introduction of in- and out-of-competition testing, rules for therapeutic use exemption, and the introduction of blood sampling. During the 1990s, the anti-doping fight gained increasing support both inside and outside the sport community. In order to harmonize the wide variety of rules that had developed both in sport organizations and at the domestic level and to promote anti-doping activities, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was jointly created by the Olympic movement and the public authorities in 1999. WADA is today carrying on the fight supported by the universally accepted WADA Code and an International Anti-Doping Convention under UNESCO. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Should performance-enhancing drugs in sport be legalized under medical supervision?

    PubMed

    Wiesing, Urban

    2011-02-01

    This review examines the question of whether performance-enhancing drugs should be permitted in sport under the control of physicians, and evaluates the expected outcomes of such a scenario. Such a change in regulation would need to be tightly controlled because of the risks involved. The results of legalizing performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sport would be either unhelpful or negative, and the unwanted aspects of doping control would not disappear. Athletes, including children and adolescents who wanted to pursue competitive sports, would be forced to take additional, avoidable health risks. The 'natural lottery' of athletic talents would be compensated for only partially by use of performance-enhancing agents. It would also be complemented by another 'natural lottery' of variable responses to doping measures, combined with the inventiveness of doping doctors. There would be no gain in 'justice' (i.e. fairer results that reflected efforts made) for athletes as a result of legalizing doping. Legalization would not reduce restrictions on athletes' freedom; the control effort would remain the same, if not increased. Extremely complicated international regulations would have to be adopted. The game of the 'tortoise and the hare' between doping athletes and inspectors would remain because prohibited but not identifiable practices could still provide additional benefits from use of permissible drugs. Audience mistrust, particularly toward athletes who achieved outstanding feats, would remain because it would still be possible that these athletes were reliant on illegal doping practices. Doping entails exposing the athletes to avoidable risks that do not need to be taken to increase the appeal of a sport. Most importantly, the function of sport as a role model would definitely be damaged. It is not necessary to clarify the question of what constitutes the 'spirit of sport' and whether this may be changed. From a practical point of view, a legalization of

  3. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case-control

  4. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    The annual update of the list of prohibited substances and doping methods as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) allows the implementation of most recent considerations of performance manipulation and emerging therapeutics into human sports doping control programmes. The annual banned-substance review for human doping controls critically summarizes recent innovations in analytical approaches that support the efforts of convicting cheating athletes by improved or newly established methods that focus on known as well as newly outlawed substances and doping methods. In the current review, literature published between October 2008 and September 2009 reporting on new and/or enhanced procedures and techniques for doping analysis, as well as aspects relevant to the doping control arena, was considered to complement the 2009 annual banned-substance review.

  5. Resistivity control of unintentionally doped GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorczyk, A. P.; Macht, L.; Hageman, P. R.; Rudzinski, M.; Larsen, P. K.

    2005-05-01

    GaN epilayers were grown on sapphire substrates via low temperature GaN and AlN nucleation layers (NL) by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD). The morphology of the individual NLs strongly depends on the carrier gas used during the growth and recrystallization and this is the key factor for control of the resistivity of the GaN layer grown on it. The GaN nucleation layer grown in presence of N2 has a higher density of islands with a statistically smaller diameter than the samples grown in H2 atmosphere. The NL grown in N2 enables the growth GaN with a sheet resistivity higher than 3×104 cm as opposed to a 0.5 cm value obtained for the NL grown in H2. Introduction of an additional intermediate (IL) low temperature (GaN or AlN) nucleation layer changes the GaN epilayer resistivity to about 50 cm, regardless of the carrier gas used during the growth of the IL. Defect selective etching demonstrated that control of the type and density of the dislocations in GaN enables the growth of highly resistive layers without any intentional acceptor doping (Mg, Zn). It will be demonstrated that by changing the ratio of edge type to screw dislocations the resistivity of the layer can be changed by a few orders of magnitude.

  6. Examination of Socialization Level of University Students Engaged in Sports Activities According to Their Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Mehmet; Karagözoglu, Cengiz; Dervent, Fatih; Arslantas, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the university students who participate in sports have been examined in terms of their socialization relative to the participation in sport activities and the locus of control. Students are thought to be engaged in many activities in addition to their lessons during their student tenure at higher education institutions. Their…

  7. Detection of the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide in a doping control urine sample as the result of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) tablet contamination.

    PubMed

    Helmlin, Hans-Jörg; Mürner, André; Steiner, Samuel; Kamber, Matthias; Weber, Christina; Geyer, Hans; Guddat, Sven; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide-1,1-dioxide) belongs to the class of diuretic agents that represent one of today's cornerstones of the treatment of hypertensive patients. In addition to its clinical relevance, HCTZ is prohibited in sports according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) at all times and has frequently been detected in sports drug testing urine samples worldwide since its ban was introduced in 1988. Despite these facts, the adverse analytical finding concerning HCTZ in an in-competition routine doping control sample collected in December 2014 was further investigated, particularly motivated by the comparably low urinary concentration of the drug accounting for approximately 5ng/mL. The athlete in question did not declare the use of any nutritional supplement or medication other than the ingestion of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) prior to competition. Hence, the drug (formulated as coated tablet) provided by the athlete as well as the corresponding retention sample of the manufacturer were analyzed. Noteworthy, both samples confirmed the presence of about 2μg of HCTZ per tablet. In order to further probe for the plausibility of the observed urinary HCTZ concentrations with the scenario of drug ingestion and subsequent doping control sample collection, administration studies with produced HCTZ-spiked placebo-tablets (2.5μg of HCTZ/tablet) were conducted. Urine specimens were collected prior to and after ingestion of the drug and subjected to routine doping control analytical procedures employing liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. While blank urine samples returned negative test results, post-administration specimens were found to contain HCTZ at concentrations of approximately 1-16ng/mL, which supported the athlete's inadvertent intake of HCTZ via contaminated NSAID tablets. Due to the substantial sensitivity of test methods employed today by

  8. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; ...

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m 2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm 3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in themore » media with pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.« less

  9. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  10. Controlling ferromagnetism of (In,Fe)As semiconductors by electron doping

    SciT

    Dang Vu, Nguyen; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-02-21

    Based on experimental results, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method and Monte Carlo simulation, we study the mechanism of ferromagnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As. We show that with doped Be atoms occupying in interstitial sites, chemical pair interactions between atoms and magnetic exchange interactions between Fe atoms change due to electron concentration. Therefore, by controlling the doping process, magnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As is controlled and ferromagnetism is observed in this semiconductor.

  11. Reduced-graphene-oxide supported tantalum-based electrocatalysts: Controlled nitrogen doping and oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyun; Mo, Qijie; Guo, Yulin; Chen, Nana; Gao, Qingsheng

    2018-03-01

    Controlled N-doping is feasible to engineer the surface stoichiometry and the electronic configuration of metal-oxide electrocatalysts toward efficient oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). Taking reduced graphene oxide supported tantalum-oxides (TaOx/RGO) for example, this work illustrated the controlled N-doping in both metal-oxides and carbon supports, and the contribution to the improved ORR activity. The active N-doped TaOx/RGO electrocatalysts were fabricated via SiO2-assisted pyrolysis, in which the amount and kind of N-doping were tailored toward efficient electrocatalysis. The optimal nanocomposites showed a quite positive half-wave potential (0.80 V vs. RHE), the excellent long-term stability, and the outstanding tolerance to methanol crossing. The improvement in ORR was reasonably attributed to the synergy between N-doped TaOx and N-doped RGO. Elucidating the importance of controlled N-doping for electrocatalysis, this work will open up new opportunities to explore noble-metal-free materials for renewable energy applications.

  12. Sport Skill-Specific Expertise Biases Sensory Integration for Spatial Referencing and Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, Michalis; Fotiadis, Giorgos; Arabatzi, Fotini; Isableu, Brice; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2017-09-15

    The authors asked how sport expertise modulates visual field dependence and sensory reweighting for controlling posture. Experienced soccer athletes, ballet dancers, and nonathletes performed (a) a Rod and Frame test and (b) a 100-s bipedal stance task during which vision and proprioception were successively or concurrently disrupted in 20-s blocks. Postural adaptation was assessed in the mean center of pressure displacement, root mean square of center of pressure velocity and ankle muscles integrated electromyography activity. Soccer athletes were more field dependent than were nonathletes. During standing, dancers were more destabilized by vibration and required more time to reweigh sensory information compared with the other 2 groups. These findings reveal a sport skill-specific bias in the reweighing of sensory inputs for spatial orientation and postural control.

  13. The Strength Model of Self-Control in Sport and Exercise Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The strength model of self-control assumes that all acts of self-control (e.g., emotion regulation, persistence) are empowered by a single global metaphorical strength that has limited capacity. This strength can become temporarily depleted after a primary self-control act, which, in turn, can impair performance in subsequent acts of self-control. Recently, the assumptions of the strength model of self-control also have been adopted and tested in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The present review paper aims to give an overview of recent developments in self-control research based on the strength model of self-control. Furthermore, recent research on interventions on how to improve and revitalize self-control strength will be presented. Finally, the strength model of self-control has been criticized lately, as well as expanded in scope, so the present paper will also discuss alternative explanations of why previous acts of self-control can lead to impaired performance in sport and exercise. PMID:26973590

  14. Mass spectrometric detection of peginesatide in human urine in doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ines; Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-11-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have frequently been confessed to be illicitly used in elite sports due to their endurance enhancing effects. Recently, peginesatide, the first representative of a new generation of ESAs, referred to as Erythropoietin (EPO)-mimetic peptides, obtained approval in the USA under the trade name Omontys(®) for the treatment of anaemic patients. Lacking sequence homology with EPO, it consists of a pegylated homodimeric peptide of approximately 45 kDa, and thus, specific approaches for the determination of peginesatide in blood were developed as conventional detection assays for EPO do not allow for the analysis of the EPO-mimetic peptides. However, as urine specimens are the most frequently provided doping control samples and pharmacokinetic studies conducted in rats and monkeys revealed the excretion of the pegylated peptide into urine, a detection method for peginesatide in urine would be desirable. A mass spectrometric assay in human urine was developed consisting of protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by proteolytic digestion after the removal of the acetonitrile fraction under reduced pressure. Purification and concentration of the resulting proteotypic target peptide was accomplished by means of solid-phase extraction on strong cation-exchange resin prior to liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Method validation was performed for qualitative purposes and demonstrated specificity, precision, linearity as well as sufficient sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.5 ng/ml) while proof-of-concept for the applicability of the assay for the determination of peginesatide in authentic urine samples was obtained by analyzing animal in vivo specimens collected after a single i.v. administration of peginesatide over a period of 4 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical and Morphological Control of Interfacial Self-Doping for Efficient Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Cole, Marcus D; Jiang, Yufeng; Kim, Paul Y; Nordlund, Dennis; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P

    2018-04-01

    Solution-based processing of materials for electrical doping of organic semiconductor interfaces is attractive for boosting the efficiency of organic electronic devices with multilayer structures. To simplify this process, self-doping perylene diimide (PDI)-based ionene polymers are synthesized, in which the semiconductor PDI components are embedded together with electrolyte dopants in the polymer backbone. Functionality contained within the PDI monomers suppresses their aggregation, affording self-doping interlayers with controllable thickness when processed from solution into organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Optimal results for interfacial self-doping lead to increased power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the fullerene-based OPVs, from 2.62% to 10.64%, and of the nonfullerene-based OPVs, from 3.34% to 10.59%. These PDI-ionene interlayers enable chemical and morphological control of interfacial doping and conductivity, demonstrating that the conductive channels are crucial for charge transport in doped organic semiconductor films. Using these novel interlayers with efficient doping and high conductivity, both fullerene- and nonfullerene-based OPVs are achieved with PCEs exceeding 9% over interlayer thicknesses ranging from ≈3 to 40 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Eating disorders and weight control behaviors change over a collegiate sport season.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexandra; Petrie, Trent; Anderson, Carlin

    2017-09-01

    Determine whether the prevalence of eating disorder classifications (i.e., clinical eating disorder, subclinical eating disorder, and asymptomatic) and pathogenic weight control behaviors (e.g., bingeing, vomiting) change over a five-month sport season. Longitudinal study. Female collegiate gymnasts and swimmers (N=325) completed the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses as well as six items from the Bulimia Test-Revised at Time 1 (two weeks into the beginning of their athletic season) and Time 2 (final two weeks of the athletic season); data collections were separated by five months. Over the course of the season, 90% of the athletes (18 out of 20) retained a clinical eating disorder diagnosis or moved to the subclinical classification. Of the 83 subclinical athletes at Time 1, 37.3% persisted with that classification and 10.8% developed a clinical eating disorder; the remainder became asymptomatic/healthy eaters by Time 2. The majority of Time 1 asymptomatic athletes (92.3%) remained so at Time 2. Exercise and dieting/fasting were the most frequent forms of weight control behaviors, though each was used less frequently at Time 2 (exercise=35.4%; dieting=9.2%) than at Time 1 (exercise=42.5%; dieting=12.3%). Eating disorder classifications, particularly clinical and subclinical, remain stable across a competitive season, supporting the need for early detection and purposeful intervention. Athletes engage in weight control behaviors that may be reinforced in the sport environment (e.g., supplemental exercise), making identification more challenging for sports medicine professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R

    2015-04-01

    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P < .001) and reported more total hours of physical activity (19.6 ± 9.2 vs. 17.6 ± 8.9 h/wk; P < .001) and organized sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P < .01). After accounting for age and hours in sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P < .01) and serious overuse injury (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72; P < .01). Young athletes participating in more hours of sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P < .001) or whose ratio of organized sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P < .01). Growth rates were similar between injured and uninjured athletes (4.8 cm/y for both groups; P = .96). Injured young

  18. Controlling n-type doping in MoO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Peelaers, H.; Chabinyc, M. L.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2017-02-27

    Here, we study the electronic properties of native defects and intentional dopant impurities in MoO 3, a widely used transparent conductor. Using first-principles hybrid functional calculations, we show that electron polarons can be self-trapped, but they can also bind to defects; thus, they play an important role in understanding the properties of doped MoO 3. Our calculations show that oxygen vacancies can cause unintentional n-type doping in MoO 3. Mo vacancies are unlikely to form. Tc and Re impurities on the Mo site and halogens (F, Cl, and Br) on the O site all act as shallow donors but trapmore » electron polarons. Fe, Ru, and Os impurities are amphoteric and will compensate n-type MoO 3. Mn dopants are also amphoteric, and they show interesting magnetic properties. These results support the design of doping approaches that optimally exploit functionality.« less

  19. Doping-assisted defect control in compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Specht, Petra; Weber, Eicke R.; Weatherford, Todd Russell

    2006-07-11

    The present invention relates to the production of thin film epilayers of III–V and other compounds with acceptor doping wherein the acceptor thermally stabilizes the epilayer, stabilize the naturally incorporated native defect population and therewith maintain the epilayer's beneficial properties upon annealing among other advantageous effects. In particular, balanced doping in which the acceptor concentration is similar to (but does not exceed) the antisite defects in the as-grown material is shown to be particularly advantageous in providing thermal stability, high resistivity and ultrashort trapping times. In particular, MBE growth of LT-GaAs epilayers with balanced Be doping is described in detail. The growth conditions greatly enhance the materials reproducibility (that is, the yield in processed devices). Such growth techniques can be transferred to other III–V materials if the growth conditions are accurately reproduced. Materials produced herein also demonstrate advantages in reproducibility, reliability and radiation hardening.

  20. Stereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control.

    PubMed

    Fresson, Megan; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects. Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players ("control" group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects. As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group's performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat. Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher

  1. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    PubMed

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. National doping prevention guidelines: Intent, efficacy and lessons learned - A 4-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wippert, Pia-Maria; Fließer, Michael

    2016-10-10

    Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools. The first objective was investigated in a longitudinal study (Study I: t0 = baseline, t1 = follow-up 4 years after NDPP introduction) with N = 22 teachers engaged in doping prevention in elite sports schools. The second objective was evaluated in a cross-sectional comparison study (Study II) in N = 213 elite sports school students (54.5 % male, 45.5 % female, age M = 16.7 ± 1.3 years (all students had received the improved NDDP measure in school; one student group had received additionally NADA anti-doping activities and a control group did not). Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by McNemar tests, Wilcoxon tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results indicate that 4 years after the introduction of the NDPP there have been limited structural changes with regard to the frequency, type, and scope of doping prevention in elite sport schools. On the other hand, in study II, elite sport school students who received further NADA anti-doping activities performed better on an anti-doping knowledge test than students who did not take part (F(1, 207) = 33.99, p <0.001), although this difference was small. The integration of doping-prevention in elite sport schools as part of the NDPP was only partially successful. The results of the evaluation indicate that the

  3. Doping control analysis of 121 prohibited substances in equine hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, J K Y; Choi, T L S; Kwok, K Y; Lei, E N Y; Wan, T S M

    2018-06-01

    Equine hair is becoming an increasingly popular biological matrix for doping control of horse sports; one of the reasons for this is the significantly longer detection window hair can offer. Hair analysis opens up the opportunity for longitudinal monitoring of drug exposure which would otherwise not be possible with the more traditional and common biological matrices, such as urine and blood. As such, there is a need for more multi-target screening methods covering a broad range of prohibited substances in equine hair at the required sensitivities for equine doping control. This paper describes a sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the detection of 121 drugs and/or their metabolites in equine hair covering ten classes of prohibited substances with estimated limits of detection between 0.1 and 10 pg/mg. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a screening method in equine hair which can cover such a broad range and well over one hundred prohibited substances in a single analytical run. This method has been validated for its specificity, precision and extraction recovery. Applicability of this method has been demonstrated by: (i) the successful identification of clenbuterol, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine sulfoxide, acepromazine and tetrahydrozoline in genuine equine mane samples; as well as (ii) the detection of drugs from artificially incurred mane hair samples which have been prepared by soaking blank hair samples in solutions of drug targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene doping.

    PubMed

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  5. Controlled doping by self-assembled dendrimer-like macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haigang; Guan, Bin; Sun, Yingri; Zhu, Yiping; Dan, Yaping

    2017-02-01

    Doping via self-assembled macromolecules might offer a solution for developing single atom electronics by precisely placing individual dopants at arbitrary location to meet the requirement for circuit design. Here we synthesize dendrimer-like polyglycerol macromolecules with each carrying one phosphorus atom in the core. The macromolecules are immobilized by the coupling reagent onto silicon surfaces that are pre-modified with a monolayer of undecylenic acid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to characterize the synthesized macromolecules and the modified silicon surfaces, respectively. After rapid thermal annealing, the phosphorus atoms carried by the macromolecules diffuse into the silicon substrate, forming dopants at a concentration of 1017 cm-3. Low-temperature Hall effect measurements reveal that the ionization process is rather complicated. Unlike the widely reported simple ionization of phosphorus dopants, nitrogen and carbon are also involved in the electronic activities in the monolayer doped silicon.

  6. Doping droops.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kalra, Juhi; Kalra, Sudhanshu

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major concern in the athletic world. The misconception among athletes and their coaches is that when an athlete breaks a record it is due to some "magic ingredient" and not because of training, hard work, mental attitude and championship performance. The personal motivation to win in competitive sports has been intensified by national, political, professional and economic incentives. Under this increased pressure athletes have turned to finding this "magic ingredient". Athlete turns to mechanical (exercise, massage), nutritional (vitamins, minerals), pharmacological (medicines) or gene therapies to have an edge over other players. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has already asked scientists to help find ways to prevent gene therapy from becoming the newest form of doping. The safety of the life of athletes is compromised with all forms of doping techniques, be it a side effect of a drug or a new technique of gene doping.

  7. The war on drugs in sport: a perspective from the front-line.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, John

    2002-07-01

    Recent international developments have served to solidify the international approach to doping in sport. The development of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has resulted in new, coordinated efforts to address this important sport issue. An array of new efforts and initiatives has been initiated by the new agency. The Sydney and Salt Lake City Olympics were characterized by intensive efforts to minimize doping. The antidoping environment is evolving rapidly, and several profoundly important developments will take place in the immediate future. To outline the challenges, opportunities, and changing circumstances of the current antidoping environment so that sport medicine practitioners might understand the context in which a variety of new initiatives and approaches will develop. At the same time, to ensure that practitioners understand the importance of appropriately developed and delivered antidoping policies, programs, and procedures, and the need for their harmonization. To ensure that sport medicine practitioners appreciate the need for a comprehensive approach to doping control, i.e., programs that include much more than drug testing. A review of relevant policy documents derived from a variety of sport and antidoping organizations; selected references drawn from MEDLINE; and materials prepared by colleagues drawn from the international antidoping community. The increased global effort to address doping is welcome. It will require that several critical issues be addressed that will test the resolve of all involved.

  8. Sport and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  9. Metabolism of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione and detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in doping control.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria K; Fusshöller, Gregor; Schlörer, Nils; Opfermann, Georg; Piper, Thomas; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The urinary metabolism of the irreversible aromatase inhibitor androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione was investigated. It is mainly excreted unchanged and as its 17beta-hydroxy analogue. For confirmation, 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4,6-trien-3-one was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in addition to the parent compound. In addition, several reduced metabolites were detected in the post-administration urines, namely 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one (boldenone), 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androst-1-en-3-one (boldenone metabolite), 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-4,6-dien-3-one, and androsta-4,6-diene-3,17-dione. The identification was performed by comparison of the metabolites with reference material utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the underivatized compounds and GC/MS and GC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. Alterations in the steroid profile were also observed, most obviously in the androsterone/testosterone ratio. Even if not explicitly listed, androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione is classified as a prohibited substance in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to its aromatase-inhibiting properties. In 2006 three samples from human routine sports doping control tested positive for metabolites of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. The samples were initially found suspicious for the boldenone metabolite 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androst-1-en-3-one. Since metabolites of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione were also present in the urine samples, it is presumed that these findings were due to the administration of a product like 'Novedex Xtreme', which could be easily obtained from the sport supplement market. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Identification of selected in vitro generated phase-I metabolites of the steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Research into developing anabolic agents for various therapeutic purposes has been pursued for decades. As the clinical utility of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been found to be limited because of their lack of tissue selectivity and associated off-target effects, alternative drug entities have been designed and are commonly referred to as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). While most of these SARMs are of nonsteroidal structure, the drug candidate MK-0773 comprises a 4-aza-steroidal nucleus. Besides the intended therapeutic use, SARMs have been found to be illicitly distributed and misused as doping agents in sport, necessitating frequently updated doping control analytical assays. As steroidal compounds reportedly undergo considerable metabolic transformations, the phase-I metabolism of MK-0773 was simulated using human liver microsomal (HLM) preparations and electrochemical conversion. Subsequently, major metabolic products were identified and characterized employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution/high- accuracy tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. MK-0773 produced numerous phase-I metabolites under the chosen in vitro incubation reactions, mostly resulting from mono- and bisoxygenation of the steroid. HLM yielded at least 10 monooxygenated species, while electrochemistry-based experiments resulted predominantly in three monohydroxylated metabolites. Elemental composition data and product ion mass spectra were generated for these analytes, ESI/APCI measurements corroborated the formation of at least two N-oxygenated metabolites, and NMR data obtained from electrochemistry-derived products supported structures suggested for three monohydroxylated compounds. Hereby, the hydroxylation of the A-ring located N- bound methyl group was found to be of particular intensity. In the absence of controlled elimination studies, the

  11. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score < 80 (aOR 5.58, 95% CI 2.61-11.93), and female sex (aOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.43-8.49) were all associated with a higher risk for

  12. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Disordered eating in French high-level athletes: association with type of sport, doping behavior, and psychological features.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, M; Guérineau, B; Paruit, M C; Guinot, M; Lise, S; Destrube, B; Ruffio-Thery, S; Dominguez, N; Brisseau-Gimenez, S; Dubois, V; Mora, C; Trolonge, S; Lambert, S; Grall-Bronnec, M; Prétagut, S

    2017-03-01

    Over the last few years, disordered eating in athletes has received increasing attention. According to several studies, athletes could be more vulnerable to disordered eating and some characteristics specific to the athletic community could be in favour of an increased risk of poor body image and disturbed eating habits in athletes. However, the literature is sparse and some methodological issues in studies have been pointed out. In this context, we aimed at determining the prevalence of disordered eating in French high-level athletes using clinical interviews of three different clinicians and identifying what are the factors associated with disordered eating in athletes. In France, all athletes registered on the French high-level list have to undergo a yearly evaluation. Data collected during the somatic assessment, the dietary consultation, and the psychological of the yearly evaluation were used. Multivariate analysis was performed for identification of factors associated with disordered eating. Out of the 340 athletes included, 32.9% have been detected with a disordered eating. They were difficult to detect by clinicians, as usual criteria did not seem to be reliable for athletes. Competing in sports emphasizing leanness or low body weight was associated with disordered eating; however, gender was not. These results highlight the need for the development of specific screening tools for high-level athletes. Furthermore, the identification of factors associated with disordered eating could improve early detection and prevention program effectiveness.

  14. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  15. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films by pressure control

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  16. The effect of a period of intensive exercise on the isoform test to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Voss, S C; Giraud, S; Alsayrafi, M; Bourdon, P C; Schumacher, Y O; Saugy, M; Robinson, N

    2013-08-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on growth hormone (hGH) testing using the World Anti-Doping Agencies hGH isoform differential immunoassays. Additionally the effects of circadian variation and exercise type on the isoform ratios were also investigated. 15 male athletes performed a simulated nine day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race+three days before and after). hGH isoforms were analysed by the official WADA immunoassays (CMZ Assay GmbH). All measured isoform ratios were far below the WADA decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Changes in the isoform ratios could not be clearly connected to circadian variation, exercise duration or intensity. The present study demonstrates that the hGH isoform ratios are not significantly affected by exercise or circadian variation. We demonstrated that heavy, long term exercise does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of a period of intense exercise on the marker approach to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sven Christian; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Bourdon, Pitre C; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on the growth hormone marker approach to detect doping with human growth hormone (hGH). In addition we investigated the effect of changes in plasma volume on the test. Fifteen male athletes performed a simulated nine-day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race + three days before and after). Plasma volumes were estimated by the optimized CO Rebreathing method. IGF-1 and P-III-NP were analyzed by Siemens Immulite and Cisbio Assays, respectively. All measured GH 2000 scores were far below the published decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. The period of exercise did not increase the GH-scores; however the accompanying effect of the increase in Plasma Volume yielded in essentially lower GH-scores. We could demonstrate that a period of heavy, long-term exercise with changes in plasma volume does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Antidoping program: an important factor in the promotion and protection of the integrity of sport and athlete's health.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Monda, Vincenzo; Santamaria, Stefania; Nigro, Ersilia; Valenzano, Anna; Villano, Ines; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Messina, Antonietta; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-07-24

    Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health. Testing is carried out in accordance with the World Anti-Doping Code and several international standards (ISs). The ISs were developed for laboratories, testing, the prohibited list, and for therapeutic use exemptions (TUE). It seems that the 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) obliges all the healthcare professionals not to assist athletes engaged in doping behaviours; they can be removed from working with athletes. Many people do not know doping's dangerous effects on health. It is necessary, therefore, implement the knowledge on this issue through public and sports institutions information and awareness campaigns. For this reason, local institutions and the National Olympic Committee shall give tools, in particular economic, to carry out the work of education, training, and control.

  19. Trap controlled minority-carrier mobility in heavily doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.; Lindholm, F. A.; Sah, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The activation behavior of the minority-carrier mobility and diffusivity in heavily doped (about 10 to the 20th per cu cm) Si(Si:As) was investigated in the temperature range, 20 - 350 K. Experimental results indicate that hole transitions between the valence band and localized shallow states give rise to the observed behavior. The activation energy is about 10 meV, which suggests that the localized states originate from band tails but does not rule out trapping at boron atoms in the compensated n(+) region.

  20. Determination of Vasopressin and Desmopressin in urine by means of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Solymos, E; Schänzer, W; Baume, N; Saugy, M; Dellanna, F; Thevis, M

    2011-11-30

    The anti-diuretic neurohypophysial hormone Vasopressin (Vp) and its synthetic analogue Desmopressin (Dp, 1-desamino-vasopressin) have received considerable attention from doping control authorities due to their impact on physiological blood parameters. Accordingly, the illicit use of Desmopressin in elite sport is sanctioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the drug is classified as masking agent. Vp and Dp are small (8-9 amino acids) peptides administered orally as well as intranasally. Within the present study a method to determine Dp and Vp in urinary doping control samples by means of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. After addition of Lys-Vasopressin as internal standard and efficient sample clean up with a mixed mode solid phase extraction (weak cation exchange), the samples were directly injected into the LC-MS system. The method was validated considering the parameters specificity, linearity, recovery (80-100%), accuracy, robustness, limit of detection/quantification (20/50 pg mL(-1)), precision (inter/intra-day<10%), ion suppression and stability. The analysis of administration study urine samples collected after a single intranasal or oral application of Dp yielded in detection windows for the unchanged target analyte for up to 20 h at concentrations between 50 and 600 pg mL(-1). Endogenous Vp was detected in concentrations of approximately 20-200 pg mL(-1) in spontaneous urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The general requirements of the developed method provide the characteristics for an easy transfer to other anti-doping laboratories and support closing another potential gap for cheating athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Micro-orientation control of silicon polymer thin films on graphite surfaces modified by heteroatom doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, Iwao; Baba, Yuji; Hirao, Norie

    2017-05-01

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study orientation structures of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) films deposited on heteroatom-doped graphite substrates prepared by ion beam doping. The Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra of PDMS show opposite trends of polarization dependence for non irradiated and N2+-irradiated substrates, and show no polarization dependence for an Ar+-irradiated substrate. Based on a theoretical interpretation of the NEXAFS spectra via first-principles calculations, we clarify that PDMS films have lying, standing, and random orientations on the non irradiated, N2+-irradiated, and Ar+-irradiated substrates, respectively. Furthermore, photoemission electron microscopy indicates that the orientation of a PDMS film can be controlled with microstructures on the order of μm by separating irradiated and non irradiated areas on the graphite surface. These results suggest that surface modification of graphite using ion beam doping is useful for micro-orientation control of organic thin films.

  2. Mass Spectrometry Method to Measure Membrane Proteins in Dried Blood Spots for the Detection of Blood Doping Practices in Sport.

    PubMed

    Cox, Holly D; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-09-19

    The dried blood spot (DBS) matrix has significant utility for applications in the field where venous blood collection and timely shipment of labile blood samples is difficult. Unfortunately, protein measurement in DBS is hindered by high abundance proteins and matrix interference that increases with hematocrit. We developed a DBS method to enrich for membrane proteins and remove soluble proteins and matrix interference. Following a wash in a series of buffers, the membrane proteins are digested with trypsin and quantitated by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry methods. The DBS method was applied to the quantification of four cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins used to count cells by flow cytometry, band 3 (CD233), CD71, CD45, and CD41. We demonstrate that the DBS method counts low abundance cell types such as immature reticulocytes as well as high abundance cell types such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When tested in 82 individuals, counts obtained by the DBS method demonstrated good agreement with flow cytometry and automated hematology analyzers. Importantly, the method allows longitudinal monitoring of CD protein concentration and calculation of interindividual variation which is difficult by other methods. Interindividual variation of band 3 and CD45 was low, 6 and 8%, respectively, while variation of CD41 and CD71 was higher, 18 and 78%, respectively. Longitudinal measurement of CD71 concentration in DBS over an 8-week period demonstrated intraindividual variation 17.1-38.7%. Thus, the method may allow stable longitudinal measurement of blood parameters currently monitored to detect blood doping practices.

  3. RNA interference for performance enhancement and detection in doping control.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-10-01

    RNA interference represents a comparably new route of regulating and manipulating specific gene expression. Promising results were obtained in experimental therapies aim at the treatment of different kinds of diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus or Dychenne muscular dystrophy. While studies on down-regulation efficiency are often performed by analyzing the regulated protein, the direct detection of small, interfering RNA molecules and antisense oligonucleotides is of great interest for the investigation of the metabolism and degradation and also for the detection of a putative misuse of these molecules in sports. Myostatin down-regulation was shown to result in increased performance and muscle growth and the regulation of several other proteins could be relevant for performance enhancement. This mini-review summarizes current approaches for the mass spectrometric analysis of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides from biological matrices and the available data on biodistribution, metabolism, and half-life of relevant substances are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Gene doping: an overview and current implications for athletes.

    PubMed

    van der Gronde, Toon; de Hon, Olivier; Haisma, Hidde J; Pieters, Toine

    2013-07-01

    The possibility of gene doping, defined as the transfer of nucleic acid sequences and/or the use of normal or genetically modified cells to enhance sport performance, is a real concern in sports medicine. The abuse of knowledge and techniques gained in the area of gene therapy is a form of doping, and is prohibited for competitive athletes. As yet there is no conclusive evidence that that gene doping has been practiced in sport. However, given that gene therapy techniques improve continuously, the likelihood of abuse will increase. A literature search was conducted to identify the most relevant proteins based on their current gene doping potential using articles from Pubmed, Scopus and Embase published between 2006 and 2011. The final list of selected proteins were erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, myostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, endorphin and enkephalin, α actinin 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ) and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C). We discuss these proteins with respect to their potential benefits, existing gene therapy experience in humans, potential risks, and chances of detection in current and future anti-doping controls. We have identified PPARδ and PEPCK-C as having high potential for abuse. But we expect that for efficiency reasons, there will be a preference for inserting gene target combinations rather than single gene doping products. This will also further complicate detection.

  5. Current use of high-resolution mass spectrometry in drug screening relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control.

    PubMed

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Kolmonen, Marjo; Pelander, Anna

    2012-05-01

    Clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control deal with hundreds or thousands of drugs that may cause poisoning or are abused, are illicit, or are prohibited in sports. Rapid and reliable screening for all these compounds of different chemical and pharmaceutical nature, preferably in a single analytical method, is a substantial effort for analytical toxicologists. Combined chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques with standardised reference libraries have been most commonly used for the purpose. In the last ten years, the focus has shifted from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, because of progress in instrument technology and partly because of the polarity and low volatility of many new relevant substances. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), which enables accurate mass measurement at high resolving power, has recently evolved to the stage that is rapidly causing a shift from unit-resolution, quadrupole-dominated instrumentation. The main HRMS techniques today are time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Orbitrap Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Both techniques enable a range of different drug-screening strategies that essentially rely on measuring a compound's or a fragment's mass with sufficiently high accuracy that its elemental composition can be determined directly. Accurate mass and isotopic pattern acts as a filter for confirming the identity of a compound or even identification of an unknown. High mass resolution is essential for improving confidence in accurate mass results in the analysis of complex biological samples. This review discusses recent applications of HRMS in analytical toxicology.

  6. Improving athletes' perspectives of sport psychology consultation: a controlled evaluation of two interview methods.

    PubMed

    Donohue, B; Dickens, Y; Lancer, K; Covassin, T; Hash, A; Miller, A; Genet, J

    2004-03-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete's experiences in sports, and the other focused on delineating sport psychology and its potential benefits to the athlete. Upon being interviewed, athletes were readministered the ATSSPCQ. Discussing sport psychology and its personal benefits was more effective in enhancing athletes' perception of need for sport psychology than discussing sport experiences. However, neither interview format enhanced athletes' perceptions of openness to discuss personal issues with a sport psychology consultant and tolerance of stigma associated with sport psychology consultation. Indeed, participants who received the discussion of sports intervention reported a significant decrease in personal openness to discuss personal issues relevant to sports psychology from pre- to postintervention. Intervention effects were similar for male and female athletes. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results.

  7. Cannabis in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  8. Tunable electronic properties of graphene through controlling bonding configurations of doped nitrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Na; Zhang, Huanxi; Liu, Jingjing; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Wang, Zhenlong; Lei, Shengbin; Hu, PingAn

    2016-06-21

    Single-layer and mono-component doped graphene is a crucial platform for a better understanding of the relationship between its intrinsic electronic properties and atomic bonding configurations. Large-scale doped graphene films dominated with graphitic nitrogen (GG) or pyrrolic nitrogen (PG) were synthesized on Cu foils via a free radical reaction at growth temperatures of 230-300 °C and 400-600 °C, respectively. The bonding configurations of N atoms in the graphene lattices were controlled through reaction temperature, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscope. The GG exhibited a strong n-type doping behavior, whereas the PG showed a weak n-type doping behavior. Electron mobilities of the GG and PG were in the range of 80.1-340 cm(2) V(-1)·s(-1) and 59.3-160.6 cm(2) V(-1)·s(-1), respectively. The enhanced doping effect caused by graphitic nitrogen in the GG produced an asymmetry electron-hole transport characteristic, indicating that the long-range scattering (ionized impurities) plays an important role in determining the carrier transport behavior. Analysis of temperature dependent conductance showed that the carrier transport mechanism in the GG was thermal excitation, whereas that in the PG, was a combination of thermal excitation and variable range hopping.

  9. Tunable electronic properties of graphene through controlling bonding configurations of doped nitrogen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Na; Zhang, Huanxi; Liu, Jingjing; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Wang, Zhenlong; Lei, Shengbin; Hu, PingAn

    2016-01-01

    Single–layer and mono–component doped graphene is a crucial platform for a better understanding of the relationship between its intrinsic electronic properties and atomic bonding configurations. Large–scale doped graphene films dominated with graphitic nitrogen (GG) or pyrrolic nitrogen (PG) were synthesized on Cu foils via a free radical reaction at growth temperatures of 230–300 °C and 400–600 °C, respectively. The bonding configurations of N atoms in the graphene lattices were controlled through reaction temperature, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscope. The GG exhibited a strong n–type doping behavior, whereas the PG showed a weak n–type doping behavior. Electron mobilities of the GG and PG were in the range of 80.1–340 cm2 V−1·s−1 and 59.3–160.6 cm2 V−1·s−1, respectively. The enhanced doping effect caused by graphitic nitrogen in the GG produced an asymmetry electron–hole transport characteristic, indicating that the long–range scattering (ionized impurities) plays an important role in determining the carrier transport behavior. Analysis of temperature dependent conductance showed that the carrier transport mechanism in the GG was thermal excitation, whereas that in the PG, was a combination of thermal excitation and variable range hopping. PMID:27325386

  10. Confined Doping for Control of Transport Properties in Nanowires and Nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianxin; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    2006-03-01

    Doping, an essential element for manipulation of electronic transport in traditional semiconductor industry, is widely expected to play important role as well in control of transport properties in nanostructures. However, traditional theory of electronic disorder predicts that doping in one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems leads to carrier localization, limiting practical applications due to poor carrier mobility. Here, a novel concept is proposed that offers the possibility to significantly increase carrier mobility by confining the distribution of dopants within a particular region [1]. Thus, the doped nanostructure becomes a coupled system comprising a doped subsystem and a perfect crystalline subsystem. We showed that carrier mobility in such a dopped nanowire or a nanofilm exhibits counterintuitive behavior in the regime of heavy doping. In particular, the larger the dopant concentration the higher the carrier mobility; we trace this transition to the existence of quasi-mobility-edges in the nanowires and mobility edges in nanofilms. *J.X. Zhong and G.M. Stocks, Nano Lett., in press, (2005)

  11. Basic analytical methods for identification of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in doping control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, P. V.; Krotov, G. I.; Efimova, Yu A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    The design of new erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for clinical use necessitates constant development of methods for detecting the abuse of these substances, which are prohibited under the World Anti-Doping Code and are included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. This review integrates and describes systematically the published data on the key methods currently used by WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratories around the world to detect the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, including direct methods (various polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane enzyme immunoassay and mass spectrometry) and indirect methods (athlete biological passport). Particular attention is given to promising approaches and investigations that can be used to control prohibited erythropoietins in the near future. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  12. A novel approach to sports concussion assessment: Computerized multilimb reaction times and balance control testing.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Matti V; Holm, Anu; Lukander, Jani; Lukander, Kristian; Koskinen, Sanna; Bornstein, Robert; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) or concussions often result in problems with attention, executive functions, and motor control. For better identification of these diverse problems, novel approaches integrating tests of cognitive and motor functioning are needed. The aim was to characterize minor changes in motor and cognitive performance after sports-related concussions with a novel test battery, including balance tests and a computerized multilimb reaction time test. The cognitive demands of the battery gradually increase from a simple stimulus response to a complex task requiring executive attention. A total of 113 male ice hockey players (mean age = 24.6 years, SD = 5.7) were assessed before a season. During the season, nine concussed players were retested within 36 hours, four to six days after the concussion, and after the season. A control group of seven nonconcussed players from the same pool of players with comparable demographics were retested after the season. Performance was measured using a balance test and the Motor Cognitive Test battery (MotCoTe) with multilimb responses in simple reaction, choice reaction, inhibition, and conflict resolution conditions. The performance of the concussed group declined at the postconcussion assessment compared to both the baseline measurement and the nonconcussed controls. Significant changes were observed in the concussed group for the multilimb choice reaction and inhibition tests. Tapping and balance showed a similar trend, but no statistically significant difference in performance. In sports-related concussions, complex motor tests can be valuable additions in assessing the outcome and recovery. In the current study, using subtasks with varying cognitive demands, it was shown that while simple motor performance was largely unaffected, the more complex tasks induced impaired reaction times for the concussed subjects. The increased reaction times may reflect the disruption of complex and integrative cognitive

  13. Doping control analysis at the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; Sardela, Vinicius Figueiredo; Padilha, Monica Costa; Mirotti, Luciana; Casilli, Alessandro; de Oliveira, Fabio Azamor; de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins Lisandro; de Araujo, Amanda Lessa Dutra; Levy, Rachel Santos; Teixeira, Pedro Antonio Castelo; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Duarte, Ana Carolina Giordani; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Dudenhoeffer; Evaristo, Joseph Albert Medeiros; Dos Santos, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso; da Costa, Giovanni Carlo Verissimo; de Lima Castro, Fernando; Nogueira, Fabio Cesar Sousa; Scalco, Fernanda Bertão; Pizzatti, Luciana; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-11-01

    This paper summarises the results obtained from the doping control analyses performed during the Summer XXXI Olympic Games (August 3-21, 2016) and the XV Paralympic Games (September 7-18, 2016). The analyses of all doping control samples were performed at the Brazilian Doping Control Laboratory (LBCD), a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratory located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A new facility at Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ) was built and fully operated by over 700 professionals, including Brazilian and international scientists, administrative staff, and volunteers. For the Olympic Games, 4913 samples were analysed. In 29 specimens, the presence of a prohibited substance was confirmed, resulting in adverse analytical findings (AAFs). For the Paralympic Games, 1687 samples were analysed, 12 of which were reported as AAFs. For both events, 82.8% of the samples were urine, and 17.2% were blood samples. In total, more than 31 000 analytical procedures were conducted. New WADA technical documents were fully implemented; consequently, state-of-the-art analytical toxicology instrumentation and strategies were applied during the Games, including different types of mass spectrometry (MS) analysers, peptide, and protein detection strategies, endogenous steroid profile measurements, and blood analysis. This enormous investment yielded one of the largest Olympic legacies in Brazil and South America. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Controlled p-doping of black phosphorus by integration of MoS2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sumin; Kim, Minwoo; Jia, Jingyuan; Park, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sungjoo; Song, Young Jae

    2018-05-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), a new family of two dimensional (2D) layered materials, is an attractive material for future electronic, photonic and chemical sensing devices, thanks to its high carrier density and a direct bandgap of 0.3-2.0 eV, depending on the number of layers. Controllability over the properties of BP by electrical or chemical modulations is one of the critical requirements for future various device applications. Herein, we report a new doping method of BP by integration of density-controlled monolayer MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs). MoS2 NPs with different density were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred onto a few-layer BP channel, which induced a p-doping effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size and distribution of MoS2 NPs with different density. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were measured to confirm the oxidation on the edge of MoS2 NPs and a doping effect of MoS2 NPs on a BP channel. The doping mechanism was explained by a charge transfer by work function differences between BP and MoS2 NPs, which was confirmed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and electrical measurements. The hole concentration of BP was controlled with different densities of MoS2 NPs in a range of 1012-1013 cm-2.

  15. Energy-band engineering for tunable memory characteristics through controlled doping of reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Ye; Yang, Qing Dan; Zhou, Li; Huang, Long-Biao; Yan, Yan; Lee, Chun-Sing; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2014-02-25

    Tunable memory characteristics are used in multioperational mode circuits where memory cells with various functionalities are needed in one combined device. It is always a challenge to obtain control over threshold voltage for multimode operation. On this regard, we use a strategy of shifting the work function of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in a controlled manner through doping gold chloride (AuCl3) and obtained a gradient increase of rGO work function. By inserting doped rGO as floating gate, a controlled threshold voltage (Vth) shift has been achieved in both p- and n-type low voltage flexible memory devices with large memory window (up to 4 times for p-type and 8 times for n-type memory devices) in comparison with pristine rGO floating gate memory devices. By proper energy band engineering, we demonstrated a flexible floating gate memory device with larger memory window and controlled threshold voltage shifts.

  16. All optical mode controllable Er-doped random fiber laser with distributed Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W L; Ma, R; Tang, C H; Rao, Y J; Zeng, X P; Yang, Z J; Wang, Z N; Gong, Y; Wang, Y S

    2015-07-01

    An all-optical method to control the lasing modes of Er-doped random fiber lasers (RFLs) is proposed and demonstrated. In the RFL, an Er-doped fiber (EDF) recoded with randomly separated fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) is used as the gain medium and randomly distributed reflectors, as well as the controllable element. By combining random feedback of the FBG array and Fresnel feedback of a cleaved fiber end, multi-mode coherent random lasing is obtained with a threshold of 14 mW and power efficiency of 14.4%. Moreover, a laterally-injected control light is used to induce local gain perturbation, providing additional gain for certain random resonance modes. As a result, active mode selection of the RFL is realized by changing locations of the laser cavity that is exposed to the control light.

  17. Thirteen years of the fight against doping in figures.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Millán; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Plata, María Del Mar; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Every year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the main statistics reported by the accredited laboratories, which provide very valuable information for assessing changes in the patterns of doping in sports over time. Using the information provided since 2003 as the basis for the analysis, the evolution of doping/anti-doping figures over the last decade can be examined in reasonable detail, at least in reference to samples analyzed and categories of substances more commonly found in athletes' samples. This brief analysis of the WADA statistical reports leads us to the following outcomes: the increase in anti-doping pressure from 2003 to 2015, as evidenced by increased numbers of samples analyzed and banned substances, has not directly produced a higher frequency of adverse/atypical findings. Although this could be interpreted as steady state in the capacity to detect doping through this whole period, it also resulted in a significant increase in the absolute number of samples catalogued as doping (from 2247 in 2003 to 5912 in 2015). Anabolic agents have been the most common doping substances detected in all statistics reports while the remaining groups of substances are much less frequently found in doping control samples. Given that one might have expected the enhancement of the anti-doping programme led by WADA over this last decade to have increased the percentage of adverse/atypical findings, the fact that it did not might indicate the need to take another step in sampling strategies, such as 'more intelligent testing' based on the differences in the prevalence of doping substances among sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale in the sport context.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomás, Inés; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Bartholomew, Kimberley; Duda, Joan L; Balaguer, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS) in male soccer players. The CCBS is a questionnaire designed to assess athletes' perceptions of sports coaches' controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of the self-determination theory. Study 1 tested the factorial structure of the translated scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and provided evidence of discriminant validity. Studies 2 and 3 examined the invariance across time and across competitive level via multi-sample CFA. Reliability analyses were also conducted. The CFA results revealed that a four-factor model was acceptable, indicating that a controlling interpersonal style is a multidimensional construct represented by four separate and related controlling coaching strategies. Further, results supported the invariance of the CCBS factor structure across time and competitive level and provided support for the internal consistency of the scale. Overall, the CCBS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, as well as good factorial validity. The Spanish version of the CCBS represents a valid and reliable adaptation of the instrument, which can be confidently used to measure soccer players' perceptions of their coaches' controlling interpersonal style.

  20. A driver-adaptive stability control strategy for sport utility vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shenjin; He, Yuping

    2017-08-01

    Conventional vehicle stability control (VSC) systems are designed for average drivers. For a driver with a good driving skill, the VSC systems may be redundant; for a driver with a poor driving skill, the VSC intervention may be inadequate. To increase safety of sport utility vehicles (SUVs), this paper proposes a novel driver-adaptive VSC (DAVSC) strategy based on scaling the target yaw rate commanded by the driver. The DAVSC system is adaptive to drivers' driving skills. More control effort would be exerted for drivers with poor driving skills, and vice versa. A sliding mode control (SMC)-based differential braking (DB) controller is designed using a three degrees of freedom (DOF) yaw-plane model. An eight DOF nonlinear yaw-roll model is used to simulate the SUV dynamics. Two driver models, namely longitudinal and lateral, are used to 'drive' the virtual SUV. By integrating the virtual SUV, the DB controller, and the driver models, the performance of the DAVSC system is investigated. The simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the DAVSC strategy.

  1. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  2. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Canty, Russell; Gonzalez, Edwin; MacDonald, Caleb; Osswald, Sebastian; Zea, Hugo; Luhrs, Claudia C.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES) method utilizing graphite oxide (GO) and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i) promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii) providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET). The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene. PMID:28793618

  3. Controlled n-Type Doping of Carbon Nanotube Transistors by an Organorhodium Dimer.

    PubMed

    Geier, Michael L; Moudgil, Karttikay; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-07-13

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors are among the most developed nanoelectronic devices for high-performance computing applications. While p-type SWCNT transistors are easily achieved through adventitious adsorption of atmospheric oxygen, n-type SWCNT transistors require extrinsic doping schemes. Existing n-type doping strategies for SWCNT transistors suffer from one or more issues including environmental instability, limited carrier concentration modulation, undesirable threshold voltage control, and/or poor morphology. In particular, commonly employed benzyl viologen n-type doping layers possess large thicknesses, which preclude top-gate transistor designs that underlie high-density integrated circuit layouts. To overcome these limitations, we report here the controlled n-type doping of SWCNT thin-film transistors with a solution-processed pentamethylrhodocene dimer. The charge transport properties of organorhodium-treated SWCNT thin films show consistent n-type behavior when characterized in both Hall effect and thin-film transistor geometries. Due to the molecular-scale thickness of the organorhodium adlayer, large-area arrays of top-gated, n-type SWCNT transistors are fabricated with high yield. This work will thus facilitate ongoing efforts to realize high-density SWCNT integrated circuits.

  4. Young athletes' awareness and monitoring of anti-doping in daily life: Does motivation matter?

    PubMed

    Chan, D K C; Donovan, R J; Lentillon-Kaestner, V; Hardcastle, S J; Dimmock, J A; Keatley, D A; Hagger, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study was a preliminarily investigation into the prevention of unintentional doping on the basis of self-determination theory (SDT). Specifically, we examined the relationship between athletes' motives for doping avoidance and their behavior when offered an unfamiliar food product. Participants were young Australian athletes (n = 410) that were offered a free lollipop prior to completing a questionnaire. It was noted whether participants refused to take or eat the lollipop and whether they read the ingredients of the lollipop. The questionnaire assessed autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, amotivation, doping intentions, and adherence regarding doping avoidance behaviors. The results showed that young athletes who adopted controlled reasons to avoid doping in sport (e.g., not getting caught) tended to report higher adherence to behaviors related to avoiding and monitoring banned substances, whereas those who adopted autonomous reasons (e.g., anti-doping being consistent with life goals) appeared to be more willing to read the ingredients of the provided food. The significant interaction effect between autonomous and controlled motivation indicated that autonomous motivation was more predictive to doping intention for athletes with low controlled motivation. It is concluded that SDT may help understand the motivational processes of the prevention of unintentional doping in sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Compound semi-conductors and controlled doping thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Matus, Lawrence G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method of controlling the amount of impurity incorporation in a crystal grown by a chemical vapor deposition process. Conducted in a growth chamber, the method includes the controlling of the concentration of the crystal growing components in the growth chamber to affect the demand of particular growth sites within the growing crystal thereby controlling impurity incorporation into the growth sites.

  6. Gait mechanics and tibiofemoral loading in men of the ACL-SPORTS randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Capin, Jacob J; Khandha, Ashutosh; Zarzycki, Ryan; Arundale, Amelia J H; Ziegler, Melissa L; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2018-03-25

    The risk for post-traumatic osteoarthritis is elevated after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and may be especially high among individuals with aberrant walking mechanics, such as medial tibiofemoral joint underloading 6 months postoperatively. Rehabilitation training programs have been proposed as one strategy to address aberrant gait mechanics. We developed the anterior cruciate ligament specialized post-operative return-to-sports (ACL-SPORTS) randomized control trial to test the effect of 10 post-operative training sessions consisting of strength, agility, plyometric, and secondary prevention exercises (SAPP) or SAPP plus perturbation (SAPP + PERT) training on gait mechanics after ACLR. A total of 40 male athletes (age 23 ± 7 years) after primary ACLR were randomized to SAPP or SAPP + PERT training and tested at three distinct, post-operative time points: 1) after impairment resolution (Pre-training); 2) following 10 training sessions (Post-training); and 3) 2 years after ACLR. Knee kinematic and kinetic variables as well as muscle and joint contact forces were calculated via inverse dynamics and a validated electromyography-informed musculoskeletal model. There were no significant improvements from Pre-training to Post-training in either intervention group. Smaller peak knee flexion angles, extension moments, extensor muscle forces, medial compartment contact forces, and tibiofemoral contact forces were present across group and time, however the magnitude of interlimb differences were generally smaller and likely not meaningful 2 years postoperatively. Neither SAPP nor SAPP + PERT training appears effective at altering gait mechanics in men in the short-term; however, meaningful gait asymmetries mostly resolved between post-training and 2 years after ACLR regardless of intervention group. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by

  7. Analytical challenges in sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Walpurgis, Katja; Baume, Norbert; Thomas, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Analytical chemistry represents a central aspect of doping controls. Routine sports drug testing approaches are primarily designed to address the question whether a prohibited substance is present in a doping control sample and whether prohibited methods (for example, blood transfusion or sample manipulation) have been conducted by an athlete. As some athletes have availed themselves of the substantial breadth of research and development in the pharmaceutical arena, proactive and preventive measures are required such as the early implementation of new drug candidates and corresponding metabolites into routine doping control assays, even though these drug candidates are to date not approved for human use. Beyond this, analytical data are also cornerstones of investigations into atypical or adverse analytical findings, where the overall picture provides ample reason for follow-up studies. Such studies have been of most diverse nature, and tailored approaches have been required to probe hypotheses and scenarios reported by the involved parties concerning the plausibility and consistency of statements and (analytical) facts. In order to outline the variety of challenges that doping control laboratories are facing besides providing optimal detection capabilities and analytical comprehensiveness, selected case vignettes involving the follow-up of unconventional adverse analytical findings, urine sample manipulation, drug/food contamination issues, and unexpected biotransformation reactions are thematized.

  8. Controlling the ambipolarity and improvement of RF performance using Gaussian Drain Doped TFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Gupta, Sarthak; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-05-01

    Ambipolar conduction in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) has been occurred as an inherent issue due to drain-channel tunneling. It makes TFET less efficient and restricts its application in complementary digital circuits. Therefore, this manuscript reports the application of Gaussian doping profile on nanometer regime silicon channel TFETs to completely eliminate the ambipolarity. For this, Gaussian doping is used in the drain region of conventional gate-drain overlap TFET to control the tunneling of electrons from the valence band of channel to the conduction band of drain. As a result, barrier width at the drain/channel junction increases significantly leading to the suppression of an ambipolar current even when higher doping concentration (1 ? 10 ? cm ?) is considered in the drain region. However, significant improvement in terms of RF figure-of-merits such as cut-off frequency (f ?), gain bandwidth product (GBW), and gate-to-drain capacitance (C ?) is achieved with Gaussian doped gate on drain overlap TFET as compared to its counterpart TFET.

  9. Controlled electrochemical doping of graphene-based 3D nanoarchitecture electrodes for supercapacitors and capacitive deionisation.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, A M; Fray, D J

    2017-10-05

    Chemically-doped graphenes are promising electrode materials for energy storage and electrosorption applications. Here, an affordable electrochemical green process is introduced to dope graphene with nitrogen. The process is based on reversing the polarity of two identical graphene oxide (GO) electrodes in molten KCl-LiCl-Li 3 N. During the cathodic step, the oxygen functional groups on the GO surface are removed through direct electro-deoxidation reactions or a reaction with the deposited lithium. In the anodic step, nitrogen is adsorbed onto the surface of graphene and subsequently reacts to form nitrogen-doped graphene. The doping process is controllable, and graphene with up to 7.4 at% nitrogen can be produced. The electrochemically treated electrodes show a specific capacitance of 320 F g -1 in an aqueous KOH electrolyte and maintain 96% of this value after 10 000 cycles. The electrodes also display excellent electrosorption performance in capacitive deionisation devices with the salt removal efficiency reaching up to 18.6 mg g -1 .

  10. A multi‐faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, Anne; Kenny, Susan; Eldin, Nazih; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Allwright, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non‐sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland. Design and Methods A controlled trial was conducted in two counties in Ireland. A random selection of sports clubs in one county received a 4 month multi‐faceted intervention. All sports clubs in a non‐adjacent county acted as control sites. Consumption of more than 21 units of alcohol per week and six or more standard drinks on a single occasion at least once per week was the primary study outcome. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and number of alcohol‐related harms were also reported. Outcomes were assessed for cross‐sectional samples of players at pre‐intervention and post‐intervention and paired samples of players who completed surveys at both times. Generalised linear mixed model analysis was used. Results There was no evidence of effect for the primary outcomes or Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores. There was a statistically significant difference in the median number of alcohol‐related harms reported by intervention group players compared with control group players at post‐intervention for the paired samples [intervention: 0; control: 3; incident rate ratio 0.56 (0.37, 0.84); P = 0.005]. Discussion and Conclusions Intervention in community sports clubs may be effective in reducing the number of alcohol‐related harms. Low levels of intervention participation and inadequate intervention dose are possible reasons for lack of a broader intervention effect. [O'Farrell A, Kingsland M, Kenny S, Eldin N, Wiggers J, Wolfenden L, Allwright S. A multi‐faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Rev

  11. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    SciT

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter

    2016-06-10

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the filmmore » and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.« less

  12. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; ...

    2016-06-10

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behavior, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures, or enhanced catalytic activity. Here in this paper, we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In 2O 3 films grown on ionically conducting Y 2O 3-stabilized ZrO 2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygenmore » vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behavior is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.« less

  13. Cation coordination reactions on nanocrystals: surface/interface, doping control and advanced photocatalysis applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-10-01

    Abstract: Including the shape and size effect, the controllable doping, hetero-composite and surface/interface are the prerequisite of colloidal nanocrystals for exploring their optoelectronic properties, such as fluorescence, plasmon-exciton coupling, efficient electron/hole separation, and enhanced photocatalysis applications. By controlling soft acid-base coordination reactions between cation molecular complexes and colloidal nanocrystals, we showed that chemical thermodynamics could drive nanoscale monocrystalline growth of the semiconductor shell on metal nano-substrates and the substitutional heterovalent doping in semiconductor nanocrystals. We have demonstrated evolution of relative position of Au and II-VI semiconductor in Au-Semi from symmetric to asymmetric configuration, different phosphines initiated morphology engineering, oriented attachment of quantum dots into micrometer nanosheets with synergistic control of surface/interface and doing, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Therefore, different hydrogen photocatalytic performance, Plasmon enhanced photocatalysis properties have been achieved further which lead to the fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Substitutional heterovalent doping here enables the tailoring of optical, electronic properties and photocatalysis applications of semiconductor nanocrystals because of electronic impurities (p-, n-type doping) control. References: (1) J. Gui, J. Zhang*, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3683. (2) Q. Zhao, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1387. (3) J. Liu, Q. Zhao, S. G. Wang*, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2015, 27-2753-2761. (4) H. Qian, J. Zhang*, etc., NPG Asia Mater. (2015) 7, e152. (5) M. Ji, M. Xu, etc., J. Zhang*, Adv. Mater. 2016, in proof. (6) S. Yu, J. T. Zhang, Y. Tang, M. Ouyang*, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6282-6288. (7) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee and M. Ouyang*, Science 2010, 327, 1634. (8) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, M. Ouyang*, Nature 2010, 466

  14. Size-Dependent Optoelectronic Properties and Controlled Doping of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Jesse Hart

    Given a rapidly developing world, the need exists for inexpensive renewable energy alternatives to help avoid drastic climate change. Photovoltaics have the potential to fill the energy needs of the future, but significant cost decreases are necessary for widespread adoption. Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, are a nascent technology with long term potential to enable inexpensive and high efficiency photovoltaics. When deposited as a film, quantum dots form unique nanocomposites whose electronic and optical properties can be broadly tuned through manipulation of their individual constituents. The contents of this thesis explore methods to understand and optimize the optoelectronic properties of PbSe quantum dot films for use in photovoltaic applications. Systematic optimization of photovoltaic performance is demonstrated as a function of nanocrystal size, establishing the potential for utilizing extreme quantum confinement to improve device energetics and alignment. Detailed investigations of the mechanisms of electrical transport are performed, revealing that electronic coupling in quantum dot films is significantly less than often assumed based on optical shifts. A method is proposed to employ extended regions of built-in electrical field, through controlled doping, to sidestep issues of poor transport. To this end, treatments with chemical redox agents are found to effect profound and reversible doping within nanocrystal films, sufficient to enable their use as chemical sensors, but lacking the precision required for optoelectronic applications. Finally, a novel doping method employing "redox buffers" is presented to enact precise, stable, and reversible charge-transfer doping in porous semiconductor films. An example of oxidatively doping PbSe quantum dot thin films is presented, and the future potential for redox buffers in photovoltaic applications is examined.

  15. Equine performance genes and the future of doping in horseracing.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Tessa; Baoutina, Anna; Hamilton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses. Gene doping, the misuse of gene therapies for performance enhancement, is predicted to be the next phase of doping faced by horseracing. The risk of gene doping to human sports has been recognised for almost 15 years, and the introduction of the first gene doping detection tests for doping control in human athletes is imminent. Gene doping is also a threat to horseracing, but there are currently no methods to detect it. Efficient and accurate detection methods need to be developed to deter those looking to use gene doping in horses and to maintain the integrity of the sport. Methods developed for human athletes could offer an avenue for detection in racehorses. Development of an equine equivalent test will first require identification of equine genes that will likely be targeted by gene doping attempts. This review focuses on genes that have been linked to athletic performance in horses and, therefore, could be targeted for genetic manipulation. The risks associated with gene doping and approaches to detect gene doping are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  17. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release from Near-Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles without Oxygen Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Spence, Graeme T; Roland, Felicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-21

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of (1)O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive (1)O2, leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of coencapsulated payload such as the drug doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser-controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water-soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications.

  18. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release From Near Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles Without Oxygen Photosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Spence, Graeme T.; Roland, Felicia M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer-hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of 1O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive 1O2 leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of co-encapsulated payload such as the drug Doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications. PMID:26149326

  19. Affinity-based biosensors as promising tools for gene doping detection.

    PubMed

    Minunni, Maria; Scarano, Simona; Mascini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Innovative bioanalytical approaches can be foreseen as interesting means for solving relevant emerging problems in anti-doping control. Sport authorities fear that the newer form of doping, so-called gene doping, based on a misuse of gene therapy, will be undetectable and thus much less preventable. The World Anti-Doping Agency has already asked scientists to assist in finding ways to prevent and detect this newest kind of doping. In this Opinion article we discuss the main aspects of gene doping, from the putative target analytes to suitable sampling strategies. Moreover, we discuss the potential application of affinity sensing in this field, which so far has been successfully applied to a variety of analytical problems, from clinical diagnostics to food and environmental analysis.

  20. Steroid profile and IRMS analysis of musk administration for doping control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingzhu; He, Yi; Liu, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Yang, Wenning

    2017-11-01

    Musk, the dried secretion of the musk pod (sac) of adult male musk deer, has been used as traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and south-east Asian countries for thousands of years. Due to the anabolic steroid component in this TCM, musk preparations have been included in the list of medical products containing prohibited substances employed for doping by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The application of musk pod formulation was claimed to be responsible for some adverse analytical findings (AAFs) in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Our preliminary study has suggested that musk ingestion did not lead to AAFs of doping control with the single dosage of 100 mg. However, the influences of musk administration in large and multi dosage are still unclear. The aim of this study is to further investigate the influences of musk administration for doping control. Wild and domestic deer musk samples were collected. The concentrations and δ 13 C-values of steroids in musk were analyzed. In an excretion study, 200 and 100 mg of wild and domestic deer musk samples were administrated by 29 subjects, respectively. Fluctuations in steroid profile could be observed, and the ratio of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol to 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol was more sensitive than other parameters. In the IRMS test, the ∆Δδ 13 C-value between endogenous reference compound and etiocholanolone was a sensitive parameter, and AAFs were obtained. It is the first time to confirm with excretion study that musk administration could lead to positive result of doping control. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Controlled in situ boron doping of diamond thin films using solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Dua, A. K.; Nuwad, J.; Girija, K. G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Controlled boron doping of diamond film using nontoxic reagents is a challenge in itself. During the present study, attempts have been made to dope diamond films in situ with boron from a solution of boric acid (H3BO3) in methanol (CH3OH) using a specially designed bubbler that ensured continuous and controlled flow of vapors of boron precursors during deposition. The samples are thoroughly characterized using a host of techniques comprising of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements (I-V). Cross-sectional micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain depth profile of boron in diamond films. Boron concentration ([B]) in the films is found to vary linearly on a semilog scale with molarity (M) of H3BO3 in CH3OH. Lattice constant of our samples is smaller than the reported American society for testing and materials (ASTM) values due to oxygen incorporation and it increases with [B] in the diamond samples. Heavily boron doped samples exhibit Fano deformation of the Raman line shape and negative and/zero activation barrier in temperature dependent I-V measurements that indicate the formation of metallic phase in the samples. The present study illustrates the feasibility of safe and controlled boron doping of diamond films using a solution of H3BO3 in CH3OH over a significant range of [B] from semiconductor to metallic regime but with a little adverse effect due to unintentional but unavoidable incorporation of oxygen.

  2. Ag-doped manganite nanoparticles: new materials for temperature-controlled medical hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, O V; Gorbenko, O Yu; Markelova, M N; Kaul, A R; Atsarkin, V A; Demidov, V V; Soto, C; Roy, E J; Odintsov, B M

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to introduce newly synthesized nanomaterials as an alternative to superparamagnetic ironoxide based particles (SPIO) and thus to launch a new platform for highly controllable hyperthermia cancer therapy and imaging. The new material that forms the basis for this article is lanthanum manganite particles with silver ions inserted into the perovskite lattice: La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta). Adjusting the silver doping level, it is possible to control the Curie temperature (T(c)) in the hyperthermia range of interest (41-44 degrees C). A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) is suggested. New nanoparticles are stable, and their properties were not affected by the typical ambient conditions in the living tissue. It is possible to monitor the particle uptake and retention by MRI. When these particles are placed into an alternating magnetic field, their temperature increases to the definite value near T(c) and then remains constant if the magnetic field is maintained. During the hyperthermia procedure, the temperature can be restricted, thereby preventing the necrosis of normal tissue. A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) was suggested. Ag-doped perovskite manganites particles clearly demonstrated the effect of adjustable Curie temperature necessary for highly controllable cellular hyperthermia. The magnetic relaxation properties of the particles are comparable with that of SPIO, and so we were able to monitor the particle movement and retention by MRI. Thus, the new material combines the MRI contrast enhancement capability with targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  3. Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P. P.; Gauchard, G. C.; Perrot, C.; Jeandel, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balance disorders increase with aging and raise the risk of accidental falls in the elderly. It has been suggested that the practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) efficiently counteracts these age related disorders, reducing the risk of falling significantly. METHODS: This study, principally based on a period during which the subjects were engaged in PSA, included 65 healthy subjects, aged over 60, who were living at home. Three series of posturographic tests (static, dynamic with a single and fast upward tilt, and dynamic with slow sinusoidal oscillations) analysing the centre of foot pressure displacements or electromyographic responses were conducted to determine the effects of PSA practice on balance control. RESULTS: The major variables of postural control were best in subjects who had always practised PSA (AA group). Those who did not take part in PSA at all (II group) had the worst postural performances, whatever the test. Subjects having lately begun PSA practice (IA group) had good postural performances, close to those of the AA group, whereas the subjects who had stopped the practice of PSA at an early age (AI group) did not perform as well. Overall, the postural control in the group studied decreased in the order AA > IA > AI > II. CONCLUSIONS: The period during which PSA are practised seems to be of major importance, having a positive bearing on postural control. It seems that recent periods of practice have greater beneficial effects on the subject's postural stability than PSA practice only at an early age. These data are compatible with the fact that PSA are extremely useful for elderly people even if it has not been a lifelong habit. 


 PMID:10205695

  4. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS 2 through intercalation for electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan; ...

    2018-02-26

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturallymore » grown n-type S-vacancy SnS 2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS 2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and the obtained Co-SnS 2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p–n–metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.« less

  5. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS 2 through intercalation for electronics

    SciT

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturallymore » grown n-type S-vacancy SnS 2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS 2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and the obtained Co-SnS 2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p–n–metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.« less

  6. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS2 through intercalation for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan; Tang, Peizhe; Yang, Shi-Ze; Yang, Ankun; Li, Guodong; Liu, Bofei; van de Groep, Jorik; Brongersma, Mark L.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Zhou, Wu; Cui, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices1. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturally grown n-type S-vacancy SnS2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of 40 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the obtained Co-SnS2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene5. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p-n-metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.

  7. Controlling octahedral rotations in a perovskite via strain doping

    DOE PAGES

    Herklotz, Andreas; Biegalski, Michael D.; Lee, Ho Nyung; ...

    2016-05-24

    The perovskite unit cell is the fundamental building block of many functional materials. The manipulation of this crystal structure is known to be of central importance to controlling many technologically promising phenomena related to superconductivity, multiferroicity, mangetoresistivity, and photovoltaics. The broad range of properties that this structure can exhibit is in part due to the centrally coordinated octahedra bond flexibility, which allows for a multitude of distortions from the ideal highly symmetric structure. However, continuous and fine manipulation of these distortions has never been possible. Here, we show that controlled insertion of He atoms into an epitaxial perovskite film canmore » be used to finely tune the lattice symmetry by modifying the local distortions, i.e., octahedral bonding angle and length. Orthorhombic SrRuO 3 films coherently grown on SrTiO 3 substrates are used as a model system. Implanted He atoms are confirmed to induce out-of-plane strain, which provides the ability to controllably shift the bulk-like orthorhombically distorted phase to a tetragonal structure by shifting the oxygen octahedra rotation pattern. Lastly, these results demonstrate that He implantation offers an entirely new pathway to strain engineering of perovskite-based complex oxide thin films, useful for creating new functionalities or properties in perovskite materials.« less

  8. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    PubMed

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (p<0.05), and the equilibrium scores were 1.06-14.29% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (p<0.05). After accounting for age, sex and body mass index, only length of rugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversible control of doping in graphene-on-SiO2 by cooling under gate-voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Anjan Kumar

    2017-11-01

    The electronic properties of graphene can be modulated by various doping techniques other than back-gate, but most such methods are not easily reversible and also lead to mobility reduction. Here, we report on the reversible control of doping in graphene by cooling under back-gate-voltage. The observed variation in hysteresis in our devices with the temperature and interface preparation method is attributed to the variation in the density of redox species, namely, H2O and O2, at the graphene/SiO2 interface, and their diffusion. With careful interface preparation, we have been able to make devices with negligible hysteresis at room temperature and by exploiting hysteresis at high temperatures, we get a wide, but reversible tunability of interface charge density and graphene doping, by cooling to room temperature under gate-voltage. Such reversible control of graphene doping by manipulating the interface defect charge density can help in making new data storage devices using graphene.

  10. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5) samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1) cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004). The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001) Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis) was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis. PMID:21159201

  11. Sports Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubaugh, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Lists the following 10 tips for improved sports writing in high school publications: reporting comes before writing; do not try to do too much; show, do not tell; do not do game stories; avoid cliches; avoid "jock-talk"; use the drama of sports; do not write the obvious story; sports is also news; and read great sports writing. (PM)

  12. Implementation of effective alcohol control strategies is needed at large sports and entertainment events.

    PubMed

    Lyne, Mark; Galloway, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    To assess the implementation and effectiveness of strategies and actions to eliminate and/or reduce alcohol-related problems at large sports and entertainment events in New Zealand. We conducted site visits and monitoring observations at venues before, during and after a variety of large events between March 2009 and November 2010. Thirteen events were attended at nine different venues. Events included rugby, rugby league and cricket matches, motor racing, rowing, horse racing, an outdoor music festival, and food and wine festivals. Most large events appeared to pass with few or no alcohol-related problems. The exceptions were one of the horse-race meetings, a rugby league match and one food and wine festival. Common contexts at events where alcohol-related problems were seen included: inadequate alcohol control and management by security staff; the ability to purchase four alcoholic drinks (rather than two) at a time; inexperienced bar staff untrained in responsible alcohol service; no or little promotion of low and non-alcoholic drinks; and a lack of monitoring and enforcement of the law on intoxication. An important approach to prevent and reduce alcohol-related problems at large spots and entertainment events is the use of specific alcohol-control strategies. The management of alcohol consumption is a major part of event management that must be planned with harm-minimisation strategies well in advance of the event itself. If strategies and actions are not properly implemented to manage the sale and supply of alcohol at large events, there is significant risk of alcohol-related problems and harm resulting from them. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Epidemiology of Aquatic and Recreational Water Sport Injuries: A Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ian; Ong, Alvin; Radcliff, Kris E; Austin, Luke S; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of the current investigation are to evaluate the epidemiology of water sport injuries at a coastal tertiary trauma center and to determine the association of these activities with spinal column injury and to determine whether aquatic trauma injuries differ significantly from those that occur terrestrially. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 105 patients with aquatic-based mechanisms of injury admitted to a Level II trauma center over a 3-year period, as well as a matched control cohort with terrestrial-based mechanisms of injury, was conducted. Patients were treated at a Level II trauma center from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All patients received a full trauma work-up on arrival. Patients were identified retrospectively from a prospectively collected database (N=5298). Eligible patients were identified from billing/coding data as having mechanisms of injury related to an aquatic setting. Patients were evaluated using standard trauma protocols. Spinal column and cord injury occurrence and differences between groups were reviewed. Personal watercrafts accounted for the majority of injuries (n=39). Cervical (33.3%), closed-head (25.7%), and thoracolumbar (21.9%) injuries accounted for the majority of injury types. The cervical spinal column and the spinal cord were at an increased risk of injury in the aquatic injury cohort (P<.0001). The current data show the high incidence of spinal column and cord injuries in this patient population relative to controls. Practitioners who care for trauma patients near an aquatic environment should be aware of the high prevalence of these injuries, with proper spinal cord preservation protocols in place to optimize outcome. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Metabolic control in type 1 diabetes patients practicing combat sports: at least two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Benbenek-Klupa, Teresa; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that physical activity should be an integral part of the management of diabetes. It remains controversial, however, whether combat sports, often preferred by young individuals type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), may be performed without high risk of metabolic decompensation. The aim of this observational study was to summarize a two-year follow-up period of five young male patients with T1DM practicing combat sports under the care of a physical-activity oriented specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Of the five patients, three mixed martial arts and two kick-boxing competitors were included in the study. To control glucose in each patient, an individual approach was used that took into consideration the type of training, the sequence of the exercises, and the relative proportion of different forms of exercise. During the follow-up, glycemic control was improved and maintained in all individuals. Neither an episode of hospitalization-requiring diabetic ketoacidosis nor severe hypoglycemia occurred in these patients during the follow-up. In conclusion, an individual approach for T1DM patients practicing combat sports may result in achieving and maintaining satisfactory glycemic control without increased risk of metabolic decompensation.

  15. Determining the authenticity of athlete urine in doping control by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Devesse, Laurence; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Cowan, David

    2015-10-01

    The integrity of urine samples collected from athletes for doping control is essential. The authenticity of samples may be contested, leading to the need for a robust sample identification method. DNA typing using short tandem repeats (STR) can be used for identification purposes, but its application to cellular DNA in urine has so far been limited. Here, a reliable and accurate method is reported for the successful identification of urine samples, using reduced final extraction volumes and the STR multiplex kit, Promega® PowerPlex ESI 17, with capillary electrophoretic characterisation of the alleles. Full DNA profiles were obtained for all samples (n = 20) stored for less than 2 days at 4 °C. The effect of different storage conditions on yield of cellular DNA and probability of obtaining a full profile were also investigated. Storage for 21 days at 4 °C resulted in allelic drop-out in some samples, but the random match probabilities obtained demonstrate the high power of discrimination achieved through targeting a large number of STRs. The best solution for long-term storage was centrifugation and removal of supernatant prior to freezing at -20 °C. The method is robust enough for incorporation into current anti-doping protocols, and was successfully applied to 44 athlete samples for anti-doping testing with 100% concordant typing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The worldwide fight against doping: from the beginning to the World Anti-Doping Agency.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Matthias; Mullis, Primus-E

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the worldwide endeavor to combat doping in sports. It describes the historical reasons the movement began and outlines the current status of this effort by international sports groups, governments, and the World Anti-Doping Agency. The purposes, strengths, and limitations of the various entities are illustrated; and recommendations for improvements are made. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GC-C-IRMS in routine doping control practice: 3 years of drug testing data, quality control and evolution of the method.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In order to detect the misuse of endogenous anabolic steroids, doping control laboratories require methods that allow differentiation between endogenous steroids and their synthetic copies. Gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is capable of measuring the carbon isotope ratio of urinary steroids and this allows differentiation between both. GC-C-IRMS and its application to doping control has evolved a lot during the last decade and so have the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) technical documents that describe how GC-C-IRMS should be applied. Especially the WADA technical document of 2014 introduced a number of obligatory quality controls and a fixed methodology that should be used by all the doping control laboratories. This document imposed more uniform methods between the laboratories in order to decrease the interlaboratory standard deviation and acquire similar results for the analysis of the same urine samples. In this paper, 3 years of drug testing data of our GC-C-IRMS method in routine doping control practice is described, with an emphasis on the new WADA technical document and its implementation. Useful data for other doping control laboratories is presented focussing on general method setup, quality control and data collected from routine samples. The paper concentrates on how IRMS results shift or remain similar by switching to the 2014 WADA technical document and gives insight in a straightforward approach to calculate the measurement uncertainty.

  18. Sex, Drugs, and Kinesiology: A Useful Partnership for Sport's Most Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, John; Llewellyn, Matthew; Wrynn, Alison

    2015-01-01

    From the gender controversy of South African runner Caster Semenya to the doping practices of disgraced American cyclist Lance Armstrong, recent sporting issues highlight kinesiology's important role and responsibility to sport. Increasingly, sport organizations, such as the International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and…

  19. Controlled synthesis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Horoz, Sabit; Yakami, Baichhabi; Poudyal, Uma; ...

    2016-04-27

    Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic) structure. Both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu 2+ doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu2+ intra-ion transition of 4f 6d1 – 4f 7, while the Eu 3+ doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu 3+ doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu 2+ dopedmore » samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.« less

  20. General control of transition-metal-doped GaN nanowire growth: toward understanding the mechanism of dopant incorporation.

    PubMed

    Stamplecoskie, Kevin G; Ju, Ling; Farvid, Shokouh S; Radovanovic, Pavle V

    2008-09-01

    We report the first synthesis and characterization of cobalt- and chromium-doped GaN nanowires (NWs), and compare them to manganese-doped GaN NWs. Samples were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method, using cobalt(II) chloride and chromium(III) chloride as dopant precursors. For all three impurity dopants hexagonal, triangular, and rectangular NWs were observed. The fraction of NWs having a particular morphology depends on the initial concentration of the dopant precursors. While all three dopant ions have the identical effect on GaN NW growth and faceting, Co and Cr are incorporated at much lower concentrations than Mn. These findings suggest that the doping mechanism involves binding of the transition-metal intermediates to specific NW facets, inhibiting their growth and causing a change in the NW morphology. We discuss the doping concentrations of Mn, Co, and Cr in terms of differences in their crystal-field stabilization energies (DeltaCFSE) in their gas-phase intermediates and in substitutionally doped GaN NWs. Using iron(III) chloride and cobalt(II) acetate as dopant precursors we show that the doping concentration dependence on DeltaCFSE allows for the prediction of achievable doping concentrations for different dopant ions in GaN NWs, and for a rational choice of a suitable dopant-ion precursor. This work further demonstrates a general and rational control of GaN NW growth using transition-metal impurities.

  1. Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-25

    Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β 2 -agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [The travelling sports physician].

    PubMed

    Jenoure, Peter

    2016-07-13

    Travelling around your own country or even further abroad with a sports team or individual athletes as a sports physician is to be considered as a fundamental part of the various activities of a sports medicine practitioner.However, in our modern and quickly changing world, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of caring for athletes, also the legal ones. These may include licensing issues, malpractice coverage, access to care at outside institutions and prescribing and transporting medication of all sorts, including narcotics and substances of the list of prohibited ones (doping).With significant changes in healthcare at state and national levels, physicians must be aware of how these policy differences can affect their way of working, their ability to provide the expected care.

  3. Genetic doping and health damages.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Aa; Ravasi, Aa; Farhud, Dd

    2011-01-01

    Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in future and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines genetic doping as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance ". The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes. This review, which is carried out by reviewing relevant publications, is primarily based on the journals available in GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED in fields of genetic technology, and health using a combination of keywords (e.g., genetic doping, genes, exercise, performance, athletes) until July 2010. There are several genes related to sport performance and if they are used, they will have health risks and sever damages such as cancer, autoimmunization, and heart attack.

  4. Cannabis and sport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2006-07-01

    Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.

  5. Controlling the optical properties of polyaniline doped by boric acid particles by changing their doping agent and initiator concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabuk, Mehmet; Gündüz, Bayram

    2017-12-01

    In this study, polyaniline doped by boric acid (PAni:BA) conducting polymers were chemically synthesized by oxidative polymerization method using (NH4)2S208 (APS) as initiator. Pani:BA conducting polymers were synthesized by using two different APS/aniline molar ratios as 1:1 and 2:1. Their results were compared with PAni doped by HCl (PAni) conducting polymer. Structural properties of the PAni, PAni:BA (1:1) and PAni:BA (2:1) conducting polymers were characterized by using FTIR, SEM, TGA, particle size and apparent density measurements. Effects of doping agents and initiator concentrations on optical properties were investigated in detail. The optoelectronic parameters such as absorption band edge, molar extinction coefficient, direct allowed band gap, refractive index, optical conductance and electrical conductance of the PAni, PAni:BA (1:1) and PAni:BA (2:1) were determined. The absorption band edge and direct allowed band gap of PAni were decreased with doping BA and increasing APS ratio. Also, the refractive index values of the materials were calculated from experimental results and compared with obtained results from Moss, Ravindra, Herve-Vandamme, Reddy and Kumar-Singh relations.

  6. The estimated reduction in the odds of loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles equipped with electronic stability control.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul E; Woodrooffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the NASS General Estimates System (GES), the method of induced exposure was used to assess the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles. Sport utility vehicles were classified into crash types generally associated with loss of control and crash types most likely not associated with loss of control. Vehicles were then compared as to whether ESC technology was present or absent in the vehicles. A generalized additive model was fit to assess the effects of ESC, driver age, and driver gender on the odds of loss of control. In addition, the effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were compared to effects on roads that were dry. Overall, the estimated percentage reduction in the odds of a loss-of-control crash for sport utility vehicles equipped with ESC was 70.3%. Both genders and all age groups showed reduced odds of loss-of-control crashes, but there was no significant difference between males and females. With respect to driver age, the maximum percentage reduction of 73.6% occurred at age 27. The positive effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were significantly greater than on roads that were dry.

  7. Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derwin K; Ivarsson, Andreas; Stenling, Andreas; Yang, Sophie X; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-12-01

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  8. Doping control study of AICAR in post-race urine and plasma samples from horses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Kwok, Wai Him; Chan, George H M; Choi, Timmy L S; Ho, Emmie N M; Jaubert, Murielle; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Bonnaire, Yves; Cawley, Adam; Ming Williams, H; Keledjian, John; Brooks, Lydia; Chambers, Adam; Lin, Yuanyuan; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    Acadesine, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, commonly known as AICAR, is a naturally occurring adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator in many mammals, including humans and horses. AICAR has attracted considerable attention recently in the field of doping control because of a study showing the enhancement of endurance performance in unexercised or untrained mice, resulting in the term 'exercise pill'. Its use has been classified as gene doping by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), and since it is endogenous, it may only be possible to control deliberate administration of AICAR to racehorses after establishment of an appropriate threshold. Herein we report our studies of AICAR in post-race equine urine and plasma samples including statistical studies of AICAR concentrations determined from 1,470 urine samples collected from thoroughbreds and standardbreds and analyzed in Australia, France, and Hong Kong. Quantification methods in equine urine and plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were developed by the laboratories in each country. An exchange of spiked urine and plasma samples between the three countries was conducted, confirming no significant differences in the methods. However, the concentration of AICAR in plasma was found to increase upon haemolysis of whole blood samples, impeding the establishment of a suitable threshold in equine plasma. A possible urine screening cut-off at 600 ng/mL for the control of AICAR in racehorses could be considered for adoption. Application of the proposed screening cut-off to urine samples collected after intravenous administration of a small dose (2 g) of AICAR to a mare yielded a short detection time of approximately 4.5 h. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  10. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.

  11. Increasing girls’ physical activity during an organised youth sport basketball program: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended coach education sessions (where education on increasing MVPA and decreasing inactivity during training was delivered) can increase players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program compared to coaches who did not receive coach education sessions. Methods/design A convenience sample of 80 female players and 8 coaches were recruited into the UWS School Holiday Basketball Program in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. A two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was employed to investigate whether coaches who attended 2 coach education sessions (compared with a no-treatment control) can increase their players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program. Objectively measured physical activity, directly observed lesson context and leader behaviour, player motivation, players’ perceived autonomy support, and coaching information (regarding training session planning, estimations on player physical activity and lesson context during training, perceived ability to modify training sessions, perceived importance of physical activity during training, intention to increase physical activity/reduce inactivity, and likelihood of increasing physical activity/reducing inactivity) were assessed at baseline (day 1) and at follow-up (day 5). Linear mixed models will be used to analyse between arm differences in changes from baseline to follow-up on all outcomes. Discussion The current trial protocol describes, to our knowledge, the first trial conducted in an OYS context to investigate the efficacy of an intervention, relative to a control, in increasing MVPA. This study’s findings will

  12. Controlled electron doping into metallic atomic wires: Si(111)4×1-In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Harumo; Hwang, C. C.; Yeom, Han Woong

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate the controllable electron doping into metallic atomic wires, indium wires self-assembled on the Si(111) surface, which feature one-dimensional (1D) band structure and temperature-driven metal-insulator transition. The electron filling of 1D metallic bands is systematically increased by alkali-metal adsorption, which, in turn, tunes the macroscopic property, that is, suppresses the metal-insulator transition. On the other hand, the dopant atoms induce a local lattice distortion without a band-gap opening, leading to a microscopic phase separation on the surface. The distinct bifunctional, electronic and structural, roles of dopants in different length scales are thus disclosed.

  13. Sulbutiamine in sports.

    PubMed

    Sobolevsky, Tim; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2010-01-01

    Sulbutiamine (isobutyryl thiamine disulfide) is a lipophilic derivative of thiamine used for the treatment of asthenia and other related pathological conditions. It is available over-the-counter in several countries either as a component of nutritional supplements or as a pharmaceutical preparation. The presence of sulbutiamine in urinary doping control samples was monitored to evaluate the relevance of its use in sports. As one of the sulbutiamine metabolites has very close retention time and the same characteristic ion (m/z 194) as the main boldenone metabolite, the raw data files generated from the screening for anabolic steroids were automatically reprocessed to identify the samples containing sulbutiamine. It was found that of ca. 16 000 samples analyzed in the Russian laboratory during 2009, about 100 samples contained sulbutiamine. It is important to note that most of these samples were collected in-competition, and sulbutiamine concentration was estimated to be greater than 500 ng/ml. This may indicate that sulbutiamine was intentionally administered for its ergogenic and mild stimulating properties. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Controlling the strontium-doping in calcium phosphate microcapsules through yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaojun; Li, Tianjie; Pan, Ting; Zhao, Naru; Yao, Yongchang; Zhai, Zhichen; Zhou, Jiaan; Du, Chang; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-10-01

    Yeast cells have controllable biosorption on metallic ions during metabolism. However, few studies were dedicated to using yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization process to control the strontium-doped positions in calcium phosphate microcapsules. In this study, the yeast cells were allowed to pre-adsorb strontium ions metabolically and then served as sacrificing template for the precipitation and calcination of mineral shell. The pre-adsorption enabled the microorganism to enrich of strontium ions into the inner part of the microcapsules, which ensured a slow-release profile of the trace element from the microcapsule. The co-culture with human marrow stromal cells showed that gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase and Collagen-I were promoted. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed in the 3D culture of cell-material complexes. The strategy using living microorganism as 'smart doping apparatus' to control incorporation of trace element into calcium phosphate paved a pathway to new functional materials for hard tissue regeneration.

  15. Monitoring 2-phenylethanamine and 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide sulfate in doping controls.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Gerd; Dib, Josef; Tretzel, Laura; Piper, Thomas; Bosse, Christina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    2-Phenylethanamine (phenethylamine, PEA) represents the core structure of numerous drugs with stimulant-like properties and is explicitly featured as so-called specified substance on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. Due to its natural occurrence in humans as well as its presence in dietary products, studies concerning the ability of test methods to differentiate between an illicit intake and the renal elimination of endogenously produced PEA were indicated. Following the addition of PEA to the Prohibited List in January 2015, retrospective evaluation of routine doping control data of 10 190 urine samples generated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nitrogen phosphorus-specific detection (GC-MS/NPD) was performed. Signals for PEA at approximate concentrations > 500 ng/mL were observed in 31 cases (0.3%), which were subjected to a validated isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) test method for accurate quantification of the target analyte. Further, using elimination study urine samples collected after a single oral administration of 250 mg of PEA hydrochloride to two healthy male volunteers, two tentatively identified metabolites of PEA were observed and evaluated concerning their utility as discriminative markers for PEA intake. The ID-LC-MS/MS approach was extended to allow for the simultaneous detection of PEA and 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide sulfate (M1), and concentration ratios of M1 and PEA were calculated for elimination study urine samples and a total of 205 doping control urine samples that returned findings for PEA at estimated concentrations of 50-2500 ng/mL. Urine samples of the elimination study with PEA yielded concentration ratios of M1/PEA up to values of 9.4. Notably, the urinary concentration of PEA did increase with the intake of PEA only to a modest extent, suggesting a comprehensive metabolism of the orally administered substance. Conversely, doping control

  16. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  17. Mitragynine (Kratom) - monitoring in sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Guddat, Sven; Görgens, Christian; Steinhart, Vanessa; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, mitragynine (Kratom) was placed on the Monitoring List of the World Anti-Doping Agency to gain information of its current use in professional sports. Therefore, analytical strategies in sports drug testing are presented and the first Kratom case in professional sports is described. It is outlined that thorough monitoring by anti-doping laboratories is of utmost importance to obtain data on Kratom's misuse and to protect athletes from potential health hazards. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prevention of groin injuries in sports: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C; Urrútia, G; Thorborg, K

    2015-06-01

    Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in sports. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were performed in Review Manager 5.3. Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.81. Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Growth of Nanoparticles with Desired Catalytic Functions by Controlled Doping-Segregation of Metal in Oxide

    SciT

    Wu, Qiyuan; Yan, Binhang; Cen, Jiajie

    Here, the size and morphology of metal nanoparticles (NPs) often play a critical role in defining the catalytic performance of supported metal nanocatalysts. However, common synthetic methods struggle to produce metal NPs of appropriate size and morphological control. Thus, facile synthetic methods that offer controlled catalytic functions are highly desired. Here we have identified a new pathway to synthesize supported Rh nanocatalysts with finely tuned spatial dimensions and controlled morphology using a doping-segregation method. We have analyzed their structure evolutions during both the segregation process and catalytic reaction using a variety of in situ spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. A correlationmore » between the catalytic functional sites and activity in CO 2 hydrogenation over supported Rh nanocatalysts is then established. This study demonstrates a facile strategy to design and synthesize nanocatalysts with desired catalytic functions.« less

  20. Growth of Nanoparticles with Desired Catalytic Functions by Controlled Doping-Segregation of Metal in Oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Qiyuan; Yan, Binhang; Cen, Jiajie; ...

    2018-02-05

    Here, the size and morphology of metal nanoparticles (NPs) often play a critical role in defining the catalytic performance of supported metal nanocatalysts. However, common synthetic methods struggle to produce metal NPs of appropriate size and morphological control. Thus, facile synthetic methods that offer controlled catalytic functions are highly desired. Here we have identified a new pathway to synthesize supported Rh nanocatalysts with finely tuned spatial dimensions and controlled morphology using a doping-segregation method. We have analyzed their structure evolutions during both the segregation process and catalytic reaction using a variety of in situ spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. A correlationmore » between the catalytic functional sites and activity in CO 2 hydrogenation over supported Rh nanocatalysts is then established. This study demonstrates a facile strategy to design and synthesize nanocatalysts with desired catalytic functions.« less

  1. Interfacial characteristics and leakage current transfer mechanisms in organometal trihalide perovskite gate-controlled devices via doping of PCBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Liu, Yintao; Pang, Tiqiang; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-11-01

    Two types of perovskite (with and without doping of PCBM) based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate-controlled devices were fabricated and characterized. The study of the interfacial characteristics and charge transfer mechanisms by doping of PCBM were analyzed by material and electrical measurements. Doping of PCBM does not affect the size and crystallinity of perovskite films, but has an impact on carrier extraction in perovskite MOS devices. The electrical hysteresis observed in capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements can be alleviated by doping of PCBM. Experimental results demonstrate that extremely low trap densities are found for the perovskite device without doping, while the doped sample leads to higher density of interface state. Three mechanisms including Ohm’s law, trap-filled-limit (TFL) emission, and child’s law were used to analyze possible charge transfer mechanisms. Ohm’s law mechanism is well suitable for charge transfer of both the perovskite MOS devices under light condition at large voltage, while TFL emission well addresses the behavior of charge transfer under dark at small voltage. This change of charge transfer mechanism is attributed to the impact of the ion drift within perovskites.

  2. All-optical control of long-lived nuclear spins in rare-earth doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Serrano, D; Karlsson, J; Fossati, A; Ferrier, A; Goldner, P

    2018-05-29

    Nanoscale systems that coherently couple to light and possess spins offer key capabilities for quantum technologies. However, an outstanding challenge is to preserve properties, and especially optical and spin coherence lifetimes, at the nanoscale. Here, we report optically controlled nuclear spins with long coherence lifetimes (T 2 ) in rare-earth-doped nanoparticles. We detect spins echoes and measure a spin coherence lifetime of 2.9 ± 0.3 ms at 5 K under an external magnetic field of 9 mT, a T 2 value comparable to those obtained in bulk rare-earth crystals. Moreover, we achieve spin T 2 extension using all-optical spin dynamical decoupling and observe high fidelity between excitation and echo phases. Rare-earth-doped nanoparticles are thus the only nano-material in which optically controlled spins with millisecond coherence lifetimes have been reported. These results open the way to providing quantum light-atom-spin interfaces with long storage time within hybrid architectures.

  3. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  4. Sports Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  5. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P.; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation. PMID:26648972

  6. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    PubMed

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  7. Understanding and Control of Bipolar Self-Doping in Copper Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Fioretti, Angela N.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Vinson, John; Nordlund, Dennis; Prendergast, David; Tamboli, Adele C.; Caskey, Christopher M.; Tuomisto, Filip; Linez, Florence; Christensen, Steven T.; Toberer, Eric S.; Lany, Stephan; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor materials that can be doped both n-type and p-type are desirable for diode-based applications and transistor technology. Copper nitride (Cu3N) is a metastable semiconductor with a solar-relevant bandgap that has been reported to exhibit bipolar doping behavior. However, deeper understanding and better control of the mechanism behind this behavior in Cu3N is currently lacking in the literature. In this work, we use combinatorial growth with a temperature gradient to demonstrate both conduction types of phase-pure, sputter-deposited Cu3N thin films. Room temperature Hall effect and Seebeck effect measurements show n-type Cu3N with an electron density of 1017 cm−3 for low growth temperature (≈ 35 °C) and p-type with a hole density between 1015 cm−3 and 1016 cm−3 for elevated growth temperatures (50 °C to 120 °C). Mobility for both types of Cu3N was ≈ 0.1 cm2/Vs to 1 cm2/V. Additionally, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate that ionized defects are an important scattering mechanism in p-type films. By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles defect theory, we determined that VCu defects form preferentially in p-type Cu3N while Cui defects form preferentially in n-type Cu3N; suggesting that Cu3N is a compensated semiconductor with conductivity type resulting from a balance between donor and acceptor defects. Based on these theoretical and experimental results, we propose a kinetic defect formation mechanism for bipolar doping in Cu3N, that is also supported by positron annihilation experiments. Overall, the results of this work highlight the importance of kinetic processes in the defect physics of metastable materials, and provide a framework that can be applied when considering the properties of such materials in general. PMID:27746508

  8. Understanding and control of bipolar self-doping in copper nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, Angela N.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Vinson, John; Nordlund, Dennis; Prendergast, David; Tamboli, Adele C.; Caskey, Christopher M.; Tuomisto, Filip; Linez, Florence; Christensen, Steven T.; Toberer, Eric S.; Lany, Stephan; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor materials that can be doped both n-type and p-type are desirable for diode-based applications and transistor technology. Copper nitride (Cu3N) is a metastable semiconductor with a solar-relevant bandgap that has been reported to exhibit bipolar doping behavior. However, deeper understanding and better control of the mechanism behind this behavior in Cu3N is currently lacking in the literature. In this work, we use combinatorial growth with a temperature gradient to demonstrate both conduction types of phase-pure, sputter-deposited Cu3N thin films. Room temperature Hall effect and Seebeck effect measurements show n-type Cu3N with 1017 electrons/cm3 for low growth temperature (≈35 °C) and p-type with 1015 holes/cm3-1016 holes/cm3 for elevated growth temperatures (50 °C-120 °C). Mobility for both types of Cu3N was ≈0.1 cm2/Vs-1 cm2/Vs. Additionally, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate that ionized defects are an important scattering mechanism in p-type films. By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles defect theory, we determined that VCu defects form preferentially in p-type Cu3N, while Cui defects form preferentially in n-type Cu3N, suggesting that Cu3N is a compensated semiconductor with conductivity type resulting from a balance between donor and acceptor defects. Based on these theoretical and experimental results, we propose a kinetic defect formation mechanism for bipolar doping in Cu3N that is also supported by positron annihilation experiments. Overall, the results of this work highlight the importance of kinetic processes in the defect physics of metastable materials and provide a framework that can be applied when considering the properties of such materials in general.

  9. Understanding and Control of Bipolar Self-Doping in Copper Nitride

    SciT

    Fioretti, Angela N.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Vinson, John

    2016-05-14

    Semiconductor materials that can be doped both n-type and p-type are desirable for diode-based applications and transistor technology. Copper nitride (Cu3N) is a metastable semiconductor with a solar-relevant bandgap that has been reported to exhibit bipolar doping behavior. However, deeper understanding and better control of the mechanism behind this behavior in Cu3N is currently lacking in the literature. In this work, we use combinatorial growth with a temperature gradient to demonstrate both conduction types of phase-pure, sputter-deposited Cu3N thin films. Room temperature Hall effect and Seebeck effect measurements show n-type Cu3N with 1017 electrons/cm3 for low growth temperature (approximately 35more » degrees C) and p-type with 1015 holes/cm3-1016 holes/cm3 for elevated growth temperatures (50 degrees C-120 degrees C). Mobility for both types of Cu3N was approximately 0.1 cm2/Vs-1 cm2/Vs. Additionally, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate that ionized defects are an important scattering mechanism in p-type films. By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles defect theory, we determined that VCu defects form preferentially in p-type Cu3N, while Cui defects form preferentially in n-type Cu3N, suggesting that Cu3N is a compensated semiconductor with conductivity type resulting from a balance between donor and acceptor defects. Based on these theoretical and experimental results, we propose a kinetic defectformation mechanism for bipolar doping in Cu3N that is also supported by positron annihilation experiments. Overall, the results of this work highlight the importance of kinetic processes in the defect physics of metastable materials and provide a framework that can be applied when considering the properties of such materials in general.« less

  10. Sport Biomechanist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  11. Health Psychological Constructs as Predictors of Doping Susceptibility in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. Objectives This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Methods Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Results Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. Conclusions The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents’ doping susceptibility. PMID:28144408

  12. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a comprehensive accreditation intervention to reduce alcohol consumption at community sports clubs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Tindall, Jennifer; Gillham, Karen E; McElduff, Patrick; Rogerson, John C; Wiggers, John H

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs consume alcohol at levels above that of communities generally. Despite the potential benefits of interventions to address alcohol consumption in sporting clubs, there have been no randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive accreditation intervention with community football clubs (Rugby League, Rugby Union, soccer/association football and Australian Rules football) in reducing excessive alcohol consumption by club members. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in New South Wales, Australia, and employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Half of the football clubs recruited to the trial will be randomised to receive an intervention implemented over two and a half winter sporting seasons. The intervention is based on social ecology theory and is comprehensive in nature, containing multiple elements designed to decrease the supply of alcohol to intoxicated members, cease the provision of cheap and free alcohol, increase the availability and cost-attractiveness of non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages, remove high alcohol drinks and cease drinking games. The intervention utilises a three-tiered accreditation framework designed to motivate intervention implementation. Football clubs in the control group will receive printed materials on topics unrelated to alcohol. Outcome data will be collected pre- and postintervention through cross-sectional telephone surveys of club members. The primary outcome measure will be alcohol consumption by club members at the club, assessed using a graduated frequency index and a seven day diary. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (reference: H-2008-0432). Study

  13. Erythropoietin and blood doping

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, N; Giraud, S; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Avois, L; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and method To outline the direct and indirect approaches in the fight against blood doping in sports, the different strategies that have been used and are currently being used to fight efficiently against blood doping are presented and discussed. Results and conclusions The paper outlines the different approaches and diagnostic tools that some federations have to identify and target sportspeople demonstrating abnormal blood profiles. Originally blood tests were introduced for medical reasons and for limiting misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). In this way it became possible to prevent athletes with haematocrit levels well above normal, and potentially dangerous for their health, competing in sport. Today, with nearly a decade of blood testing experience, sports authorities should be familiar with some of the limitations and specially the ability of blood tests performed prior to competitions to fight efficiently against the misuse of rHuEPO, blood transfusion, and artificial haemoglobin. PMID:16799100

  14. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical inactivation of cyanobacteria and microcystin degradation using a boron-doped diamond anode - A potential tool for cyanobacterial bloom control.

    PubMed

    Meglič, Andrej; Pecman, Anja; Rozina, Tinkara; Leštan, Domen; Sedmak, Bojan

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are global phenomena that can occur in calm and nutrient-rich (eutrophic) fresh and marine waters. Human exposure to cyanobacteria and their biologically active products is possible during water sports and various water activities, or by ingestion of contaminated water. Although the vast majority of harmful cyanobacterial products are confined to the interior of the cells, these are eventually released into the surrounding water following natural or artificially induced cell death. Electrochemical oxidation has been used here to damage cyanobacteria to halt their proliferation, and for microcystin degradation under in-vitro conditions. Partially spent Jaworski growth medium with no addition of supporting electrolytes was used. Electrochemical treatment resulted in the cyanobacterial loss of cell-buoyancy regulation, cell proliferation arrest, and eventual cell death. Microcystin degradation was studied separately in two basic modes of treatment: batch-wise flow, and constant flow, for electrolytic-cell exposure. Batch-wise exposure simulates treatment under environmental conditions, while constant flow is more appropriate for the study of boron-doped diamond electrode efficacy under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of microcystin degradation was established using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector analysis, while the biological activities of the products were estimated using a colorimetric protein phosphatase-1 inhibition assay. The results indicate potential for the application of electro-oxidation methods for the control of bloom events by taking advantage of specific intrinsic ecological characteristics of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The applicability of the use of boron-doped diamond electrodes in remediation of water exposed to cyanobacteria bloom events is discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Resolutions and Recommendations on Sport Adopted by the Committee of Ministers, 1967-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Committee for the Development of Sport.

    This document contains resolutions on sport recommended by the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS) and adopted by the Committee of Ministers for the Development of Sport of the Council of Europe. The adopted resolutions cover the following topics: (1) doping of athletes; (2) the medical aspects of sport; (3) hygiene of sport…

  17. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  18. Fermi Level Control of Point Defects During Growth of Mg-Doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Zachary; Hoffmann, Marc; Tweedie, James; Kirste, Ronny; Callsen, Gordon; Bryan, Isaac; Rice, Anthony; Bobea, Milena; Mita, Seiji; Xie, Jinqiao; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón

    2013-05-01

    In this study, Fermi level control of point defects during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of Mg-doped GaN has been demonstrated by above-bandgap illumination. Resistivity and photoluminescence (PL) measurements are used to investigate the Mg dopant activation of samples with Mg concentration of 2 × 1019 cm-3 grown with and without exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Samples grown under UV illumination have five orders of magnitude lower resistivity values compared with typical unannealed GaN:Mg samples. The PL spectra of samples grown with UV exposure are similar to the spectra of those grown without UV exposure that were subsequently annealed, indicating a different incorporation of compensating defects during growth. Based on PL and resistivity measurements we show that Fermi level control of point defects during growth of III-nitrides is feasible.

  19. Coherent control of the group velocity in a dielectric slab doped with duplicated two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Coherent control of reflected and transmitted pulses is investigated theoretically through a slab doped with atoms in a duplicated two-level configuration. When a strong control field and a relatively weak probe field are employed, coherent control of the group velocity is achieved via changing the phase shift ϕ between control and probe fields. Furthermore, the peak values in the delay time of the reflected and transmitted pulses are also studied by varying the phase shift ϕ.

  20. Developing strategies for detection of gene doping.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, Anna; Alexander, Ian E; Rasko, John E J; Emslie, Kerry R

    2008-01-01

    It is feared that the use of gene transfer technology to enhance athletic performance, the practice that has received the term 'gene doping', may soon become a real threat to the world of sport. As recognised by the anti-doping community, gene doping, like doping in any form, undermines principles of fair play in sport and most importantly, involves major health risks to athletes who partake in gene doping. One attraction of gene doping for such athletes and their entourage lies in the apparent difficulty of detecting its use. Since the realisation of the threat of gene doping to sport in 2001, the anti-doping community and scientists from different disciplines concerned with potential misuse of gene therapy technologies for performance enhancement have focused extensive efforts on developing robust methods for gene doping detection which could be used by the World Anti-Doping Agency to monitor athletes and would meet the requirements of a legally defensible test. Here we review the approaches and technologies which are being evaluated for the detection of gene doping, as well as for monitoring the efficacy of legitimate gene therapy, in relation to the detection target, the type of sample required for analysis and detection methods. We examine the accumulated knowledge on responses of the body, at both cellular and systemic levels, to gene transfer and evaluate strategies for gene doping detection based on current knowledge of gene technology, immunology, transcriptomics, proteomics, biochemistry and physiology. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Doping control analysis of 46 polar drugs in horse plasma and urine using a 'dilute-and-shoot' ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Karen Y; Chan, George H M; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2016-06-17

    The high sensitivity of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) allows the identification of many prohibited substances without pre-concentration, leading to the development of simple and fast 'dilute-and-shoot' methods for doping control for human and equine sports. While the detection of polar drugs in plasma and urine is difficult using liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction as these substances are poorly extracted, the 'dilute-and-shoot' approach is plausible. This paper describes a 'dilute-and-shoot' UHPLC-HRMS screening method to detect 46 polar drugs in equine urine and plasma, including some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, sympathomimetics, anti-epileptics, hemostatics, the new doping agent 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), as well as two threshold substances, namely dimethyl sulfoxide and theobromine. For plasma, the sample (200μL) was protein precipitated using trichloroacetic acid, and the resulting supernatant was diluted using Buffer A with an overall dilution factor of 3. For urine, the sample (20μL) was simply diluted 50-fold with Buffer A. The diluted plasma or urine sample was then analysed using a UHPLC-HRMS system in full-scan ESI mode. The assay was validated for qualitative identification purpose. This straightforward and reliable approach carried out in combination with other screening procedures has increased the efficiency of doping control analysis in the laboratory. Moreover, since the UHPLC-HRMS data were acquired in full-scan mode, the method could theoretically accommodate an unlimited number of existing and new doping agents, and would allow a retrospectively search for drugs that have not been targeted at the time of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  3. Online training in sports concussion for youth sports coaches.

    PubMed

    Glang, Ann; Koester, Michael C; Beaver, Sherry Vondy; Clay, Janet E; McLaughlin, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate ACTive: Athletic Concussion Training using Interactive Video Education, an interactive e-learning program designed to train community coaches of youth ages 10-18 in effective sports concussion prevention and management practices. Seventy-five youth sports coaches from across the country completed the study over the Internet. Results of a randomized control trial demonstrated significant differences between treatment and control participants on measures of (a) knowledge about sports concussion, management, and prevention; (b) attitudes about the importance of preventing sports concussion; and (c) intention and self-efficacy in sports concussion management and prevention. The results suggest that ACTive is an effective method of training youth sports coaches who are in an important position to reduce risks associated with sports concussion.

  4. Increasing girls' physical activity during a short-term organized youth sport basketball program: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guagliano, Justin M; Lonsdale, Chris; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; George, Emma S

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of coach education on basketball players' physical activity (PA) intensity during practices. Intervention effects on players' motivation were also investigated. Randomized controlled trial. This study took place over the course of a 5-day organized youth sport (OYS) basketball program in 2 sports centres in Greater Western Sydney, Australia (September, 2013). A convenience sample of 76 players and 8 coaches were recruited. Players were girls aged 9 to 12 years. Following the first 2 days of the basketball program, coaches allocated into the intervention condition attended 2 coach education sessions where strategies to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decrease inactivity were discussed. Each coach education session lasted approximately 2h. Compared to the control group, players in the intervention group spent a significantly higher proportion of practice time in MVPA (mean difference [MD]=14.6%; standard error [SE]=2.2%), vigorous PA (VPA; MD=12.6%; SE=1.9%), moderate PA (MD=2.0%; SE=0.5%) and a significantly lower proportion of practice time inactive (MD=-14.5%; SE=2.3%) from baseline to follow-up. There were no significant changes in motivation from baseline to follow-up in either group. Brief coach education sessions can increase MVPA and decrease inactivity without deleterious effects on players' motivation. Also, substantial increases in VPA were found, which is an important finding because VPA has been associated with health benefits, over and above benefits accrued from lower-intensity activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  6. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: the role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  7. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis and influence of W doping and oxygen nonstoichiometry on the phase transition of VO2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zhou, Jianhua; Cheng, Haoliang; Asaka, Toru; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Monoclinic VO2(M) in nanostructure is a prototype material for interpreting correlation effects in solids with fully reversible phase transition and for the advanced applications to smart devices. Here, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method for the controlled growth of single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods. Through tuning the hydrothermal temperature, duration of the hydrothermal time and W-doped level, single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods with controlled aspect ratio can be synthesized in large quantities, and the crucial parameter for the shape-controlled synthesis is the W-doped content. The dopant greatly promotes the preferential growth of (110) to form pure phase VO2(R) nanorods with high aspect ratio for the W-doped level = 2.0 at% sample. The shape-controlled process of VO2(M/R) nanorods upon W-doping are systematically studied. Moreover, the phase transition temperature (Tc) of VO2 depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry is investigated in detail. PMID:26373612

  9. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Controllable fabrication of Pt nanocatalyst supported on N-doped carbon containing nickel nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianguo; Dai, Tangming; Cao, Yuechao; Qu, Yuning; Li, Yao; Li, Juan; Zhao, Yongnan; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-08-15

    In this paper, platinum nanoparticles were deposited on a carbon carrier with the partly graphitized carbon and the highly dispersive carbon-coated nickel particles. An efficient electron transfer structure can be fabricated by controlling the contents of the deposited platinum. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy images of Pt 2 /Ni@C N-doped sample prove the electron transfer channel from Pt (1 1 1) crystal planes to graphite (1 0 0) or Ni (1 1 1) crystal planes due to these linked together crystal planes. The Pt 3 /Ni@C N-doped with low Pt contents cannot form the electron transfer structure and the Pt 1 /Ni@C N-doped with high Pt contents show an obvious aggregation of Pt nanoparticles. The electrochemical tests of all the catalysts show that the Pt 2 /Ni@C N-doped sample presents the highest catalytic activity, the strongest CO tolerance and the best catalytic stability. The high performance is attributed to the efficient electronic transport structure of the Pt 2 /Ni@C N-doped sample and the synergistic effect between Pt and Ni nanoparticles. This paper provides a promising method for enhancing the conductivity of electrode material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. Objective The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. Methods This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third ‘rest’ condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. Results The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. Conclusions This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872. PMID:25302057

  12. Psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes.

    PubMed

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf; Pope, Harrison G; Cléret, Léa; Petróczi, Andrea; Nepusz, Tamás; Schaffer, Jay; Kanayama, Gen; Comstock, R Dawn; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown. We surveyed 2167 athletes at two sporting events: the 13th International Association of Athletics Federations Word Championships in Athletics (WCA) in Daegu, South Korea in August 2011 and the 12th Quadrennial Pan-Arab Games (PAG) in Doha, Qatar in December 2011. To estimate the prevalence of doping, we utilized a "randomized response technique," which guarantees anonymity for individuals when answering a sensitive question. We also administered a control question at PAG assessing past-year use of supplements. The estimated prevalence of past-year doping was 43.6% (95% confidence interval 39.4-47.9) at WCA and 57.1% (52.4-61.8) at PAG. The estimated prevalence of past-year supplement use at PAG was 70.1% (65.6-74.7%). Sensitivity analyses, assessing the robustness of these estimates under numerous hypothetical scenarios of intentional or unintentional noncompliance by respondents, suggested that we were unlikely to have overestimated the true prevalence of doping. Doping appears remarkably widespread among elite athletes, and remains largely unchecked despite current biological testing. The survey technique presented here will allow future investigators to generate continued reference estimates of the prevalence of doping.

  14. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Return to Sports After Arthroscopic Debridement and Microfracture of Osteochondral Talar Defects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Reilingh, Mikel L; van Bergen, Christiaan J A; Gerards, Rogier M; van Eekeren, Inge C; de Haan, Rob J; Sierevelt, Inger N; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Krips, Rover; Meuffels, Duncan E; van Dijk, C N; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the talus usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracture. Various possibilities have been suggested to improve the recovery process after debridement and microfracture. A potential solution to obtain this goal is the application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), which stimulate the repair process of bone and cartilage. The use of PEMFs after arthroscopic debridement and microfracture of an OCD of the talus leads to earlier resumption of sports and an increased number of patients that resume sports. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 68 patients were randomized to receive either PEMFs (n = 36) or placebo (n = 32) after arthroscopic treatment of an OCD of the talus. The primary outcomes (ie, the number of patients who resumed sports and time to resumption of sports) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, and log-rank tests. Secondary functional outcomes were assessed with questionnaires (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, EuroQol, and numeric rating scales for pain and satisfaction) at multiple time points up to 1-year follow-up. To assess bone repair, computed tomography scans were obtained at 2 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Almost all outcome measures improved significantly in both groups. The percentage of sport resumption (PEMF, 79%; placebo, 80%; P = .95) and median time to sport resumption (PEMF, 17 weeks; placebo, 16 weeks; P = .69) did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Likewise, there were no significant between-group differences with regard to the secondary functional outcomes and the computed tomography results. PEMF does not lead to a higher percentage of patients who resume sports or to earlier resumption of sports after arthroscopic debridement and microfracture of talar OCDs. Furthermore, no

  15. Morphology controls the thermoelectric power factor of a doped semiconducting polymer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shrayesh N.; Glaudell, Anne M.; Peterson, Kelly A.; Thomas, Elayne M.; O’Hara, Kathryn A.; Lim, Eunhee; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The electrical performance of doped semiconducting polymers is strongly governed by processing methods and underlying thin-film microstructure. We report on the influence of different doping methods (solution versus vapor) on the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of PBTTT molecularly p-doped with FnTCNQ (n = 2 or 4). The vapor-doped films have more than two orders of magnitude higher electronic conductivity (σ) relative to solution-doped films. On the basis of resonant soft x-ray scattering, vapor-doped samples are shown to have a large orientational correlation length (OCL) (that is, length scale of aligned backbones) that correlates to a high apparent charge carrier mobility (μ). The Seebeck coefficient (α) is largely independent of OCL. This reveals that, unlike σ, leveraging strategies to improve μ have a smaller impact on α. Our best-performing sample with the largest OCL, vapor-doped PBTTT:F4TCNQ thin film, has a σ of 670 S/cm and an α of 42 μV/K, which translates to a large PF of 120 μW m−1 K−2. In addition, despite the unfavorable offset for charge transfer, doping by F2TCNQ also leads to a large PF of 70 μW m−1 K−2, which reveals the potential utility of weak molecular dopants. Overall, our work introduces important general processing guidelines for the continued development of doped semiconducting polymers for thermoelectrics. PMID:28630931

  16. Doped Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lüssem, Björn; Keum, Chang-Min; Kasemann, Daniel; Naab, Ben; Bao, Zhenan; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-23

    Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors. It presents the most successful doping models and an overview of the wide variety of materials used as dopants. Further, the influence of doping on charge transport in the most relevant polycrystalline organic semiconductors is reviewed, and a concise overview on the influence of doping on transistor behavior and performance is given. In particular, recent progress in the understanding of contact doping and channel doping is summarized.

  17. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  18. Understanding and control of bipolar self-doping in copper nitride

    SciT

    Fioretti, Angela N., E-mail: afiorett@mines.edu, E-mail: riy.zakutayev@nrel.gov; Tamboli, Adele C.; Caskey, Christopher M.

    2016-05-14

    Semiconductor materials that can be doped both n-type and p-type are desirable for diode-based applications and transistor technology. Copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N) is a metastable semiconductor with a solar-relevant bandgap that has been reported to exhibit bipolar doping behavior. However, deeper understanding and better control of the mechanism behind this behavior in Cu{sub 3}N is currently lacking in the literature. In this work, we use combinatorial growth with a temperature gradient to demonstrate both conduction types of phase-pure, sputter-deposited Cu{sub 3}N thin films. Room temperature Hall effect and Seebeck effect measurements show n-type Cu{sub 3}N with 10{sup 17} electrons/cm{sup 3}more » for low growth temperature (≈35 °C) and p-type with 10{sup 15} holes/cm{sup 3}–10{sup 16} holes/cm{sup 3} for elevated growth temperatures (50 °C–120 °C). Mobility for both types of Cu{sub 3}N was ≈0.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs–1 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Additionally, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate that ionized defects are an important scattering mechanism in p-type films. By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles defect theory, we determined that V{sub Cu} defects form preferentially in p-type Cu{sub 3}N, while Cu{sub i} defects form preferentially in n-type Cu{sub 3}N, suggesting that Cu{sub 3}N is a compensated semiconductor with conductivity type resulting from a balance between donor and acceptor defects. Based on these theoretical and experimental results, we propose a kinetic defect formation mechanism for bipolar doping in Cu{sub 3}N that is also supported by positron annihilation experiments. Overall, the results of this work highlight the importance of kinetic processes in the defect physics of metastable materials and provide a framework that can be applied when considering the properties of such materials in general.« less

  19. Daily Physical Activities and Sports in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Controls: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rueegg, Corina S.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Rebholz, Cornelia E.; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976–2003 at age 0–15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5years and reached adulthood (≥20years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (p<0.001). In contrast, 62% (n = 640) of survivors and 65% (n = 3635) of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2–2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3–1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1–1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5–2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1–1.6), older age (OR for ≥35years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1–1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3–1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2–1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2–2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5–2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4–1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7–3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5–2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Conclusions/Significance Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but

  20. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  1. Logo detection and classification in a sport video: video indexing for sponsorship revenue control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovar, Bohumil; Hanjalic, Alan

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detecting and classifying a trademark logo in frames of a sport video. In view of the fact that we attempt to detect and recognize a logo in a natural scene, the algorithm developed in this paper differs from traditional techniques for logo detection and classification that are applicable either to well-structured general text documents (e.g. invoices, memos, bank cheques) or to specialized trademark logo databases, where logos appear isolated on a clear background and where their detection and classification is not disturbed by the surrounding visual detail. Although the development of our algorithm is still in its starting phase, experimental results performed so far on a set of soccer TV broadcasts are very encouraging.

  2. Participation in leanness sports but not training volume is associated with menstrual dysfunction: a national survey of 1276 elite athletes and controls

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the total population of Norwegian elite female athletes and national representative controls in the same age group. Methods: A detailed questionnaire that included questions on training and/or physical activity patterns, menstrual, dietary, and weight history, oral contraceptive use, and eating disorder inventory subtests was administered to all elite female athletes representing the country at the junior or senior level (aged 13–39 years, n = 938) and national representative controls in the same age group (n = 900). After exclusion, a total of 669 athletes (88.3%) and 607 controls (70.2%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. Results: Age at menarche was significantly (p<0.001) later in athletes (13.4 (1.4) years) than in controls (13.0 (1.3) years), and differed among sport groups. A higher percentage of athletes (7.3%) than controls (2.0%) reported a history of primary amenorrhoea (p<0.001). A similar percentage of athletes (16.5%) and controls (15.2%) reported present menstrual dysfunction, but a higher percentage of athletes competing in leanness sports reported present menstrual dysfunction (24.8%) than athletes competing in non-leanness sports (13.1%) (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: These novel data include virtually all eligible elite athletes, and thus substantially extend previous studies. Age at menarche occurred later and the prevalence of primary amenorrhoea was higher in elite athletes than in controls. A higher percentage of athletes competing in sports that emphasise thinness and/or a specific weight reported present menstrual dysfunction than athletes competing in sports focusing less on such factors and controls. On the basis of a comparison with a previous study, the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction was lower in 2003 than in 1993. PMID:15728691

  3. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    PubMed

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  4. Sport Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  5. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  6. The influence of participation in target-shooting sport for children with inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive symptoms - A controlled study of best practice.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2017-03-28

    Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for

  7. Implicit versus explicit attitude to doping: Which better predicts athletes' vigilance towards unintentional doping?

    PubMed

    Chan, Derwin King Chung; Keatley, David A; Tang, Tracy C W; Dimmock, James A; Hagger, Martin S

    2018-03-01

    This preliminary study examined whether implicit doping attitude, explicit doping attitude, or both, predicted athletes' vigilance towards unintentional doping. A cross-sectional correlational design. Australian athletes (N=143;M age =18.13, SD=4.63) completed measures of implicit doping attitude (brief single-category implicit association test), explicit doping attitude (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale), avoidance of unintentional doping (Self-Reported Treatment Adherence Scale), and behavioural vigilance task of unintentional doping (reading the ingredients of an unfamiliar food product). Positive implicit doping attitude and explicit doping attitude were negatively related to athletes' likelihood of reading the ingredients table of an unfamiliar food product, and positively related to athletes' vigilance towards unintentional doping. Neither attitude measures predicted avoidance of unintentional doping. Overall, the magnitude of associations by implicit doping attitude appeared to be stronger than that of explicit doping attitude. Athletes with positive implicit and explicit doping attitudes were less likely to read the ingredients table of an unknown food product, but were more likely to be aware of the possible presence of banned substances in a certain food product. Implicit doping attitude appeared to explain athletes' behavioural response to the avoidance of unintentional doping beyond variance explained by explicit doping attitude. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass spectrometric characterization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizer drug candidate BAY 85-3934 (molidustat) and its glucuronidated metabolite BAY-348, and their implementation into routine doping controls.

    PubMed

    Dib, Josef; Mongongu, Cynthia; Buisson, Corinne; Molina, Adeline; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thuss, Uwe; Thevis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The development of new therapeutics potentially exhibiting performance-enhancing properties implicates the risk of their misuse by athletes in amateur and elite sports. Such drugs necessitate preventive anti-doping research for consideration in sports drug testing programmes. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers represent an emerging class of therapeutics that allows for increasing erythropoiesis in patients. BAY 85-3934 is a novel HIF stabilizer, which is currently undergoing phase-2 clinical trials. Consequently, the comprehensive characterization of BAY 85-3934 and human urinary metabolites as well as the implementation of these analytes into routine doping controls is of great importance. The mass spectrometric behaviour of the HIF stabilizer drug candidate BAY 85-3934 and a glucuronidated metabolite (BAY-348) were characterized by electrospray ionization-(tandem) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(/MS)) and multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS n ). Subsequently, two different laboratories established different analytical approaches (one each) enabling urine sample analyses by employing either direct urine injection or solid-phase extraction. The methods were cross-validated for the metabolite BAY-348 that is expected to represent an appropriate target analyte for human urine analysis. Two test methods allowing for the detection of BAY-348 in human urine were applied and cross-validated concerning the validation parameters specificity, linearity, lower limit of detection (LLOD; 1-5 ng/mL), ion suppression/enhancement (up to 78%), intra- and inter-day precision (3-21%), recovery (29-48%), and carryover. By means of ten spiked test urine samples sent blinded to one of the participating laboratories, the fitness-for-purpose of both assays was provided as all specimens were correctly identified applying both testing methods. As no post-administration study samples were available, analyses of authentic urine specimens remain desirable. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  9. Localized Charges Control Exciton Energetics and Energy Dissipation in Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Klaus H; Hartleb, Holger; Achsnich, Melanie M; Schöppler, Friedrich; Hertel, Tobias

    2017-10-24

    Doping by chemical or physical means is key for the development of future semiconductor technologies. Ideally, charge carriers should be able to move freely in a homogeneous environment. Here, we report on evidence suggesting that excess carriers in electrochemically p-doped semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) become localized, most likely due to poorly screened Coulomb interactions with counterions in the Helmholtz layer. A quantitative analysis of blue-shift, broadening, and asymmetry of the first exciton absorption band also reveals that doping leads to hard segmentation of s-SWNTs with intrinsic undoped segments being separated by randomly distributed charge puddles approximately 4 nm in width. Light absorption in these doped segments is associated with the formation of trions, spatially separated from neutral excitons. Acceleration of exciton decay in doped samples is governed by diffusive exciton transport to, and nonradiative decay at charge puddles within 3.2 ps in moderately doped s-SWNTs. The results suggest that conventional band-filling in s-SWNTs breaks down due to inhomogeneous electrochemical doping.

  10. Gene doping: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H; Christenson, Robert H

    2009-04-01

    Gene doping is the newest threat to the spirit of fair play in sports. Its concept stemmed out from legitimate gene therapy trials, but anti-doping authorities fear that they now may be facing a form of doping that is virtually undetectable and extremely appealing to athletes. This paper presents studies that generated mouse models with outstanding physical performance, by manipulating genes such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), which are likely to be targeted for gene doping. The potential transition from super mice to super athletes will also be discussed, in addition to possible strategies for detection of gene doping.

  11. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; LI, J.; Menguy, N.; Arrio, M. A.; Sainctavit, P.; Juhin, A.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Bunau, O.; Otero, E.; Ohresser, P.

    2016-12-01

    Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses Jinhua Li1,2*, Nicolas Menguy2,3, Marie-Anne Arrio3, Philippe Sainctavit3,4, Amélie Juhin3, Yinzhao Wang1,2, Haitao Chen5, Oana Bunau3, Edwige Otero4, Philippe Ohresser4, Yongxin Pan1,21Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 2France-China Biomineralization and Nano-structures Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 3IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UPMC, IRD UMR 206, 75005 Paris, France. 4Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. 5Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China *To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: lijinhua@mail.iggcas.ac.cnThe biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. However, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remains largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe2+ ions by Co2+ ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study this study indicates a biologically controlled process on cobalt doping and magnetic alteration by MTB system

  12. Current Status of Doping in Japan Based on Japan Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panels of the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA): A Suggestion on Anti-Doping Activities by Pharmacists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Takashi; Kawabata, Takayoshi; Takayama, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014. Many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1 (anabolic agents), S5 (diuretics and masking agents), and S6 (stimulants). Within class S1, supplements were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S5, medicines prescribed by medical doctors were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S6, non-prescription medicines (e.g., OTC) were the main cause of positive doping. When we looked at the global statistics on doping, many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1. On comparing the Japanese statistics with the global statistics, the rate of positive doping caused by class S1 was significantly lower, but that caused by classes S5 and S6 was significantly higher in Japan than in the world. In conclusion, pharmacists in Japan should pay attention to class S1, S5, and S6 prohibited substances and to the sport events of bodybuilding. Based on this study, sports pharmacists as well as common pharmacists should suggest new anti-doping activities to prevent doping in the future.

  13. Evaluation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Concussion Initiative for High School Coaches: "Heads up: Concussion in High School Sports"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Mitchko, Jane; Klein, Cynthia; Wong, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce the number of sports-related concussions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the support of partners and experts in the field, has developed a tool kit for high school coaches with practical, easy-to-use concussion-related information. This study explores the success of the tool kit in changing…

  14. Harmonization of anti-doping rules in a global context (World Anti-Doping Agency-laboratory accreditation perspective).

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Victoria; Miller, John H M; Rabin, Olivier; Squirrell, Alan; Westwood, Steven

    2012-07-01

    This article provides a review of the leading role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the context of the global fight against doping in sport and the harmonization of anti-doping rules worldwide through the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Program. Particular emphasis is given to the WADA-laboratory accreditation program, which is coordinated by the Science Department of WADA in conjunction with the Laboratory Expert Group, and the cooperation with the international accreditation community through International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and other organizations, all of which contribute to constant improvement of laboratory performance in the global fight against doping in sport. A perspective is provided of the means to refine the existing anti-doping rules and programs to ensure continuous improvement in order to face growing sophisticated challenges. A viewpoint on WADA's desire to embrace cooperation with other international organizations whose knowledge can contribute to the fight against doping in sport is acknowledged.

  15. Controlled ecological evaluation of an implemented exercise training programme to prevent lower limb injuries in sport: differences in implementation activity.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David G; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-04-24

    The public health benefits of injury prevention programmes are maximised when programmes are widely adopted and adhered to. Therefore, these programmes require appropriate implementation support. This study evaluated implementation activity outcomes associated with the implementation of FootyFirst, an exercise training injury prevention programme for community Australian football, both with (FootyFirst+S) and without (FootyFirst+NS) implementation support. An evaluation plan based on the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) Sports Setting Matrix was applied in a controlled ecological evaluation of the implementation of FootyFirst. RE-AIM dimension-specific (range: 0-2) and total RE-AIM scores (range: 0-10) were derived by triangulating data from a number of sources (including surveys, interviews, direct observations and notes) describing FootyFirst implementation activities. The mean dimension-specific and total scores were compared for clubs in regions receiving FootyFirst+S and FootyFirst+NS, through analysis of variance. The mean total RE-AIM score forclubs in the FootyFirst+S regions was 2.4 times higher than for clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region (4.73 vs 1.94; 95% CI for the difference: 1.64 to 3.74). Similarly, all dimension-specific scores were significantly higher for clubs in the FootyFirst+S regions compared with clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region. In all regions, the dimension-specific scores were highest for reach and adoption, and lowest for implementation. Implementing exercise training injury prevention programmes in community sport is challenging. Delivering programme content supported by a context-specific and evidence-informed implementation plan leads to greater implementation activity, which is an important precursor to injury reductions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  16. Control of the π plasmon in a single layer graphene by charge doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S. Y.; Kim, N. D.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, K. S.; Noh, D. Y.; Kim, Kwang S.; Chung, J. W.

    2011-08-01

    We report that the behavior of a low-energy π plasmon excitation in a single layer graphene (SLG) can be modified by doping external potassium (K) atoms, a feature demanded to realize the graphene plasmonics. Using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, we find that upon K-doping the π plasmon energy increases by 1.1 eV due to the K-induced electron density up to n = 7 × 1013 cm-2 in SLG. The four modified dispersions for different K-dopings, however, are found to merge into a single universal curve when plotted in the dimensionless coordinates indicating that the unique plasmonic character of SLG is preserved despite the K-dopings.

  17. Doping and band gap control at poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia; Wang, Jian-Lu; Gao, Heng; Tian, Bobo; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Jun-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Using the density-functional first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF/graphene composite systems. The n- and p-doping of graphene can be flexibly switched by reversing the ferroelectric polarization of PVDF, without scarifying the intrinsic π-electron band dispersions of graphene that are usually undermined by chemical doping. The doping degree is also dependent on the thickness of PVDF layers, which will get saturated when PVDF is thick enough. In PVDF/bilayer graphene (BLG) heterostructure, the doping degree directly determines the local energy gap of the charged BLG. The sandwich structure of PVDF/BLG/PVDF can further enhance the local energy gap as well as keep the electric neutrality of BLG, which will be of great application potentials in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  18. Can percolation control doping, diffusion and phase segregation in (Hg,Cd)Te?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahen, David; Melamed, Ofer; Lubomirski, Igor

    1999-02-01

    We show that percolation can control not only diffusion in solids, but in the case of semiconductors also their electrical activity, via the doping action of the diffusing species. This occurs in (Hg 1- xCd x)Te (MCT) when xCd<0.8. The 10 7 times higher diffusivity at xCd<0.8 can be understood by realizing that the percolation threshold for an ideal FCC lattice is at 0.19. While normally Ag is a donor, it can be an acceptor by stabilizing the Hg(I) state. This is possible by interaction with 2 Hg neighbors, a process that will be favorable above the Hg percolation limit. The fast Ag diffusion also holds the clue for the occurrence of ultra-low concentration phase separation in this system, the result of a balance between elastic attraction and Coulombic repulsion between the charged dopants. Prima facie evidence for this phase separation comes from coulometric Ag titration in and out of MCT.

  19. Doping in controlling the type of conductivity in bulk and nanostructured thermoelectric materials

    SciT

    Fuks, D.; Komisarchik, G.; Kaller, M.

    2016-08-15

    Doping of materials for thermoelectric applications is widely used nowadays to control the type of conductivity. We report the results of ab-initio calculations aimed at developing the consistent scheme for determining the role of impurities that may change the type of conductivity in two attractive thermoelectric classes of materials. It is demonstrated that alloying of TiNiSn with Cu makes the material of n-type, and alloying with Fe leads to p-type conductivity. Similar calculations for PbTe with small amount of Na substituting for Pb leads to p-type conductivity, while Cl substituting for Te makes PbTe an n-type material. It is shownmore » also that for nano-grained materials the n-type conductivity should be observed. The effect of impurities segregating to the grain boundaries in nano-structured PbTe is also discussed. - Highlights: • Bulk and nano-grained TE materials were analyzed by DFT. • The electronic effects on both PbTe and TiNiSn were demonstrated. • The role of impurities on the conductivity type was analyzed. • Interfacial states in nano-grained PbTe affect the conductivity type.« less

  20. Drug policy in sport: hidden assumptions and inherent contradictions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the assumptions underpinning the current drugs-in-sport policy arrangements. We examine the assumptions and contradictions inherent in the policy approach, paying particular attention to the evidence that supports different policy arrangements. We find that the current anti-doping policy of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) contains inconsistencies and ambiguities. WADA's policy position is predicated upon four fundamental principles; first, the need for sport to set a good example; secondly, the necessity of ensuring a level playing field; thirdly, the responsibility to protect the health of athletes; and fourthly, the importance of preserving the integrity of sport. A review of the evidence, however, suggests that sport is a problematic institution when it comes to setting a good example for the rest of society. Neither is it clear that sport has an inherent or essential integrity that can only be sustained through regulation. Furthermore, it is doubtful that WADA's anti-doping policy is effective in maintaining a level playing field, or is the best means of protecting the health of athletes. The WADA anti-doping policy is based too heavily on principals of minimising drug use, and gives insufficient weight to the minimisation of drug-related harms. As a result drug-related harms are being poorly managed in sport. We argue that anti-doping policy in sport would benefit from placing greater emphasis on a harm minimisation model.

  1. Drugs in sport.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A

    2008-06-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.

  2. Addict to win? A different approach to doping.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carlos; Tamburrini, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    Traditionally the doping debate has been dominated by those who want to see doping forbidden (the prohibitionist view) and those who want to see it permitted (the ban abolitionist view). In this article, the authors analyse a third position starting from the assertion that doping use is a symptom of the paradigm of highly competitive elite sports, in the same way as addictions reflect current social paradigms in wider society. Based upon a conceptual distinction between occasional use, habitual use and addiction, and focusing on the physical and/or mental dependency caused by the addictive use of a certain drug, we argue that marihuana, stimulants and anabolic steroid abuse--the most frequently detected substances in doping tests--satisfies at least one, often both, of these conditions. A conclusion to be drawn from the authors' arguments is that the prohibitionist view is inappropriate for dealing with doping, as the severe sanctions attached to it will cut the doper off her/his social and professional environment, thereby risking reinforcing her/his addictive conduct. But the ban abolitionist view seems inappropriate as well. At first sight, it seems neither rational nor humane not to intervene when confronted with conduct which is highly harmful for the individual and upon which she has reduced or no control whatsoever. Instead the authors' proposal will be to contextualise dopers' conduct within sport healthcare and see it strictly in relation to each athlete's personal background. Developing preventive programmes--implemented through person-tailored counselling and eventually treatment, rather than severe sanctions or the mere lifting of the ban--seems to be a more reasonable, and probably more efficient, way of conducting 'the war against doping'.

  3. Modification of graphene electronic properties via controllable gas-phase doping with copper chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Maxim G.; Islamova, Vera R.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Obraztsova, Elena D.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an efficient, non-destructive, and simple method for changing the electronic structure of materials. Here, we present a simple air ambient vapor deposition method for functionalization of pristine graphene with a strong electron acceptor: copper chloride. The doped graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR optical absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electro-physical measurements performed using the 4-probe method. The effect of charge transfer from graphene to a dopant results in shifting the Fermi level in doped graphene. The change of the electronic structure of doped graphene was confirmed by the tangential Raman peak (G-peak) shift and by the appearance of the gap in the UV-vis-NIR spectrum after doping. Moreover, the charge transfer resulted in a substantial decrease in electrical sheet resistance depending on the doping level. At the highest concentration of copper chloride, a Fermi level shift into the valence band up to 0.64 eV and a decrease in the sheet resistance value by 2.36 times were observed (from 888 Ω/sq to 376 Ω/sq for a single graphene layer with 97% of transparency).

  4. Controlling the Photocorrosion of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles in Water by Doping with Chloride and Cobalt Ions.

    PubMed

    Weide, Philipp; Schulz, Katharina; Kaluza, Stefan; Rohe, Markus; Beranek, Radim; Muhler, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Photodegradation under UV light irradiation is a major drawback in photocatalytic applications of sulfide semiconductors. ZnS nanoparticles were doped with very low amounts of chloride or cobalt ions in the ppm range and codoped with chloride and cobalt ions during their synthesis by precipitation in aqueous solution followed by calcination. The high-temperature wurtzite phase annealed at 800 °C had a high susceptibility to UV irradiation in water, while the low-temperature zincblende phase annealed at 400 °C was found to be stable. Chlorine doping increased the rate of photocorrosion in water, whereas cobalt doping led to a stabilization of the ZnS nanoparticles. Based on photochemical and spectroscopic investigations applying UV/vis, X-ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, the increased susceptibility of Cl-doped ZnS is ascribed to a higher number of surface point defects, whereas the stabilization by Co 2+ is caused by additional recombination pathways for the charge carriers in the bulk, thus avoiding photocorrosion processes at the surface. Additional doping of Cl-doped ZnS with cobalt ions was found to counteract the detrimental effect of the chloride ions efficiently.

  5. Dynamic control of mode field diameter and effective area by germanium doping of hexagonal photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Kazuya; Namihira, Yoshinori; Kasamatsu, Yuho; Hossain, Md. Anwar

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate dynamic control of the effective area ( A eff) of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in the range of 18.1-8.22 μm2 and the mode field diameter in the range of 4.78-3.42 μm. This control was realized by altering their structural properties and varying the germanium (Ge) doping rate, which changed the refractive index difference (Δ n Ge) between 1.0 and 3.0% relative to the refractive index of the silica cladding. This was achieved by adjusting the Ge doping rate in the core and changing the radius ( d core) of the doped region, i.e., by changing the equivalent refractive index, using numerical calculations. Numerical results were verified by comparison with experimental results for a fabricated Gedoped PCF obtained by far-field scanning based on the ITU-T Petermann II definition. The proposed approach will simultaneously decrease Aeff and achieves high light confinement and high nonlinearity in PCFs. It enables architectonics/controllability of highly nonlinear PCFs with passive optical devices in photonic networks and life science applications.

  6. Controlled synthesis of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    SciT

    Horoz, Sabit; Poudyal, Uma; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-04-15

    Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic) structure. Both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu{sup 2+} doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu{sup 2+} intra-ion transition of 4f{sup 6}d{sup 1} – 4f{sup 7}, while the Eu{sup 3+} doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu{sup 3+} doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu{supmore » 2+} doped samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.« less

  7. PCR-based detection of gene transfer vectors: application to gene doping surveillance.

    PubMed

    Perez, Irene C; Le Guiner, Caroline; Ni, Weiyi; Lyles, Jennifer; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O

    2013-12-01

    Athletes who illicitly use drugs to enhance their athletic performance are at risk of being banned from sports competitions. Consequently, some athletes may seek new doping methods that they expect to be capable of circumventing detection. With advances in gene transfer vector design and therapeutic gene transfer, and demonstrations of safety and therapeutic benefit in humans, there is an increased probability of the pursuit of gene doping by athletes. In anticipation of the potential for gene doping, assays have been established to directly detect complementary DNA of genes that are top candidates for use in doping, as well as vector control elements. The development of molecular assays that are capable of exposing gene doping in sports can serve as a deterrent and may also identify athletes who have illicitly used gene transfer for performance enhancement. PCR-based methods to detect foreign DNA with high reliability, sensitivity, and specificity include TaqMan real-time PCR, nested PCR, and internal threshold control PCR.

  8. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT < 2.0%); linearity (R > 0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  9. [Sports purpura].

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  11. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention to support the implementation of policies and practices that promote healthier environments at junior sports clubs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Sharin; Sherker, Shauna; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Dray, Julia; Zukowski, Nadya; Gonzalez, Sharleen; Kingsland, Melanie; Ooi, Jia Ying; Murphy, Allan; Brooke, Daisy; Wiggers, John

    2018-01-01

    Introduction A large proportion of children and adolescents participate in organised sport, making community sports clubs a promising setting to support healthy behaviours. To date, however, there have been few interventions conducted in junior sports clubs that have targeted health-promoting practices. The primary aim of this pilot study is to assess the potential effectiveness of an intervention to implement health-promoting policies and practices in junior sporting clubs targeting alcohol and tobacco practices, healthy food and beverage availability, and physical activity via participation in sport. A secondary outcome is to assess the impact of such strategies on child exposure to alcohol and tobacco use at the club, purchasing behaviours by/for children at the club canteen and child sports participation opportunities. Methods and analysis The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design and be conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of two Australian states. Randomisation will occur at the level of the football league. Community football clubs with over 40 junior players (players under 18 years) within each league will be eligible to participate. The intervention will be developed based on frameworks that consider the social, cultural and environmental factors that influence health behaviours. Intervention clubs will be supported to implement 16 practices targeting alcohol management, tobacco use, nutrition practices, new player recruitment activity, equal participation for players and the development of policies to support these practices. Trained research staff will collect outcome data via telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up. Interviews will be conducted with both club representatives and parents of junior players. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (H-2013-0429). The results of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and

  12. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention to support the implementation of policies and practices that promote healthier environments at junior sports clubs: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Milner, Sharin; Sherker, Shauna; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Dray, Julia; Zukowski, Nadya; Gonzalez, Sharleen; Kingsland, Melanie; Ooi, Jia Ying; Murphy, Allan; Brooke, Daisy; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-01-23

    A large proportion of children and adolescents participate in organised sport, making community sports clubs a promising setting to support healthy behaviours. To date, however, there have been few interventions conducted in junior sports clubs that have targeted health-promoting practices. The primary aim of this pilot study is to assess the potential effectiveness of an intervention to implement health-promoting policies and practices in junior sporting clubs targeting alcohol and tobacco practices, healthy food and beverage availability, and physical activity via participation in sport. A secondary outcome is to assess the impact of such strategies on child exposure to alcohol and tobacco use at the club, purchasing behaviours by/for children at the club canteen and child sports participation opportunities. The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design and be conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of two Australian states. Randomisation will occur at the level of the football league. Community football clubs with over 40 junior players (players under 18 years) within each league will be eligible to participate. The intervention will be developed based on frameworks that consider the social, cultural and environmental factors that influence health behaviours. Intervention clubs will be supported to implement 16 practices targeting alcohol management, tobacco use, nutrition practices, new player recruitment activity, equal participation for players and the development of policies to support these practices. Trained research staff will collect outcome data via telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up. Interviews will be conducted with both club representatives and parents of junior players. The study has been approved by the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (H-2013-0429). The results of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at conferences. ACTRN12617001044314; Pre

  13. Doping control analysis of seven bioactive peptides in horse plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Ho, Emmie N M; Lau, Ming Yip; Leung, Gary N W; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing focus for both human and equine doping control laboratories on developing detection methods to control the misuse of peptide therapeutics. Immunoaffinity purification is a common extraction method to isolate peptides from biological matrices and obtain sufficient detectability in subsequent instrumental analysis. However, monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for immunoaffinity purification may not be commercially available, and even if available, such antibodies are usually very costly. In our study, a simple mixed-mode anion exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge was employed for the extraction of seven target peptides (GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, ipamorelin, hexarelin, CJC-1295, and N-acetylated LKKTETQ (active ingredient of TB-500)) and their in vitro metabolites from horse plasma. The final extract was subject to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and analysed with a hybrid high-resolution mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for all seven peptides were estimated to be less than 50 pg/mL. Method validation was performed with respect to specificity, precision, and recovery. The applicability of this multi-analyte method was demonstrated by the detection of N-acetylated LKKTETQ and its metabolite N-acetylated LK from plasma samples obtained after subcutaneous administration of TB-500 (10 mg N-acetylated LKKTETQ) to two thoroughbred geldings. This method could easily be modified to cover more bioactive peptides, such as dermorphin, β-casomorphin, and desmopressin. With the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry, the full-scan data acquired can also be re-processed retrospectively to search for peptides and their metabolites that have not been targeted at the time of analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of in vitro metabolites of all the studied peptides other than TB-500 in horses.

  14. Three-dimensional endothelial cell morphogenesis under controlled ion release from copper-doped phosphate glass.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Christoph; James-Bhasin, Mark; Nazhat, Showan N

    2015-02-28

    Copper ions represent a promising angiogenic agent but are associated with cytotoxicity at elevated concentrations. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) exhibit adjustable dissolution properties and allow for controlled ion release. This study examined the formation of capillary-like networks by SVEC4-10 endothelial cells (ECs) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen hydrogel matrix mixed with PG particles of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0 and 10 mol%). Copper and total phosphorus release decreased over time and was more sustained in the case of 10% CuO PG. Moreover, increasing the concentration of 10% CuO PG in collagen substantially delayed dissolution along with preferential release of copper. A 3D morphometric characterization method based on confocal laser scanning microscopy image stacks was developed in order to quantify EC network length, connectivity and branching. Network length was initially reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion by 10% CuO PG and, to a lesser extent, by 0% CuO PG, but reached values identical to the non-PG control by day 5 in culture. This reduction was attributed to a PG-mediated decrease in cell metabolic activity while cell proliferation as well as network connectivity and branching were independent of PG content. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -2 was up-regulated by PGs, indicating that MMPs did not play a critical role in network growth. The relationship between ion release and EC morphogenesis in 3D provided in this study is expected to contribute to an ultimately successful pro-angiogenic application of CuO-doped PGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oriented Attachment Is a Major Control Mechanism To Form Nail-like Mn-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Samuel; Arora, Priyanka; Price, Paige; Dittmar, Jasper W; Das, Vijay Kumar; Pink, Maren; Stein, Barry; Morgan, David Gene; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2017-12-26

    Here, we present a controlled synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with predominantly nail-like shapes, whose formation occurs via tip-to-base-oriented attachment of initially formed nanopyramids, followed by leveling of sharp edges that lead to smooth single-crystalline "nails". This shape is prevalent in noncoordinating solvents such as octadecene and octadecane. Yet, the double bond in the former promotes oriented attachment. By contrast, Mn-doped ZnO NP synthesis in a weakly coordinating solvent, benzyl ether, results in dendritic structures because of random attachment of initial NPs. Mn-doped ZnO NPs possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and in the majority of cases, the NP surface is enriched with Mn, indicating a migration of Mn 2+ ions to the NP surface during the NP formation. When the NP formation is carried out without the addition of octadecyl alcohol, which serves as a surfactant and a reaction initiator, large, concave pyramid dimers are formed whose attachment takes place via basal planes. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of these NPs confirm the utility of controlling the NP shape to tune electro-optical properties.

  16. Control of the inversion-channel MOS properties by Mg doping in homoepitaxial p-GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Shinya; Ueno, Katsunori; Matsuyama, Hideaki; Inamoto, Takuro; Edo, Masaharu; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu

    2017-12-01

    Lateral GaN MOSFETs on homoepitaxial p-GaN layers with different Mg doping concentrations ([Mg]) have been evaluated to investigate the impact of [Mg] on MOS channel properties. It is demonstrated that the threshold voltage (V th) can be controlled by [Mg] along with the theoretical curve. The field effect mobility also shows [Mg] dependence and a maximum field effect mobility of 123 cm2 V-1 s-1 is achieved on [Mg] = 6.5 × 1016 cm-3 layer with V th = 3.0 V. The obtained results indicate that GaN MOSFETs can be designed on the basis of the doping concentration of the p-GaN layer with promising characteristics for the realization of power MOSFETs.

  17. Comparing exercise interventions to increase persistence with physical exercise and sporting activity among people with hypertension or high normal blood pressure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; de Lusignan, Simon; Wainwright, Joe; Sprake, Hannah; Laver, Suzannah; Heald, Victoria; Orton, Julian; Prescott, Matt; Carr, Helen; O'Neill, Mark

    2014-08-28

    Increasing physical activity is known to have health benefits for people with hypertension and related conditions. Current general practitioner referrals for gym-based exercise increase physical activity but meta-analyses show that while these are effective the absolute health risk reduction is small due to patients failing to maintain activity levels over time. This study assesses the effectiveness of two sports-oriented interventions that are intended to bridge the intention-behaviour gap and thus increase the likelihood of sustained increases in physical activity. Four-arm randomised controlled trial. The study tests two types of intervention that are intended to increase physical activity among currently inactive 18- to 74-year-old people with hypertension or high-normal blood pressure. This study will assess the effectiveness of a 12-week sports-oriented exercise programme, the efficacy of a web-delivered self-help tool to promote and support sports participation and healthy behaviour change and the effect of these interventions in combination. The control arm will be a standard care general practitioner referral for gym-based exercise. Participants will be allocated using block randomisation. The first author and primary analyst is blinded to participant allocation. The primary outcome measures will be time spent in physical activity assessed in metabolic equivalent minutes per week using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 1 year after commencement of the intervention. Secondary outcomes include increased involvement in sporting activity and biomedical health outcomes including change in body mass index, and waist and hip measurement and reductions in blood pressure. If proven to be superior to general practitioner referrals for gym-based exercise, these sports-oriented interventions would constitute low-cost alternatives. The next stage would be a full economic evaluation of the interventions. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71952900 (7 June

  18. Defects controlling electrical and optical properties of electrodeposited Bi doped Cu2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Iuri S.; Tumelero, Milton A.; Martins, Cesar A.; Plá Cid, Cristiani C.; Faccio, Ricardo; Pasa, André A.

    2018-04-01

    Doping leading to low electrical resistivity in electrodeposited thin films of Cu2O is a straightforward requirement for the construction of efficient electronic and energy devices. Here, Bi (7 at. %) doped Cu2O layers were deposited electrochemically onto Si(100) single-crystal substrates from aqueous solutions containing bismuth nitrate and cupric sulfate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that Bi ions in a Cu2O lattice have an oxidation valence of 3+ and glancing angle X-ray diffraction measurements indicated no presence of secondary phases. The reduction in the electrical resistivity from undoped to Bi-doped Cu2O is of 4 and 2 orders of magnitude for electrical measurements at 230 and 300 K, respectively. From variations in the lattice parameter and the refractive index, the electrical resistivity decrease is addressed to an increase in the density of Cu vacancies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations supported the experimental findings. The DFT results showed that in a 6% Bi doped Cu2O cell, the formation of Cu vacancies is more favorable than in an undoped Cu2O one. Moreover, from DFT data was observed that there is an increase (decrease) of the Cu2O band gap (activation energy) for 6% Bi doping, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  19. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Within the mosaic display of international anti-doping efforts, analytical strategies based on up-to-date instrumentation as well as most recent information about physiology, pharmacology, metabolism, etc., of prohibited substances and methods of doping are indispensable. The continuous emergence of new chemical entities and the identification of arguably beneficial effects of established or even obsolete drugs on endurance, strength, and regeneration, necessitate frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures. These largely rely on exploiting new technologies, extending the substance coverage of existing test protocols, and generating new insights into metabolism, distribution, and elimination of compounds prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In reference of the content of the 2014 Prohibited List, literature concerning human sports drug testing that was published between October 2013 and September 2014 is summarized and reviewed in this annual banned-substance review, with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    PubMed

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Sport-specific balance.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  3. TUNISIA: SPORTS AND EDUCATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    sports activities; physical education and games in the school curriculum; and teacher training for physical education....The report describes Tunisian government sports policies; attitudes toward and popularity of sports ; sports clubs and facilities; a summary of recent

  4. Back pain and sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Sport-specific biomechanical responses to an ACL injury prevention programme: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J

    2018-04-19

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention. Peak angles, excursions, and joint moments were analysed using two-way MANCOVAs of post-test scores while controlling for pre-test scores. During SAG-SL the basketball intervention group exhibited increased peak knee abduction angles (p = .004) and excursions (p = .003) compared to the basketball control group (p = .01) and soccer intervention group (p = .01). During FRONT-SL, the basketball intervention group exhibited greater knee flexion excursion after training than the control group (p = .01), but not the soccer intervention group (p = .11). Although women's soccer players exhibit greater improvements in knee abduction kinematics than basketball players, these athletes largely exhibit similar biomechanical adaptations to ACL injury prevention programmes.

  6. Real-time optimized biofeedback utilizing sport techniques (ROBUST): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Paterno, Mark V; Huang, Bin; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-02-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes lead to a variety of short- and long-term physical, financial, and psychosocial ramifications. While dedicated injury prevention training programs have shown promise, ACL injury rates remain high as implementation has not become widespread. Conventional prevention programs use a combination of resistance, plyometric, balance and agility training to improve high-risk biomechanics and reduce the risk of injury. While many of these programs focus on reducing knee abduction load and posture during dynamic activity, targeting hip extensor strength and utilization may be more efficacious, as it is theorized to be an underlying mechanism of injury in adolescent female athletes. Biofeedback training may complement traditional preventive training, but has not been widely studied in connection with ACL injuries. We hypothesize that biofeedback may be needed to maximize the effectiveness of neuromuscular prophylactic interventions, and that hip-focused biofeedback will improve lower extremity biomechanics to a larger extent than knee-focused biofeedback during dynamic sport-specific tasks and long-term movement strategies. This is an assessor-blind, randomized control trial of 150 adolescent competitive female (9-19 years) soccer players. Each participant receives 3x/week neuromuscular preventive training and 1x/week biofeedback, the mode depending on their randomization to one of 3 biofeedback groups (hip-focused, knee-focused, sham). The primary aim is to assess the impact of biofeedback training on knee abduction moments (the primary biomechanical predictor of future ACL injury) during double-leg landings, single-leg landings, and unplanned cutting. Testing will occur immediately before the training intervention, immediately after the training intervention, and 6 months after the training intervention to assess the long-term retention of modified biomechanics. Secondary aims will assess performance changes

  7. Control of antioxidant supplementation through interview is not appropriate in oxidative-stress sport studies: Analytical confirmation should be required.

    PubMed

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jeronimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casuso, Rafael A; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study. They denied taking any antioxidant supplementation at initial interview. After a HPLC analysis, abnormal α-tocopherol concentrations were detected, probably due to a hidden antioxidant supplementation. Participants were classified into two groups: no evidence of antioxidant supplementation (NS group = α-tocopherol values <80 nmol/mL; n = 75) and evidence of antioxidant supplementation (S group = α-tocopherol values >80 nmol/mL; n = 19). Lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nonenzymatic antioxidant content were analyzed according to this classification. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test. The α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in the S group than in the NS group (MD = 725.01 ± 39.01 nmol/mL; P = 0.001). The S group showed a trend toward lower hydroperoxides than the NS group (MD = 1.19 ± 0.72 nmol/mL; P = 0.071). The S group showed significantly lower catalase activity than the NS group (MD = 0.10 ± 0.02-seg-1 mg-1; P < 0.01). Skeletal muscle damage markers did not differ between experimental groups. Data from the present study reveal that 20% of participants lied in the exclusion criteria of antioxidant supplementation in a personal interview, as they showed high plasmatic α-tocopherol concentrations after HPLC verification. Catalase activity seems to be affected by high α-tocopherol plasma levels. Therefore, we strongly

  8. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Sports Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  10. Controlled synthesis of bright and compatible lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Bruce E.; Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Chan, Emory M.; Gargas, Daniel J.; Katz, Elan M.; Schuck, P. James; Milliron, Delia J.

    2017-01-31

    Certain nanocrystals possess exceptional optical properties that may make them valuable probes for biological imaging, but rendering these nanoparticles biocompatible requires that they be small enough not to perturb cellular systems. This invention describes a phosphorescent upconverting sub-10 nm nanoparticle comprising a lanthanide-doped hexagonal .beta.-phase NaYF.sub.4 nanocrystal and methods for making the same.

  11. Darwinism and the cultural evolution of sports.

    PubMed

    De Block, Andreas; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby overcomes the traditional nature-culture dichotomies in the sociology of sport. We argue that there are good reasons to view sports as culturally evolved signaling systems that serve a function similar to (biological) courtship rituals in other animals. Our approach combines the insights of evolutionary psychology, which states that biological adaptations determine the boundaries for the types of sport that are possible, and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sport's biological bases. Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sport's viability or popularity. Social learning underlies many aspects of the cultural control of sports, and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became important in humans.

  12. Genetic Doping and Health Damages

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, AA; Ravasi, AA; Farhud, DD

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in future and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines genetic doping as “the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance ”. The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes. Methods: This review, which is carried out by reviewing relevant publications, is primarily based on the journals available in GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED in fields of genetic technology, and health using a combination of keywords (e.g., genetic doping, genes, exercise, performance, athletes) until July 2010. Conclusion: There are several genes related to sport performance and if they are used, they will have health risks and sever damages such as cancer, autoimmunization, and heart attack. PMID:23113049

  13. DNA typing for personal identification of urine after long-term preservation for testing in doping control.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kimiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    When the tampering of a urine sample is suspected in doping control, personal identification of the sample needs to be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using DNA. We established a method for extracting DNA from urine samples stored at -20 °C without using any additives or procedures, which is consistent with how samples are required to be managed for doping control. The method, using the Puregene® Blood Core kit followed by NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up or NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up XS kit, does not need any special instrument and can provide a purified extract with high-quality DNA from up to 40 mL of urine suitable for STR analysis using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR amplification kit. Storing urine at -20 °C is detrimental to the stability of DNA. The DNA concentration of preserved urine could not be predicted by specific gravity or creatinine level at the time of urine collection. The DNA concentration of a purified extract (10 μL) was required to be >0.06 ng/μL to ensure a successful STR analysis. Thus, the required extraction volumes of urine preserved for 3-7 years at -20 °C were estimated to be 30 mL and 20 mL to succeed in at least 86% of men and 91% of women, respectively. Considering the long half-life of DNA during long-term preservation, our extraction method is applicable to urine samples stored even for 10 years, which is currently the storage duration allowed (increased from 8 years) before re-examination in doping control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Randomised controlled trial of informal team sports for cardiorespiratory fitness and health benefit in Pacific adults.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Mark G; Vincent, Grace; McCambridge, Alana; Britton, Gabrielle; Dewes, Ofa; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A; Edge, Johann

    2011-12-01

    Rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are high among Pacific people in New Zealand. Physical activity is recommended in the prevention and management of these conditions. Community-based, 'small-sided game' group activities may be an effective and culturally appropriate way to promote physical activity within Pacific communities. To assess the effectiveness of small-sided games-based exercise on fitness and health parameters among Pacific adults over four weeks. Twenty untrained (13 female) Pacific adults were randomised to intervention or control. Intervention participants were offered 45 minutes of small-sided games three times per week for four weeks. Control participants were offered one-month gym membership after the trial. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO₂peak) and leg strength (maximal concentric force of quadriceps at 60°/second) measured at baseline and four weeks. Secondary outcomes included glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers. Multivariable regression models were used to assess differences between groups, adjusting for baseline values, age and gender. At baseline, mean age was 34.8 years (SD 12.6), BMI 36.3 (6.7), systolic BP 127.7 mmHg (12.1), HbA1c 6.1% (1.9), VO₂peak 2.5 L/min (0.6) and leg strength 170.0 N.m (57.4). Sixteen participants completed the trial. Change in outcomes were greater in intervention than control participants in absolute VO₂peak (0.9 L/min (p=0.003)), leg strength (17.8 N.m (p=0.04)) and HDL (0.12 mmol/L (p=0.02)). There were no other significant differences. Small-sided games appear to be a promising means for improving the health and cardiorespiratory fitness and reducing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Pacific adults.

  15. Racquet Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  16. Racket sports.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.

  17. Sport Progressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clumpner, Roy A.

    This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…

  18. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  19. Androgens and doping tests: genetic variation and pit-falls

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The large variation in disposition known for most drugs is also true for anabolic androgenic steroids. Genetic factors are probably the single most important cause of this variation. Further, there are reasons to believe that there is a corresponding variation in efficacy of doping agents. Doped individuals employ a large variety of doping strategies in respect of choice of substance, dose, dose interval, duration of treatment and use of other drugs for enforcement of effects or correction of side effects. Metabolic steps up-stream and down-stream of testosterone are genetically variable and contribute substantially to the variation in disposition of testosterone, the most common doping agent in sports and in society. Large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion is described as well as the pit-falls in evaluation of testosterone doping test results. The hydrolysis and bioactivation of testosterone enanthate is also genetically variable yielding a 2–3 fold variation in excretion rate and serum concentration, thereby implicating a substantial variation in ‘efficacy’ of testosterone. Given this situation it is logical to adopt the new findings in the doping control programme. The population based cut-off level for the testosterone : epitestosterone ratio should be replaced by a Bayesian interpretation of consecutive tests in the same individual. When combined with the above genetic information the sensitivity of the test is considerably improved. The combination of the three approaches should reduce the rate of falsely negative or positive results and the number of expensive follow-up tests, stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:22506612

  20. Introduction to Modern Women in Sports: Beyond Winning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Gretchen

    Women can benefit from sports activities across the entire continuum from play to professional. Women have been catapulted into serious sports training and have been able to contend for more sports opportunities due to the evolution of clothing reforms, more acceptable sports, the right to vote, and the right to control pregnancy. Women have…

  1. Magnetic and magnetothermal studies of pure and doped gadolinium silicide nanoparticles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnasir, M. Hisham; Awan, M. S.; Manzoor, Sadia

    2018-03-01

    We report on magnetic and magnetothermal properties of undoped and doped gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles with the objective of simultaneously attaining high specific absorption rate (SAR) and low Curie temperature (TC) suitable for self-controlled hyperthermia applications for which TC ∼ 315-320 K. Pellets of doped gadolinium silicide Gd5(Si1-xGex)4 and (Gd1-xRx)5Si4 with R = Ho, Nd and Er and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35 were made by arc melting and reduced to nanoparticulate form by surfactant assisted ball milling. Structural and morphological studies were done using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. All samples show soft magnetic properties. At low fields there is a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition that reduces remanance and coercivity to zero making these materials very attractive for biomedical applications. Zero-field-cooled thermal demagnetization measurements showed that TC of these nanoparticles can be lowered to lie within the limits required for self-controlled hyperthermia by varying the dopant concentration. Specific absorption rates (SAR's) were obtained from magnetothermia measurements made in an ac magnetic field of amplitude 10 Oe and frequency 300 kHz. We have identified samples that have SAR values larger or comparable to those of magnetite and several ferrite nanoparticles, while having Curie temperatures that are low enough for self controlled hyperthermia applications.

  2. Doping control analysis of emerging drugs in human plasma - identification of GW501516, S-107, JTV-519, and S-40503.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Kortner, Birthe; Kohler, Maxie; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-04-01

    An important aspect of preventive doping research is the rapid implementation of tests for emerging drugs with potential for misuse into routine doping control assays. New therapeutics of different classes such as PPARdelta-agonists (e.g. GW501516), ryanodine-calstabin-complex stabilizers (e.g. S-107 and JTV-519), and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs, e.g. S-40503) are currently used for the treatment of particular medical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, debilitating diseases and osteoporosis, respectively. Due to their being at an early stage of clinical trials and the limited availability of data on the metabolism and possible renal elimination of the active drugs, the development of protocols for doping control analyses of plasma specimens could be an option for the detection of the circulating agents. The mass spectrometric fragmentation of four emerging drug candidates (GW501516, S-107, JTV-519, and S-40503) was elucidated by positive electrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation using a high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometer. A screening and confirmation procedure was established based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry requiring a volume of 100 microL of plasma. Proteins were precipitated using acetonitrile, the specimens were centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer employing multiple reaction monitoring of diagnostic ion transitions. The method was validated with regard to specificity, limits of detection (0.4-8.3 ng/mL), recoveries (72-98%), intraday and interday precisions (12-21%), and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  3. Morphological Control of Metal Oxide-Doped Zinc Oxide and Application to Cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takehiro; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Tanaka, Takumi

    2012-06-01

    Zinc oxide shows excellent transparency and ultraviolet radiation shielding ability, and is used for various cosmetics.1-3 However, it possesses high catalytic activity and lower dispersibility. Therefore, spherical particles of zinc oxide have been synthesized by soft solution reaction using zinc nitrate, ethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide and triethanolamine as starting materials. After dissolving these compounds in water, the solution was heated at 90°C for 1 h to form almost mono-dispersed spherical zinc oxide particles. The particle size changed depending on zinc ion concentration, ethylene glycol concentration and so on. Furthermore, with doping some metal ions, the phtocatalytic activity could be decreased. The obtained monodispersed metal ion-doped spherical zinc oxides showed excellent UV shielding ability and low photocatalytic activity. Therefore, they are expected to be used as cosmetics ingredients.

  4. Carrier density control of magnetism and Berry phases in doped EuTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Kaveh; Gui, Zhigang; Porter, Zach; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Xu, Zhijun; Wilson, Stephen D.; Janotti, Anderson; Stemmer, Susanne

    2018-05-01

    In materials with broken time-reversal symmetry, the Berry curvature acts as a reciprocal space magnetic field on the conduction electrons and is a significant contribution to the magnetotransport properties, including the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. Here, we report neutron diffraction, transport, and magnetization measurements of thin films of doped EuTiO3, an itinerant magnetic material, as a function of carrier density and magnetic field. These films are itinerant antiferromagnets at all doping concentrations. At low carrier densities, the magnetoresistance indicates a metamagnetic transition, which is absent at high carrier densities (>6 × 1020 cm-3). Strikingly, the crossover coincides with a sign change in the spontaneous Hall effects, indicating a sign change in the Berry curvature. We discuss the results in the context of the band structure topology and its coupling to the magnetic texture.

  5. Increasing the doping efficiency by surface energy control for ultra-transparent graphene conductors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Wen; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Ting, Chu-Chi; Su, Yen-Hsun; Hofmann, Mario

    2017-08-22

    Graphene's attractiveness in many applications is limited by its high resistance. Extrinsic doping has shown promise to overcome this challenge but graphene's performance remains below industry requirements. This issue is caused by a limited charge transfer efficiency (CTE) between dopant and graphene. Using AuCl 3 as a model system, we measure CTE as low as 5% of the expected values due to the geometrical capacitance of small adsorbate clusters. We here demonstrate a strategy for enhancing the CTE by a two-step optimization of graphene's surface energy prior to AuCl 3 doping. First, exposure to UV ozone modified the hydrophilicity of graphene and was found to decrease the cluster's geometric capacitance, which had a direct effect on the CTE. Occurrence of lattice defects at high UV exposure, however, deteriorated graphene's transport characteristics and limited the effectiveness of this pretreatment step. Thus, prior to UV exposure, a functionalized polymer layer was introduced that could further enhance graphene's surface energy while protecting it from damage. Combination of these treatment steps were found to increase the AuCl 3 charge transfer efficiency to 70% and lower the sheet resistance to 106 Ω/γ at 97% transmittance which represents the highest reported performance for doped single layer graphene and is on par with commercially available transparent conductors.

  6. Doping and controllable pore size enhanced electrochemical performance of free-standing 3D graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Qin, Kaiqiang; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Ma, Liying; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Liu, Enzuo

    2018-01-01

    High quality free-standing 3D nanoporous graphene (3DNG) films were fabricated using nanoporous nickel as template and catalyst. The effect of heteroatom doping and pore size on the electrochemical performance of the 3D graphene films as supercapacitor electrodes are systematically studied. Compared with macroporous graphene films, nanoporous graphene films exhibit an extraordinarily large operational window in neutral, acidic and alkaline aqueous electrolytes, as well as high packing density. Nitrogen and oxygen doping play different roles in different aqueous electrolytes on the electrical conductivity and pseudocapacitance of 3DNG. The realization of both high packing density, 3.65 mg/cm2, and the maximum working window, as well as the synergistic effect between N and O doping, gives rise to a high areal capacitance of 435 mF/cm2 in neutral electrolyte and excellent cycle stability up to 5000 cycles. The results provide a potential strategy to further increase the volumetric or areal energy density of carbon-based aqueous supercapacitor.

  7. Functionalization of graphene by size and doping control and its optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Tian, Pin; Kong, Jincheng; Xiang, Jinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Graphene has received intensive attention in recent years because of the special physical and chemical properties. However, up to now graphene has not been widely used in optoelectronic fields yet, which is mainly caused by its semimetal properties. Therefore, changing its properties from semimetal to semiconductor is becoming a focal point. Recently, aiming at tuning the energy band of graphene, we have carried out systematic studies on the preparations of graphene based materials and devices, the CVD growth techniques of monolayer and double layer graphenes have been developed, the large-area doped graphene films have been fabricated to tune the structure-related optical and electrical properties. A novel graphene oxide (GO) preparation method namely "Tang-Lau method" has been invented, the graphene quantum dots growths by microwave assisted hydrothermal method and "Soft-Template method" have been developed, the Cl, S and K doped graphene quantum dots preparations by hydrothermal methods have also been invented. Systematic investigations have been carried out for the effect of preparation parameters on the properties of graphene based materials, the effects of size, doping elements on the energy level of graphene based materials have been explored and discussed. Based on the semiconducting graphene based materials, some novel room temperature photodetectors covering detection wavebands from UV, Vis and NIR have been designed and fabricated.

  8. Controlling the 1 μm spontaneous emission in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Antonczak, Arkadiusz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2011-09-26

    In this paper we present our experimental studies on controlling the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from Yb(3+) ions in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers. We propose a new method of controlling the Yb-ASE by stimulating a laser emission at 1064 nm in the amplifier, by providing a positive 1 μm signal feedback loop. The results are discussed and compared to a conventional amplifier setup without 1 μm ASE control and to an amplifier with auxiliary 1064 nm seeding. We have shown, that applying a 1064 nm signal loop in an Er/Yb amplifier can increase the output power at 1550 nm and provide stable operation without parasitic lasing at 1 μm. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Controlling electrodeposited ultrathin amorphous Fe hydroxides film on V-doped nickel sulfide nanowires as efficient electrocatalyst for water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiao; Yan, Kai-Li; Lu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Bin; Gao, Wen-Kun; Chi, Jing-Qi; Liu, Zi-Zhang; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Developing cost-effective electrocatalysts with both high activity and stability remains challenging for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in water electrolysis. Herein, based on V-doped nickel sulfide nanowire on nickel foam (NiVS/NF), we further conduct controllable electrodeposition of Fe hydroxides film on NiVS/NF (eFe/NiVS/NF) to further improve OER performance and stability. For comparison, ultrafast chemical deposition of Fe hydroxides on NiVS/NF (uFe/NiVS/NF) is also utilized. V-doping of NiVS/NF may introduce more active sites for OER, and nanowire structure can expose abundant active sites and facilitate mass transport. Both of the two depositions generate amorphous Fe hydroxides film covering on the surface of nanowires and lead to enhanced OER activities. Furthermore, electrodeposition strategy realizes uniform Fe hydroxides film on eFe/NiVS/NF confirmed by superior OER activity of eFe/NiVS/NF than uFe/NiVS/NF with relatively enhanced stability. The OER activity of eFe/NiVS/NF depends on various electrodepositon time, and the optimal time (15 s) is obtained with maximum OER activity. Therefore, the controllable electrodeposition of Fe may provide an efficient and simple strategy to enhance the OER properties of electrocatalysts.

  10. Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

  11. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-05-26

    Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0), and at 8 months (T1) and one year post-intervention (T2). Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student), adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18) were conducted at T1. 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08-0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02-0.17) or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11-0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07-0.52). At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21-1.23). Intervention participants were more likely to 'definitely' believe that: 'it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.33), 'it is difficult to quit smoking once started' (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38-1.76), 'smoke from other peoples' cigarettes is harmful' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.08), 'smoking affects sports performance' (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59-1.88) and 'smoking makes 'no difference' to weight' (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.86-2.44). At T2, significant between

  12. [Gene doping--current possibilities, risks and means of prevention].

    PubMed

    Pleger, N; Vitzthum, K; Schöffel, N; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2011-03-01

    With the advances in gene therapy fears of an abuse in sports arise. The WADA's definition of the term strictly differentiates between gene doping and gene therapy. There are in vivo and ex vivo practices to manipulate the different phases of gene expression in the organism, with viral vectors being looked upon as the most efficient ones. IGF-1, PPARδ, MSTN and EPO play the most important roles in today's scientific research. Their potential was proven in various animal studies, showing a significant improvement of performances. Potential risks for human users include severe immune reactions, mutagenesis, and raised risk for cancer. Big efforts are being put into the development of ways of detection, however until now there are neither practicable methods of control nor any reported cases of manipulated humans. Still, a usage of gene doping that has already taken place cannot be ruled out and is highly likely. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Gene doping: gene transfer and possible molecular detection].

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Carlos Francisco; Hernández-Zamora, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    The use of illegal substances in sports to enhance athletic performance during competition has caused international sports organizations such as the COI and WADA to take anti doping measures. A new doping method know as gene doping is defined as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". However, gene doping in sports is not easily identified and can cause serious consequences. Molecular biology techniques are needed in order to distinguish the difference between a "normal" and an "altered" genome. Further, we need to develop new analytic methods and biological molecular techniques in anti-doping laboratories, and design programs that avoid the non therapeutic use of genes.

  14. The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anna; Jung, Julia; Ernstmann, Nicole; Driller, Elke; Neumann, Melanie; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Schneider, Christian; Wolf, Jürgen; Pfaff, Holger

    2012-01-04

    This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks and do not actively participate in a sports club are at a greater risk for lung cancer than those who do. Data for the study were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS), a retrospective case-control study examining potential psychosocial risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Our sample consisted of n = 158 participants who had suffered lung cancer (diagnosis in the patient document) and n = 144 control group participants. Both groups had a history of smoking.Data on social networks were collected by asking participants whether they participated in a sports club and about the number of friends and relatives in their social environment. In addition, sociodemographic data (gender, age, education, marital status, residence and religion), physical activity and data on pack years (the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked by an individual, calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked divided by 20) were collected to control for potential confounders. Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. The results reveal that participants who are physically active are at a lower risk of lung cancer than those who are not (adjusted OR = 0.53*; CI = 0.29-0.97). Older age and lower education seem also to be risk factors for the development of lung cancer. The extent of smoking, furthermore, measured by pack years is statistically significant. Active participation in a sports club, number of friends and relatives had no statistically significant influence on the development of the cancer. The results of the study suggest that there is a lower risk for physically active participants to develop lung cancer. In the study sample, physical activity seemed to

  15. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice

    PubMed Central

    Avois, L; Robinson, N; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may be used to reduce tiredness and increase alertness, competitiveness, and aggression. They are more likely to be used in competition but may be used during training to increase the intensity of the training session. There are several potential dangers involving their misuse in contact sports. This paper reviews the three main CNS stimulants, ephedrine, amfetamine, and cocaine, in relation to misuse in sport. Methods Description of the pharmacology, actions, and side effects of amfetamine, cocaine, and ephedrine. Results CNS stimulants have psychotropic effects that may be perceived to be ergogenic. Some are prescription drugs, such as Ephedra alkaloids, and there are issues regarding their appropriate therapeutic use. Recently attention has been given to their widespread use by athletes, despite the lack of evidence regarding any ergogenic or real performance benefit, and their potentially serious side effects. Recreational drugs, some of which are illegal (cocaine, amfetamines), are commonly used by athletes and cause potential ergolytic effects. Overall, these drugs are important for their frequent use and mention in anti‐doping laboratories statistics and the media, and their potentially serious adverse effects. Conclusions Doping with CNS stimulants is a real public health problem and all sports authorities should participate in its prevention. Dissemination of information is essential to prevent doping in sport and to provide alternatives. Adequate training and education in this domain should be introduced. PMID:16799095

  16. Detection of GH abuse in sport: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Osquel; Schamasch, Patrick; Rabin, Olivier

    2009-08-01

    Due to its considered performance enhancing effects, human growth hormone (hGH) is abused as a doping agent in sport. Its misuse also carries potentially serious side effects to a person's health. Consequently, hGH and its releasing factors are prohibited in sport, as established in the Prohibited List which is updated and published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In order to fight the menace that hGH doping poses to the spirit of sport and to the health of athletes, the sport movement and the anti-doping authorities, initially led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and later by WADA, have put substantial efforts into developing tests for its detection. Currently, a primary analytical approach, the isoform differential immunoassay, has been implemented in WADA-accredited laboratories. In parallel, a second, indirect approach for the detection of hGH abuse, based on the quantification of hGH-associated biological markers, has been developed. The final aim is to combine both methodologies to improve the sensitivity and expand the time window to detect doping with hGH. In addition, novel analytical procedures, based on proteomic and genomic technologies as well as the use of mass spectrometry-based methods of detection, are being investigated for future application in hGH anti-doping tests.

  17. Sports-specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  18. Real benefit of a protective factor against dementia: Importance of controlling for death. Example of sport practice.

    PubMed

    Grasset, Leslie; Joly, Pierre; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Wittwer, Jérôme; Amieva, Hélène; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean François

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the impact of a risk factor on several epidemiological indicators of death and dementia; the example of sport practice is presented. A population of 3670 non-demented subjects living at home and aged 65 and older from the PAQUID study were followed for 22 years. Sport practice was documented at baseline. Dementia (according to DSM-III-R criteria) and death were assessed at each visit. Analyses were performed with an Illness-Death model, providing results on the risks of dementia and death, probabilities and life expectancies. A total of 743 subjects (20.2%) participated in regular sport practice. During the follow-up, the proportion of death was lower in the elderly people practicing sport (EPPS), whereas the proportion of incident dementia cases was the same. The adjusted model showed a decreased risk of dementia (HR = 0.84 (0.72-1.00)) and of death for non-demented subjects (HR = 0.61 (0.51-0.71)) for EPPS but a similar risk of death with dementia in both sport groups. The probability of remaining alive without dementia was higher in EPPS, whereas the probability of dying was lower. The mean lifetime without dementia was 3 years higher for the EPPS, but the mean lifetime with dementia was the same. A preventive measure on a protective factor that is more effective for preventing death than dementia could lead to an increased lifetime without dementia; however, the number of demented cases may remain unchanged, even if the risk of developing dementia is reduced. This dynamic is important to forecast the need for health care and social services for the elderly.

  19. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis among High-Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa; Versic, Sime; Maric, Dora; Gabrilo, Goran; Jelicic, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  20. Knowledge of pharmacy students about doping, and the need for doping education: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Keita; Ichikawa, Koichi; Kurata, Naomi

    2017-08-11

    Anti-doping activities are carried out on a global scale. Based on these activities, the specialty of "sports pharmacist," which entails a deeper comprehension of doping, use of supplements, and appropriate drug use for athletes, was established in 2009 in Japan. It is difficult to say whether the education on doping is adequate for pharmacy students who will be eligible to become sports pharmacists. It is also unclear how well these students understand doping. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate pharmacy students' current knowledge of appropriate drug use, doping and use of supplements, and to explore the need for further education on these topics. A questionnaire survey was conducted from July 3rd to August 2nd in 2014 at Showa University in Japan. A total of 406 respondents (2nd- to 6th-year students) were assessed as eligible. Group comparison was used to compare those who had attended a lecture about doping and those who had not. Most of the students only knew the word doping and had not attended a lecture on the subject, but 72% of them expressed a desire to attend one. Over half did not know that the most common doping violation in Japan is unintentional doping, and were unfamiliar with certain past cases of doping. In addition, 41% did not know that over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements might contain prohibited substances, and 87% were unaware that names of prohibited substances might not appear on the ingredient labels of dietary supplements. In contrast, attending a lecture on doping was effective in facilitating the acquisition of all these types of knowledge. It is important to provide more opportunities for appropriate education of pharmacy students on the topic of doping, given that interest exists and attending a lecture on the topic appears to be useful. More education about doping for pharmacy students would be as effective for anti-doping activities as is education of athletes.

  1. Enhancement in the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy by heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Yuasa, Shinji

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the influence of heavy metal doping at the Fe/MgO interface on the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by sputtering-based deposition. The interfacial PMA was increased by tungsten doping and a maximum intrinsic interfacial PMA energy, Ki,0 of 2.0 mJ/m2 was obtained. Ir doping led to a large increase in the VCMA coefficient by a factor of 4.7 compared with that for the standard Fe/MgO interface. The developed technique provides an effective approach to enhancing the interfacial PMA and VCMA properties in the development of voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  2. Controllable Synthesis of Multi-Heteroatoms Co-Doped Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres as an Ideal Catalysis Platform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuliang; Zhu, Yanan; Cao, Changyan; Peng, Li; Queen, Wendy L; Song, Weiguo

    2018-05-23

    The synthesis of porous carbon spheres with hierarchical porous structures coupled with the doping of heteroatoms is particularly important for advanced applications. In this research, a new route for efficient and controllable synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon spheres co-doped with nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur (denoted as NPS-HPCs) was reported. This new approach combines in situ polymerization of hexachlorocyclophosphazene and 4, 4'-sulfonyldiphenol with the self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). After pyrolysis and subsequent removing the SiO2 NPs, the resulting NPS-HPCs possess high surface area (960 m2/g) as well as homogeneously distributed N, P and S heteroatoms. The NPS-HPCs are shown to be an ideal support for anchoring highly dispersed and uniformly sized noble metal NPs for heterogeneous catalysis. As a proof of concept, Pd NPs are loaded onto NPS-HPCs using only methanol as a reductant at room temperature. The prepared Pd/NPS-HPCs are shown to exhibit high activity, excellent stability and recyclability for hydrogenation of nitroarenes.

  3. Enhancement of thermoelectric figure of merit in β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} by indium doping control

    SciT

    Wei, Pai-Chun, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: cheny2@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Chang, Chung-Chieh

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate the control of phase composition in Bridgman-grown β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystals by indium doping, an effective way to overcome the difficulty of growing very pure β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} thermoelectric material. The crystal structures are characterized by Rietveld refinement with synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The results show an anisotropic lattice expansion in In-doped β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} wherein the zinc atoms are partially substituted by indium ones at 36f site of R-3c symmetry. Through the elimination of ZnSb phase, all the three individual thermoelectric properties are simultaneously improved, i.e., increasing electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient while reducing thermal conductivity. Undermore » an optimal In concentration (x = 0.05), pure phase β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystal can be obtained, which possesses a high figure of merit (ZT) of 1.4 at 700 K.« less

  4. Impedimetric immunosensor doped with reduced graphene sheets fabricated by controllable electrodeposition for the non-labelled detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Lin, Zhifeng; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Yi; Hou, Baorong

    2011-01-15

    A facile, sensitive and reliable impedimetric immunosensor doped with reduced graphene sheets (RGSs) and combined with a controllable electrodeposition technique was developed for the selective detection of marine pathogenic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The morphology of RGSs and the electrochemical properties of RGSs-doped chitosan (CS) nanocomposite film were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and CV were used to verify the stepwise assembly of the sensor system. Faradic impedance spectroscopy for charge transfer for the redox probe Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) was done to determine SRB concentrations. The diameter of the Nyquist diagram that is equal to the charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)) increased with increasing SRB concentration. A linear relationship between R(ct) and SRB concentration was obtained in the SRB concentration range of 1.8×10(1) to 1.8×10(7) cfu/ml. The impedimetric biosensor gave a distinct response to SRB, but had no obvious response to Vibrio angillarum. It showed a high selectivity for the detection of the pathogen. Based on a combination of the biocompatibility of CS and good electrical conductivity of RGSs, a nanocomposite film with novel architecture was used to immobilize biological and chemical targets and to develop a new type of biosensor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Lars; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3). Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  6. Sports Medicine Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  7. Sports and Concussions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  8. Sports cream overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  9. The UK Sport perspective on detecting growth hormone abuse.

    PubMed

    Stow, M R; Wojek, N; Marshall, J

    2009-08-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is seen as a doping risk in sport because of its possible anabolic and lipolytic effects. As a result of this hGH is prohibited for athletes to use both in and out-of-competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) requiring Anti-Doping Organisations to work with research teams in identifying ways to detect hGH abuse. This paper reviews and discusses the UK Sport perspective on the challenges faced in detecting hGH and in particular draws upon the experiences gained during the collaborative efforts with the GH-2004 research team in achieving the implementation of the Marker Method for hGH detection. In 2008 significant progress has been made; there is one test for detecting HGH approved for use in anti-doping and a second detection method pending. This is a strong reflection of the ongoing research efforts in anti-doping and the progress being made by the Anti-Doping Organisations in reducing the risk that doping poses to sport.

  10. Transcriptional profiling: a potential anti-doping strategy.

    PubMed

    Rupert, J L

    2009-12-01

    Evolving challenges require evolving responses. The use of illicit performance enhancing drugs by athletes permeates the reality and the perception of elite sports. New drugs with ergogenic or masking potential are quickly adopted, driven by a desire to win and the necessity of avoiding detection. To counter this trend, anti-doping authorities are continually refining existing assays and developing new testing strategies. In the post-genome era, genetic- and molecular-based tests are being evaluated as potential approaches to detect new and sophisticated forms of doping. Transcriptome analysis, in which a tissue's complement of mRNA transcripts is characterized, is one such method. The quantity and composition of a tissue's transcriptome is highly reflective of milieu and metabolic activity. There is much interest in transcriptional profiling in medical diagnostics and, as transcriptional information can be obtained from a variety of easily accessed tissues, similar approaches could be used in doping control. This article briefly reviews current understanding of the transcriptome, common methods of global analysis of gene expression and non-invasive sample sources. While the focus of this article is on anti-doping, the principles and methodology described could be applied to any research in which non-invasive, yet biologically informative sampling is desired.

  11. [Chronic ankle instability in sports -- a review for sports physicians].

    PubMed

    Valderrabano, V; Leumann, A; Pagenstert, G; Frigg, A; Ebneter, L; Hintermann, B

    2006-12-01

    Chronic ankle instability represents a typical sports injury which can mostly be seen in basketball, soccer, orienteering and other high risk sports. 20 to 40 % of the acute ankle sprains develop into chronic ankle instability. From a sports orthopaedic point of view, chronic ankle instability can be subdivided into a lateral, medial or a combination of both so called rotational ankle instability. From a pathophysiological point of view, chronic ankle instability can be either mechanical with a structural ligament lesion or functional with loss of the neuromuscular control. For the sports physician, the chronic ankle instability is a difficult entity as the diagnosis is usually complex and the therapy usually surgical. This review on chronic ankle instability addresses pathomechanism, diagnostics, indications for conservative and surgical treatments, and possible long-term sequelae, as ligamentous osteoarthritis.

  12. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Multimodal Injury Prevention Programs in Youth Sports: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Faude, Oliver; Rössler, Roland; Petushek, Erich J.; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Neuromuscular injury prevention programs (IPP) can reduce injury rate by about 40% in youth sport. Multimodal IPP include, for instance, balance, strength, power, and agility exercises. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of multimodal IPP on neuromuscular performance in youth sports. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search including selected search terms related to youth sports, injury prevention, and neuromuscular performance. Inclusion criteria were: (i) the study was a (cluster-)randomized controlled trial (RCT), and (ii) investigated healthy participants, up to 20 years of age and involved in organized sport, (iii) an intervention arm performing a multimodal IPP was compared to a control arm following a common training regime, and (iv) neuromuscular performance parameters (e.g., balance, power, strength, sprint) were assessed. Furthermore, we evaluated IPP effects on sport-specific skills. Results: Fourteen RCTs (comprising 704 participants) were analyzed. Eight studies included only males, and five only females. Seventy-one percent of all studies investigated soccer players with basketball, field hockey, futsal, Gaelic football, and hurling being the remaining sports. The average age of the participants ranged from 10 years up to 19 years and the level of play from recreational to professional. Intervention durations ranged from 4 weeks to 4.5 months with a total of 12 to 57 training sessions. We observed a small overall effect in favor of IPP for balance/stability (Hedges' g = 0.37; 95%CI 0.17, 0.58), leg power (g = 0.22; 95%CI 0.07, 0.38), and isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps strength as well as hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio (g = 0.38; 95%CI 0.21, 0.55). We found a large overall effect for sprint abilities (g = 0.80; 95%CI 0.50, 1.09) and sport-specific skills (g = 0.83; 95%CI 0.34, 1.32). Subgroup analyses revealed larger effects in high-level (g = 0.34–1.18) compared to low-level athletes (g

  13. Polymer-based doping control for performance enhancement of wet-processed short-channel CNTFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Martin; Schubel, René; Claus, Martin; Jordan, Rainer; Schulz, Stefan E.; Hermann, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    The electrical transport properties of short-channel transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) are significantly affected by bundling along with solution processing. We report that especially high off currents of CNT transistors are not only related to the incorporation of metallic CNTs but also to the incorporation of CNT bundles. By applying device passivation with poly(4-vinylpyridine), the impact of CNT bundling on the device performance can be strongly reduced due to increased gate efficiency as well as reduced oxygen and water-induced p-type doping, boosting essential field-effect transistor performance parameters by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, this passivation approach allows the hysteresis and threshold voltage of CNT transistors to be tuned.

  14. Strain-controlled electronic properties and magnetorelaxor behaviors in electron-doped CaMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, P.-H.; Yamada, H.; Sawa, A.; Akoh, H.

    2009-02-01

    We have fabricated epitaxial thin films of electron-doped manganite Ca1-xCexMnO3 (CCMO) with 0≤x≤0.08. The transport properties of CCMO films are very sensitive to substrate-controlled epitaxial strain. For the CCMO(x =0.05) film, the metallic transport characteristic is observed only on a nearly lattice-matched NdAlO3 (NAO) substrate, while tensilely and compressively stressed films are insulating. The CCMO(x =0.06) film on the NAO substrate shows a large magnetoresistance characteristic of a magnetorelaxor. This behavior can be explained in terms of the phase separation and the irreversible growth of the metallic domain in antiferromagnetic insulating matrix.

  15. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    PubMed

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Methods Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007–2008, aged 30–79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. Results High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport

  17. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study.

    PubMed

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-04-20

    Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and

  18. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  19. Empathic and Self-Regulatory Processes Governing Doping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boardley, Ian D.; Smith, Alan L.; Mills, John P.; Grix, Jonathan; Wynne, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Evidence associating doping behavior with moral disengagement (MD) has accumulated over recent years. However, to date, research examining links between MD and doping has not considered key theoretically grounded influences and outcomes of MD. As such, there is a need for quantitative research in relevant populations that purposefully examines the explanatory pathways through which MD is thought to operate. Toward this end, the current study examined a conceptually grounded model of doping behavior that incorporated empathy, doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), doping MD, anticipated guilt and self-reported doping/doping susceptibility. Participants were specifically recruited to represent four key physical-activity contexts and consisted of team- (n = 195) and individual- (n = 169) sport athletes and hardcore- (n = 125) and corporate- (n = 121) gym exercisers representing both genders (nmale = 371; nfemale = 239); self-reported lifetime prevalence of doping across the sample was 13.6%. Each participant completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated strong support for all study hypotheses. Specifically, we established: (a) empathy and doping SRE negatively predicted reported doping; (b) the predictive effects of empathy and doping SRE on reported doping were mediated by doping MD and anticipated guilt; (c) doping MD positively predicted reported doping; (d) the predictive effects of doping MD on reported doping were partially mediated by anticipated guilt. Substituting self-reported doping for doping susceptibility, multisample analyses then demonstrated these predictive effects were largely invariant between males and females and across the four physical-activity contexts represented. These findings extend current knowledge on a number of levels, and in doing so aid our understanding of key psychosocial processes that may govern doping behavior across key physical-activity contexts. PMID:29018370

  20. Empathic and Self-Regulatory Processes Governing Doping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Boardley, Ian D; Smith, Alan L; Mills, John P; Grix, Jonathan; Wynne, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Evidence associating doping behavior with moral disengagement (MD) has accumulated over recent years. However, to date, research examining links between MD and doping has not considered key theoretically grounded influences and outcomes of MD. As such, there is a need for quantitative research in relevant populations that purposefully examines the explanatory pathways through which MD is thought to operate. Toward this end, the current study examined a conceptually grounded model of doping behavior that incorporated empathy, doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), doping MD, anticipated guilt and self-reported doping/doping susceptibility. Participants were specifically recruited to represent four key physical-activity contexts and consisted of team- ( n = 195) and individual- ( n = 169) sport athletes and hardcore- ( n = 125) and corporate- ( n = 121) gym exercisers representing both genders ( n male = 371; n female = 239); self-reported lifetime prevalence of doping across the sample was 13.6%. Each participant completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated strong support for all study hypotheses. Specifically, we established: (a) empathy and doping SRE negatively predicted reported doping; (b) the predictive effects of empathy and doping SRE on reported doping were mediated by doping MD and anticipated guilt; (c) doping MD positively predicted reported doping; (d) the predictive effects of doping MD on reported doping were partially mediated by anticipated guilt. Substituting self-reported doping for doping susceptibility, multisample analyses then demonstrated these predictive effects were largely invariant between males and females and across the four physical-activity contexts represented. These findings extend current knowledge on a number of levels, and in doing so aid our understanding of key psychosocial processes that may govern doping behavior across key physical-activity contexts.

  1. Drug misuse in sport: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Gerrard, David; Burt, Peter; Osborne, Hamish

    2015-12-04

    Drug misuse in elite sport is a world-wide phenomenon. This article explores the culture of contemporary sport, provides estimates of doping prevalence, discusses dietary supplementation and highlights major factors influencing high-performance athletes and their support personnel. The aim is to stimulate discussion, informed by the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), which is particularly relevant to doctors caring for athletes. Online databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed research from 2009 to 2015. Comparative New Zealand data have been included. Estimates of the prevalence of sports doping range from less than 1% to as high as 52%, dependent upon the demographics of the identified cohort. The culture of elite sport, personal stressors, competitive demands, financial reward and the influence of an 'entourage' of support personnel were identified as critical determinants of drug misuse. The culture of elite contemporary sport is seductive to many aspiring young athletes. To combat drug misuse, effective education should embody moral, ethical and clinical dangers, recognising the importance of support at times of increased athlete vulnerability. Inadvertent doping from product contamination is a recognised risk of unsupervised dietary supplementation. Doctors responsible for the care of high-performance athletes must be cognisant of these issues and the provisions of the WADC.

  2. Blood doping: risks to athletes' health and strategies for detection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Bairros, André Valle de; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Blood doping has been defined as the misuse of substances or certain techniques to optimize oxygen delivery to muscles with the aim to increase performance in sports activities. It includes blood transfusion, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or blood substitutes, and gene manipulations. The main reasons for the widespread use of blood doping include: its availability for athletes (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusions), its efficiency in improving performance, and its difficult detection. This article reviews and discusses the blood doping substances and methods used for in sports, the adverse effects related to this practice, and current strategies for its detection.

  3. Preventive doping control screening analysis of prohibited substances in human urine using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vonaparti, A; Lyris, E; Angelis, Y S; Panderi, I; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Peters, R J B; Nielen, M W F; Georgakopoulos, C

    2010-06-15

    Unification of the screening protocols for a wide range of doping agents has become an important issue for doping control laboratories. This study presents the development and validation of a generic liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) screening method of 241 small molecule analytes from various categories of prohibited substances (stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, beta(2)-agonists, beta-blockers, hormone antagonists and modulators, glucocorticosteroids and anabolic agents). It is based on a single-step liquid-liquid extraction of hydrolyzed urine and the use of a rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometric system acquiring continuous full scan data. Electrospray ionization in the positive mode was used. Validation parameters consisted of identification capability, limit of detection, specificity, ion suppression, extraction recovery, repeatability and mass accuracy. Detection criteria were established on the basis of retention time reproducibility and mass accuracy. The suitability of the methodology for doping control was demonstrated with positive urine samples. The preventive role of the method was proved by the case where full scan acquisition with accurate mass measurement allowed the retrospective reprocessing of acquired data from past doping control samples for the detection of a designer drug, the stimulant 4-methyl-2-hexanamine, which resulted in re-reporting a number of stored samples as positives for this particular substance, when, initially, they had been reported as negatives. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Gene doping: the hype and the harm.

    PubMed

    McKanna, Trudy A; Toriello, Helga V

    2010-06-01

    "Gene doping" is the term used to describe the potential abuse of gene therapy as a performance-enhancing agent. Gene doping would apply the techniques used in gene therapy to provide altered expression of genes that would promote physical superiority. For example, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a primary target for growth hormone; overexpression of IGF-1 can lead to increased muscle mass and power. Although gene doping is still largely theoretical, its implications for sports, health, ethics, and medical genetics are significant.

  5. Doping in the recombinant era: strategies and counterstrategies.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H; Christenson, Robert H

    2005-11-01

    Advances in recombinant DNA technology have created one of the most powerful weapons in the current doping arsenal: recombinant proteins [Sweeney HL. Gene doping. Sci Am 2004;291:62-9; Unal M, Ozer Unal D. Gene doping in sports. Sports Med 2004;34:357-62]. Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) and human growth hormone (hGH) are currently being abused but are fortunately detectable either directly by employing isoelectric focusing and immunoassays or indirectly by assessing changes in selected hematopoietic parameters. The detection is technically demanding due to the extent of similarity between the recombinant proteins and their endogenous counterparts. Another issue facing detection efforts is the speed and conditions at which blood samples are collected and analyzed in a sports setting. Recently, gene doping, which stemmed out of legitimate gene therapy trials, has emerged as the next level of doping. Erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR delta), and myostatin inhibitor genes have been identified as primary targets for doping. Sports clinical scientists today are racing against the clock because assuring the continued integrity of sports competition depends on their ability to outpace the efforts of dopers by developing new detection strategies.

  6. Reticulocytes in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    general population.The reticulocyte count shows some modifications after training and during the competition season. The variability induced by exercise cannot be overlooked since the so-called haematological passport, a personal athlete's document in which haemoglobin and other parameters are registered, may be introduced by sports federations. Exposure to naturally high altitude and 'living high-training low' programmes determined contentious results on reticulocytes. Simulated high altitude induced by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia does not modify reticulocytes, despite an increase in erythropoietin serum concentration. The variability among athletes competing in different sport disciplines is apparently limited. The knowledge of the behaviour of reticulocytes in training and competitions is crucial for defining their role in an antidoping control context. It is important for sport physicians and clinical pathologists to know the reticulocyte variability in the general population and in athletes, the pre-analytical warnings, the different methodologies for counting reticulocytes and the derived parameters automatically available, and, finally, the possible influence of training, competitions, type of sport and altitude.

  7. Mass spectrometric detection of siRNA in plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules can effect the expression of any gene by inducing the degradation of mRNA. Therefore, these molecules can be of interest for illicit performance enhancement in sports by affecting different metabolic pathways. An example of an efficient performance-enhancing gene knockdown is the myostatin gene that regulates muscle growth. This study was carried out to provide a tool for the mass spectrometric detection of modified and unmodified siRNA from plasma samples. The oligonucleotides are purified by centrifugal filtration and the use of an miRNA purification kit, followed by flow-injection analysis using an Exactive mass spectrometer to yield the accurate masses of the sense and antisense strands. Although chromatography and sensitive mass spectrometric analysis of oligonucleotides are still challenging, a method was developed and validated that has adequate sensitivity (limit of detection 0.25-1 nmol mL(-1)) and performance (precision 11-21%, recovery 23-67%) for typical antisense oligonucleotides currently used in clinical studies.

  8. Building Character through Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…

  9. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  10. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  11. Sports Medicine in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  12. Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ray M.

    2011-12-01

    Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

  13. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Baume, Norbert; Emery, Caroline; Strahm, Emmanuel; Saugy, Martial

    2008-06-10

    Tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. The main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. Even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, T. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. Recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry) conclusively revealed the administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursors, even if the testosterone glucuronide/epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio and steroid marker concentrations were below the cut-off values defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To argue against this adverse analytical finding, the athletes recognized having used T. terrestris in their diet. In order to test this hypothesis, two female volunteers ingested 500 mg of T. terrestris, three times a day and for two consecutive days. All spot urines were collected during 48 h after the first intake. The (13)C/(12)C ratio of ketosteroids was determined by GC/C/IRMS, the T/E ratio and DHEA concentrations were measured by GC/MS and LH concentrations by radioimmunoassay. None of these parameters revealed a significant variation or increased above the WADA cut-off limits. Hence, the short-term treatment with T. terrestris showed no impact on the endogenous testosterone metabolism of the two subjects.

  14. Cobalt-Assisted Morphology and Assembly Control of Co-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xianying; Wahl, Sebastian; Russo, Patrícia A.

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of metal oxide nanostructures influences the response of the materials in a given application. In addition to changing the composition, doping can also modify the morphology of a host nanomaterial. Herein, we determine the effect of dopant concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the morphology and assembly of CoxZn1−xO nanoparticles synthesized through non-aqueous sol-gel in benzyl alcohol. With the increase of the atom % of cobalt incorporated from 0 to 15, the shape of the nanoparticles changes from near spherical, to irregular, and finally to triangular. The tendency of the particles to assemble increases in the same direction, with Co0.05Zn0.95O consisting of non-assembled particles, whereas Co0.15Zn0.85O consists of triangular nanoparticles forming spherical structures. The morphology and assembly process are also sensitive to the reaction temperature. The assembly process is found to occur during the nucleation or the early stages of particle growth. The cobalt ions promote the change in the shape during the growth stage of the nanoparticles. PMID:29673179

  15. Sports physicians, ethics and antidoping governance: between assistance and negligence.

    PubMed

    Dikic, Nenad; McNamee, Michael; Günter, Heinz; Markovic, Snezana Samardzic; Vajgic, Bojan

    2013-07-01

    Recent positive doping cases and a series of mistakes of medical doctors of the International Federation of Basketball have reopened the debate about the role of medical doctor in elite sport. This study shows that some sports physicians involved in recent positive doping cases are insufficiently aware of the nuances of doping regulations and, most importantly, of the list of prohibited substances. Moreover, several team doctors are shown to have exercised poor judgement in relation to these matters with the consequence that athletes are punished for doping offences on the basis of doctors' negligence. In such circumstances, athletes' rights are jeopardised by a failure of the duty of care that (sports) physicians owe their athlete patients. We argue that, with respect to the World Anti Doping Code, antidoping governance fails to define, with sufficient clarity, the role of medical doctors. There is a need for a new approach emphasising urgent educational and training of medical doctors in this domain, which should be considered prior to the revision of the next World Anti Doping Code in 2013 in order to better regulate doctor's conduct especially in relation to professional errors, whether negligent or intentional.

  16. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios D; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-10-01

    Doping is a problem that has plagued the world of competition and sports for ages. Even before the dawn of Olympic history in ancient Greece, competitors have looked for artificial means to improve athletic performance. Since ancient times, athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A Prohibited List of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, β₂-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping, as it abrogates fair-play's principle, it is extremely important to consider the hazards it presents to the health and well-being of athletes. The referred negative effects for the athlete's health have to do, on the one hand, by the high doses of the performance-enhancing agents and on the other hand, by the relentless, superhuman strict training that the elite or amateur athletes put their muscles, bones, and joints. The purpose of this article is to highlight the early and the long-lasting consequences of the doping abuse on bone and muscle metabolism. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes.

    PubMed</