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Sample records for spray total opening

  1. Study on diesel-DME spray using open-source CFD (OpenFoam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Rizqon; Sugiarto, Bambang; Darsono, Dody

    2012-06-01

    In this work, a numerical study has been performed to evaluate the fuel spray of diesel, dimethyl ether (DME) and its mixture using CFD code OpenFoam. This study uses a general method, based on simulating fuel sprays injected into a constant volume vessel. Calculations results are presented as profiles of diameter (MD) and temperature of fuel droplets as function of fuel type. The results have shown that the diameter of fuel droplet decreased as the fraction of DME in the mixture is higher. Fuel properties affected the atomization and evaporation process. The SMD increased with viscosity and the evaporation rate of fuel spray increased with fuel volatility.

  2. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the...sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use information on the relationship of the...climatology in ice -free northern oceans from reanalysis data and the time-varying extent of the sea ice cover. Our field campaigns in the second and

  3. Salmon calcitonin nasal spray treatment for postmenopausal women after hip fracture with total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peichl, Peter; Marteau, Robert; Griesmacher, Andrea; Kumpan, Wofgang; Schedl, Rudolf; Prosquil, Eugen; Fasol, Paul; Bröll, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The increasing rate of hip fractures is giving rise to a number of socioeconomic problems for the aging community. In addition to being unable to resume their previous living habits, many patients fail to achieve full functional recovery after the fractures. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a successful operation for the majority of patients with all forms of hip fractures. Dislocation and aseptic loosening are the major reasons for revisions. An additional problem post-THA is the rate of heterotopic soft tissue calcification after total hip arthroplasty, resulting in severely impaired function, pain, and a reduced range of hip motion. In an open study, 37 women who had undergone cementless total hip arthroplasty after accidental hip fractures were treated twice daily with 200 IU salmon calcitonin nasal spray for 12 months. Simultaneously, the patients received one bag of 1000 mg calcium plus 880 IU vitamin D daily throughout the treatment period of 1 year. A parallel group of 38 women with a similar clinical status in terms of hip fractures and cementless total hip arthroplasty were treated with only one bag of 1000 mg calcium plus 880 IU vitamin D daily through the treatment period. The results of this 12-month clinical trial show that 200 IU salmon calcitonin nasal spray per day promotes general independence from foreign assistance, mobility, and fear of further falls in postmenopausal elderly women following THA. Treatment with a salmon calcitonin nasal spray reduces bone turnover serum markers, loss of further bone density, and pain. Additionally, calcitonin promoted the repair of hip fractures and, as a coincidence finding, was associated with a significantly reduced rate of refractures as well as periprosthetic ossifications.

  4. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-09

    sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use existing information on the relationship...and the resulting spray icing on offshore structures, such as wind turbines and exploration, drilling , and production platforms. Our approach...International Ocean ( Offshore ) and Polar Engineering Conference, Anchorage, AK, 30 June–5 July 2013, International Society of Offshore and Polar

  5. Increasing total and biologically active chromium in wheat grain and spinach by spraying with chromium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, F.A.; Ellis, B.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently, chromium has been shown to be necessary for glucose metabolism in man. But most plant species greatly restrict the uptake of Cr. This study was conducted to determine if both total and biologically active Cr could be increased in wheat grain or spinach by spraying the plants with either Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ or Cr-EDTA. Concentrations of Cr in wheat grain were about doubled in a greenhouse experiment by spraying with either Cr source. Biologically active Cr (estimated by extraction with ethanol or NH/sub 4/OH) was increased from about 40 to greater than 50% of total Cr when wheat was sprayed with Cr salts. Total Cr in spinach leaves was increased by as much as 10-fold by spraying, with the sulfate source being more effective than the EDTA.

  6. Estimating drift of airborne pesticides during orchard spraying using active Open Path FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides is important to ensure food security around the world. Unfortunately, exposure to pesticides is harmful to human health and the environment. This study suggests using active Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for monitoring and characterizing pesticide spray drift, which is one of the transfer mechanisms that lead to inhalation exposure to pesticides. Experiments were conducted in a research farm with two fungicides (Impulse and Bogiron), which were sprayed in the recommended concentration of ∼0.1%w in water, using a tractor-mounted air-assisted sprayer. The ability to detect and characterize the pesticide spray drift was tested in three types of environments: fallow field, young orchard, and mature orchard. During all spraying experiments the spectral signature of the organic phase of the pesticide solution was identified. Additionally, after estimating the droplets' size distribution using water sensitive papers, the OP-FTIR measurements enabled the estimation of the droplets load in the line of sight.

  7. An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Lossignol, Dominique; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain in patients with advanced cancer poses a serious clinical challenge. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (U.S. Adopted Name, nabiximols; Sativex(®)) is a novel cannabinoid formulation currently undergoing investigation as an adjuvant therapy for this treatment group. This follow-up study investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD spray and THC spray in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 43 patients with cancer-related pain experiencing inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, who had participated in a previous three-arm (THC/CBD spray, THC spray, or placebo), two-week parent randomized controlled trial, entered this open-label, multicenter, follow-up study. Patients self-titrated THC/CBD spray (n=39) or THC spray (n=4) to symptom relief or maximum dose and were regularly reviewed for safety, tolerability, and evidence of clinical benefit. The efficacy end point of change from baseline in mean Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form scores for "pain severity" and "worst pain" domains showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) at each visit in the THC/CBD spray patients. Similarly, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 scores showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) from baseline in the domains of insomnia, pain, and fatigue. No new safety concerns associated with the extended use of THC/CBD spray arose from this study. This study showed that the long-term use of THC/CBD spray was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for the relief of cancer-related pain with long-term use. Furthermore, patients who kept using the study medication did not seek to increase their dose of this or other pain-relieving medication over time, suggesting that the adjuvant use of cannabinoids in cancer-related pain could provide useful benefit. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Open-source satellite enumeration to map households: planning and targeting indoor residual spraying for malaria.

    PubMed

    Kamanga, Aniset; Renn, Silvia; Pollard, Derek; Bridges, Daniel J; Chirwa, Brian; Pinchoff, Jessie; Larsen, David A; Winters, Anna M

    2015-09-17

    Defining the number and location of sprayable structures (houses) is foundational to plan and monitor indoor residual spray (IRS) implementation, a primary intervention used to control the transmission of malaria. Only by mapping the location and type of all sprayable structures can IRS operations be planned, estimates of spray coverage determined, and targeted delivery of IRS to specific locations be achieved. Previously, field-based enumeration has been used to guide IRS campaigns, however, this approach is costly, time-consuming and difficult to scale. As a result, field-based enumeration typically fails to map all structures in a given area, making estimations less reliable and reducing the enumerated coverage. Using open source satellite imagery and Geographic Information System software, satellite enumeration was conducted to guide IRS operations in 15 districts (91,302 km(2)) in northern Zambia during the 2014 spray season. Cost of satellite enumeration was compared to standard enumeration. Enumerated households were sampled to estimate sprayable surface area and wall type from the satellite enumeration using linear and logistic regression, respectively. In comparison to the traditional field-based enumeration procedure, satellite-based enumeration was 22 times faster, and 10 times less costly. An estimated 98 % of the satellite enumerated buildings correctly classified roof type. Predicted surface area of each household correlated at a value of 0.91 with measured surface area of each household. For IRS campaigns, high quality and high coverage enumeration data aid in planning, through informed insecticide procurement. Through the identification of geographical areas and populations to target, enumeration data guide operations and assist monitoring and evaluation of IRS through the unbiased estimation of coverage achieved. Satellite enumeration represents a quick, cheap and accurate system to provide these data, and has potential applications beyond IRS

  9. Tropicamide 1% mydriatic effect: comparison between spray in closed eyes and eye drops in open eyes.

    PubMed

    Portes, Arlindo José Freire; Barbosa, Annamaria Ciminelli; de Mello, Guilherme Laport; Lopes, Marcelo Antunes; Cavalcanti, Rachel Simões

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by serial measurements, pupil mydriasis produced by topical application of tropicamide 1% using a spray in a closed eye or instillation in an open eye in adult and elderly populations. The research was done from February to April of 2011 in the Policlinica Ronaldo Gazolla, located in the Arcos da Lapa Campus of Estacio de Sá University, RJ- Brazil. It was a clinical trial, controlled and randomized, made in a series of 50 patients that were being prepared for ophthalmoscopy examination. They were submitted to eye drop administration of 1% tropicamide in an open eye and to eyelid margin vaporization in a closed eye. The eyes were chosen for the administration of drops or spray according to a pseudo-random numbers table from Excel (2007) before application. The pupil diameter was measured before instillation and after 10, 20, and 30 min in both eyes, with a millimeter ruler. Biostat 5.0 software was used for statistical calculations. Tropicamide 1% was vaporized in a group that presented the following average pupil diameters: 3 mm before the application; 4.16 mm in 10 min; 5 mm in 20 min; and 5.35 mm in 30 min. The group in which tropicamide 1% was instilled presented 2.96 mm of average pupil diameter before the application; 4.22 mm at 10 min; 5.02 mm at 20 min; and 5.44 at 30 min. The two way analysis of variance showed P<0.0001, and the Tukey test performed for comparisons among the groups showed statistical significant differences among all groups except when the measurements were done at the same time. The vaporized tropicamide 1% mydriatic effect in closed eyes was clinically equivalent to the instillation effect of eye drop in open eyes. Other mydriatic drugs sprayed in closed eyes may not have the same effect.

  10. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  11. Noninterventional open-label trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray in comparison with beclomethasone nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus; Bilstein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  12. Eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray aerosol flux over the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Sarah J.; Brooks, Ian M.; Hill, Martin K.; Brooks, Barbara J.; Smith, Michael H.; Sproson, David A. J.

    2012-04-01

    Direct eddy covariance measurements of size-segregated sea spray aerosol fluxes over the open Atlantic Ocean are presented, along with a source function derived from them for a wind speed range of 4 to 18 m s-1 and a size range of 0.176 < R80 < 6.61 μm. This is in broad agreement with other recent estimates of the source function over this size range but shows a more rapid decrease with size above R80 = 2 μm than most other functions. The measurements were made during a 3 week cruise in the North Atlantic as part of the UK contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) program. They utilized the new high-rate Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP), providing a 16-channel size spectrum (0.17 spray aerosol flux compared with other air-sea fluxes, both between individual estimates and in the scales contributing to the flux.

  13. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    spray ice density data. Our second spray instrument will be a cloud imaging probe with an optical array. It photographs and then automatically sizes...third moment of the drop concentration from the cloud imaging probe is the spray liquid water content. Hence, the combination of the two instruments...working with Edgar Andreas at NWRA. We are borrowing Chris Fairall’s cloud imaging probe. The data for the spray climatologies come from the National

  14. Economics of spray-dryer FGD system: the two-stage open-loop processes

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.A.; O'Brien, W.E.

    1981-06-01

    Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a throwaway system in which the alkali raw material (as a solution or slurry) is sprayed into the flue gas stream, dried by the latent heat in the hot flue gas, and collected as dry particulate matter in a baghouse. The fly ash is also collected in the baghouse as an inherent part of the process. An economic evaluation of a limestone slurry FGD process with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for particulate matter removal was included for comparison. The basis was a 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur, 16% ash coal with 90% SO/sub 2/ removal and 0.1 lb/MBtu particulate matter emission. The economic evaluations were made using both TVA and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) economic premises. Cost differences between the two-stage open-loop lime and soda ash versions are largely the result of different waste disposal and raw material costs. Both RI/WF versions are more economical than limestone in most process elements except raw material costs. Cost differences between the TVA- and EPRI-based estimates are the result of different methods of estimating indirect costs, levelizing operating costs, and different raw material costs.

  15. Clinical evaluation of coverage of open wounds: Polyglycolic acid sheet with fibrin glue spray vs split thickness skin

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Tomioka, Hirofumi; Tushima, Fumihiko; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Hirai, Hideaki; Oikawa, Yuu; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of oral wounds using either a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet or split-thickness skin grafting (STSG). Materials and Methods: A total of 119 cases of wound coverage using a PGA sheet and fibrin glue spray as well as 132 cases of wound coverage cases using STSG were reviewed retrospectively. The site of the excision area, perioperative conditions, and postoperative functional problems were evaluated. Results: The PGA group had significantly shorter operation time, earlier start of oral intake, and shorter hospitalization than the STSG group. If the PGA sheet over the wound with exposed bone could be protected by a surgical sprint, oral food intake could be started on the day after surgery at the earliest. When the size of the wound in the buccal excisional area was classified into two groups (<6 or ≥6 cm2), mouth opening in the STSG group was significantly larger at 3 months postoperatively. When the size of the wound in the tongue and floor of mouth was classified into two groups (<12 or ≥12 cm2), the STSG group had a significantly higher score in postoperative speech intelligibility. Conclusion: Selection of a PGA sheet or STSG based on the consideration of defect size, tumor location, patients’ local and general condition and tolerance for surgery could reduce the patients’ postsurgical dysfunctional problems. PMID:28299263

  16. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    We anticipate that structures placed in shallow water—wind turbines , drilling rigs, or man-made production islands, for instance—will, therefore...anticipate that structures placed in shallow water???wind turbines , drilling rigs, or man-made production islands, for instance???will, therefore...concentrations of wind-generated sea spray and the resulting spray icing on offshore structures, such as wind turbines and exploration, drilling, and

  17. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    wind -generated sea spray and the resulting spray icing on offshore structures, such as wind turbines and exploration, drilling, and production...in high wind speeds by making droplet concentration measurements on fixed offshore structures or at well exposed coastal sites at air temperatures...coated any offshore structure in that area with a thick layer of ice. Associated support vessels attempting to power through the wind and waves would have

  18. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    spray instrument will be a cloud imaging probe, which we are borrowing from Chris Fairall at NOAA/ESRL. This device consists of an optical array; it...each 25 µm wide. The integral of the third moment of the drop concentration from the cloud imaging probe is the spray liquid water content. Hence...Gloersen P, Zwally HJ. 1996. updated yearly. Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus -7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, October 1979. Boulder

  19. Laryngotracheal application of lidocaine spray increases the incidence of postoperative sore throat after total intravenous anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koichi; Sakai, Hironori; Miyazawa, Hideki; Iijima, Kyou; Toda, Naoyuki; Kawahara, Shuji; Hara, Katsumi

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of laryngotracheal application of different doses of lidocaine spray on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness, we evaluated the incidence and severity of these complications in 168 ASA I-III patients aged 15-92 years in a placebo-controlled study. After induction of anesthesia with propofol, ketamine, fentanyl, and vecuronium, the laryngotracheal area was sprayed immediately before intubation with lidocaine spray either 5 times (L5 group, n = 47) or 10 times (L10 group, n = 48) or with normal saline 1 ml (placebo group, n = 51). Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated immediately after surgery and on the day after surgery. The incidence of sore throat was significantly higher in the L10 group than in the placebo group on both the day of and the day after surgery. The severity of sore throat was significantly higher in the L5 and L10 groups than in the placebo group on the day of surgery. On the day after surgery, the severity of sore throat remained significantly higher in the L10 group than in the placebo group. Although the incidence and severity of sore throat increased in a dose-dependent manner, these were not significantly different between the L5 and L10 groups. In addition, the incidence and severity of hoarseness did not differ at all among the three groups. We recommend that applications of lidocaine spray to the laryngotracheal area should be avoided to help eliminate unnecessary postoperative sore throat, thereby leading to improvement in patient satisfaction.

  20. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial due to the lack of definitive long-term results. Thus, the expected short-term benefits can only be of interest when oncological results are at least equal. To evaluate the differences in short- and long-term results after elective laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for the resection of rectal cancer compared with open total mesorectal excision (OTME). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1990 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (February 2013). We handsearched the reference lists of the included articles for missed studies. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LTME and OTME, reporting at least one of our outcome measures, was considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality according to the CONSORT statement, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We rated the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We identified 45 references out of 953 search results, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 3528 rectal cancer patients. We did not consider the risk of bias of the included studies to have impacted on the quality of the evidence. Data were analysed according to an intention-to-treat principle with a mean conversion rate of 14.5% (range 0% to 35%) in the laparoscopic group.There was moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic and open TME had similar

  1. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  2. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  3. Vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: a comparison between capsule and oral spray solution as a method of delivery in a wintertime, randomised, open-label, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua J; McSorley, Emeir M; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Madigan, Sharon M; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela J

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D is typically supplied in capsule form, both in trials and in clinical practice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of vitamin D administered via oral sprays - a method that primarily bypasses the gastrointestinal absorption route. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vitamin D3 liquid capsules and oral spray solution in increasing wintertime total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. In this randomised, open-label, cross-over trial, healthy adults (n 22) received 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks in either capsule or oral spray form. Following a 10-week washout phase, participants received the opposite treatment for a final 4 weeks. Anthropometrics and fasted blood samples were obtained before and after supplementation, with samples analysed for total 25(OH)D, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone and adjusted Ca concentrations. At baseline, vitamin D sufficiency (total 25(OH)D>50 nmol/l), insufficiency (31-49 nmol/l) and clinical deficiency (<30 nmol/l) were evident in 59, 23 and 18 % of the participants, respectively. Overall, baseline total mean 25(OH)D concentration averaged 59·76 (sd 29·88) nmol/l, representing clinical sufficiency. ANCOVA revealed no significant difference in the mean and standard deviation change from baseline in total 25(OH)D concentrations between oral spray and capsule supplementation methods (26·15 (sd 17·85) v. 30·38 (sd 17·91) nmol/l, respectively; F=1·044, adjusted r 2 0·493, P=0·313). Oral spray vitamin D3 is an equally effective alternative to capsule supplementation in healthy adults.

  4. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    affects the heat and mass transfer across the air-sea interface, which in turn influences climatology. Global climate models are sensitive to changes in...western 7 Bering Sea near Siberia , and off the coast of southwest Alaska, including Cook Inlet, where the semi- submersible Ocean Bounty...sea spray climatology in the Arctic Ocean to change with the declining sea ice cover. • The evaporation of the drops in the marine boundary layer

  5. Accuracy of a new ring-opening metathesis elastomeric dental impression material with spray and immersion disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kronström, Mats H; Johnson, Glen H; Hompesch, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    A new elastomeric impression material has been formulated with a ring-opening metathesis chemistry. In addition to other properties of clinical significance, the impression accuracy must be confirmed. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new elastomeric impression material with vinyl polysiloxane and polyether following both spray and immersion disinfection. Impressions of a modified dentoform with a stainless steel crown preparation in the lower right quadrant were made, and type IV gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Anteroposterior (AP), cross-arch (CA), buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), occlusogingivobuccal (OGB), and occlusogingivolingual (OGL) dimensions were measured using a microscope. Working cast and die dimensions were compared to those of the master model. The impression materials were a newly formulated, ring-opening metathesis-polymerization impression material (ROMP Cartridge Tray and ROMP Volume Wash), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS, Aquasil Ultra Monophase/LV), and a polyether (PE, Impregum Penta Soft/Permadyne Garant L). Fifteen impressions with each material were made, of which 5 were disinfected by spray for 10 minutes (CaviCide), 5 were disinfected by immersion for 90 minutes (ProCide D), and 5 were not disinfected. There were significant cross-product interactions with a 2-way ANOVA, so a 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test were used to compare the dimensional changes of the 3 impression materials, by disinfection status and for each location (alpha=.05). For ROMP, there were no significant differences from the master, for any dimension, when comparing the control and 2 disinfectant conditions. No significant differences were detected among the 3 impression materials for CA, BL, and MD. The working die dimensions of OGB and OGL for VPS with immersion disinfection were significantly shorter than with PE and ROMP (P<.05). Overall, the AP dimension was more accurate than CA, and the BL of working dies

  6. An Overview of Spray Modeling With OpenNCC and its Application to Emissions Predictions of a LDI Combustor at High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The open national combustion code (Open- NCC) is developed with the aim of advancing the current multi-dimensional computational tools used in the design of advanced technology combustors. In this paper we provide an overview of the spray module, LSPRAY-V, developed as a part of this effort. The spray solver is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal, and transport properties of a rapidly evaporating multi-component liquid spray. The modeling approach is applicable over a wide-range of evaporating conditions (normal, superheat, and supercritical). The modeling approach is based on several well-established atomization, vaporization, and wall/droplet impingement models. It facilitates large-scale combustor computations through the use of massively parallel computers with the ability to perform the computations on either structured & unstructured grids. The spray module has a multi-liquid and multi-injector capability, and can be used in the calculation of both steady and unsteady computations. We conclude the paper by providing the results for a reacting spray generated by a single injector element with 600 axially swept swirler vanes. It is a configuration based on the next-generation lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor concept. The results include comparisons for both combustor exit temperature and EINOX at three different fuel/air ratios.

  7. A multicentre, open-label, follow-on study to assess the long-term maintenance of effect, tolerance and safety of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in the management of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hoggart, B; Ratcliffe, S; Ehler, E; Simpson, K H; Hovorka, J; Lejčko, J; Taylor, L; Lauder, H; Serpell, M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) poses a significant clinical challenge. The long-term efficacy of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was investigated in this 38-week open-label extension study. In total, 380 patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia entered this study from two parent randomised, controlled trials. Patients received THC/CBD spray for a further 38 weeks in addition to their current analgesic therapy. Neuropathic pain severity was the primary efficacy measure using a pain 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Additional efficacy, safety and tolerability outcomes were also investigated. In total, 234 patients completed the study (62 %). The pain NRS showed a decrease in score over time in patients from a mean of 6.9 points (baseline in the parent studies) to a mean of 4.2 points (end of open-label follow-up). The proportion of patients who reported at least a clinically relevant 30 % improvement in pain continued to increase with time (up to 9 months); at least half of all patients reported a 30 % improvement at all time points. Improvements were observed for all secondary efficacy outcomes, including sleep quality 0-10 NRS scores, neuropathic pain scale scores, subject global impression of change and EQ-5D questionnaire scores. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated for the study duration and patients did not seek to increase their dose with time, with no new safety concerns arising from long-term use. In this previously difficult to manage patient population, THC/CBD spray was beneficial for the majority of patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia.

  8. A new technology of CO2 supplementary for microalgae cultivation on large scale - A spraying absorption tower coupled with an outdoor open runway pond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Dan; Li, Wei; Shi, Yun-Hai; Li, Yuan-Guang; Huang, Jian-Ke; Li, Hong-Xia

    2016-06-01

    An effective CO2 supply system of a spraying absorption tower combined with an outdoor ORWP (open raceway pond) for microalgae photoautotrophic cultivation is developed in this paper. The microalgae yield, productivity and CO2 fixation efficiency were investigated, and compared with those of bubbling method. The maximum yield and productivity of biomass were achieved 0.927gL(-1) and 0.114gL(-1)day(-1), respectively. The fixation efficiency of CO2 by microalgae with the spraying tower reached 50%, whereas only 11.17% for bubbling method. Pure CO2 can be used in the spraying absorption tower, and the flow rate was only about one third of the bubbling cultivation. It shows that this new method of quantifiable control CO2 supply can meet the requirements of the growth of microalgae cultivation on large-scale.

  9. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A. ); Burson, S.B. . Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  10. Open-Label Study of Craving in Smokers With Schizophrenia Using Nicotine Nasal Spray Compared to Nicotine Patch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Steinberg, Marc L.; Lu, Shou-En; Foulds, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine nasal spray (NNS) may be better for relieving acute cigarette cravings than other nicotine replacement and it may help smokers with schizophrenia because of its rapid onset of action. Objectives: We tested whether NNS was more effective than a nicotine patch (NP; 21 mg) in reducing cue-induced craving during a 3-day abstinence. Methods: Twenty-five smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SA) were randomized to open-label NNS or NP treatment after baseline measures of craving were assessed. NNS users were instructed to dose at a minimum of 1/hour and up to a maximum of 40/day. Averages from a 4-item visual analogue scale (need, urge, want to smoke, crave a cigarette) measured craving. Results: Five subjects who smoked (4 NP, 1 NNS) were excluded, leaving 21 (11 NP, 10 NNS) for analyses. No differences were detected between groups on baseline craving. On day 3, NNS users reported significantly less craving in response to smoking cues compared to NP users (mean craving scores: NNS, 7.0; NP, 20.3; p = .014). A repeated measure ANCOVA demonstrated significantly reduced craving in the NNS group compared to the NP group from baseline to day 3 (F = 5.09; p = .037). NNS users took an average of 20 doses/day, and NNS was rated as being as easy to use as NP. Conclusions: The potential utility of NNS in smokers with schizophrenia supports the need for placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19763279

  11. A comparison of open and robotic total mesorectal excision for rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    deSouza, Ashwin L; Prasad, Leela M; Ricci, John; Park, John J; Marecik, Slawomir J; Zimmern, Andrea; Blumetti, Jennifer; Abcarian, Herand

    2011-03-01

    This retrospective study was designed to compare open with robot-assisted total mesorectal excision for rectal adenocarcinoma. With use of predefined exclusion criteria, all consecutive laparoscopic-assisted (51 patients) and robot-assisted (36 patients) rectal resections for adenocarcinoma from August 2005 to November 2009 at a single institution were considered. Hand-assisted laparoscopy was used for splenic flexure mobilization in all cases. Patients were assigned into robotic and open groups on the basis of the technique used for total mesorectal excision. All 36 robot-assisted resections had the total mesorectal excision performed with robotic assistance and were included in the robotic group. Forty-six of the 51 patients who received a laparoscopic-assisted procedure had the total mesorectal excision performed through the hand port using open surgical technique and were included in the open group. Both groups were compared with respect to patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, and pathology. The robotic and open groups were comparable in age, sex, body mass index, history of prior abdominal surgery, ASA class, number of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation, and tumor stage. There were more abdominoperineal resections (P = .019) and more low and mid rectal tumors (P = .007) in the robotic group. Total procedure time was longer in the robotic group (P = .003), but blood loss was less (P = .036). Lymph node yield, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and length of stay were all comparable. There were 3 positive circumferential margins in the open group vs none in the robotic group, but this did not reach statistical significance. Robotic total mesorectal excision is feasible and safe, and is comparable to open total mesorectal excision in terms of perioperative and pathological outcomes. The longer operative time associated with robotic total mesorectal excision could decrease as experience with this relatively new technique increases

  12. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  13. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  14. Spray applicator for spraying coatings and other fluids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Lausten, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained spray application is developed for one handed operation in a zero gravity vacuum environment by a free flying astronaut not attached to any spacecraft. This spray applicator eliminates contamination of the operator by back spray. This applicator includes a rigid accumulator containment of a fluid within a flexible bladder the fluid being urged out of the accumulator under pressure through a spray gun. The spray gun includes a spring loaded lockable trigger which controls a valve. When in an open position, the fluid passes through the valve into the ambient environment in the form of a spray. A spray shield is provided which directs the flow of the spray from the applicator by trapping errant particles of spray yet allowing the passage of escaping gases through its material.

  15. 78 FR 24226 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA TOTAL (Technology Open... Officer, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410, Room 9120...: Karin B. Hill, Director, Office of Single Family Program Development, Department of Housing and...

  16. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh

    2017-04-18

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A report on the indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the control of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar (India): an initiative towards total elimination targeting 2015 (Series-1).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Tiwari, A K; Kumar, A J; Kumar, R; Singh, V P; Das, P

    2009-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar is endemic in Bihar state, India. Current vector control programme in Bihar focuses mainly on spraying the sandfly infested dwellings with DDT. The Government of India in collaboration with WHO has fixed the target 2015 for total elimination of kala-azar. The present study was carried out to see the impact of DDT and improved IEC in the containment of vector density vis-à-vis disease transmission. Before the start of the spraying operations training was imparted to all the medical and paramedical personnel regarding the methods of spraying operations. Pre- and post-sandfly density was monitored in four selected districts. Incidences of kala-azar cases were compared for pre- and post-spray periods. Social acceptability and perceptions of households was collected through questionnaires from 500 randomly selected households in the study districts. House index in three study districts reduced considerably during post-spray when compared to pre-spray. Kala-azar incidence in many districts was reduced after the DDT spray. Either partial or complete refusal was reported in 14.4%, while 35% were not satisfied with the suspension concentration and coverage; and 46.6% were found satisfied with the spraying procedure. Strengthening the IEC activities to sensitise the community, proper training of health personnel, monitoring of spray, good surveillance, proper treatment of cases and two rounds of DDT spray with good coverage in the endemic districts up to three years are essential to achieve the desired total elimination of kala-azar in Bihar state.

  18. Supraerythemogenic excimer laser in combination with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of generalized plaque psoriasis: Interim results of an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ethan; Debbaneh, Maya; Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle; Wang, Eva; Gupta, Rishu; Butler, Daniel; Huynh, Monica; Leon, Argentina; Koo, John Y M

    2015-02-01

    The combination of phototherapy and topical therapy is one of the most widely used treatment modalities for moderate to severe psoriasis. The development of targeted phototherapy with excimer laser and new topical spray formulations has made these therapies both more convenient and more effective. In this open label pilot study, we aim to assess the efficacy of combination therapy using 308-nm excimer laser, clobetasol propionate spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. In this 12-week study, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis received twice weekly treatment with XTRAC® Velocity 308-nm excimer laser combined with clobetasol propionate twice daily followed by calitriol ointment twice daily. To date, 21 patients have completed the protocol. By week 12, 76% of the patients had a reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index by at least 75% (PASI-75) and 52% had a Physicians Global Assessment of "clear" or "almost clear". Excimer laser therapy combined with an optimized topical regimen that includes clobetasol spray followed by calictriol ointment appears to be an effective treatment for moderate to severe generalized psoriasis that avoids the risk of serious internal side effects associated with many systemic agents.

  19. Assessment of a pressurizer spray valve faulty opening transient at Asco Nuclear Power Plant with RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reventos, F.; Baptista, J.S.; Navas, A.P.; Moreno, P.

    1993-12-01

    The Asociacion Nuclear Asco has prepared a model of Asco NPP using RELAP5/MOD2. This model, which include thermalhydraulics, kinetics and protection and controls, has been qualified in previous calculations of several actual plant transients. One of the transients of the qualification process is a ``Pressurizer spray valve faulty opening`` presented in this report. It consists in a primary coolant depressurization that causes the reactor trip by overtemperature and later on the actuation of the safety injection. The results are in close agreement with plant data.

  20. Laparoscopic robot-assisted versus open total pancreatectomy: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Boggi, Ugo; Palladino, Simona; Massimetti, Gabriele; Vistoli, Fabio; Caniglia, Fabio; De Lio, Nelide; Perrone, Vittorio; Barbarello, Linda; Belluomini, Mario; Signori, Stefano; Amorese, Gabriella; Mosca, Franco

    2015-06-01

    The enhanced dexterity offered by robotic assistance could be excessive for distal pancreatectomy but not enough to improve the outcome of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Total pancreatectomy retains the challenges of uncinate process dissection and digestive reconstruction, but avoids the risk of pancreatic fistula, and could be a suitable operation to highlight the advantages of robotic assistance in pancreatic resections. Eleven laparoscopic robot-assisted total pancreatectomies (LRATP) were compared to 11 case-matched open total pancreatectomies. All operations were performed by one surgeon during the same period of time. Robotic assistance was employed in half of the patients, based on robot availability at the time of surgery. Variables examined included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, estimated blood loss, need for blood transfusions, operative time, tumor type, tumor size, number of examined lymph nodes, margin status, post-operative complications, 90-day or in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, and readmission rate. No LRATP was converted to conventional laparoscopy, hand-assisted laparoscopy or open surgery despite two patients (18.1 %) required vein resection and reconstruction. LRATP was associated with longer mean operative time (600 vs. 469 min; p = 0.014) but decreased mean blood loss (220 vs. 705; p = 0.004) than open surgery. Post-operative complications occurred in similar percentages after LRATP and open surgery. Complications occurring in most patients (5/7) after LRATP were of mild severity (Clavien-Dindo grade I and II). One patient required repeat laparoscopic surgery after LRATP, to drain a fluid collection not amenable to percutaneous catheter drainage. One further patient from the open group required repeat surgery because of bleeding. No patient had margin positive resection, and the mean number of examined lymph nodes was 45 after LRATP and 36 after open surgery. LRATP is feasible

  1. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  2. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  3. Efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray in presumed feline allergic dermatitis: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Buckley, Laura M; McEwan, Neil A; Rème, Christophe A; Nuttall, Tim J

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) spray (Cortavance(®); Virbac SA) in 10 cats with presumed allergic dermatitis. The cats initially received two sprays/100 cm(2) of skin once daily. Clinical lesions (a Feline Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index; FeDESI), pruritus (10 cm visual analog scale with grade descriptors) and owner assessments of efficacy, tolerance and ease of use (from 1=very poor to 5=excellent) were assessed every 14 days. The frequency of treatment was reduced after day 28 in cats with a >50% reduction in FeDESI and pruritus scores. One cat was lost to follow up at day 28 and two at day 42. Intention-to-treat data were analysed. The FeDESI [mean (SD): day 0, 42.2 (15.7) and day 56, 9.9 (11.7); P<0.0001] and pruritus scores [day 0, 61.2 mm (20.1) and day 56, 14.6 mm (16.1); P<0.0001] significantly decreased throughout the trial. The owner scores for tolerance [median (range): day 14, 4 (1-5) and day 56, 4 (3-5); P=0.003] and ease of administration [day 14, 3 (2-5) and day 56, 4 (2-5); P=0.02] significantly increased during the trial, but there was no significant change in efficacy scores [day 14, 4 (3-5) and day 56, 4 (2-5); P=0.5]. There were no adverse effects attributable to the HCA spray, no significant changes in weight [mean (SD): day 0, 5.0 kg (1.4) and day 56, 5.0 kg (1.6); P=0.51] and no significant changes in haematology, biochemistry or urinalysis (n=4). Six cats required every-other-day treatment and four required daily treatment. In conclusion, HCA spray appeared to be effective and safe in these cats, although it is not licensed for use in this species.

  4. Focus Harmonic Scalpel Compared to Conventional Haemostasis in Open Total Thyroidectomy: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Armato, Enrico; Spinato, Giacomo; Spinato, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare operative factors, postoperative outcomes and surgical complications of open total thyroidectomy when using the Harmonic Scalpel (HS) versus Conventional Haemostasis (CH). Methods. 100 consecutive patients underwent open total thyroidectomy were randomized into two groups: group CH (Conventional Haemostasis) and group HS (Harmonic Scalpel). We recorded the following: age, sex, pathology, thyroid volume, haemostatic technique, operative time, drainage volume, thyroid weight, postoperative pain, postoperative complications, and hospital stay. The results were analyzed using the Student's t test and χ2 test. Results. No significant difference was found between the two groups concerning mean thyroid weight and mean hospital stay. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the HS group. The total drainage fluid volume was lower in HS group. Two (4%) transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies were observed in CH group and no one (0%) in the HS group. Postoperative transient hypocalcemia occurred more frequently in the CH group. HS group experienced significantly less postoperative pain at 24 and 48 hours. Conclusions. In patients undergoing thyroidectomy, HS is a reliable and safe tool. Comparing with CH techniques, its use reduces operative times, postoperative pain, drainage volume and transient hypocalcemia. PMID:22187563

  5. Comparison of pain perception between open and minimally invasive surgery in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Biagio; Vitale, Elsa; Esposito, Antonio; Colella, Antonio; Cassano, Maria; Notarnicola, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a well-established procedure that had shown excellent long-term results in terms of reduced pain and increased mobility. Pain was one of the most important outcome measures that contributed to patient dissatisfaction after TKA. After a computerized search of the Medline and Embase databases, we considered articles from January 1st, 1997 to October 31st, 2009 that underlined the impact on patient pain perception of either standard open total knee arthroplasty or minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. We included articles that used the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as postoperative pain indicators, and we included studies with a minimum follow-up period of two months. We excluded studies that monitored only functional postoperative knee activities. It was shown that TKA with the open technique was a better treatment for knees with a positive effect on pain and function than the minimally invasive technique. PMID:21042568

  6. No time machine construction in open 2+1 gravity with timelike total energy-momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel H.

    1998-09-01

    It is shown that in (2+1)-dimensional gravity an open spacetime with timelike sources and total energy momentum cannot have a stable compactly generated Cauchy horizon. This constitutes a proof of a version of Kabat's conjecture and shows, in particular, that not only a Gott time machine cannot be formed from processes such as the decay of a single cosmic string as has been shown by Carroll et al., but that, in a precise sense, a time machine cannot be constructed at all.

  7. The solar magnetic field since 1700. II. Physical reconstruction of total, polar and open flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; Schmitt, D.; Schüssler, M.

    2011-04-01

    We have used semi-synthetic records of emerging sunspot groups based on sunspot number data as input for a surface flux transport model to reconstruct the evolution of the large-scale solar magnetic field and the open heliospheric flux from the year 1700 onward. The statistical properties of the semi-synthetic sunspot group records reflect those of the observed Royal Greenwich Observatory photoheliographic results. These include correlations between the sunspot numbers and sunspot group latitudes, longitudes, areas and tilt angles. The reconstruction results for the total surface flux, the polar field, and the heliospheric open flux (determined by a current sheet source surface extrapolation) agree well with the available observational or empirically derived data and reconstructions. We confirm a significant positive correlation between the polar field during activity minimum periods and the strength of the subsequent sunspot cycle, which has implications for flux transport dynamo models for the solar cycle. Just prior to the Dalton minimum, at the end of the 18th century, a long cycle was followed by a weak cycle. We find that introducing a possibly "lost" cycle between 1793 and 1800 leads to a shift of the minimum of the open flux by 15 years which is inconsistent with the cosmogenic isotope record.

  8. A compact 3D-printed interface for coupling open digital microchips with Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Ting-Ru; Chang, Chia-Hsien; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-03-07

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) based on the electrowetting-on-dielectric phenomenon is a convenient way of handling microlitre-volume aliquots of solutions prior to analysis. Although it was shown to be compatible with on-line mass spectrometric detection, due to numerous technical obstacles, the implementation of DMF in conjunction with MS is still beyond the reach of many analytical laboratories. Here we present a facile method for coupling open DMF microchips to mass spectrometers using Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization operated at atmospheric pressure. The proposed interface comprises a 3D-printed body that can easily be "clipped" at the inlet of a standard mass spectrometer. The accessory features all the necessary connections for an open-architecture DMF microchip with T-shaped electrode arrangement, thermostatting of the microchip, purification of air (to prevent accidental contamination of the microchip), a Venturi pump, and two microfluidic pumps to facilitate transfer of samples and reagents onto the microchip. The system also incorporates a touch-screen panel and remote control for user-friendly operation. It is based on the use of popular open-source electronic modules, and can readily be assembled at low expense.

  9. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  10. Comparison of the performance between a spray gun and a spray boom in ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

    2011-01-01

    Flemish greenhouse growers predominantly use handheld spray guns and spray lances for their crop protection purposes although these techniques are known for their heavy workload and their high operator exposure risks. Moreover, when these techniques are compared with spray boom equipment, they are often found to be less effective. On the other hand, handheld spraying techniques are less expensive and more flexible to use. Additionally, many Flemish growers are convinced that a high spray volume and spray pressure is needed to assure a good plant protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the spray deposition, penetration and uniformity between a manually pulled horizontal spray boom and a spray gun under controlled laboratory conditions. In total, six different spray application techniques were evaluated. In general, the total deposition results were comparable between the spray boom and the spray gun applications but the boom applications resulted in a more uniform spray distribution over the crop. On a plant level, the spray distribution was not uniform for the different techniques with highest deposits on the upper side of the top leaves. Using spray guns at a higher spray pressure did not improve spray penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves. From the different nozzle types, the XR 80 03 gave the best results. Plant density clearly affected crop penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves.

  11. Sensors in Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and

  12. Prospective comparative study of endoscopic via unilateral axillobreast approach versus open conventional total thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Nam; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji Oh; Kwak, Jung Ja; Lee, Seung Won

    2016-09-01

    Total thyroidectomy can be accomplished in one of two ways. The first is an open conventional approach, and the other is an endoscopic unilateral axillobreast approach (UABA). However, the two have not been thoroughly compared. In the study described herein, we compare the technical feasibility, safety, and surgical completeness of open versus endoscopic total thyroidectomy procedures. A total of 152 patients who underwent open (n = 102) or endoscopic (n = 50) total thyroidectomy via UABA for papillary microcarcinoma from January to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. Data were collected prospectively after obtaining informed consent. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, pathologic results, postoperative thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, and results of radioactive iodine treatment between the two groups. We conclude that endoscopic thyroidectomy resulted in a younger age, lower body mass index, longer operation time and drain maintenance, and larger drain amount. There were no significant differences with respect to gender, hospital stay, tumor size, time for central compartment neck dissection, number of harvested ipsilateral lymph nodes, or bleeding amount between groups. The proportion of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and bilaterality did not differ, and the surgical complication rate was similar. In addition, the postoperative stimulated and non-stimulated Tg levels did not differ significantly, nor did the thyroid bed/brain iodine uptake ratio. Based on our results, endoscopic total thyroidectomy via UABA is technically feasible and has comparable surgical completeness to open total thyroidectomy for papillary microcarcinoma within 1 cm.

  13. Total arch repair for acute type A aortic dissection with open placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft and the arch open technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In total arch repair with open placement of a triple-branched stent graft for acute type A aortic dissection, the diameters of the native arch vessels and the distances between 2 neighboring arch vessels did not always match the available sizes of the triple-branched stent grafts, and insertion of the triple-branched stent graft through the distal ascending aortic incision was not easy in some cases. To reduce those two problems, we modified the triple-branched stent graft and developed the arch open technique. Methods and results Total arch repair with open placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft and the arch open technique was performed in 25 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection. There was 1 surgical death. Most survivors had an uneventful postoperative course. All implanted stents were in a good position and wide expansion, there was no space or blood flow surrounding the stent graft. Complete thrombus obliteration of the false lumen was found around the modified triple-branched stent graft in all survivors and at the diaphragmatic level in 20 of 24 patients. Conclusions The modified triple-branched stent graft could provide a good match with the different diameters of the native arch vessels and the various distances between 2 neighboring arch vessels, and it’s placement could become much easier by the arch open technique. Consequently, placement of a modified triple-branched stent graft could be easily used in most patients with acute type A aortic dissection for effective total arch repair. PMID:25085259

  14. The Role of the Total Entropy Production in the Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems in Detection of Non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.; Khorashad, A. S.; Adabi, F.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between system and environment is a fundamental concept in the theory of open quantum systems. As a result of the interaction, an amount of correlation (both classical and quantum) emerges between the system and the environment. In this work, we recall the quantity that will be very useful to describe the emergence of the correlation between the system and the environment, namely, the total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between the system and the environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting the non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between the total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity. We apply our criterion for the special case, where the composite system has initial correlation with environment.

  15. Total Environment Education: An Open Design to Real Life Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Six global objectives--energy, earth resources, waste disposal, population, interdependence, and quality of life--are used as a framework in preparing this open design for environmental education, one which emphasizes behavioral change in the affective domain. To aid classroom teachers in achieving these goals, the guide is divided into five…

  16. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray in comparison to dexpanthenol nasal ointment. A prospective, randomised, open, cross-over study to compare nasal mucociliary clearance].

    PubMed

    Verse, T; Klöcker, N; Riedel, F; Pirsig, W; Scheithauer, M O

    2004-07-01

    Recent technical developments in metered pump systems allow the production and use of preservative-free nasal products. The aim of the current study is to compare the tolerability of a preservative-free dexpanthenol (5%) nasal spray with that of the established dexpanthenol (5%) nasal ointment, also without preservatives. The main outcome measure was in vivo mucociliary clearance. Mucociliary clearance was assessed by saccharin migration time in 20 volunteers. Wash-out phases were 7 days and the spray or ointment was always applied 20 min before the saccharin test. The study was designed to test for non-inferiority. Saccharin migration time was slightly longer after ointment administration, however, these were not significantly different to nasal spray. The saccharin migration time showed a significant correlation with the age of the volunteers. The upper confidence limit of dexpanthenol nasal spray was markedly less than that of the ointment. Therefore, dexpanthenol nasal spray is at least equal to if not better than dexpanthenol nasal ointment. Due to its ease of administration, preservative-free dexpanthenol nasal spray offers a valuable therapeutic alternative.

  17. THE EFFECT OF UNILATERAL NEPHRECTOMY ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF OPEN GLOMERULI IN THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Robert A.; Lukianoff, Gregory F.

    1929-01-01

    1. Under the experimental conditions employed, from 44 to 78 per cent of the glomeruli of the normal rabbit kidney contain circulating blood at any one moment. 2. After unilateral nephrectomy the number of glomeruli in the remaining kidney, which contain circulating blood, is increased to 91 to 99 per cent. 3. Compensation for the removal of one kidney is accomplished during the first 10 days at least, by an increase of the number of open glomeruli in the opposite kidney. PMID:19869616

  18. THE EFFECT OF UNILATERAL NEPHRECTOMY ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF OPEN GLOMERULI IN THE RABBIT.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Lukianoff, G F

    1929-07-31

    1. Under the experimental conditions employed, from 44 to 78 per cent of the glomeruli of the normal rabbit kidney contain circulating blood at any one moment. 2. After unilateral nephrectomy the number of glomeruli in the remaining kidney, which contain circulating blood, is increased to 91 to 99 per cent. 3. Compensation for the removal of one kidney is accomplished during the first 10 days at least, by an increase of the number of open glomeruli in the opposite kidney.

  19. Effects of spray-dried porcine plasma on growth performance, immune response, total antioxidant capacity, and gut morphology of nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Li, Y S; Carney-Hinkle, E E; Miller, P S; Burkey, T E

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and gut morphology of nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 weaned pigs (Nebraska female × Danbred sire; 20 ± 1 d of age; initial BW = 6.06 ± 0.02 kg) were assigned to 16 pens and randomly allotted to the control (CTL; no SDPP) or the CTL + SDPP treatment in 2 phases (phase 1: d 0 to 14, 5% SDPP; phase 2: d 14 to 28, 2.5% SDPP). Blood samples were collected on d 0 and weekly thereafter to quantify IgG, IgA, and total antioxidant capacity. On d 14, pigs (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) were selected and euthanized for small intestine tissue and alveolar macrophage collection. On d 7, pigs fed SDPP had greater ADG, ADFI (P = 0.001), and G:F (P = 0.019) compared with CTL pigs. On d 28, pigs fed SDPP had greater BW (P = 0.024) and tended to have greater ADG (P = 0.074) and ADFI (P = 0.062) compared with CTL pigs. There were no differences between treatments for serum IgG, IgA, and total antioxidant capacity. On d 14, greater villus height (P = 0.011) and villus:crypt (P = 0.008) were observed in duodenal tissue sections obtained from SDPP-fed pigs compared with CTL pigs. To evaluate effects of SDPP on immune biomarkers, alveolar macrophages collected from 3 pigs/treatment on d 14 were cultured in vitro and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL). Therefore, 4 treatments included 1) CTL diet with no LPS, 2) CTL diet with LPS (CTL+), 3) SDPP diet with no LPS, and 4) SDPP diet with LPS. There were no diet effects on tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression or secretion by alveolar macrophages. For IL-10 gene expression, a diet × LPS interaction (P = 0.009) was observed where CTL+ had greater (P < 0.05) IL-10 mRNA abundance compared with other treatments. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro effects of porcine plasma using model porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The treatments applied to the IPEC

  20. Total knee arthroplasty after failed high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review of open versus closed wedge osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Hwi; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Bhandare, Nikhl N; Suh, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seong; Chang, Yong Suk; Yeom, Ji Woong; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2016-08-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has become increasingly popular as an alternative to lateral closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis with varus deformity. The present systematic review was conducted to provide an objective analysis of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes following previous knee osteotomy (medial opening wedge vs. lateral closing wedge). A literature search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library database) was made, in addition to manual search of major orthopaedic journals. The methodological quality of each of the studies was assessed on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Effective Practice and Organization of Care. A total of ten studies were included in the review. There were eight studies with Level IV and two studies with Level III evidence. Eight studies reported clinical and radiologic scores. Comparative studies between TKA following medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO did not demonstrate statistically significant clinical and radiologic differences. The revision rates were similar. However, more technical issues during TKA surgery after lateral closing wedge HTO were mentioned than the medial open wedge group. The quadriceps snip, tibial tubercle osteotomy, and lateral soft tissue release were more frequently needed in the lateral closing wedge HTO group. In addition, because of loss of proximal tibia bone geometry in the lateral closing wedge HTO group, concerns such as tibia stem impingement in the lateral tibial cortex was noted. The present systematic review suggests that TKA after medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO showed similar performance. Clinical and radiologic outcome including revision rates did not statistically differ from included studies. However, there are more surgical technical concerns in TKA conversion from lateral closing wedge HTO than from the medial opening wedge HTO group. IV.

  1. Cost comparison of open approach, transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery for partial and total laryngectomies.

    PubMed

    Dombrée, Manon; Crott, Ralph; Lawson, Georges; Janne, Pascal; Castiaux, Annick; Krug, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Activity-based costing is used to give a better insight into the actual cost structure of open, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) supraglottic and total laryngectomies. Cost data were obtained from hospital administration, personnel and vendor structured interviews. A process map identified 17 activities, to which the detailed cost data are related. One-way sensitivity analyses on the patient throughput, the cost of the equipment or operative times were performed. The total cost for supraglottic open (135-203 min), TLM (110-210 min) and TORS (35-130 min) approaches were 3,349 euro (3,193-3,499 euro), 3,461 euro (3,207-3,664 euro) and 5,650 euro (4,297-5,974 euro), respectively. For total laryngectomy, the overall cost were 3,581 euro (3,215-3,846 euro) for open and 6,767 euro (6,418-7,389 euro) for TORS. TORS cost is mostly influenced by equipment (54%) where the other procedures are predominantly determined by personnel cost (about 45%). Even when we doubled the yearly case-load, used the shortest operative times or a calculation without robot equipment costs we did not reach cost equivalence. TORS is more expensive than standard approaches and mainly influenced by purchase and maintenance costs and the use of proprietary instruments. Further trials on long-term outcomes and costs following TORS are needed to evaluate its cost-effectiveness.

  2. Inverse scattering from phaseless measurements of the total field on open lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Ovidio Mario; Crocco, Lorenzo; D'Urso, Michele; Isernia, Tommaso

    2006-10-01

    A new solution approach to inverse scattering from aspect-limited phaseless measurements of the total field is introduced and discussed. In analogy with the case of measurements on closed curves [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21, 622 (2004)], the procedure splits the problem into two different steps. In the first step, amplitude and phase of the scattered field are estimated from only amplitude information of the total field. By properly extending the concept of reduced radiated field to the case of scattered fields (as a function of both illumination and measurement variables) and taking advantage of the properties of the square amplitude distribution of the total field, criteria are given for an optimal choice of the measurement setup and a successful retrieval. Then the complex permittivity profile is reconstructed in the second step, starting from the scattered fields estimated in the previous step. Numerical examples are provided to assess the effectiveness of the whole chain in the presence of noise-corrupted data and the relevance of the representation introduced for the scattered fields.

  3. An open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of an AM/PM treatment regimen with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% and calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g in the management of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Menter, Alan; Sofen, Howard; Smith, Stacy; Papp, Kim; Kempers, Steven; Hudson, Charles P; Colón, Luz E; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic condition with serious quality-of-life ramifications. Dermatologists seek alternative treatments of patients with plaque psoriasis that provide both efficacy and safety while minimizing exposure to high-potency steroids that can have adverse effects following long-term use. We report an open-label, multicenter study designed to evaluate a morning/evening (AM/PM) treatment regimen involving clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% and calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g for moderate plaque psoriasis. Participants applied clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in the morning and calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g in the evening for up to 4 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline, week 2, and week 4. The results of this study indicate that a 4-week regimen of clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% treatment in the morning and calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g in the evening is efficacious and without unexpected safety issues for the management of moderate plaque psoriasis.

  4. An open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of a weekday/weekend treatment regimen with calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g and clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in the management of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Charles P; Kempers, Steven; Menter, Alan; Papp, Kim; Smith, Stacy; Sofen, Howard; Colón, Luz E; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald

    2011-10-01

    High-potency topical corticosteroids are the cornerstone of psoriasis therapy. Although highly effective, long-term use of topical steroids can cause adverse side effects. Additionally, steroids alone do not address the multiple pathophysiologic factors that cause the disease. Psoriasis regimens that utilize high-potency steroids combined with nonsteroid-containing products such as vitamin D analogs have been used for many years to manage the disease, not only for the short-term treatment of the disease but also for long-term treatment to minimize the recurrence of symptoms. We report an open-label, multicenter study designed to evaluate a weekday/ weekend treatment regimen involving calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g and clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% for moderate plaque psoriasis. Participants applied calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g twice daily on the weekdays and clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% twice daily on the weekends for up to 4 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline, week 2, and week 4. The results of this study demonstrate that a 4-week regimen of calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g treatment on weekdays and clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% on weekends is effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of moderate plaque psoriasis.

  5. A comparison of intranasal fentanyl spray with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, S; Radbruch, L; Davies, A; Poulain, P; Sitte, T; Perkins, P; Colberg, T; Camba, M A

    2009-11-01

    The efficacy of intranasal fentanyl spray (INFS) was compared with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) for the relief of cancer-related breakthrough pain (BTP) in an open-label, crossover trial. Adult cancer patients receiving stable background opioid treatment and experiencing BTP episodes were recruited from 44 study centres in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom); of the 196 patients enrolled, 139 were randomised to receive INFS followed by OTFC, or vice versa. Patients were titrated to an effective dose of one agent (50, 100 or 200 microg INFS; 200, 400, 600, 800, 1200 or 1600 microg OTFC) to treat six BTP episodes, then titration and treatment were repeated with the other agent. The primary outcome was patient-recorded time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity difference (PID) at 10 and 30 minutes (PID(10), PID(30)), sum of PID at 15 and 60 minutes (SPID(0-15), SPID(0-60)), ease of administration, treatment preference and relationship between background opioid dose and effective INFS dose. Additional outcome measures included proportions of episodes with > or =33% and > or =50% pain intensity (PI) reduction, and PID at additional time points. NCT00496392. Among the intention-to-treat population (n = 139), median time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief was 11 minutes with INFS versus 16 minutes with OTFC; 65.7% of patients attained faster time to 'meaningful' pain-relief onset with INFS (p < 0.001). PID was statistically significantly greater for INFS than OTFC from 5 minutes post-dosing. Significantly more INFS-treated breakthrough pain episodes achieved clinically important pain relief (> or =33% and > or =50% PI reduction) up to 30 minutes post-dosing. The proportions of episodes treated with INFS and OTFC achieving a PI reduction of > or =33% at 5 minutes were 25.3% versus 6.8% (p < 0.001), and at 10 minutes were 51.0% versus 23.6% (p < 0

  6. Predicted and Totally Unexpected in the Energy Frontier Opened by LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    Opening lectures. Sid Coleman and Erice / A. Zichichi. Remembering Sidney Coleman / G.'t Hooft -- Predicted signals at LHC. From extra-dimensions: Multiple branes scenarios and their contenders / I. Antoniadis. Predicted signals at the LHC from technicolor / A. Martin. The one-parameter model at LHC / J. Maxin, E. Mayes and D. V. Nanopoulos. How supercritical string cosmology affects LHC / D. V. Nanopoulos. High scale physics connection to LHC data / P. Nath. Predicted signatures at the LHC from U(I) extensions of the standard model / P. Nath -- Hot theoretical topics. Progress on the ultraviolet finiteness of supergravity / Z. Bern. Status of supersymmetry: Foundations and applications / S. Ferrara and A. Marrani. Quantum gravity from dynamical triangulation / R. Loll. Status of superstring and M-theory / J. H. Schwarz. Some effects of instantons in QCD / G.'t Hooft. Crystalline gravity / G.'t Hooft -- QCD problems. Strongly coupled gauge theories / R. Kenway. Strongly interacting matter at high energy density / L. McLerran. Seminars on specialized topics. The nature and the mass of neutrinos. Majorana vs. Dirac / A. Bettini. The anomalous spin distributions in the nucleon / A. Deshpande. Results from PHENIX at RHIC / M. J. Tannenbaum -- Highlights from laboratories. Highlights from RHIC / Y. Akiba. News from the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory / E. Coccia. Highlights from TRIUMF / N. S. Lockyer. Highlights from Superkamiokande / M. Koshiba. Highlights from Fermilab / P. J. Oddone. Highlights from IHEP / Y. Wang -- Special sessions for new talents. Fake supergravity and black hole evolution / A. Gnecchi. Track-based improvement in the jet transverse momentum resolution for ATLAS / Z. Marshall. Searches for supersymmetric dark matter with XENON / K. Ni. Running of Newton's constant and quantum gravitational effects / D. Reeb.

  7. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C. M.; Garraud, H.; Amouroux, D.; de Diego, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO3 solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Methylmercury compounds were kept intact without decomposition or losses by evaporation. Quantitative recoveries of total mercury were achieved with a two-step microwave attack using a combination of HNO3 and H202 solutions as extractant. The whole pretreatment procedure only takes 15 min, which can be further shortened by an automated robust operation with an open focused system. These analytical procedures were validated by the analysis of environmental certified reference materials. The results confirm that the open focused microwave technique is a promising tool for solid sample preparation in analytical and environmental chemistry. PMID:18924826

  8. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C M; Garraud, H; Amouroux, D; Donard, O F; de Diego, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO(3) solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Methylmercury compounds were kept intact without decomposition or losses by evaporation. Quantitative recoveries of total mercury were achieved with a two-step microwave attack using a combination of HNO(3) and H(2)0(2) solutions as extractant. The whole pretreatment procedure only takes 15 min, which can be further shortened by an automated robust operation with an open focused system. These analytical procedures were validated by the analysis of environmental certified reference materials. The results confirm that the open focused microwave technique is a promising tool for solid sample preparation in analytical and environmental chemistry.

  9. Postoperative Complications of Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy versus Open Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer in a Meta-Analysis of High-Quality Case-Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Sho; Ogawa, Norihito; Tanioka, Toshiro; Okuno, Keisuke; Gokita, Kentaro; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Some meta-analyses of case-controlled studies (CCSs) have shown that laparoscopic or laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LTG) had some short-term advantages over open total gastrectomy (OTG). However, postoperative complications differed somewhat among the meta-analyses, and some CCSs included in the meta-analyses had mismatched factors between LTG and OTG. Methods. CCSs comparing postoperative complications between LTG and OTG were identified in PubMed and Embase. Studies matched for patients' status, tumor stage, and the extents of lymph-node dissection were included. Outcomes of interest, such as anastomotic, other intra-abdominal, wound, and pulmonary complications, were evaluated in a meta-analysis performed using Review Manager version 5.3 software. Result. This meta-analysis included a total of 2,560 patients (LTG, 1,073 patients; OTG, 1,487 patients) from 15 CCSs. Wound complications were significantly less frequent in LTG than in OTG (n = 2,430; odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.85, P = 0.01, I2 = 0%, and OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.17–0.52, P < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). However, the incidence of anastomotic complications was slightly but not significantly higher in LTG than in OTG (n = 2,560; OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.96–2.16, P = 0.08, I2 = 0%). Conclusion. LTG was associated with a lower incidence of wound-related postoperative complications than was OTG in this meta-analysis of CCSs; however, some concern remains about anastomotic problems associated with LTG. PMID:28042292

  10. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  11. A Prospective, Open-Label Study of Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Specht, Lena; Skovgaard, Gunhild L.; Gniadecki, Robert

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low-dose (4 Gy) total skin electron beam therapy as a second-line treatment of Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides in a prospective, open-label study. Methods and Materials: Ten patients (6 men, 4 women, average age 68.7 years [range, 55-82 years]) with histopathologically confirmed mycosis fungoides T2-T4 N0-N1 M0 who did not achieve complete remission or relapsed within 4 months after treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet-A were included. Treatment consisted of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy administered at a total skin dose of 4 Gy given in 4 fractions over 4 successive days. Results: Two patients had a complete clinical response but relapsed after 3.5 months. Six patients had partial clinical responses, with a mean duration of 2.0 months. One patient had no clinical response. Median time to relapse was 2.7 months. One patient died of unrelated causes and did not complete treatment. Acute side effects included desquamation, xerosis, and erythema of the skin. No severe side effects were observed. Conclusion: Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy can induce complete and partial responses in Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides; however, the duration of remission is short. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy may find application in palliative treatment of mycosis fungoides because of limited toxicity and the possibility of repeating treatments for long-term disease control.

  12. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  13. Spray booth with energy saving and fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Napadow, S.C.

    1980-09-23

    This invention teaches an improved exhaust system to be used with a paint spray booth and having a continuously operating power exhaust fan. The exhaust system has a damper that is opened when spraying actively is taking place in the spray booth and that is closed when there is no spraying actively taking place in the spray booth. A control switch is mounted in any of several locations to determine when the spray gun is in use or is not in use. Thus, the control switch is actuated when the spray gun is hung up thus indicating a nonuse condition of the spray system; whereupon use of the spray gun lifts the gun from the hook to indicate spraying activity. A motor drives the damper to the opened position; and a spring biases the damper to the closed position. A timer is also used to delay the closing of the damper until between twenty and possibly two hundred seconds have lapsed after spraying activity has terminated. This purges the spray booth while yet allows for automatic damper control under normal spraying sequences of use and nonuse. A fire sensing switch is used to deenergize the damper motor to allow the damper to be closed in the event of a fire.

  14. Deep Surgical Site Infections after Open Radical Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion Significantly Increase Hospitalisation Time and Total Treatment Costs.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Mathias; Oelke, Matthias; Lutze, Bettina; Weingart, Markus; Kuczyk, Markus A; Chaberny, Iris F; Graf, Karolin

    2017-01-01

    Deep surgical site infections (DSSI) usually require secondary treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the total length of hospitalisation (LOH), intensive care unit (ICU) duration, and total treatment costs in patients with DSSI versus without DSSI after open radical cystectomy (ORC) and urinary diversion. Prospective case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in patients after ORC with urinary diversion during April 2008 to July 2012. DSSI was defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Matched-pair analysis for patients with versus without DSSI was done in 1:2 ratios. Patients with superficial surgical site infections (SSI) were excluded from analysis. In total, 189 operations were performed. Thirty-eight patients (20.1%) developed SSI of which 28 patients (14.8%) had DSSI. Out of 28 patients, 27 (96.4%) were with DSSI and required surgical re-intervention. Due to insufficient matching criteria, 11 patients with DSSI were excluded from analyses. Consequently, 17 patients with DSSI were matched with 34 patients without DSSI. Significant differences were seen for median overall LOH (30 vs. 18 days, p < 0.001), median ICU duration (p = 0.024), and median overall treatment costs (€17,030 vs. €11,402, p = 0.011). DSSI significantly increases LOH (67%) and treatment costs (49%), adding up to a financial loss for the hospital of approximately €5,500 in patients with DSSI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis as a surgical option for severe mouth opening restriction. A case report of a bilateral intervention.

    PubMed

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Manfredini, D; Berrone, S; Ferronato, G

    2007-01-01

    Several conservative treatment approaches to the disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been described in the literature. Nonetheless, in a minority of cases not respondent to reversible conservative therapies a surgical approach to the TMJ is needed. In recent years, a total temporomandibular joint replacement with alloplastic prosthesis have been introduced as a treatment option in the presence of a severely damaged or mutilated joint, mainly resulting from severe joint diseases, as in the case of complex inflammatory-degenerative diseases, or failure of previous surgeries. The present paper described a case report of a bilateral temporomandibular joint replacement intervention in a female patient with severe mouth opening restriction and pain in the TMJ area. Also, a discussion of the potential indications for TMJ replacement has been provided, along with the description of the surgical procedure.

  16. An open label pilot study of supraerythemogenic excimer laser in combination with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of generalized plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ethan; Nguyen, Catherine M; Danesh, Melissa J; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Leon, Argentina; Koo, John

    2016-01-01

    A common therapeutic modality for psoriasis includes the combination of phototherapy with topical treatments. The recent development of targeted phototherapy with the excimer laser and spray formulations for topical treatments has increased the efficacy and convenience of these combinational therapies. Herein, we aim to assess the efficacy of a novel combination of therapies using the 308 nm excimer laser, clobetasol propionate spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. In this 12-week study, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis received twice weekly treatments with a 308-nm excimer laser combined with clobetasol proprionate twice daily for a month followed by calcitriol ointment twice daily for the next month. Of the 30 patients enrolled, 83% of patients (25/30) achieved PASI-75 [65-94%, 95% confidence interval (CI)] at week 12. For PGA, there was an estimated decrease of 3.6 points (3.1-4.1, 95% CI, p < 0.0005) by week 12. In conclusion, the combination of excimer laser with alternating clobetasol and calcitriol application has shown to be a promising combination of therapies for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. Further evaluation may be conducted with a larger study inclusive of control groups and head-to-head comparisons against topical steroid and UVB therapy as monotherapies.

  17. A LONG-PERIOD TOTALLY ECLIPSING BINARY STAR AT THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Brewer, Lauren N. E-mail: orosz@sciences.sdsu.edu; and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 days) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 M {sub Sun }) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 Degree-Sign . Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of the total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries, the low-mass secondary is not significantly inflated in radius compared to model predictions. The primary star characteristics, in combination with cluster photometry and masses from other cluster binaries, indicate a best age of 2.62 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, although stellar model physics may introduce systematic uncertainties at the {approx}10% level. We find preliminary evidence that the asteroseismic predictions for red giant masses in this cluster are systematically too high by as much as 8%.

  18. Revascularization of lower extremity chronic total occlusions with a novel intraluminal recanalization device: results of the ReOpen study.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, Marc; Diaz-Cartelle, Juan; Scheinert, Dierk; Peeters, Patrick; Dawkins, Keith D

    2014-02-01

    To report outcomes of a multicenter, nonrandomized study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of a guidewire-mounted mechanical recanalization device with a rotating distal tip (TruePath) in facilitating the crossing of infrainguinal chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Eligible patients had lower extremity ischemia and an angiographically confirmed occlusion, with no antegrade flow for at least 30 days, in an infrainguinal artery. Enrollment occurred when a previous or concurrent attempt to cross the CTO with a conventional guidewire had failed. A total of 85 patients with 85 lesions were enrolled; 61 (71.8%) target lesions were in the superficial femoral artery and 68 (80%) were considered moderately or heavily calcified. Clinical evaluations were assessed immediately post procedure and at 30-day follow-up. Freedom from clinical perforation at the time of the procedure was achieved in 98.8% of patients. The device facilitated CTO crossing into the distal true lumen (technical success) in 68 (80.0%) patients, with subsequent distal guidewire positioning in 65 (76.5%). The average ABI (n=58) improved from 0.65 (range 0.35-1.20) at baseline to 1.00 (range 0.50-2.00) through 30-day follow-up. Symptoms improved in 70 (82.4%) patients upon treatment, and improvement was maintained in 57/70 (81.4%) through 30 days. The ReOpen Study demonstrated that the TruePath device is safe and effective for facilitating crossing of CTOs resistant to conventional guidewire maneuvers.

  19. Photometric investigation of the totally eclipsing contact binary V12 in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Essam, A.; Ali, G. B.; Haroon, A.-A.

    2015-02-01

    NGC 7789 is an intermediate-age open cluster with an age similar to the mean age of contact binary stars. V12 is a bright W UMa-type binary star with an orbital period of 0.3917 days. The first complete light curves of V12 in the V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney (W-D) method. The results show that V12 is an intermediate-contact binary (f=43.0(±2.2)%) with a mass ratio of 3.848, and it is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is slightly hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetry of the light curves is explained by the presence of a dark spot on the more massive component. The derived orbital inclination (i=83{sub .}{sup ∘}6) indicates that it is a totally eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. The orbital period may show a long-term increase at a rate of P-dot =+2.48(±0.17)×10{sup −6} days yr{sup −1} that reveals a rapid mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. However, more observations are needed to confirm this conclusion. The presence of an intermediate-contact binary in an intermediate-age open cluster may suggest that some contact binaries have a very short pre-contact timescale. The presence of a third body and/or stellar collision may help to shorten the pre-contact evolution.

  20. Arc spraying in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianjun

    2001-03-01

    Although are spraying is not a new technique, recent development of arc spraying device systems, spray wires, research on the coating mechanism, and the dynamic behavior of spraying make it a most active thermal spray process. In China, the arc spraying technique is the most efficient way for long life corrosion protection of steel structures. In addition, the arc spraying process is widely used for renovation and surface modification of machine components, mold making for plastic products, high-temperature corrosion resistance for waterwalls of boilers, antisliding coatings, self-lubricating coatings, etc.

  1. Foliar spray banding characteristics

    Treesearch

    A.R. Womac; C.W. Smith; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2004-01-01

    Foliar spray banding was explored as a means of reducing peticide use compared to broadcast applications. Barious geometric spray patterns and delivery angles of foliar spray bands were investigated to increase spray deposits in a crop row at a constant spray rate of 94 L/ha. Wind-free laboratory results indicated that a banded application using three 65° hollow-cone...

  2. Spray atomization and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    New theoretical and experimental methods for studying sprays are reviewed. Common methods to analyze dilute sprays are described and used to interpret recent measurements of the structure of dilute sprays and related dispersed turbulent jets. Particle-laden jets, nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays, and noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets are examined and used to initially evaluate current analytical methods for a wide range of conditions. Dense sprays are briefly discussed.

  3. Minimizing the total tardiness and makespan in an open shop scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori-Darvish, Samaneh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2012-10-01

    We consider an open shop scheduling problem with setup and processing times separately such that not only the setup times are dependent on the machines, but also they are dependent on the sequence of jobs that should be processed on a machine. A novel bi-objective mathematical programming is designed in order to minimize the total tardiness and the makespan. Among several multi-objective decision making (MODM) methods, an interactive one, called the TH method is applied for solving small-sized instances optimally and obtaining Pareto-optimal solutions by the Lingo software. To achieve Pareto-optimal sets for medium to large-sized problems, an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is presented that consists of a heuristic method for obtaining a good initial population. In addition, by using the design of experiments (DOE), the efficiency of the proposed improved NSGA-II is compared with the efficiency of a well-known multi-objective genetic algorithm, namely SPEA-II. Finally, the performance of the improved NSGA-II is examined in a comparison with the performance of the traditional NSGA-II.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) Removal of an Infected Mesh by Laparoscopy after Open Preperitoneal Repair: Initial Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Naoto; Mishima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Masanori; Toyoda, Tetsutaka; Uchida, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic mesh infection after open or laparoscopic hernia repair is a rare complication. Superficial wound infection can be resolved by treatment with a combination of antibiotics and wound drainage, whereas deep-seated mesh infection, which can lead to chronic groin sepsis, usually requires removal of the mesh. A 56-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of deep-seated mesh infection. The patient had undergone inguinal hernia repair at another hospital 18 months earlier. The operation was prosthetic mesh repair via an anterior approach. The patient developed deep-seated mesh infection despite conservative treatment for infection, such as abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy. Since the patient eventually developed chronic groin sepsis, he was referred to our hospital, and infected mesh was removed successfully by laparoscopic surgery via a totally extraperitoneal approach. The laparoscopic approach provides several advantages, including less postoperative pain, a shorter hospital stay, and earlier rehabilitation. Furthermore, seeding of the abdominal cavity with pus never occurs with this approach unlike the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal approach.

  6. Daily modelling of total electron content with ionosonde observation to the benefit of the open source users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamara, Gulyaeva; Poustovalova, Ljubov; Stanislawska, Iwona

    It is clearly beneficial if the open source databases and models are available free for the users. However a newcomer needs a guidance concerning reliability/consistency of a suitable model and database. Such guidance is provided by the International Standardization Organization which has published Technical Specification, ISO TS16457 on "The Earth's ionosphere model: international reference ionosphere (IRI) model and extensions to the plasmasphere", 2009. One of the ISO TS16457 options is IRI-IZMIRAN ionosphere-plasmasphere model. This model is applied currently to generate vertical total electron content, TEC, at the altitude range [80:20,000] km at (http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/). This approach uses solar activ-ity and geomagnetic activity driving the ionosphere-plasmasphere model, and the integration of electron density profile fitted to ionosonde observation of the F2 layer peak density and height. The paper provides validation of proposed technique and comparisons with GPS-TEC observations and topside ionospheric electron density extrapolation technique providing the ionospheric TEC.

  7. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... discharge from the nozzles. (b) Nozzles attached to the branch lines shall be full cone, corrosion resistant...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... discharge from the nozzles. (b) Nozzles attached to the branch lines shall be full cone, corrosion resistant...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... discharge from the nozzles. (b) Nozzles attached to the branch lines shall be full cone, corrosion resistant...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... discharge from the nozzles. (b) Nozzles attached to the branch lines shall be full cone, corrosion resistant...

  12. Influence of modified open lung concept ventilation on the cardiovascular and pulmonary function of horses during total intravenous anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bringewatt, T; Hopster, K; Kästner, S B R; Rohn, K; Ohnesorge, B

    2010-12-25

    The influence of a modified open lung concept (mOLC) on pulmonary and cardiovascular function during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in horses was evaluated. Forty-two warmblood horses (American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 to 2), scheduled for elective surgery (mean [sd] weight 526 [65] kg, age 6.4 [5.4] years) were randomly divided into three groups: ventilation with mOLC, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and spontaneous breathing. Premedication (0.8 mg/kg xylazine), induction (2.2 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg diazepam) and maintenance of anaesthesia with TIVA (1.4 mg/kg/hour xylazine, 5.6 mg/kg/hour ketamine and 131.1 mg/kg/hour guaifenesin), with inhalation of 35 per cent oxygen in air, were identical in all horses. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pH, and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p(a)O(2)) and carbon dioxide (p(a)CO(2)) were evaluated. Data were collected every 10 minutes from 20 to 90 minutes anaesthesia time. Factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used for statistical analysis (a=5 per cent). Horses in the mOLC-ventilated group had an overall significantly higher p(a)O(2) (16.9 [1.0] v 11.7 [1.34] v 10.5 [0.57] kPa) and lower MAP (93.1 [5.47] v 107.1 [6.99] v 101.2 [5.45] mmHg) than the IPPV and spontaneously breathing groups, respectively.

  13. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  14. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not ... germs.Triamcinolone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever and allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  15. Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    After exposure, the mussels were consolidated into wire mesh cages and placed in the Black River for a 27-28 day postexposure period, after which time survival of mussels was assessed. Of the 1,170 mussels tested in the study, 3 were confirmed dead and 5 were not recovered and treated as mortalities in the analysis. The effect and interactions of species, SDP exposure concentration, and SDP exposure duration were analyzed and did not affect mussel survival (p > 0.98). The results from this study indicate that SDP exposure at the maximum approved open-water concentration of 100 mg/L for up to 3 times the maximum approved open-water exposure duration of 8 hours (in other words for 24 hours of exposure) is unlikely to reduce survival of subadult or adult mussels.

  16. Hydroxyapatite in total hip arthroplasty. Our experience with a plasma spray porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double-coated cementless stem

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Iacopo; Andreani, Lorenzo; Parchi, Paolo Domenico; Bonicoli, Enrico; Piolanti, Nicola; Risoli, Francesca; Lisanti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose Total hip arthroplasty could fail due to many factors and one of the most common is the aseptic loosening. In order to achieve an effective osseointegration and reduce risk of lossening, the use of cemented implant, contact porous bearing surface and organic coating were developed. Aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological mid-term outcomes of a porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double coating manufactured cementless femoral stem applied with “plasma spray” technique and to demonstrate the possibility to use this stem in different types of femoral canals. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2012, 240 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were performed using a porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double coating manufactured cementless femoral stem. 182 patients were examined: 136 were females (74.7%) and 46 males (25.2%); average age was 72 years old (ranging from 26 to 92 years old). For each patient, Harris Hip Scores (HHS) and Womac Scores were collected. All X-ray images were analyzed in order to demonstrate stem survival rate and subsidence. Results Harris Hip Score was good or excellent in 85% of the cases (average 90%) and mean WOMAC score was 97.5 (ranging from 73.4 to 100). No cases of early/late infection or periprosthetic fracture were noticed, with an excellent implant survival rate (100%) in a mean period of 40 months (ranging from 24 and 84 months). 5 cases presented acute implant dislocation, 2 due to wrong cup positioning in a dysplastic acetabulum and 3 after ground level fall. Dorr classification of femoral geometry was uses and the results were: 51 type A bone, 53 type B bone and 78 type C bone. Stem subsidence over 2 mm was considered as a risk factor of future implant loosening and was evidenced in 3 female patients with type C of Dorr classification. No radiolucencies signs around the proximally coated portion of stem or proximal reabsorption were visible during the radiographic

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Totally Percutaneous Access Compared With Open Femoral Exposure for Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhanjiang; Wu, Weiwei; Zhao, Keqiang; Zhao, Junlai; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Chao; Zhu, Rongrong

    2017-04-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of percutaneous (PEVAR) vs open femoral access (OFA) techniques for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A systematic review of English-language articles (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) between January 1999 and August 2016 returned 11 studies including 1650 patients with 2500 groin accesses eligible for the meta-analysis. Data extracted from each study were synthesized to evaluate technical success rates, procedure time, and complications for the 2 access approaches. Data are presented as the odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of individual studies was evaluated based on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The mean technical success rate in the PEVAR group was 94.5% (785/831). The overall OR was 0.38 (95% CI 0.12 to 1.18, p=0.09), indicating no significant difference between the methods. The procedure time in PEVAR was shorter than OFA (mean difference -24.52, 95% CI -46.45 to -22.60, p<0.001). Overall, the total complication rate was 15.3% in the OFA group vs 7.8% in the PEVAR group (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.73, p<0.001). The meta-analysis identified significant differences between groups for all complications (p<0.001) and the following individual adverse events: wound infection (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.81, p=0.02), pseudoaneurysm (OR 8.07, 95% CI 1.54 to 42.32, p=0.01), seroma (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.55, p=0.008), and lymphocele or lymph leak (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.92, p=0.04). PEVAR had a similar technical success rate, shorter procedure time, and lower complication rate compared with OFA. Thus, percutaneous access appears to be the preferential approach for EVAR. However, larger and randomized studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions.

  18. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.

  19. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  20. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  1. Comparative study of voiding and male sexual function following open and laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in patients with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hyuk; Bae, Sung Uk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Young Tae; Choi, Young Deuk

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare voiding and male sexual dysfunction between open and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Ninety-seven patients (62 male and 35 female) who underwent open (n = 41) or laparoscopic (n = 56) surgery for rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. Urine flowmetry, the international prostate symptom score, and the international index of erectile function were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Voiding function score increased 1 month after surgery (open: 9.3 ± 4.6 to 14.0 ± 8.2, laparoscopic: 8.3 ± 5.3 to 12.3 ± 5.2; P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). The score was even higher in both groups after 6 months, but the increases were not statistically significant (open: 9.9 ± 4.5, laparoscopic: 9.2 ± 5.6; P = 0.546 and P = 0.280). Male patients who underwent open surgery (n = 22) experienced declining sexual function until 12 months post surgery (before: 55.2 ± 9.8, 12 months: 48.7 ± 15.9, P = 0.031). In laparoscopic group (n = 28), sexual function decreased until 6 months after surgery, but rose again by 12 months (before: 55.4 ± 9.0, 12 months: 52.2 ± 11.7, P = 0.134). Voiding dysfunction recovered after 6 months following both open and laparoscopic surgery. Male sexual function recovered more quickly in laparoscopic group and returned to preoperative levels after 12 months. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

    2009-07-01

    We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta.

  3. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  4. The "open branch" technique: A new way to prevent paraplegia after total endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Krajcer, Zvonimir; Echeverria, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) has been one of the most concerning complications after surgical and endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair "Open Branch" is an innovative technique to reduce the incidence of SCI Further studies in a larger number of patients with varying pathologies are needed to confirm the advantages of this technique.

  5. Vibrational spraying of liquid by a thin rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. A.

    2008-02-01

    The phenomenon of liquid spraying by a thin rod bent at a right angle and excited with a piezoelectric transducer at one end is observed when the rod touches the open liquid surface at the bending site. The spraying may be accompanied by the formation of a liquid jet, which is emitted from the free end of the bent rod.

  6. Directed Foliar Sprays of Forestry Herbicides for Loblolly Pine Release

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1990-01-01

    Directed foliar sprays are lowcost alternatives to aerial applications of herbicides for releasing pines from competing hardwoods and shrubs (Thomas et al. 1989, Lowery 1981).Directed sprays also could be used in site-preparation treatments, pre-commercial thinnings, hardwood regeneration management, and cover maintenance of wildlife openings, scenic vistas, and...

  7. Comparison of Anesthesia-Controlled Operating Room Time between Propofol-Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Desflurane Anesthesia in Open Colorectal Surgery: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wei-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Lin, Chin; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Lai, Hou-Chuan; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Cherng, Chen-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the anesthesia-controlled time and factors that contribute to prolonged extubation in open colorectal surgery. Using our hospital database, demographic data, various time intervals (waiting for anesthesia time, anesthesia time, surgical time, emergence time, exit from operating room after extubation, total operating room time, and post-anesthesia care unit stay time), and incidence of prolonged extubation (≥ 15 mins), were compared between patients who received desflurane/fentanyl-based anesthesia and total intravenous anesthesia via target-controlled infusion with fentanyl/propofol. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between variables that contributed to prolonged extubation. In conclusion, the anesthesia-controlled time was similar in desflurane anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia for open colorectal surgery in our hospital. Surgical time greater than 210 minutes, as well as age, contributed to prolonged extubation. PMID:27780241

  8. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  9. Minimally invasive versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: Long-term results from a case-matched study of 633 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Soo; Kim, Chang Woo; Baek, Se Jin; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the long-term oncologic outcomes of patients with rectal cancer who underwent either laparoscopic or robotic total mesorectal excision (TME) via minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to those patient who underwent open TME. This study was a retrospective, case-control study; patients in the 2 groups were matched according to age, sex, MIS vs open operation, body mass index, tumor location, pathologic TNM stage (ie, tumor-node-metastasis), neoadjuvant treatment, and adjuvant treatment. A total of 633 patients (MIS, n = 211; open, n = 422) were assessed. The median follow-up period was 64 (2-124) months. Patient characteristics did not differ between the groups. Overall postoperative complication rates did not differ between the groups (16.0% [MIS]; 17.0% [open]; P = .76). Rates of the involvement of the circumferential resection margin did not differ between the groups (4.0% [MIS]; 5.0% [open]; P = .84). The 5-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and local recurrence rates were not different between the MIS and open groups (overall survival = 88.4% vs 85.3%, P = .23; disease-specific survival = 88.8% vs 87.4%, P = .53, disease-free survival = 80.7% vs 78.4%, P = .74; local recurrence = 5.7% vs 5.1%, P = .95). In subgroup analysis, no differences were found in terms of the long-term, oncologic outcomes, oncologic adequacy, and postoperative complications among 3 groups. We found no differences in the oncologic outcomes between MIS and open surgery, suggesting that MIS for rectal cancer is a safe option for rectal cancer that does not increase the risk of serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deluge-type water spray systems. 75.1101-1...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... fire sensor. Actuation of the control valve shall cause water to flow into the branch lines...

  11. Total syntheses of the squalene-derived halogenated polyethers ent-dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol and armatol A via bromonium- and Lewis acid-initiated epoxide-opening cascades

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Brian S.; Tanuwidjaja, Jessica; Ng, Sze-Sze; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Herein we describe in full our investigations leading to the first total syntheses of ent-dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol and armatol A. Discovery of a bromonium-initiated epoxide-opening cascade enabled novel tactics for constructing key fragments found in both natural products and have led us to revise the proposed biogeneses. Other common features found in the routes include convergent fragment coupling strategies to assemble the natural products’ backbones and the use of epoxide-opening cascades for rapid constructions of the fused polyether subunits. Through de novo synthesis of armatol A, we elucidate the absolute and relative configuration of this natural product. PMID:23878408

  12. 78 FR 40312 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to Approved Lenders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...: Improving data accuracy and consistency Allowing for secure and efficient exchange of information Increasing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... TOTAL Scorecard to the Mortgage Industry Standard Maintenance Organization (MISMO) data standards...

  13. Supersonic Particle Deposition (Cold Spray)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 26th Replacement of Hard Chrome and Cadmium Plating Program Review Meeting, January 24-26, 2006, San Diego, CA. Sponsored by SERDP...Spray Cu-W ( clad powder) 197 89-90 HRB Cold Spray Ta 256 21 HRC Cold Spray Ni 403 40-41 HRC Hardness of Various Cold Spray Coatings -Cold Spray

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUND SUPPRESSION SPRAY NOZZLE POSITIONED BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUND SUPPRESSION SPRAY NOZZLE POSITIONED BETWEEN THE TWO SRB EXHAUST OPENINGS - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. Total fistulectomy with simple closure of the internal opening in the management of complex cryptoglandular fistulas: long-term results and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Tobisch, Alexander; Stelzner, Sigmar; Hellmich, Gunter; Jackisch, Thomas; Witzigmann, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Total fistulectomy with simple closure of the internal opening has been used for the management of complex anal fistulas. This approach involves complete removal of the fistula tract and closure of the internal opening with sutures. This study aimed to report long-term outcomes in patients with complex cryptoglandular fistulas who undergo this procedure. This is a retrospective review of a prospectively collected consecutive series. This study was conducted at a community-based hospital with a specialized colorectal unit. : Patients included in this study had cryptoglandular fistulas and underwent total fistulectomy with simple closure of the internal opening between 1997 and 2007. The main outcome measures were success rate and postoperative continence (Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence Scale). Treatment was considered successful if the external opening was closed and no drainage was present at the last follow-up. Success was achieved in 187 (74%) patients with a median follow-up time of 70 (range, 14-141) months. Patients with posterior transsphincteric or suprasphincteric fistulas had a higher success rate than those with other types of fistulas (82% vs 67%;p = 0.014), and patients for whom the procedure failed were significantly younger than those for whom the procedure was a success (mean, 45 vs 50 years; p = 0.010). Of 160 patients with success who had no previous surgery, 89 (56%) had normal continence postoperatively (CCF-FI score = 0). The limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, the potential for selection bias, and the lack of preoperative continence scores. Total fistulectomy with simple closure of the internal opening is effective for the long-term closure of complex cryptoglandular fistulas.However, this procedure may affect continence despite its sphincter-sparing quality. Nonetheless, the high success rate in patients with posterior transsphincteric or suprasphincteric fistulas renders this procedure a reasonable option

  16. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  17. Sodium Spray Would Speed Silicon Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Production rate of solar-grade silicon in sodium/silicon tetrafluoride reactor increase by spray feed. Liquid-sodium droplet size is controlled by pressure of argon gas and by nozzle design. Baffle helps to prevent reactor opening from becoming clogged by reaction products.

  18. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  19. The "Open Branch" Technique: A New Way to Prevent Paraplegia After Total Endovascular Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mangialardi, Nicola; Lachat, Mario; Esposito, Andrea; Puippe, Gilberte; Orrico, Matteo; Alberti, Vittorio; Fazzini, Stefano; Ronchey, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Staged endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) has been proved to be an effective strategy to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia (SCI). Several techniques have been described: some imply the staged coverage of the aorta, other the temporarily perfusion of the sac through a branch left unstented or a dedicated branch that will be occluded later. The aim of those is to facilitate the expansion of the collateral network that perfuses the spinal cord. However, each of them, have some disadvantages such as the need of two interventions of big magnitude and the risk of target vessel occlusion or endograft displacement. We describe a new technique to treat TAAA in a staged manner. The first step of our technique is the thoracoabdominal endograft deployment with the branching of all target vessels; one of these is branched with a bare stent inside which a covered stent will be placed in a second step, which can be perfomed under local anesthesia. We named this technique "open branch" (OB). Before insertion of the covered stent, a balloon is inflated inside the bare stent to simulate the complete sac exclusion to evaluate eventual neurological complication. Two patients with Crawford type II TAAA and one with a suprarenal aneurysm following the open repair of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were treated. No cases of SCI were observed after the two procedures. Median interval time between the two procedures was 8, 6 weeks (4-16). Between the two steps, no aneurysm growth or rupture and no branch occlusion or endograft displacement was observed. These three cases of "OB" technique show that this is a safe and feasible alternative strategy to treat TAAA in a staged manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Phase I, open-label, randomized, crossover study in three parallel groups to evaluate the effect of Rifampicin, Ketoconazole, and Omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stott, Colin; White, Linda; Wright, Stephen; Wilbraham, Darren; Guy, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    This Phase I study aimed to assess the potential drug-drug interactions (pharmacokinetic [PK] and safety profile) of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex (®), nabiximols) in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer (rifampicin) or inhibitors (ketoconazole or omeprazole). Thirty-six healthy male subjects were divided into three groups of 12, and then randomized to one of two treatment sequences per group. Subjects received four sprays of THC/CBD (10.8/10 mg) alongside single doses of the CYP3A and 2C19 inducer rifampicin (600 mg), CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (400 mg) or CYP2C19 inhibitor omeprazole (40 mg). Plasma samples were analyzed for CBD, THC and its metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC). A single dose of four sprays of THC/CBD spray (10.8/10 mg) following repeated doses of rifampicin (600 mg) reduced the Cmax and AUC of all analytes. Cmax reduced from 2.94 to 1.88 ng/mL (-36%), 1.03 to 0.50 ng/mL (-52%) and 3.38 to 0.45 ng/mL (-87%) for THC, CBD and 11-OH-THC, respectively compared to single dose administration of THC/CBD spray alone. Ketoconazole co-administration with THC/CBD spray had the opposite effect, increasing the Cmax of the respective analytes from 2.65 to 3.36 ng/mL (+27%), 0.66 to 1.25 ng/mL (+89%) and 3.59 to 10.92 ng/mL (+204%). No significant deviations in Cmax or AUC for any analyte were observed when THC/CBD spray was co-administered with omeprazole. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated by the study subjects both alone and in combination with rifampicin, ketoconazole and omeprazole. Evaluation of the PKs of THC/CBD spray alone and in combination with CYP450 inhibitors/inducers suggests that all analytes are substrates for the isoenzyme CYP3A4, but not CYP2C19. On the basis of our findings, there is likely to be little impact on other drugs metabolized by CYP enzymes on the PK parameters of THC/CBD spray, but potential effects should be taken into consideration when co-administering THC/CBD spray

  1. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  2. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P.

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  3. Spray measurement technology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fansler, Todd D.; Parrish, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Sprays are among the most intellectually challenging and practically important topics in fluid mechanics. This paper reviews needs, milestones, challenges, and a broad array of techniques for spray measurement. In addition, tabular summaries provide cross-referenced entry points to the vast literature by organizing over 300 citations according to key spray phenomena, physical parameters and measurement techniques for each of the principal spray regions (nozzle internal flow, near-field spray-formation region, far-field developed spray, and spray-wall interaction). The article closes with perspectives on some current issues in spray research, including the cost and complexity of apparatus for spray physics and spray engineering, the need for simultaneous diagnostic measurements under application-relevant conditions, and the effective comparison of spray measurements and numerical simulations.

  4. Appropriate maximum holding times for analysis of total suspended solids concentration in water samples taken from open-channel waterways.

    PubMed

    Oudyn, Frederik W; Lyons, David J; Pringle, M J

    2012-01-01

    Many scientific laboratories follow, as standard practice, a relatively short maximum holding time (within 7 days) for the analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) in environmental water samples. In this study we have subsampled from bulk water samples stored at ∼4 °C in the dark, then analysed for TSS at time intervals up to 105 days after collection. The nonsignificant differences in TSS results observed over time demonstrates that storage at ∼4 °C in the dark is an effective method of preserving samples for TSS analysis, far past the 7-day standard practice. Extending the maximum holding time will ease the pressure on sample collectors and laboratory staff who until now have had to determine TSS within an impractically short period.

  5. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  6. An overview of spray drift reduction testing of spray nozzles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of the development and testing of drift reduction technologies (DRTs) is increasing. Common spray drift reduction technologies include spray nozzles and spray adjuvants. Following draft procedures developed for a DRT program, three spray nozzles were tested under high air speed cond...

  7. Importance of open marine waters to the enrichment of total mercury and monomethylmercury in lichens in the Canadian High Arctic.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, K A; St Louis, V L; Kirk, J L; Lehnherr, I; Wang, S; La Farge, C

    2015-05-19

    Caribou, which rely on lichens as forage, are a dietary source of monomethylmercury (MMHg) to many of Canada's Arctic Aboriginal people. However, little is understood about the sources of MMHg to lichens in the High Arctic. We quantified MMHg, total mercury (THg) and other chemical parameters (e.g., marine and crustal elements, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, organic carbon, calcium carbonate) in lichen and soil samples collected along transects extending from the coast on Bathurst and Devon islands, Nunavut, to determine factors driving lichen MMHg and THg concentrations in the High Arctic. Lichen MMHg and THg concentrations ranged from 1.41 to 17.1 ng g(-1) and from 36.0 to 361 ng g(-1), respectively. Both were highly enriched over concentrations in underlying soils, indicating a predominately atmospheric source of Hg in lichens. However, MMHg and THg enrichment at coastal sites on Bathurst Island was far greater than on Devon Island. We suggest that this variability can be explained by the proximity of the Bathurst Island transect to several polynyas, which promote enhanced Hg deposition to adjacent landscapes through various biogeochemical processes. This study is the first to clearly show a strong marine influence on MMHg inputs to coastal terrestrial food webs with implications for MMHg accumulation in caribou and the health of the people who depend on them as part of a traditional diet.

  8. Perioperative monitoring of total body water by bio-electrical impedance in children undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Maehara, T; Novak, I; Wyse, R K; Elliot, M J

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the changes in total body water (TBW) following cardiac surgery (OHS) in children would be of value in fluid therapy and in researching the causes and management of capillary leak. We have validated a bioelectrical impedance technique (BEI) for non-invasive estimation of TBW in children after OHS. We report the use of this method in a longitudinal study. Twenty patients (mean age 4.7 years +/- 3.5 (SD), mean weight (WT) 16.2 kg +/- 1 kg) undergoing a variety of complex OHS procedures were studied from 1 day preoperatively to 4 days postoperatively. Anaesthetic and basic bypass (CPB) techniques were uniform. Six patients underwent CPB at less than 20 degrees C, 10 at 20 degrees - 25 degrees C and 4 at 26 degrees - 33 degrees C. TBW (BEI), core (ctemp) and peripheral (ptemp) temperatures and fluid balance (TFB) were recorded at frequent intervals. TBW (by BEI) rose (P less than 0.001) following CPB in all patients from 62% +/- 9% (SD) body weight preoperatively to 73% +/- 13% in the ICU (an increase of 11% +/- 5%). TBW remained significantly elevated until the 3rd postoperative day. Multivariate analysis (MVA) confirmed that TBW was significantly related to TFB, but not to ctemp or ptemp. MVA also revealed smaller patient size (height and weight), younger age and longer CPB time as incremental risk factors for the rise in TBW. (1) BEI permits the non-invasive study of TBW in children after OHS, when TBW variation may be considerable. (2) The smaller the child and the longer the CPB, the greater the rise in TBW. (3) The technique should be a valuable tool in researching the major water fluxes associated with CPB in children.

  9. Direct hospital costs of total laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with fast-track open hysterectomy at a tertiary hospital: a retrospective case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rhou, Yoon J J; Pather, Selvan; Loadsman, John A; Campbell, Neil; Philp, Shannon; Carter, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    To assess the direct intraoperative and postoperative costs in women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy and fast-track open hysterectomy. A retrospective review of the direct hospital-related costs in a matched cohort of women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and fast-track open hysterectomy (FTOH) at a tertiary hospital. All costs were calculated, including the cost of advanced high-energy laparoscopic devices. The effect of the learning curve on cost in laparoscopic hysterectomy was also assessed, as was the hospital case-weighted cost, which was compared with the actual cost. Fifty women were included in each arm of the study. TLH had a higher intraoperative cost, but a lower postoperative cost than FTOH (AUD$3877 vs AUD$2776 P < 0.001, AUD$3965 vs AUD$6233 P < 0.001). The total cost of TLH was not different from FTOH (AUD$7842 vs AUD$9009 P = 0.068) and after a learning curve; TLH cost less than FTOH (AUD$6797 vs AUD$8647, P < 0.001). The use of high-energy devices did not impact on the cost benefit of TLH, and hospital case-weight-based funding correlated poorly with actual cost. Despite the use of fast-track recovery protocols, the cost of TLH is no different to FTOH and after a learning curve is cheaper than open hysterectomy. Judicious use of advanced energy devices does not impact on the cost, and hospital case-weight-based funding model in our hospital is inaccurate when compared to directly calculated hospital costs. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  11. Comparative Study between Robotic Total Thyroidectomy with Central Lymph Node Dissection via Bilateral Axillo-breast Approach and Conventional Open Procedure for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Da-Yong; Fan, Zi-Yi; Zheng, Lu-Ming; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Lei; Yu, Fang; Li, Yan-Ning; Xiao, Lei; Dong, Xue-Feng; Ni, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of the patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma are young women. Therefore, minimally invasive endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection (CND) emerged and showed well-accepted results with improved cosmetic outcome, accelerated healing, and comforting the patients. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robotic total thyroidectomy with CND via bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA), compared with conventional open procedure in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Methods: One-hundred patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma from March 2014 to January 2015 in Jinan Military General Hospital of People's Liberation Army (PLA) were randomly assigned to robotic group or conventional open approach group (n = 50 in each group). The total operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, numbers of lymph node removed, visual analog scale (VAS), postoperative hospital stay time, complications, and numerical scoring system (NSS, used to assess cosmetic effect) were analyzed. Results: The robotic total thyroidectomy with CND via BABA was successfully performed in robotic group. There were no conversion from the robotic surgeries to open or endoscopic surgery. The subclinical central lymph node metastasis rate was 35%. The mean operative time of the robotic group was longer than that of the conventional open approach group (118.8 ± 16.5 min vs. 90.7 ± 10.3 min, P < 0.05). The study showed significant differences between the two groups in terms of the VASs (2.1 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and NSS (8.9 ± 0.8 vs. 4.8 ± 1.7, P < 0.05). The differences between the two groups in the estimated intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay time, numbers of lymph node removed, postoperative thyroglobulin levels, and complications were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05). Neither iatrogenic implantation nor metastasis occurred in punctured porous channel or chest wall in both groups

  12. [Study on totai flavonoids of Epimedium assisted with soybean polysaccharide spray-drying powder].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Deng, Jia-hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate the characteristics of the spray drying of total flavonoids of Epimedium extracts assisted with soybean polysaccharide, a certain percentage of soybean polysaccharide or polyvidone were added to the total flavonoids of Epimedium extract to conduct the spray drying. The effect of soybean polysaccharides against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying was detected, as well as the powder property of total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component. Compared with the total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder, soybean polysaccharide revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect. The spray drying power which had no notable change in the grain size made a increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior. It was worth further studying the application of soybean polysaccharide in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. The circumferential resection margins status: A comparison of robotic, laparoscopic and open total mesorectal excision for mid and low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, J P; Valadão, M; de Castro Araujo, R O; Cesar, D; Linhares, E; Iglesias, A C

    2016-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer (RC) is now widely performed via the laparoscopic approach, but robotic-assisted surgery may overcome some limitations of laparoscopy in RC treatment. We compared the rate of positive circumferential margins between robotic, laparoscopic and open total mesorectal excision (TME) for RC in our institution. Mid and low rectal adenocarcinoma patients consecutively submitted to robotic surgery were compared to laparoscopic and open approach. From our prospective database, 59 patients underwent robotic-assisted rectal surgery from 2012 to 2015 (RTME group) were compared to our historical control group comprising 200 open TME (OTME group) and 41 laparoscopic TME (LTME group) approaches from July 2008 to February 2012. Primary endpoint was to compare the rate of involved circumferential resection margins (CRM) and the mean CRM between the three groups. Secondary endpoint was to compare the mean number of resected lymph nodes between the three groups. CRM involvement was demonstrated in 20 patients (15.5%) in OTME, 4 (16%) in LTME and 9 (16.4%) in the RTME (p = 0.988). The mean CRM in OTME, LTME and RTME were respectively 0.6 cm (0-2.7), 0.7 cm (0-2.0) and 0.6 cm (0-2.0) (p = 0.960). Overall mean LN harvest was 14 (0-56); 16 (0-52) in OTME, 13 (1-56) in LTME and 10 (0-45) in RTME (p = 0.156). Our results suggest that robotic TME has the same oncological short-term results when compared to the open and laparoscopic technique, and it could be safely offered for the treatment of mid and low rectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... best for decreasing symptoms during that season. Several brands of nasal corticosteroid sprays are available. They all ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  15. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by an allergy to pollen, mold, dust, or pets). Budesonide nasal spray should not be used to ... disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, ...

  16. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pump until you see a fine spray. Blow your nose until your nostrils are clear. Hold ... chills, cough, and other signs of infection whistling sound from the nose hives rash itching swelling of ...

  17. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  18. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  19. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny or itchy nose. Ciclesonide is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by preventing ... hold the bottle firmly with your forefinger and middle finger on either side of the spray tip ...

  20. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the common cold. It is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking ... spray with the applicator between your forefinger and middle finger and the bottom of the bottle resting ...

  1. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottle in front of a tissue or paper towel. Pump the spray bottle six to eight times ... up the spill immediately with a cloth or paper towel. Avoid touching the liquid. Throw away the used ...

  2. Directed spray mast

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Siddall, Alvin A.; Cheng, William Y.; Counts, Kevin T.

    2005-05-10

    Disclosed is an elongated, tubular, compact high pressure sprayer apparatus for insertion into an access port of vessels having contaminated interior areas that require cleaning by high pressure water spray. The invention includes a spray nozzle and a camera adjacent thereto with means for rotating and raising and lowering the nozzle so that areas identified through the camera may be cleaned with a minimum production of waste water to be removed.

  3. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  4. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  5. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  6. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  7. Plasma-sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.

    1988-09-01

    Plasma spraying is one way to apply protective coatings. The hot, high-speed flame of a plasma gun can melt a powder of almost any ceramic or metal and spray it to form a coating for protection against corrosion, wear or high temperature. The technique carries much less risk of degrading the coating and substrate than many other high-temperature processes do, because the gas in the plasma flame is chemically inert and the target can be kept fairly cool. And yet a plasma gun can be only a little more cumbersome than a paint sprayer. Investigators are applying this technique to new materials. The General Electric Company is using vacuum plasma spraying to make freestanding components: intricate aircraft engine parts formed by plasma-spraying a superalloy on a removable substrate. Other workers spray ceramic particles or fibers and metal powder simulatious wrong, stiff composite materials: the ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix of metal. The author and colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have fabricated a thick film of high-temperature superconductor by plasma-spraying the compound in the form of a powder. 7 figs.

  8. Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed.

  9. Gas Permeability of Porous Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann-Ténèze, K.; Caron, N.; Alexandre, S.

    2008-12-01

    For different applications, such as solid oxide fuel cells, there is an interest in understanding the relationship between the microstructure and the gas permeability of plasma-sprayed coatings. Nevertheless, plasma spraying processes allow to elaborate coatings with singular microstructures, depending strongly on the initial material and plasma operating conditions. And so, the evolution of permeability is not directly linked to the porosity. In this work, coatings were manufactured using different initial feedstock and spray parameters to obtain various microporous structures. Measurements of their permeation with the pressure drop method and their open porosity just as the observation of the morphology and the structure by optical microscopy were achieved. The different data show that the evolution of the gas permeability with the open porosity follows the Kozeny-Carman equation. This result correlated with the microstructural observation highlights the relationship between the permeability and the physical properties of porous plasma-sprayed layers.

  10. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of totally percutaneous access versus open femoral exposure for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (the PEVAR trial).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter R; Kracjer, Zvonimir; Kansal, Nikhil; Rao, Vikram; Bianchi, Christian; Hashemi, Homayoun; Jones, Paul; Bacharach, J Michael

    2014-05-01

    The first multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed and conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of totally percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (PEVAR) with use of a 21F endovascular stent graft system and either an 8 F or 10 F suture-mediated closure system (the PEVAR trial, NCT01070069). A noninferiority trial design was chosen to compare percutaneous access with standard open femoral exposure. Between 2010 and 2012, 20 U.S. institutions participated in a prospective, Food and Drug Administration-approved randomized trial to evaluate percutaneous femoral artery access and closure by a "preclose" technique in conjunction with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A total of 151 patients were allocated by a 2:1 design to percutaneous access/closure (n = 101) or open femoral exposure (n = 50 [FE]). PEVAR procedures were performed with either the 8 F Perclose ProGlide (n = 50 [PG]) or the 10 F Prostar XL (n = 51 [PS]) closure devices. All endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures were performed with the Endologix 21 F profile (outer diameter) sheath-based system. Patients were screened by computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction and independent physician review for anatomic suitability and adequate femoral artery anatomy for percutaneous access. The primary trial end point (treatment success) was defined as procedural technical success and absence of major adverse events and vascular complications at 30 days. An independent access closure substudy evaluated major access-related complications. Clinical utility and procedural outcomes, ankle-brachial index, blood laboratory analyses, and quality of life were also evaluated with continuing follow-up to 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. Procedural technical success was 94% (PG), 88% (PS), and 98% (FE). One-month primary treatment success was 88% (PG), 78% (PS), and 78% (FE), demonstrating noninferiority vs FE for PG (P

  11. Spray forming of superplastic aluminum sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.; McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Ingot metallurgy (I/M) processing methods for superplastic aluminum sheet require substantial hot, warm and final cold rolling reduction steps to produce the desired fine grain size and thermally-stable microstructure necessary for superplastic forming (SPF). The rapid solidification rates associated with spray forming offer the potential for economic processing of near net-thickness SPF sheet having alloy compositions that are not possible with conventional ingot metallurgy. To evaluate the application of spray forming for SPF aluminum sheet, a modified 5083 alloy was supplied to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for processing using laboratory spray-forming equipment. Spray-formed sheet specimens were then supplied to the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory for characterization and comparison with conventional I/M-based SPF sheet. Results show that the spray formed material, when processed using appropriate homogenization and cold reduction steps (3:1 total reduction), has an equiaxed grain size of 2--4 {micro}m near the deposition substrate. However, microstructural examination indicates that grain size increases as a function of the distance from the deposition substrate. Tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 550 C and constant strain rates over a range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} to evaluate the superplastic behavior of the spray-formed samples. Results show that the spray-formed material having a 3:1 cold rolling reduction has superplastic elongation equivalent to I/M materials processed with a 60:1 reduction.

  12. Advanced spray generator of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalek, Otomar; Hrubý, Jan; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena

    2007-05-01

    A spray type singlet oxygen generator (SOG) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied. Mathematical modeling has shown that a high O II(1Δ) yield can be attained with BHP (basic hydrogen peroxide) spray in the Cl II-He atmosphere. It was found experimentally that O II(1Δ) was produced with a >=50% yield at a total pressure up to 50 kPa (375 Torr). A rotating separator was developed that can segregate even very small droplets (>=0.5 μm) from O II(1Δ) flow.

  13. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  14. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  15. Third degree open fractures and traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity: Outcome and relevance of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score.

    PubMed

    Fochtmann, A; Binder, H; Rettl, G; Starlinger, J; Aszmann, O; Sarahrudi, K; Hajdu, S

    2016-10-01

    Third degree open fractures and traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity represent severe injuries and are associated with a high rate of functional impairment of the affected extremity. More than 20 years ago, the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was introduced to predict amputation following severe lower extremity trauma. However, there have been few studies evaluating MESS in connection with the mangled upper limb. A retrospective medical chart review was performed of all patients diagnosed with the aforementioned fractures of the upper extremity treated at the Department of trauma surgery (level I trauma center) and the Clinical division of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the general hospital of Vienna between 1994 and 2014. Fifty-four out of 606 patients (9%) suffered from a total of 61 third degree open fractures or traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity (Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIA, n=30; Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIB, n=15; Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIC, n=9; traumatic sub-/total amputations, n=7). Thirty-seven out of 54 patients (69%) suffered fractures of the forearm, 10/54 (19%) patients of the humerus and 7/54 (13%) patients of the forearm and the humerus. The median MESS and Injury Severity Score (ISS) for all patients was 5 (range: 3-10) and 9 (range: 4-50), respectively. Seventeen out of 54 patients (31%) were diagnosed with a MESS≥7. Twenty-one out of 54 patients (39%) suffered severe vascular injuries and 22/54 (41%) patients suffered injuries of neural structures. Throughout the therapy process, 6/54 (11%) patients died. Definite limb salvage was achieved in 45 (94%) of the 48 survivors, of whom 9/45 (20%) subjects had a MESS≥7. It became apparent that definite limb salvage could be achieved in the mangled upper extremity regardless of MESS. It should be noted that in the current study, limb functionality was not assessed. However, without a standardized scoring system, there might be

  16. Thermal spray processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  17. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  18. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  19. Acoustic effects of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Maciej Z.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

    1994-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, it has been known that realistic combustion models for liquid fuel rocket engines should contain at least a rudimentary treatment of atomization and spray physics. This is of particular importance in transient operations. It has long been recognized that spray characteristics and droplet vaporization physics play a fundamental role in determining the stability behavior of liquid fuel rocket motors. This paper gives an overview of work in progress on design of a numerical algorithm for practical studies of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors. For flexibility, the algorithm is composed of semi-independent solution modules, accounting for different physical processes. Current findings are report and future work is indicated. The main emphasis of this research is the development of an efficient treatment to interactions between acoustic fields and liquid fuel/oxidizer sprays.

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of reformulated azelastine nasal spray in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Prenner, Bruce; Ferguson, Berrylin J; Portnoy, Jay; Wheeler, William J; Sacks, Harry J

    2009-01-01

    Azelastine nasal spray is a topical antihistamine with a distinctive taste that may be objectionable to some patients. The primary objectives of this clinical trial were (1) to determine if a reformulated azelastine nasal spray (Astepro) with sucralose as a taste-masking agent provides comparable efficacy to the original formulation (Astelin) and (2) to evaluate dose-response relationships between groups. Eight hundred thirty-five patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomized to six treatment groups: (1) original azelastine nasal spray, 1 spray/nostril b.i.d.; (2) reformulated azelastine, 1 spray/nostril b.i.d.; (3) placebo, 1 spray/ nostril b.i.d.; (4) original azelastine nasal spray, 2 sprays/nostril b.i.d., (5) reformulated, 2 sprays/nostril b.i.d.; and (6) placebo, 2 sprays/nostril b.i.d. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to day 14 in total nasal symptom score (TNSS) consisting of runny nose, sneezing, itchy nose, and nasal congestion. Original azelastine nasal spray and the reformulated spray produced comparable improvements in the TNSS at both dosages. There was a dose-related difference in TNSS comparing the 1- and 2-spray dosages. The percentage changes from baseline in the TNSS in the 2-sprays/nostril dosage groups were 27.9% (p<0.001) with the reformulated nasal spray, 23.5% (p<0.01) with the original formulation, and 15.4% with placebo. The incidence of bitter taste was 7% with the reformulated spray and 8% with the original at the 2-sprays/nostril dosage. The results of this study showed efficacy both with original azelastine nasal spray and with the reformulated nasal spray and a clear dose-response difference between the 1- and 2-spray dosages.

  1. Controlled overspray spray nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A spray system for a multi-ingredient ablative material wherein a nozzle A is utilized for suppressing overspray is described. The nozzle includes a cyclindrical inlet which converges to a restricted throat. A curved juncture between the cylindrical inlet and the convergent portion affords unrestricted and uninterrupted flow of the ablative material. A divergent bell-shaped chamber and adjustable nozzle exit B is utilized which provides a highly effective spray pattern in suppressing overspray to an acceptable level and producing a homogeneous jet of material that adheres well to the substrate.

  2. Evaluation of tungsten shaped-charge liners spray-formed using the low-pressure plasma spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, E.R.; Sickinger, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper documents the results of a DARPA Phase 1 SBIR program which was awarded following a solicitation to develop new technologies for the forming of refractory metal shaped-charge liners. Holtgren had proposed to manufacture liners by spraying refractory metal powder onto a rapidly-rotating mandrel inside the chamber of a low-pressure plasma spray system. A total of nine tungsten shaped-charge liners were sprayed during the course of the program. Metallographic evaluation of the liners revealed that the as-sprayed microstructure was dense, averaging 98.5% density. The grain structure is equiaxed and fine, averaging five microns in diameter. The sprayed shapes were then processed to the final liner configuration by cylindrical grinding. The liners were ductile enough to withstand the strains of grinding and normal handling.

  3. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  4. Hydrogen no-vent testing in a 5 cubic foot (142 liter) tank using spray nozzle and spray bar liquid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 38 hydrogen no-vent fill tests were performed in this test series using various size spray nozzles and a spray bar with different hole sizes in a 5 cubic foot receiver tank. Fill levels of 90 percent by volume or greater were achieved in 26 of the tests while maintaining a receiver tank pressure below 30 psia. Spray nozzles were mounted at the top of the tank, whereas, the spray bar was centered in the tank axially. The spray nozzle no-vent fills demonstrated tank pressure and temperature responses comparable to previous test series. Receiver tank pressure responses for the spray bar configuration were similar to the spray nozzle tests with the pressure initially rising rapidly, then leveling off as vapor condenses onto the discharging liquid streams, and finally ramping up near the end of the test due to ullage compression. Both liquid injection techniques tested were capable of filling the receiver tank to 90 percent under variable test conditions. Comparisons between the spray nozzle and spray bar configurations for well matched test conditions indicate the spray nozzle injection technique is more effective in minimizing the receiving tank pressure throughout a no-vent fill compared to the spray bar under normal gravity conditions.

  5. Hydrogen no-vent fill testing in a 5 cubic foot (142 liter) tank using spray nozzle and spray bar liquid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 38 hydrogen no-vent fill tests were performed in this test series using various size spray nozzles and a spray bar with different hole sizes in a 5 cubic foot receiver tank. Fill levels of 90 percent by volume or greater were achieved in 26 of the tests while maintaining a receiver tank pressure below 30 psia. Spray nozzles were mounted at the top of the tank, whereas, the spray bar was centered in the tank axially. The spray nozzle no-vent fills demonstrated tank pressure and temperature responses comparable to previous test series. Receiver tank pressure responses for the spray bar configuration were similar to the spray nozzle tests with the pressure initially rising rapidly, then leveling off as vapor condenses onto the discharging liquid streams, and finally ramping up near the end of the test due to ullage compression. Both liquid injection techniques tested were capable of filling the receiver tank to 90 percent under variable test conditions. Comparisons between the spray nozzle and spray bar configurations for well matched test conditions indicate the spray nozzle injection technique is more effective in minimizing the receiving tank pressure throughout a no-vent fill compared to the spray bar under normal gravity conditions.

  6. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  7. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  8. The use of the harmonic scalpel to reduce morbidity during open total abdominal hysterectomies with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO).

    PubMed

    Grassie, K; Makii, M

    2001-05-01

    The ultrasonic scalpel (USS) is a hemostatic surgical instrument used for incising and dissecting tissues. It works by using ultrasonic waves to denature collagen forming a coagulum. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic scalpel in open total abdominal hysterectomies with bilateral salpingo-oophrectomies.This study was a nonrandomized study, with 16 cases of total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy being done with the ultrasonic scalpel, and 21 cases being done with the traditional methods of dissection and ligation. The 2 groups were compared in terms of intraoperative blood loss, time, and cost, as well as in terms of postoperative complication and length of stay.Demographically, no significant differences in age or weight existed among the patients in the 2 operative groups. (p = 0.71, p = 0.64, respectively). A statistically significant reduction did occur in the estimated blood loss with the use of the harmonic scalpel (p = 0.05). No significant differences existed between the 2 patient groups in terms of operative time (p = 0.77), intraoperative costs (p = 0.11), or length of hospital stay (p = 0.45). However, 52% of the patients in the traditional method group suffered from postoperative complications that included acute myocardial infarction (N = 1), ileus (N = 5), urinary retention (N = 1), urinary incontinence (N = 1), respiratory failure (N = 1), and failure to thrive (N = 1). Only 25% of the patients undergoing the USS resection suffered from complications. These complications included urinary retention (N = 2), respiratory failure (N = 1), and ileus (N = 1).A statistically significant reduction occurred in estimated blood loss with the use of the USS (p < 0.05). There is also decreased intraoperative time, as well as decreased postoperative complications and length of stay in this same group; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Also, more complications are reported in

  9. Picosecond imaging of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

  10. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rinse the tip of the dispenser with hot water or wipe it clean after you use it.Follow the directions for using the nasal spray that appear on the package label. If you are using a product that comes in a pump dispenser, press down on the rim several times ...

  11. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  12. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  13. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... in cold water and rinse them in cold water, let them dry at room temperature, and then put them back on the bottle.If the spray tip is clogged, wash it in cold water and then rinse it in cold water and ...

  14. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  15. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  16. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  17. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  18. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  19. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  20. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm.

  1. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  2. A Method to Predict the Thickness of Poorly-Bonded Material Along Spray and Spray-Layer Boundaries in Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangfan; Hamada, Yukitaka; Otobe, Katsunori; Ando, Teiichi

    2017-02-01

    Multi-traverse CS provides a unique means for the production of thick coatings and bulk materials from powders. However, the material along spray and spray-layer boundaries is often poorly bonded as it is laid by the leading and trailing peripheries of the spray that carry powder particles with insufficient kinetic energy. For the same reason, the splats in the very first layer deposited on the substrate may not be bonded well either. A mathematical spray model was developed based on an axisymmetric Gaussian mass flow rate distribution and a stepped deposition yield to predict the thickness of such poorly-bonded layers in multi-traverse CS deposition. The predicted thickness of poorly-bonded layers in a multi-traverse Cu coating falls in the range of experimental values. The model also predicts that the material that contains poorly bonded splats could exceed 20% of the total volume of the coating.

  3. A Method to Predict the Thickness of Poorly-Bonded Material Along Spray and Spray-Layer Boundaries in Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangfan; Hamada, Yukitaka; Otobe, Katsunori; Ando, Teiichi

    2016-12-01

    Multi-traverse CS provides a unique means for the production of thick coatings and bulk materials from powders. However, the material along spray and spray-layer boundaries is often poorly bonded as it is laid by the leading and trailing peripheries of the spray that carry powder particles with insufficient kinetic energy. For the same reason, the splats in the very first layer deposited on the substrate may not be bonded well either. A mathematical spray model was developed based on an axisymmetric Gaussian mass flow rate distribution and a stepped deposition yield to predict the thickness of such poorly-bonded layers in multi-traverse CS deposition. The predicted thickness of poorly-bonded layers in a multi-traverse Cu coating falls in the range of experimental values. The model also predicts that the material that contains poorly bonded splats could exceed 20% of the total volume of the coating.

  4. Ilex paraguariensis Pellets from a Spray-Dried Extract: Development, Characterization, and Stability.

    PubMed

    Yatsu, Francini K J; Borghetti, Greice S; Magalhães, Fagner; Ferraz, Humberto G; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown the potential use of Ilex paraguariensis in developing products with the aim to protect biological systems against oxidative stress-mediated damages. In the same way, technological studies have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining dry products, by spray-drying process, from aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis in laboratory. The present work was designed to develop pellets by extrusion/spheronization process, from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder. The pellets were characterized with respect to their chemical, physical, and technological properties, and the thermal and the photostability of the main polyphenol constituents were investigated. The pellets exhibited adequate size, shape, and high process yield (78.7%), as well as a good recovery of the total polyphenols (>95%) and a good dissolution in water (89.44 to 100.05%). The polyphenols were stable against light when conditioned in amber glass bottles; unstable against heat when the samples were conditioned either in open glass bottles or in hermetically sealed glass bottles and demonstrated to be hygroscopic and sensible to the temperature, especially when stored in permeable flasks. These findings pointed to the relevance of reducing the residual moisture content of pellets as well as of conditioning them in opaque humidity tight packages under low temperatures. The feasibility of obtaining pellets from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder using extrusion/spheronization technique was, for the first time, demonstrated. This finding represents a novelty for the herbal products in both pharmaceutical and food fields.

  5. Relationship Between the Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongzhe; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi; Ding, Minju; Zhang, Chenggong

    2011-12-01

    Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings have a complex microstructure consisting of a variety of pores and cracks. These microstructure features which are determined by the spray process are known to influence the thermal conductivity of coatings. In this article, the microstructure features such as total porosity, large pores, and small pores were quantified by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis, and for each spray process, the particle velocity and particle temperature were measured prior to impact onto the substrate using the online monitoring system (Spray Watch 2i). Multiple linear regression was used to find the relationship between the particle state and the spray gun parameters. The linear regression models were also investigated between the particle state and the microstructure features, in addition, between the microstructure features and the thermal conductivity. The comprehensive correlation of spray process-microstructure-thermal conductivity was established for plasma-sprayed ZrO2 coatings.

  6. The Washington aerial spray drift study: Modeling pesticide spray drift deposition from an aerial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yi; Elgethun, Kai; Ramaprasad, Jaya; Yost, Michael G.; Felsot, Allan S.; Hebert, Vincent R.; Fenske, Richard A.

    A routinely scheduled aerial organophosphorus pesticide application of methamidophos in central Washington State was monitored in the summer of 2002. The sprayed potato crop surrounded a rural agricultural community where residences were within 200 meters of the sprayed fields. Modeling pesticide spray drift is critical for exposure assessment of the residential population. Herein the objective is to model spray drift deposition with regard to model selection, calibration, and prediction for a particular application event. The US Environmental Protection Agency's Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) was chosen for its flexibility in terms of both inputs and outputs. Model calibration was accomplished by varying the aerosol size distribution in comparison with collected deposition samples and locating the minimum relative bias measure. From the calibrated model, a map of total pesticide deposition within the community indicated spray drift occurring despite adherence to general precautionary pesticide application guidelines. The calibrated model also provided 15-min time-resolved deposition images over the 5-h application period. These time-resolved maps revealed that actual community deposition occurred in only 2 of the 20 time periods when the source, due to the changing wind, was oriented towards the community. Despite the limitations of FDM in modeling a liquid aerosol, the calibration of the model to samplers located in the areas of interest allows it to serve as a potential tool for conducting exposure assessment within the community.

  7. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M. Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. Methods: The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. Results: On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m2) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m2). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. Interpretation & conclusions: The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump. PMID:24056601

  8. Flame spraying of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  9. Effects of postoperative administration of celecoxib on pain management in patients after total knee arthroplasty: study protocol for an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Takeo; Fujie, Keiko; Mamizuka, Naotaka; Taguchi, Noriko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ueno, Satoshi; Ma, Enbo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-23

    Multimodal analgesia is achieved by combining different analgesics and different methods of analgesic administration, synergistically providing superior pain relief when compared with conventional analgesia. Multimodal analgesia can also result in reductions in the side effects and complications of analgesia, thereby improving patient safety. Preventive analgesia, treatment before initiation of the surgical procedure, has a potential to be more effective in reducing pain sensitization than treatment initiated after surgery. Multimodal analgesia that includes prophylactic administration of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can improve postoperative pain and reduce opioid analgesic consumption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However COX-2 inhibitors are not approved for use as preventive analgesia in Japan. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors during the early postoperative period is important to establish clinical practice guidelines in Japan. This study was designed to examine the effects of celecoxib administration immediately after surgery, in addition to multimodal analgesia, on postoperative pain management after TKA. This randomized, prospective, open-label controlled study will include 120 patients undergoing unilateral TKA. All patients will routinely receive single injections of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, along with postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive or not receive immediate postoperative administration of celecoxib. The primary outcome is a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score the second day after surgery. Secondary outcomes include opioid consumption, VAS pain score for 7 days after surgery, range of knee motion, evaluation of sleep quality, overall evaluations by patients and physicians, rates of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and consumption of rescue analgesics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of celecoxib

  10. Spray Nozzle Calibrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    1984. The manuscript was submitted for publication on October 2, 1985. AEOC-TR-85-eO CONTENTS Page J.O INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 5 1.2...1.1 GENERAL The formation of ice on aircraft surfaces occurs during flight through clouds of supercooled water droplets. Ice accretion on these... wind tunnel. Both the LWC and mean effective droplet size are set and maintained through variations in the water and air supply pressures of the spray

  11. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  12. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  13. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  14. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  15. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for jet spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant is circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material is disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which is below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second arrangement no inert gas is used, the bubble consists of vapor produced when the coolant is sprayed against the target.

  16. Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D

    2011-09-01

    The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Metoclopramide nasal spray is effective in symptoms of gastroparesis in diabetics compared to conventional oral tablet.

    PubMed

    Parkman, H P; Carlson, M R; Gonyer, D

    2014-04-01

    Delayed gastric emptying symptoms interfere with the absorption of oral medications. Intranasal metoclopramide is being developed as an alternative to oral metoclopramide for patients with diabetic gastroparesis. To compare the efficacy and safety of metoclopramide nasal spray to oral tablets in diabetic patients with symptoms of gastroparesis, this randomized, open-label, parallel design study randomized subjects to 10 or 20 mg nasal spray or 10 mg tablet four times a day for 6 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using a total symptom score (TSS). Eighty-nine subjects were enrolled. For the intention to treat population, both nasal dose groups (10 and 20 mg) had lower TSS with treatment compared to the oral 10 mg group. The change from baseline in TSS for nasal 20 mg was greater than the oral 10 mg at Week 6 (p = 0.026). For the per-protocol population, there was a significant difference in the TSS between baseline and Week 6 for both the nasal 10 mg (p = 0.026) and the nasal 20 mg (p = 0.008) cohorts compared to the oral 10 mg group. Based on the definition of a responder, 88.9% of subjects who received oral 10 mg, 91.2% who received nasal 10 mg, and 97.1% who received nasal 20 metoclopramide were classified as responders. The side-effect profile of the metoclopramide nasal spray was favorable. More side effects, especially nausea, occurred with the oral tablets. Metoclopramide nasal spray offers better symptom control than metoclopramide oral tablet in diabetic patients with symptoms of gastroparesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1934-01-01

    A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.

  19. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUND SUPPRESSION SPRAY NOZZLE POSITIONED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUND SUPPRESSION SPRAY NOZZLE POSITIONED AT THE CORNER OF THE PORT SRB EXHAUST OPENING - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. AE Monitoring and Analysis of HVOF Thermal Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, N. H.; Ahmed, R.; Reuben, R. L.; Allcock, B.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents an in situ monitoring of HVOF thermal spraying process through an acoustic emission (AE) technique in an industrial coating chamber. Single layer thermal spraying on substrate was carried out through slits. Continuous multilayer thermal spraying onto the sample without slit was also conducted. The AE was measured using a broadband piezoelectric AE sensor positioned on the back of the substrate. A mathematical model has been developed to determine the total kinetic energy of particles impacting the substrate through slits. Results of this work demonstrate that AE associated with particle impacts can be used for in situ monitoring of coating process. Results also show that the amplitude and AE energy is related to the spray gun transverse speed and the oxy-fuel pressure. The measured AE energy was found to vary with the number of particles impacting the substrate, determined using the mathematical model.

  2. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Horton, Peter N.; Castro, Fernando A.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics. PMID:27874001

  3. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Horton, Peter N; Castro, Fernando A; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-11-22

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics.

  4. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Horton, Peter N.; Castro, Fernando A.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics.

  5. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  6. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  7. A New Way to Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA SBIR contract provided the funding for a new nozzle shape to be used in plasma spray techniques. The new design, a bell shape, reduces overspray. The result is a significant decrease in the cost of plasma spraying and a higher quality, more pure coating.

  8. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  9. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  10. Potential hazard of volatile organic compounds contained in household spray products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    To assess the exposure levels of hazardous volatile pollutants released from common household spray products, a total of 10 spray products consisting of six body spray and four air spray products have been investigated. The body spray products included insect repellents (two different products), medicated patch, deodorant, hair spray, and humectant, whereas the air spray products included two different insecticides (mosquito and/or cockroach), antibacterial spray, and air freshener. The main objective of this study was to measure concentrations of 15 model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using GC/MS coupled with a thermal desorber. In addition, up to 34 ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates (CLASS)' were also quantified based on the effective carbon number (ECN) theory. According to our analysis, the most common indoor pollutants like benzene, toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate have been detected frequently in the majority of spray products with the concentration range of 5.3-125 mg L-1. If one assumes that the amount of spray products released into air reaches the 0.3 mL level for a given space size of 5 m3, the risk factor is expected to exceed the carcinogenic risk level set for benzene (10-5) by the U.S. EPA.

  11. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  12. Population balance modelling and multi-stage optimal control of a pulsed spray fluidized bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huolong; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-07-01

    In this work, one-dimensional population balance models (PBMs) have been developed to model a pulsed top-spray fluidized bed granulation. The developed PBMs have linked the key binder solution spray operating factors of the binder spray rate, atomizing air pressure and pulsed frequency of spray with the granule properties to predict granule growth behaviour in the pulsed spray fluidized bed granulation process at different operating conditions with accuracy. A multi-stage open optimal control strategy based on the developed PBMs was proposed to reduce the model mismatch, in which through adjusting the trajectory of the evolution of the granule size distribution at predefined sample intervals, to determine the optimal operating variables related to the binder spray including the spray rate of binding liquid, atomizing air pressure and pulsed frequency of spray. The effectiveness of the proposed modelling and multi-stage open optimal control strategies has been validated by experimental and simulation tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modification of the solid-state nature of sulfathiazole and sulfathiazole sodium by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.

  14. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2014-02-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin-avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin-biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin-biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  15. Hydraulic Spray Applications of Insecticides for the Control of Slash Pine Cone and Seed Insects

    Treesearch

    Edward P. Merkel

    1964-01-01

    Field spray tests were conducted from 1959 to 1961 in north Florida to evaluate the effectiveness of hydraulic spray applications of BHC, Guthion, and DDT for the control of coneworms, Dioryctria spp., and the slash pine seedworm, Laspeyresia anaranjada. Slash pines up to 40 feet in total height were protected from coneworm attack...

  16. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to provide measurements in open sprays with no zones of recirculation, in order to provide well-defined conditions for use in evaluating spray models. Measurements were completed in a gas jet, in order to test experimental methods, and are currently in progress for nonevaporating sprays. A locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model where interphase transport rates are assumed to be infinitely fast; a separated flow (SF) model which allows for finite interphase transport rates but neglects effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion; and a stochastic SF model which considers effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion were evaluated using existing data on particle-laden jets. The LHF model generally overestimates rates of particle dispersion while the SF model underestimates dispersion rates. The stochastic SF flow yield satisfactory predictions except at high particle mass loadings where effects of turbulence modulation may have caused the model to overestimate turbulence levels.

  17. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  18. INEL spray-forming research

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  19. A fluorescent tracer method for evaluating spray transport and fate of field and laboratory spray applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field and laboratory testing spray nozzles and application systems use spray collectors to assess where the spray deposits once it leaves the spray system. Tracer materials, such as oil and water soluble fluorescent dyes, can be mixed into spray solutions in small amounts with minimal impact on the...

  20. Cold Spray Technology for DOD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Distribution Unlimited Mechanical Mixing at Interface • .. Sm-in ,, aluminum Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Cold Spray vs...of Corrosion Damage on Fielded Parts and Subsequent to Cold Spray Repair Before After 15 Cold Spray HP- Aluminum Fill...Unlimited Development and Implementation of Commercially Pure (CP) Aluminum and 6061 Aluminum Alloy Cold Spray Coatings for the Repair of Magnesium

  1. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Pattie Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Zinc primer systems are currently used across NASA and AFSPC for corrosion protection of steel. AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of Thermal Spray Coatings (TSCs) as an environmentally preferable alternative. TSCs are approved in NASA-STD-5008 and AFSPC and KSC is currently looking for additional applications in which TSC can be used. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS, also known as Cold Spray) is being evaluated as a means of repairing TSCs and for areas such as corners and edges where TSCs do not work as well. Other applications could include spot repair/maintenance of steel on structures, facilities, and ground support equipment.

  2. Plasma spraying with wire feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, M.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma spraying has been limited to using powder feedstocks for a number of reasons. One limitation has been the low energy output of conventional plasma guns. The advent of high energy plasma spraying (HEPS) devices and the associated technology has effectively removed this functional limitation. With HEPS, the combination of high gas velocities and high thermal plasma temperatures coupled with a large exit gas volume enables wire and rod feedstocks to be effectively utilized. Rather than a bulk melting mechanism, a model based on ablation phenomena is considered. The paper examines an analysis of melting phenomena and presents a simple model for molten droplet formation for plasma spraying using wire feedstocks.

  3. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  4. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  5. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-11-09

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  6. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  7. Furnace endoscope—measuring fuel spray properties in hot and corrosive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, P.; Kankkunen, A.; Järvinen, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    A furnace endoscope was developed to carry out in-furnace measurements of black liquor sprays in order to discover the initial velocity, opening angle and trajectory of the spray, and compare spray disintegration mechanisms and spray appearance with the ones measured in a spray chamber. An error analysis of the velocity measurement method was carried out, and the meaning of the optimum measurement distance from the optics to the observed object is discussed. Some details of the development process of the probe are also presented, especially the definition of the scale of the image and the cooling system of the protection tubes. The furnace endoscope can be used in difficult conditions, such as those found inside a chemical recovery boiler (~1,200°C and corrosive chemicals) with promising and accurate measurement results. The equipment has been tested in several furnaces.

  8. Exposure of spray-men to dieldrin in residual spraying.

    PubMed

    FLETCHER, T E; PRESS, J M; WILSON, D B

    1959-01-01

    A study of the exposure of spray-men to dieldrin was made in a pilot scheme of residual spraying in the Taveta-Pare area of East Africa. A detailed work study was completed on the operators, and sources of contamination were enumerated. Filter paper pads were placed on the skin and outside clothing and the pick-up was estimated chemically. A spray-man, while using the daily average of 2.12 kg (4.7 pounds) of dieldrin and observing the protective measures laid down, received a dermal exposure of 1.8 mg of dieldrin per kg of body-weight per day. This was possibly reduced somewhat by washing with soap and water upon completion of each day's work. The sixteen spray-men and assistants were exposed for 180 days per year and there was an interim period of 2 months between spray cycles. No clinical symptoms of poisoning were observed.Comparison is made with certain programmes where dieldrin poisoning has occurred. Attention is drawn to the reduced time of exposure in the Taveta-Pare scheme, personal washing, the great value of protective clothing and of its daily washing in soap and water and the need to use a dilute suspension of wettable powder for spraying.

  9. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  10. Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

  11. Spray nozzle for fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavergos, Panayiotis G.

    1990-09-01

    The design of a spray nozzle for fire control is described. It produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross section and it comprises a mixing chamber with an oval transverse cross section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment the mixing chamber is toroidal. The spray nozzle produces an oval spray pattern for more efficient wetting of narrow passages and is suitable for fire control systems in vehicles or other confined spaces. Vehicles to which this invention may be applied include trains, armoured vehicles, ships, hovercraft, submarines, oil rigs, and most preferably, aircraft.

  12. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  13. No Spray Roses for the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A no spray rose trial has been conducted at the West Tennessee Research and Education Center in Jackson, TN, since 2006. In 2007, sites were added at the Plateau Research and Education Center in Crossville, TN, and the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. A total of 1...

  14. Microchip sonic spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Kauppila, Tiina J; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2007-05-01

    The first microchip version of sonic spray ionization (SSI) as an atmospheric pressure ionization source for mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. The microchip used for SSI has recently been developed in our laboratory, and it has been used before as an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source. Now the ionization is achieved simply by applying high (sonic) speed nebulizer gas, without heat, corona discharge, or high voltage. The microchip SSI was applied to the analysis of tetra-N-butylammonium, verapamil, testosterone, angiotensin I, and ibuprofen. The limits of detection were in the range of 15 nM to 4 microM. The technique was found to be highly dependent on the position of the chip toward the mass spectrometer inlet, and on the gas and the sample solution flow rates. The microchip SSI provided dynamic linearity following a pattern similar to that used with electrospray, good quantitative repeatability (RSD=16%), and long-term signal stability.

  15. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  16. DNA damage in B and T lymphocytes of farmers during one pesticide spraying season.

    PubMed

    Lebailly, Pierre; Mirey, Gladys; Herin, Fabrice; Lecluse, Yannick; Salles, Bernard; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa

    2015-10-01

    The effect of one pesticide spraying season on DNA damage was measured on B and T lymphocytes among open-field farmers and controls. At least two peripheral blood samples were collected from each individual: one in a period without any pesticide application, several weeks after the last use (January, at period P0), and another in the intensive pesticide spraying period (May or June, at period P4). DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay on isolated B or T lymphocytes. Longitudinal comparison of DNA damage observed at both P0 and P4 periods revealed a statistically significant genotoxic effect of the pesticide spraying season in both B (P = 0.02) and T lymphocytes (P = 0.02) in exposed farmers. In contrast, non-farmers did not show any significant modifications. DNA damage levels in B and T lymphocytes were significantly higher in farmers than in non-farmers during the P4 period (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001 for B and T lymphocytes, respectively) but not during the P0 period. The seasonal effect observed among farmers was not correlated with either total farm area, farm area devoted to crops or recent solar exposure. On average, farmers used pesticides for 21 days between P0 and P4. Between the two time points studied, there was a tendency for a potential effect of the number of days of fungicide treatments (r (2) = 0.43; P = 0.11) on T lymphocyte DNA damage. A genotoxic effect was found in lymphocytes of farmers exposed to pesticides, suggesting in particular the possible implication of fungicides.

  17. Field bioefficacy of deltamethrin residual spraying against dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Lee, H L; Mohd Masri, S; Mohd Noor, I; Rosman, S

    2005-12-01

    Field bioefficacy of residual-sprayed deltamethrin against Aedes vectors was evaluated in an urban residential area in Kuala Lumpur. The trial area consisted of single storey wood-brick houses and a block of flat. The houses were treated with outdoor residual spraying while the flat was used as an untreated control. Initial pre-survey using ovitrap surveillance indicated high Aedes population in the area. Deltamethrin WG was sprayed at a dosage of 25mg/m2 using a compression sprayer. The effectiveness of deltamethrin was determined by wall bioassay and ovitrap surveillance. The residual activity of 25mg/m2 deltamethrin was still effective for 6 weeks after treatment, based on biweekly bioassay results. Bioassay also indicated that both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were more susceptible on the wooden surfaces than on brick. Aedes aegypti was more susceptible than Ae. albopictus against deltamethrin. Residual spraying of deltamethrin was not very effective against Aedes in this study since the Aedes population in the study area did not reduce as indicated by the total number of larvae collected using the ovitrap (Wilcoxon Sign Test, p> 0.05). Further studies are required to improve the effectiveness of residual spraying against Aedes vectors.

  18. Image processing system to analyze droplet distributions in sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertollini, Gary P.; Oberdier, Larry M.; Lee, Yong H.

    1987-01-01

    An image processing system was developed which automatically analyzes the size distributions in fuel spray video images. Images are generated by using pulsed laser light to freeze droplet motion in the spray sample volume under study. This coherent illumination source produces images which contain droplet diffraction patterns representing the droplets degree of focus. The analysis is performed by extracting feature data describing droplet diffraction patterns in the images. This allows the system to select droplets from image anomalies and measure only those droplets considered in focus. Unique features of the system are the totally automated analysis and droplet feature measurement from the grayscale image. The feature extraction and image restoration algorithms used in the system are described. Preliminary performance data is also given for two experiments. One experiment gives a comparison between a synthesized distribution measured manually and automatically. The second experiment compares a real spray distribution measured using current methods against the automatic system.

  19. Effects of momentum ratio and Weber number on spray half angles of liquid controlled pintle injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Koo, Jaye; Kwon, Oh Chae; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2015-02-01

    A pintle injector is advantageous for throttling a liquid rocket engine and reducing engine weight. This study explores the effects of momentum ratio and Weber number at various injection conditions on spray characteristics of the pintle injector for liquid-gas propellants. A liquid sheet is injected from a center pintle nozzle and it is broken by a gas jet from an annular gap. The pressure drops of propellants, and the pintle opening distance were considered as control variables; using 0.1 ˜1.0 as a bar for the pressure drop of the liquid injection, a 0.01˜0.2 bar for the pressure drop of gas jet and a 0.2˜ 1.0 mm for the pintle opening distance. The discharge coefficient was decreased linearly before the pintle opening distance of 0.75 mm and then, the coefficient was slightly increased. Spray images were captured by a CMOS camera with high resolution. Then, the shadow and reflected images were analyzed. Spray distributions were measured by a patternator with an axial distance of 50 mm from a pintle tip. Finally, the spray half angles had an exponentially decreasing correlation as a momentum ratio divided by the Weber number. Also, the spray half angles from the spray distribution were underestimated compared to those measured from the captured images.

  20. Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-04-01

    Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

  1. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  2. Spray Above Enceladus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-28

    A fine spray of small, icy particles emanating from the warm, geologically unique province surrounding the south pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus was observed in a Cassini narrow-angle camera image of the crescent moon taken on Jan. 16, 2005. Taken from a high-phase angle of 148 degrees -- a viewing geometry in which small particles become much easier to see -- the plume of material becomes more apparent in images processed to enhance faint signals. Imaging scientists have measured the light scattered by the plume's particles to determine their abundance and fall-off with height. Though the measurements of particle abundance are more certain within 100 kilometers (60 miles) of the surface, the values measured there are roughly consistent with the abundance of water ice particles measured by other Cassini instruments (reported in September, 2005) at altitudes as high as 400 kilometers (250 miles) above the surface. Imaging scientists, as reported in the journal Science on March 10, 2006, believe that the jets are geysers erupting from pressurized subsurface reservoirs of liquid water above 273 degrees Kelvin (0 degrees Celsius). The image at the left was taken in visible green light. A dark mask was applied to the moon's bright limb in order to make the plume feature easier to see. The image at the right has been color-coded to make faint signals in the plume more apparent. Images of other satellites (such as Tethys and Mimas) taken in the last 10 months from similar lighting and viewing geometries, and with identical camera parameters as this one, were closely examined to demonstrate that the plume towering above Enceladus' south pole is real and not a camera artifact. The images were acquired at a distance of about 209,400 kilometers (130,100 miles) from Enceladus. Image scale is about 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07760

  3. Early Procedural and Health Status Outcomes After Chronic Total Occlusion Angioplasty: A Report From the OPEN-CTO Registry (Outcomes, Patient Health Status, and Efficiency in Chronic Total Occlusion Hybrid Procedures).

    PubMed

    Sapontis, James; Salisbury, Adam C; Yeh, Robert W; Cohen, David J; Hirai, Taishi; Lombardi, William; McCabe, James M; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Moses, Jeffrey; Nicholson, William J; Pershad, Ashish; Wyman, R Michael; Spaedy, Anthony; Cook, Stephen; Doshi, Parag; Federici, Robert; Thompson, Craig R; Marso, Steven P; Nugent, Karen; Gosch, Kensey; Spertus, John A; Grantham, J Aaron

    2017-08-14

    This study sought to accurately describe the success rate, risks, and patient-reported benefits of contemporary chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In light of the evolving techniques to successfully revascularize CTO lesions, there remains a compelling need to more accurately quantify the success rates, risks, and benefits of these complex procedures. Using a uniquely comprehensive, core-lab adjudicated, single-arm, multicenter registry of 1,000 consecutive patients undergoing CTO PCI by the hybrid approach, we evaluated the technical success rates, complication rates, and raw and adjusted health status benefits at 1 month among successfully as compared to unsuccessfully treated patients. Technical success was high (86%). In-hospital and 1-month mortality was 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively, and perforations requiring treatment occurred in 48 patients (4.8%). Among those who survived and completed the 1-month interview (n = 947), mean ± SEM Seattle Angina Questionnaire quality of life scores improved from 49.4 ± 0.9 to 75.0 ± 0.7 (p < 0.01), mean Rose Dyspnea Scale scores improved (decreased) from 2.0 ± 0.1 to 1.1 ± 0.1 (p < 0.01), and physician health questionnaire (for depression) scores improved (decreased) from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 3.5 ± 0.1 (p < 0.01) at 1 month. After adjusting for baseline differences the mean group difference in Seattle Angina Questionnaire quality of life between successful and unsuccessful CTO PCI was 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 6.3 to 15.3; p < 0.001). Clarifying the success rates, risks, and benefits of CTO PCI will help to more accurately contextualize the informed consent process for these procedures so that patients with appropriate indications for CTO PCI can more effectively share in the decision to pursue this or other therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    The ocean's biological pump is often simplified to a purely vertical process. Nevertheless, the horizontal transport of organic carbon can be substantial, especially in coastal regions such as the Canary Upwelling System (CanUS), one of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, characterized by high shelf productivity and an intense lateral exchange of mass and tracers with the adjacent oligotrophic waters. Despite its importance, the magnitude of this lateral flux has not yet been constrained. Here, we quantify the lateral export of organic carbon from the CanUS to the open North Atlantic using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a biogeochemical ecosystem module. The model is run on an Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the north-western African shelf, to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the region of study with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our results reveal that over the whole CanUS more than a third of the Net Community Production (NCP) in the nearshore 100 km is transported offshore, amounting to about 19 Tg C yr-1. The offshore transport dominates the lateral fluxes up to 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, along the way adding organic carbon to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8% and 34% of the alongshore average NCP. The remineralization at depth of this extra organic carbon leads to strongly negative vertically-integrated NCP throughout the whole offshore region of the CanUS, i.e. it makes the offshore region net heterotrophic. Substantial subregional variability shapes the spatial pattern of the fluxes in the CanUS. In particular, the central subregion surrounding Cape Blanc is the most efficient in terms of collecting and laterally exporting the organic carbon, resulting in a sharp peak of watercolumn heterotrophy. A decomposition of the organic carbon fluxes into a time-mean component and a time-variable, i.e., mesoscale component reveals a large contribution of the mesoscale

  5. Improving the feline veterinary consultation: the usefulness of Feliway spray in reducing cats' stress.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana Soares; Fragoso, Sara; Beck, Alexandra; Lavigne, Stephane; Varejão, Artur Severo; da Graça Pereira, Gonçalo

    2016-12-01

    Going to the veterinary clinic is a stressful experience for most cats as they feel threatened when entering a new and confined environment. The aim of this research was to investigate if Feliway spray, when used on the table in the consultation room, can decrease cats' stress and ease their handling. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was developed, using a total sample of 87 cats of both sexes, castrated or intact, of any breed, aged >26 weeks. A Feliway spray and a placebo solution spray were tested in two different consultation rooms. During the first phase, Feliway spray was applied to the examination table of one room and the placebo spray in the other. After a washout period of 15 days the spray allocation was switched. After the first 15 mins of general questioning and physical examination carried out by the veterinarian, the observer assessed the stress levels of the cats based on a seven-level 'cat stress score', and the ease of handling based on a five-point 'scale of handling' developed by the authors. The study demonstrated that the use of Feliway spray leads to significant (P = 0.01) differences in cats' usual behaviour, according to their owners. With regard to stress, animals exposed to Feliway spray showed significantly lower stress levels than those treated with placebo (P = 0.02). Regarding the scale of handling, the scoring did not differ significantly between cats under the effect of Feliway spray and cats receiving placebo (P = 0.01). This research shows that the use of Feliway spray on the examination table improves the welfare of cats by reducing their stress during veterinary consultations. Feliway spray significantly changed the behaviour of the cats in this study, and offers a simple and effective way to help decrease stress in cats during the consultation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Droplet size and morphology characterization for dense sprays by image processing: application to the Diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaisot, J. B.; Yon, J.

    2005-12-01

    Up to now, measurement of drop size remains difficult in dense sprays such as those encountered in Diesel applications. Commonly used diagnostics are often limited due to multi-scattering effects, high drop velocity and concentration and also nonspherical shapes. The advantage of image-based techniques on the others is its ability to describe the shape of liquid particles that are not fully atomized or relaxed. In the present study, a model is developed to correct the main drawbacks of imaging. It permits to define criteria for the correction of the apparent size of an unfocused drop and to determine a measurement volume independent of the drop size. This considerably reduces the over-estimation of large drops in the drop size distribution. Drop shapes are also characterized by four morphological parameters. The image-based granulometer is satisfactorily compared to a PDPA and a diffraction-based granulometer for measurements on an ultrasonic spray. Then, the new granulometer is applied to a diesel spray. One of the results of the analysis is that even if mean drop size distributions are stable 30 mm downstream from the nozzle outlet, the shape of the drops is still evolving towards the spherical shape. The atomization process is thus not totally established at this position in opposition to what can be deduced from the drop size distribution alone.

  7. On the prediction of spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Qinglian; Xu, Shun; Kang, Zhongtao

    2017-09-01

    The pintle injector is famous for its capability of deep throttling and low cost. However, the pintle injector has been seldom investigated. To get a good prediction of the spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors, theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted. Under the hypothesis of incompressible and inviscid flow, a spray angle formula was deduced from the continuity and momentum equations based on a control volume analysis. The formula was then validated by numerical and experimental data. The results indicates that both geometric and injection parameters affect the total momentum ratio (TMR) and then influence the spray angle formed by liquid-liquid pintle injectors. TMR is the pivotal non-dimensional number that dominates the spray angle. Compared with gas-gas pintle injectors, spray angle formed by liquid-liquid injectors is larger, which benefits from the local high pressure zone near the pintle wall caused by the impingement of radial and axial sheets.

  8. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  9. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  10. [Antibacterial effect of Ankerplast Spray].

    PubMed

    Oehring, H; Karl, P; Döring, K; Herrberger, U

    1979-04-01

    The diffusion test yielded no satisfactory results. In the tube test, both the spray and the solvent (in a dilution of 1:4 and 1:8, respectively) proved to be bacteriostatically active against enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These germs were killed within 30 minutes in the test for bactericidal activity, whereas the reference substance (1% phenol) required 1--2 hours, except against the last-named germ. Even the copolymer exerted a bactericidal effect, it is true, but only within 8 or 24 hours. The following results were obtained from the spray test with agar plate cultures: Streptococcus viridans species, streptococci, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Escheria coli, and Proteus were killed, whereas others survived under the plastic film for up to 9 days. Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had grown through the film within 7 days. In vivo experiments demonstrated a very potent antibacterial activity on the skin under the spray film.

  11. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardelle, Armelle; Moreau, Christian; Akedo, Jun; Ashrafizadeh, Hossein; Berndt, Christopher C.; Berghaus, Jörg Oberste; Boulos, Maher; Brogan, Jeffrey; Bourtsalas, Athanasios C.; Dolatabadi, Ali; Dorfman, Mitchell; Eden, Timothy J.; Fauchais, Pierre; Fisher, Gary; Gaertner, Frank; Gindrat, Malko; Henne, Rudolf; Hyland, Margaret; Irissou, Eric; Jordan, Eric H.; Khor, Khiam Aik; Killinger, Andreas; Lau, Yuk-Chiu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Li, Li; Longtin, Jon; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Masset, Patrick J.; Matejicek, Jiri; Mauer, Georg; McDonald, André; Mostaghimi, Javad; Sampath, Sanjay; Schiller, Günter; Shinoda, Kentaro; Smith, Mark F.; Syed, Asif Ansar; Themelis, Nickolas J.; Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Trelles, Juan Pablo; Vassen, Robert; Vuoristo, Petri

    2016-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last decades in thermal spray technologies, practices and applications. However, like other technologies, they have to continuously evolve to meet new problems and market requirements. This article aims to identify the current challenges limiting the evolution of these technologies and to propose research directions and priorities to meet these challenges. It was prepared on the basis of a collection of short articles written by experts in thermal spray who were asked to present a snapshot of the current state of their specific field, give their views on current challenges faced by the field and provide some guidance as to the R&D required to meet these challenges. The article is divided in three sections that deal with the emerging thermal spray processes, coating properties and function, and biomedical, electronic, aerospace and energy generation applications.

  12. Effects of spray adjuvants on spray droplet size from a rotary atomizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rotary atomizers are used in a number of aerial applications, such as forest pest spraying and mosquito control sprays. These types of atomizers have a rotating cage at speeds of 2,000 to 10,000 rpm through which a spray is emitted and atomized. Many applicators routinely add spray adjuvants to ch...

  13. Air and spray mixture temperature effects on atomization of agricultural sprays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray drift associated with agrochemical operations is highly dependent upon the physical properties of the spray solution with respect to how they influence atomization. This study examined effects on spray atomization with two spray solutions across a wide range of solution temperatures for two n...

  14. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  15. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  16. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  17. A novel technique: Carbon dioxide gas-assisted total peritonectomy, diaphragm and intestinal meso stripping in open surgery for advanced ovarian cancer (Çukurova technique).

    PubMed

    Khatib, Ghanim; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Gulec, Umran Kucukgoz; Vardar, Mehmet Ali

    2017-09-01

    Most of the ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages. As peritoneal carcinomatosis increases, especially when it extends to the diaphragm and intestinal mesos, probability of obtaining complete cytoreduction is reduced. Complete cytoreduction (residue zero: R0) is one of the main factors affecting survival [1-3]. Here we present a novel technique of stripping the peritoneal surfaces as a part of cytoreductive surgery in such cases. A 55year-old woman diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis was considered appropriate for primary cytoreduction after assessment of her thorax-abdominopelvic tomography, which revealed resectable intra-abdominal disease. Upon laparotomy, omental cake adherent to pelvis-filling mass, disseminated implants on the diaphragm, meso of the descending colon and small intestine were observed. The mass invaded the rectosigmoid colon, uterus, adnexa and the bladder resulting in frozen pelvis. Palpable retroperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were detected. On the other side, stomach, anti-mesenteric surfaces and mesentery root of the small bowel were tumor-free. Hence, upon these perioperative and preoperative imaging findings, complete cytoreduction was thought to be achievable. Therefore, primary cytoreduction was performed. Total omentectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, rectosigmoid low anterior resection and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were performed. With the assistance of an injector needle connected to the insufflator tube (as in laparoscopic surgery), carbon dioxide gas was blown into the right retroperitoneal area and subsequently peritoneum was rapidly stripped up to the right diaphragm. The same procedure was then applied to the diaphragm and meso of the bowels, respectively. Owing to this technique, total stripping of all involved peritoneal surfaces was clearly facilitated and R0 goal was reached. Gas insufflation caused convenient detachment of the peritoneal surfaces along their

  18. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  19. Spray flow structure from twin-hole diesel injector nozzles

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, D.; Duke, D.; Kastengren, A.; ...

    2017-04-18

    Two techniques were used to study non-evaporating diesel sprays from common rail injectors which were equipped with twin-hole and single-hole nozzles for comparison. To characterise the sprays, high speed optical imaging and x-ray radiography were used. The former was performed at the LTRAC laboratory at Monash University, while the latter was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The optical imaging made use of high temporal, high spatial resolution spray recordings on a digital camera from which peripheral parameters in the initial injection phase were investigated based on edge detection. The x-ray radiographymore » was used to explore quantitative mass distributions, which were measured on a point-wise basis at roughly similar sampling rate. Three twin-hole nozzles of different subtended angles and a single-hole nozzle were investigated at injection pressure of 1000 bar in environments of 20 bar back pressure. Evidence of strong cavitation was found for all nozzles examined with their CD ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. Penetration of the twin-hole nozzles was found to lag the single-hole nozzle, even before the sprays merged. Finally, switching in hole dominance was observed from one twin-hole nozzle, and this was accompanied by greater instability in mass flow during the transient opening phase of the injector.« less

  20. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  1. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  2. Clay as a matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-04-25

    Utilization of sugars (e.g. lactose, sucrose) as matrix formers for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions is associated with two drawbacks: (1) sugars are incapable of preventing agglomeration of drug nanoparticles (NPs) in the suspension state; and (2) the spray-dried sugars are usually amorphous and hygroscopic. This work aimed to apply a clay, montmorillonite (MMT) as an alternative matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions with fenofibrate (feno) as a model compound. Drug nanosuspensions were synthesized by liquid antisolvent precipitation with different amount of MMT followed by spray drying. It is found that MMT is able to reduce the agglomeration of drug nanoparticles in the suspension state, as observed from the gradual alleviation of the clogging with the increased clay during the spray drying. The spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders exhibited a much lower moisture sorption than spray-dried feno NPs/lactose powders as evidenced by the dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. The dissolution within 5 min for the spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders at drug:MMT weight ratio of 1:3 was 81.4 ± 1.8% and the total dissolution within 60 min was 93.4 ± 0.9%. Our results demonstrate that MMT is a useful matrix former for preservation of the high dissolution rate of nanosized drug particles after drying.

  3. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Treesearch

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  4. Propeller wash effects on spray drift

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Thompson; Alvin R. Womac; Joseph Mulrooney; Sidney Deck

    2005-01-01

    for aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switching and propeller wash direction on aerial spray drift from a turbine-...

  5. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  6. Effects of Spray Parameters and Post-spray Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Warm-Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

    2016-12-01

    Warm spray is a novel thermal spray technique that allows the formation of dense and relatively pure Ti-6Al-4V coatings due to its capability to control the temperature of the propellant gas by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Recently, its combustion pressure has been increased from 1 to 4 MPa aiming to further increase particle velocity to over 1000 m/s. Two series of coatings with combustion pressure of 1 and 4 MPa and various nitrogen flow rates were prepared in this study. Effects of combustion pressure and nitrogen flow rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V coatings were systematically studied. Miniature tensile specimens with a total length of about 9 mm were used for static tensile tests. It was found that the spray parameters affect both the porosity and oxygen content of the coatings significantly and had remarkable effects on their mechanical properties. High level of porosity in the Ti-6Al-4V coatings reduced the effective cross-sectional area of the mini-specimens and caused a drop in their tensile strength and Young's modulus. Subsequent heat treatments were found effective in significantly recovering the mechanical properties of the as-sprayed coatings.

  7. Effects of Spray Parameters and Post-spray Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Warm-Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

    2017-04-01

    Warm spray is a novel thermal spray technique that allows the formation of dense and relatively pure Ti-6Al-4V coatings due to its capability to control the temperature of the propellant gas by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Recently, its combustion pressure has been increased from 1 to 4 MPa aiming to further increase particle velocity to over 1000 m/s. Two series of coatings with combustion pressure of 1 and 4 MPa and various nitrogen flow rates were prepared in this study. Effects of combustion pressure and nitrogen flow rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V coatings were systematically studied. Miniature tensile specimens with a total length of about 9 mm were used for static tensile tests. It was found that the spray parameters affect both the porosity and oxygen content of the coatings significantly and had remarkable effects on their mechanical properties. High level of porosity in the Ti-6Al-4V coatings reduced the effective cross-sectional area of the mini-specimens and caused a drop in their tensile strength and Young's modulus. Subsequent heat treatments were found effective in significantly recovering the mechanical properties of the as-sprayed coatings.

  8. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SUGURO, Atsushi; ISHIDA, Yuki; KAWAMURA, Akinobu; TAMURA, Miho; SATOH, Keisuke; TSUJIMURA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Tomomi; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  9. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  10. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  11. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  12. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  13. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  14. Spray chilling of lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Chourouzidis, K N; Gigiel, A J

    1993-01-01

    Two spray-chilling treatments were developed to improve appearance and reduce weight loss during lamb chilling. Rates of cooling and weight loss and meat quality were compared to conventionally chilled carcasses. The first treatment was an intermittent spray during the first 3 h of chilling. The second consisted of only two sprays at 2 h and 10 h post mortem. The conventional control was a two-stage process, with air at 10°C and 1 m/s up to 10 h post mortem, followed by air at 0°C and 1 m/s for a further 14 h. Both treatments significantly reduced weight loss at 24 h post mortem compared to conventional, from 2·20% to 0·86% and 1·20%, respectively. During a further 4 days storage, the savings were maintained, with weight losses being 3·97%, 2·97% and 3·19%, respectively. There were small (<1 h) but significantly reductions in the cooling times of spray-chilled loins and legs, attributed to sustained evaporative cooling of the continually wetted surfaces. No effects on texture or drip loss and only slight effects on surface lean and fat colour were found. Variation in texture between animals within treatments was far greater than between treatments and could not be accounted for by variations in cooling rates. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  16. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  17. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Beetz, Charles

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  18. Rotatable fixture for spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katvala, V.; Porter, E.; Smith, M.

    1979-01-01

    Fixture that rotates about two axes ensures uniform coating and minimizes handling of coated workpiece. Each side of tile is coated in sequence by moving turntables until surface is perpendicular to spray. Process is repeated until desired thickness has built up.

  19. Sprayer technology: reduce spray drift

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enhancing environmental quality and sustaining the economic viability of food production are keys to sustainable agriculture. Modern vegetable production uses a variety of materials to manage pest problems. Selecting the proper spray nozzle for the application of liquid products is critical to red...

  20. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  1. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Ahsan; Love, Norman

    2016-11-04

    systems, there exists a lack of fundamental understanding of the effect of hardware characteristics and operating parameters on HVOF thermally sprayed coatings. Motivated by these issues, this study is devoted to investigate the effect of hardware characteristics (e.g. spraying distance) and operating parameters (e.g. combustion chamber pressure, equivalence ratio, and total gas flow rate) on HVOF sprayed coatings using Inconel 718 alloy. The current study provides extensive understanding of several key operating and process parameters to optimize the next generation of HVOF thermally sprayed coatings for high temperature and harsh environment applications. A facility was developed to support this endeavor in a safe and efficient way, including a HVOF thermal spray system with a Data Acquisition and Remote Controls system (DARCS). The coatings microstructure and morphology were examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nanoindentation.

  2. An assessment of the onset and duration of action of olopatadine nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Patel, Piyush; Roland, Peter S; Marple, Bradley F; Benninger, Paul J; Margalias, Harriet; Brubaker, Michael; Beezley, Sally F; Beezley, Susan F; Drake, Margaret; Potts, Susan L; Wall, G Michael

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is a highly prevalent disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the onset and duration of action of three concentrations of olopatadine nasal spray. This was a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled study, conducted in an environmental exposure chamber in patients with SAR. A total of 320 patients were exposed to ragweed allergen in the chamber and randomized to olopatadine nasal spray 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or placebo nasal spray. Symptoms (sneezing, runny, itchy, and stuffy nose) were self-assessed during a 12-hour study period. All concentrations of olopatadine nasal spray provided clinically meaningful reductions in total nasal symptom scores at 30 minutes compared to the placebo. Olopatadine nasal spray 0.6% was significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than placebo nasal spray at all time-points starting at 90 minutes post-dose and continuing over 12 hours. Olopatadine nasal spray 0.6% demonstrated a fast onset of action and maintained an effect for at least 12 hours after dosing.

  3. Elastic and Anelastic Behavior of TBCs Sprayed at High-Deposition Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarezo, A.; Dwivedi, G.; Sampath, S.; Musalek, R.; Matejicek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coatings sprayed at high-deposition rates often result in stiff, dense, and highly stressed coatings. The high deposition temperature at which the coatings are formed is responsible for these characteristics. In this paper, TBCs were sprayed at high-deposition rates, increasing the tensile quenching stresses beyond the threshold of crack opening during spraying. Dense structures were observed within a pass, in the presence of micro and macro defects specifically horizontal cracks within interpasses and vertical segmentation cracks. Mechanical properties, mainly the elastic and anelastic behavior of TBCs were significantly affected by the strain accommodation and friction occurring within intersplats and interpass interfaces. The strain tolerance obtained in as-sprayed conditions decreased as the microstructure and defects sintered during high-temperature heat cycles. The non-linearity degree decreased while the elastic modulus of the various coatings increased to a maximum value.

  4. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  5. Cold spraying: Innovative layers for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, S.; Paul, A.; Köhler, A.; Hüttl, G.

    2006-06-01

    In recent years, results of many studies have been published that enhance understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of cold-spray coating generation and bonding as well as coating characteristics. From the points of view of a job shop in thermal spraying and of a user of cold-spraying equipment, a procedure, being used in development of new applications is presented herein. In addition to the technical requirements, some general factors determining the success of industrial use of spraying are shown. Examples of coldsprayed coatings are described to shos both the possibility of rapid integration of this new technique in established coating jobs as wells as exploration and use of new possibilities in cold spraying and development of applications that have not yet been a focus of thermal spray techniques. Suggestions for further research and development activities are made on the basis of practical cold-spray experience.

  6. On the structure of an electrostatic spray of monodisperse droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Keqi; Gomez, Alessandro

    1994-07-01

    An experimental study has been performed on the structure of an electrostatic spray of monodisperse droplets. Such a spray is established when a liquid with sufficient electric conductivity and moderate surface tension, in the present case heptane doped with an antistatic additive, is fed through a small metal tube maintained at several kilovolts relative to a ground electrode a few centimeters away. The liquid meniscus at the outlet of the capillary takes a conical shape under the action of the electric field, with a thin jet emerging from the cone tip. This jet breaks up into charged droplets that disperse into a fine spray. Flash shadowgraph of the breakup region showed that the jet initially breaks into droplets of bimodal size distribution by varicose wave instabilities. The spray monodispersity is established farther downstream by a segregation process of electrostatic and inertial nature that confines the bulk of the mass flow rate (97%) and 85% of the total current in a core of nearly monodisperse primary droplets, with the remainder in a shroud of satellites. Droplet size, axial velocity, and concentration were measured throughout the spray by phase Doppler anemometry (PDA). The complementary use of these measurements permitted the determination of the electric field via the spray momentum equation. It was found that droplets are ejected from the jet at a relatively high velocity in a region characterized by a very intense electric field. They maintain this velocity farther downstream because of inertia, even though the field is precipitously decreasing, and ultimately decelerate under the action of the drag force and a progressively weaker electrostatic force. Velocity and concentration fields were shown to be self-similar. Comparison between the external field, due to the potential difference applied between the electrodes, and the space charge field shows that the droplet axial motion is driven primarily by the external field, whereas the droplet radial

  7. [Effectiveness of a carbamate insecticide as a household low-volume spray for malaria control].

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Loyola, E G; Rodríguez, M H; Danis-Lozano, R; Fuentes, G; Villarreal, C

    1993-01-01

    A comparative regional-scale evaluation of the epidemiological impact of low volume (LV) spray of bendiocarb and the conventional spray of DDT against malaria in an endemic area of northern Chiapas was carried out. Three Anopheline species were found: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albinanus and An. argyritarsis. The most prevalent was An. pseudopunctipennis, a species we suspect may be involved in the transmission of most malaria cases. This species showed high levels of resistance to DDT. However, this insecticide had a long residual effect in wall bioassays, with mortalities > or = 95 per cent for up to 21 weeks in wood, sticks and plaster. Susceptibility to bendiocarb was total, and mortality to LV bendiocarb was > or = 75 per cent for up to 16 weeks in wood, sticks and straw. Very low numbers of mosquitoes were found throughout the evaluation, although malaria transmission continued in control villages (sprayed with DDT), as well as treated villages (sprayed with LV bendiocarb). No plasmodium infected mosquitoes were found, perhaps due to a very small sample size. The LV spray methodology was found to be 1.7 times more effective than conventional spraying in reducing malaria incidence. A net reduction of 1.6 times in insecticide application time was also found, which would allow spraying at the right time, especially when urgent control measures have to be applied, such as in malaria outbreaks. Finally, the new methodology costs 2.2 times more than the conventional ddt spraying, but if the potential of using spray workers in other activities is considered, costs would be comparable to those of DDT spraying.

  8. Optimization of Plasma Spray Process Using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Huang, X.; Liu, R.; Yang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure features of coatings produced by a plasma spray process are affected significantly by the process parameters such as powder size, spray gun nozzle size, total plasma gas flow, ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow, and so on. This article presents a study of the effects of these parameters on the microstructure (porosity, formation of crack, unmelted particle and oxide phase) of NiCrAlY coatings deposited by the Mettech Axial III™ System. A Taguchi array is used to design the spraying process parameters. The results of the microstructure evaluation are used to generate regression equations for the prediction of coating microstructure based on process parameters. The results predicted from the regression equations are in good agreement with the experimental results according to a confidence level of 0.95. Among the parameters examined, the powder size and the ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate are the most significant parameters affecting the occurrence of crack, porosity, unmelted particle and oxide. Within the range of the designed process parameters, lower powder size and higher ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate lead to less cracks, pores, unmelted particles but more oxides. Nozzle size has marginal influence on oxides which increase with nozzle size. Gas flow rate has no direct influence on any coating feature evaluated with the range of variation.

  9. Effect of sprayer settings on spray drift during pesticide application in poplar plantations (Populus spp.).

    PubMed

    Grella, Marco; Marucco, Paolo; Manzone, Marco; Gallart, Montserrat; Balsari, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed spray drift generated by sprayer settings commonly used for pesticide application in poplar plantations (Populus spp.). Tests were conducted per the ISO 22866 methodology using a mounted air-assisted sprayer (Tifone VRP600) equipped with a swivel-cannon air conveyor (model Cannone 50S). Trials evaluated sprayer settings, combinations of nozzle types, airflow rates, and air direction in both adult and young poplar plantations. Overall, spray drift amounts registered downwind of poplar plantations were less than those obtained to derive reference drift curves during the EU Plant Protection Product registration process that used late-growth-stage fruit crops. In the adult poplar plantation, Venturi nozzles (TVI 8004 red) yielded the highest drift reductions compared to reference sprayer setting, especially at distances farthest from the sprayed area (86% between 40 and 47m). Highest total drift reductions were achieved when conventional nozzles (1.81mm ceramic disc-core) were combined with their spray direction modified for an inclined cannon spray unit. Alternatively, the young poplar plantation showed no drift reduction for distances farthest from the sprayed area, regardless of sprayer settings, which likely resulted from lower foliage density and widely-spaced rows. Yet, both Venturi nozzles combined with high fan flow rates and conventional nozzles combined with reduced fan flow rate showed total spray drift reductions of over 70% within the downwind sampling area. These experimental results represent the first set of data on spray drift amounts in poplar plantations, which is key for defining the reference curves and best practices to reduce spray drift in tall tree plantations.

  10. Manufacture of SOFC electrodes by wet powder spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkenhoener, R.; Mallener, W.; Buchkremer, H.P.

    1996-12-31

    The reproducible and commercial manufacturing of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance is of central importance for a successful technical realization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems. The route of electrode fabrication for the SOFC by Wet Powder Spraying (WPS) is presented. Stabilized suspensions of the powder materials for the electrodes were sprayed onto a substrate by employing a spray gun. After drying of the layers, binder removal and sintering are performed in one step. The major advantage of this process is its applicability for a large variety of materials and its flexibility with regard to layer shape and thickness. Above all, flat or curved substrates of any size can be coated, thus opening up the possibility of {open_quotes}up-scaling{close_quotes} SOFC technology. Electrodes with an enhanced electrochemical performance were developed by gradually optimizing the different process steps. For example an optimized SOFC cathode of the composition La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} with 40% 8YSZ showed a mean overpotential of about -50 mV at a current density of -0.8 A/cm{sup 2}, with a standard deviation amounting to 16 mV (950{degrees}C, air). Such optimized electrodes can be manufactured with a high degree of reproducibility, as a result of employing a computer-controlled X-Y system for moving the spray gun. Several hundred sintered composites, comprising the substrate anode and the electrolyte, of 100x 100 mm{sup 2} were coated with the cathode by WPS and used for stack integration. The largest manufactured electrodes were 240x240 mm{sup 2}, and data concerning their thickness homogeneity and electrochemical performance are given.

  11. Evaluation of VOC emission measurement methods for paint spray booths.

    PubMed

    Eklund, B M; Nelson, T P

    1995-03-01

    Interest in regulations to control solvent emissions from automotive painting systems is increasing, especially in ozone nonattainment areas. Therefore, an accurate measurement method for VOC emissions from paint spray booths used in the automotive industry is needed to ascertain the efficiency of the spray booth capture and the total emissions. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study evaluating potential VOC sampling and analytical methods used in estimating paint spray booth emissions, and discusses these results relative to other published data. Eight test methods were selected for evaluation. The accuracy of each sampling and analytical method was determined using test atmospheres of known concentration and composition that closely matched the actual exhaust air from paint spray booths. The solvent mixture to generate the test atmospheres contained a large proportion of polar, oxygenated hydrocarbons such as ketones and alcohols. A series of identical tests was performed for each sampling/analytical method with each test atmosphere to assess the precision of the methods. The study identified significant differences among the test methods in terms of accuracy, precision, cost, and complexity.

  12. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  13. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change.

  14. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying against Triatoma dimidiata

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space–time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. PMID:26416118

  15. The Spray Forming of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, H. C.; Sawyer, T. F.; Kopp, R. W.; Leatham, A. G.

    1987-08-01

    Spray forming involves the gas atomization of a stream of molten metal to form droplets, and depositing the droplets on a collector before they have solidified. By manipulating the stream and/or the collector, a variety of useful shapes such as disks, bars, sheet, and plate can be made. As a consequence of rapid solidification, the product is homogeneous and is comprised of small, equiaxed grains, making it well suited to further processing. Discussed are the spray forming of 718 and Rene 95, and the properties after heat treatment, both as-deposited and after forging. Also reviewed are recent developments with respect to the processing of a range of near-net shape products.

  16. Predictions of spray combustion interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating phase velocities; mean particle mass flux; particle size; and mean gas-phase Reynolds stress, composition and temperature were measured in stationary, turbulent, axisymmetric, and flows which conform to the boundary layer approximations while having well-defined initial and boundary conditions in dilute particle-laden jets, nonevaporating sprays, and evaporating sprays injected into a still air environment. Three models of the processes, typical of current practice, were evaluated. The local homogeneous flow and deterministic separated flow models did not provide very satisfactory predictions over the present data base. In contrast, the stochastic separated flow model generally provided good predictions and appears to be an attractive approach for treating nonlinear interphase transport processes in turbulent flows containing particles (drops).

  17. Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S.; Koenig, D. E.; Dardi, L. E.

    1981-10-01

    Recognizing the fundamental cost advantage, technical capabilities, and compositional flexibility of reduced pressure (vacuum) plasma spraying compared to other overlay coating methods, an advanced, second generation, closed chamber deposition process called VPX (a Howmet trademark) was developed. An automated experimental facility for coating gas turbine engine components was also constructed. This paper describes several important features of the process and equipment. It shows that the use of optimized spray parameters combined with an appropriate schedule of relative orientations between the gun and work-piece can be used to produce dense and highly reproducible coatings of either uniform or controlled thickness distributions. The chemical composition, microstructure, and interfacial characteristics of typical MCrAlY coatings are reported. Some effects of operating procedures and MCrAlY chemical composition on coating density are noted. The results of mechanical property and burner rig tests of coated material are also described.

  18. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  19. The effect of different spray liquids on the foliar retention of agricultural sprays by wheat plants in a canopy.

    PubMed

    Butler Ellis, M Clare; Webb, Duncan A; Western, Nigel M

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the effect of liquid properties on spray retention in a range of situations representative of practical pesticide application. Liquids with different physical properties were sprayed with conventional flat-fan and air-induction nozzles onto outdoor-grown wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L cv Axona) at growth stages between GS 22 and GS 35. Since total retention is affected by leaf surface as well as plant growth stage and canopy density, the experiments included spraying both single leaves and groups of plants with different canopy densities. Retention on whole plants was strongly influenced by plant growth and canopy properties. Individual leaf surfaces were not as water-repellent as was found previously for younger indoor-grown plants, reducing the effect of dynamic surface tension on retention. This, combined with the increased probability of droplets hitting foliage in a denser canopy, gave reduced differences in retention between liquids when compared with similar measurements made previously on younger plants. With a leaf area index greater than 7, retention on whole plants was almost independent of liquid. Air-induction nozzles gave lower levels of retention than flat-fan nozzles, with this difference greatest when spraying high dynamic surface tension liquids and at low crop densities.

  20. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  1. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  2. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  3. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  4. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  5. Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenineche, N. E.; Cherigui, M.

    2008-09-01

    Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

  6. Calcium enrichment in sea spray aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Hamacher-Barth, E.; Leck, C.; Werner, J.; Johnson, C. M.; Riipinen, I.; Nilsson, E. D.; Zieger, P.

    2016-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol particles are an integral part of the Earth's radiation budget. To date, the inorganic composition of nascent sea spray aerosol particles has widely been assumed to be equivalent to the inorganic composition of seawater. Here we challenge this assumption using a laboratory sea spray chamber containing both natural and artificial seawater, as well as with ambient aerosol samples collected over the central Arctic Ocean during summer. We observe significant enrichment of calcium in submicrometer (<1 μm in diameter) sea spray aerosol particles when particles are generated from both seawater sources in the laboratory as well as in the ambient aerosols samples. We also observe a tendency for increasing calcium enrichment with decreasing particle size. Our results suggest that calcium enrichment in sea spray aerosol particles may be environmentally significant with implications for our understanding of sea spray aerosol, its impact on Earth's climate, as well as the chemistry of the marine atmosphere.

  7. Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fenineche, N. E.; Cherigui, M.

    2008-09-23

    Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

  8. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  9. Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

  10. Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

  11. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  12. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  13. Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair Phillip F Leyman . US Army Research Laboratory Weapons & Materials Research Directorate...AND SUBTITLE Cold Spray Aluminum for Magnesium Gearbox Repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...tirogram ec ves • Develop the densest, thinnest, most corrosion resistant Aluminum -based Cold Spray coating ith th t t dh i b d t th tw e grea es

  14. Planar Droplet Sizing in Dense Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Transactions of the ASME 121(3): 409-414. Sick, V. and B. Stojkovic (2001). "Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow - cone sprays ...considered in the data processing method. Imaging of the scattered light from the spray was performed by a 12bit CCD camera ( Model PCO sensical QE...the spray was performed using a laser power meter. The motorised linear stage was acquired from Thorlabs MTS50 models (Figure 5). The positioning

  15. Clinical results of the application of a hemoglobin spray to promote healing of chronic wounds

    PubMed Central

    Arenberger, Peter; Engels, Peter; Arenbergerova, Monika; Gkalpakiotis, Spyridon; García Luna Martínez, Francisco Javier; Villarreal Anaya, Americo; Jimenez Fernandez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    A new technological approach for supplying hypoxic chronic wounds with oxygen is a moist wound treatment with aqueous solutions containing tissue compatible oxygen binders. This facilitates diffusion of oxygen, necessary for the healing process, from the surroundings (room air through an open-porous wound padding) into the ulcerous tissue. A product that is still in development is a spray which contains hemoglobin obtained from domestic pigs. Clinical investigations (a clinical trial, treatment observations and single patient uses) are presented, which were performed to create clinical data regarding efficiency and safety of this product. All data have shown that the application of the hemoglobin spray promoted wound healing in all analyzed cases. Data from a clinical study in Mexico and subsequent therapy observations revealed that in 39 out of 42 patients (93%) the treated wounds were healed. 9 patients from a series of therapy observations in Monterrey (Mexico) showed similar observations. All treated wounds were closed. Single patient uses carried out in Witten (Germany; 6 wounds from 8 (75%)) and Prague (Czech Republic; 5 wounds from 5 (100%) were healed) further support these results: The application of hemoglobin spray can promote healing of chronic wounds. Within the framework of the clinical investigation, the treatment observations, and the individual healing experiments the hemoglobin spray was applied more than 2,000 times onto chronic wounds of 82 patients. In all cases, the spray was well tolerated and there were no adverse event that might have been an adverse reaction to the hemoglobin spray. PMID:22242086

  16. Corrosion and Wear Studies of Cr3C2NiCr-HVOF Coatings Sprayed on AA7050 T7 Under Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Suegama, P. H.; Espallargas, N.; Fugivara, C. S.; Dosta, S.; Guilemany, J. M.; Benedetti, A. V.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, cermet coatings were prepared by high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) technique using a Diamalloy 3007 powder. The influence of the spray parameters on corrosion, friction, and abrasive wear resistance was studied. The samples were obtained using the standard conditions (253 L/min of oxygen and 375 L/min of compressed air), higher oxygen flux (341 L/min), and higher carrier gas flux (500 L/min). The coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction and SEM studies showed well-bounded coating/substrate interface, pores, metallic matrix, chromium oxides, carbides, and carbides dissolution into the matrix. In comparison with the standard condition, the sample prepared using higher oxygen flux showed the highest carbide dissolution because of the high temperature achieved in the spray process. When the carrier gas flux was increased, the sample showed denser structure because of the higher particle velocity. The friction and abrasive wear resistance of the coatings were studied using rubber wheel and ball-on-disk tests. All samples showed similar sliding and abrasive behavior, and all of them showed better performance than the aluminum alloy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using open-circuit potential ( E OC) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The coating prepared with higher carrier gas flux showed the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution and probably no pitting attack to the substrate occurred even after around 26 h of test. Tests performed for longer immersion times showed that the total impedance values significantly decreased (6 and 4 times) for samples sprayed using standard and higher oxygen flux, and no great change for sample sprayed using higher carrier gas flux was observed. The last sample presents a corrosion resistance around 200 times higher than the others.

  17. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  19. Pulsed spray structure and atomisation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, A. J.

    1987-08-01

    The process of atomisation from diesel injectors is found to persist for a significant proportion of the spray length before impaction on the cylinder wall. Both aerodynamic shear and cavitation appear to be of importance for the liquid jet breakdown. In addition cyclic variations are found in the atomisation and penetration of sprays. The transient nature of the spray initial conditions can cause pile up and coagulation of droplets at the leading edge of the spray pulse for certain cases. Improved modeling of diesel injection requires recognition of these phenomena and this is supported by both modeling and experimental data which have been obtained under realistic engine conditions in a specially developed rig.

  20. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  1. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  2. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  3. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    PubMed

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  5. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopy method (NIRS) for fast analysis of total, indolic, aliphatic and individual glucosinolates in new bred open pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica).

    PubMed

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibration to determine individual and total glucosinolates (GSLs) content of 12 new-bred open-pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica). Six individual GSLs were identified using high-performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC). The NIRS calibration was established based on modified partial least squares regression with reference values of HPLC. The calibration was analyzed using coefficient of determination in prediction (R(2)) and ratio of preference of determination (RPD). Large variation occurred in the calibrations, R(2) and RPD due to the variability of the samples. Derived calibrations for total-GSLs, aliphatic-GSLs, glucoraphanin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were quantitative with a high accuracy (RPD=1.36, 1.65, 1.63, 1.11) while, for indole-GSLs, glucosinigrin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin and 1-methoxyglucobrassicin were more qualitative (RPD=0.95, 0.62, 0.67, 0.81, 0.56). Overall, the results indicated NIRS has a good potential to determine different GSLs in a large sample pool of broccoli quantitatively and qualitatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of Hygroscopicity- and Size-Resolved Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Royalty, T. M.; Reed, R. E.; Petters, M.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in many environmental processes by influencing the Earth's radiative balance, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, biogeochemical cycles, and visibility as well as adversely impacting human health. Based on their origin, atmospheric aerosols can be defined as anthropogenic or natural. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of uncertainty in the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols is related to uncertainty in natural—background—aerosols. Marine aerosols are of particular interest due to the abundance of oceans covering the Earth's surface. Despite their importance, limited information is currently available for size- and composition-resolved marine aerosol emission fluxes. Our group has designed and built an instrument for measuring the size- and hygroscopicity-resolved sea spray aerosol fluxes. The instrument was first deployed during spring 2015 at the end of the 560 m pier of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. Measurements include 200 nm-sized diameter growth factor (hygroscopicity) distributions, sea spray particle flux measurements, and total sub-micron sized aerosol concentration. Ancillary ocean data includes salinity, pH, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and relative fluorescence (proxy for [Chl-a]). Hygroscopicity distribution measurements show two broad peaks, one indicative of organics and sulfates and another suggestive of sea salt. The fraction of 200 nm-sized salt particles having hygroscopicity similar to that of sea-spray aerosol contributes up to ~24% of the distribution on days with high-speed onshore winds and up to ~3% on calm days with winds blowing from the continent. However, the total concentration of sea-spray-like particles originating from offshore versus onshore winds was relatively similar. Changes in the relative contribution of sea-salt to number concentration were caused by a concomitant changes in total aerosol concentration

  7. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  8. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  9. Thermoelectric Device Fabrication Using Thermal Spray and Laser Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Fu, Gaosheng; Hwang, David J.; Zuo, Lei; Sampath, Sanjay; Longtin, Jon P.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are used in many engineering applications such as vehicle and industrial waste-heat recovery systems to provide electrical power, improve operating efficiency and reduce costs. State-of-art TEG manufacturing is based on prefabricated materials and a labor-intensive process involving soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping for assembly. This reduces their durability and raises costs. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as thermal spray, present opportunities to overcome these challenges. In this work, TEGs have been fabricated for the first time using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The TEGs are fabricated directly onto engineering component surfaces. First, current fabrication techniques of TEGs are presented. Next, the steps required to fabricate a thermal spray-based TEG module, including the formation of the metallic interconnect layers and the thermoelectric legs are presented. A technique for bridging the air gap between two adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer using a sacrificial filler material is also demonstrated. A flat 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm TEG module is fabricated using this method and its performance is experimentally characterized and found to be in agreement with expected values of open-circuit voltage based on the materials used.

  10. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of < 100 mg/dL and 2930 (67.06%) falls under HDL level of 40-60 mg/dL.The mean change in HDL levels was 5.56 mg/dL in females and 4.59 mg/dL in males. Overall 63.95% of patients had achieved the total cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  11. Robust hydrophobic Fe-based amorphous coating by thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Wu, Y.; Liu, L.

    2012-09-01

    Metallic surface is intrinsically hydrophilic due to its high surface energy. In this work, we present a different picture that highly hydrophobic metallic coatings could be directly fabricated by thermal spraying of Fe-based amorphous powders through the surface roughness control. These hydrophobic coatings are amorphous, exhibiting super-high hardness and excellent corrosion resistance. With low surface energy modification, the coatings become superhydrophobic and exhibit clearly self-cleaning effect. The present work opens a window for the applications of the amorphous coatings.

  12. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-02-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  13. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-03-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  14. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite & Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.; HEY, B.E.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

  15. Parametric study of electrostatically charged sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, J.S.; Durbin, T.E.; Peters, J.E. . Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering); Leong, K.H. )

    1989-12-01

    Electrostatically charged sprays are used in a wide range of applications. They include the coating of surfaces as with paint spraying, the production of fine powders and the control of pollutants. The phenomenon of electrostatic spraying has been much researched particularly for the cases of dielectric fluids in paint spraying and conductive fluids in fine metallic powder production. although the literature on electrostatic spraying is voluminous, the parametric dependence of the size distribution of the spray under various conditions still lacks precise definition. The focus of this study is the generation of charged water droplets for the production of ions and radicals in flue gases by pulsed corona discharges to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. As a first step in evaluating charged sprays for such use, a laboratory-scale injection system was evaluated by measuring atomization performance of needle injectors over a wide range of parameters. Sauter mean diameter (SMD) determined with a Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used as the measure of atomization performance. The independent parameters investigated include applied voltage, needle size, flow rate and NaNO{sub 3} concentration (used to vary the solution conductivity). Because the spray was only about 2 mm wide at the sampling point, SMD measured at a single location was taken to be representative of the spray. This assumption was tested by taking radial traverses through the spray. Current flow from the needle to a collector plate 6 cm below was measured with and without solution flow to quantify the relative current-carrying capacities of the spray and the surrounding air. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of azelastine and fluticasone in a single nasal spray delivery device.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Frank C; Ratner, Paul H; Van Bavel, Julius; Amar, N J; Daftary, Pramila; Wheeler, William; Sacks, Harry

    2010-08-01

    A proof-of-concept study suggested that combination therapy with commercial azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and fluticasone propionate nasal spray significantly improved nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis compared with either agent alone. To compare an azelastine-fluticasone combination nasal spray administered in a single-delivery device with a commercially available azelastine nasal spray and fluticasone nasal spray. This 14-day, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was conducted during the Texas mountain cedar season. After a 5-day placebo lead-in, 610 patients with moderate-to-severe nasal symptoms were randomized to treatment with (1) azelastine nasal spray, (2) fluticasone nasal spray, (3) combination azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray, or (4) placebo nasal spray. All treatments were given as 1 spray per nostril twice daily. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in the total nasal symptom score (TNSS), consisting of nasal congestion, runny nose, itchy nose, and sneezing. All 3 active groups were statistically superior (P spray provided statistically significant improvement in the TNSS and additive clinical benefit compared with either agent alone in patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00660517. Copyright 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wear Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings on Rotavator Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Amardeep Singh; Grewal, Jasmaninder Singh; Jain, Deepak; Kang, Shivani

    2012-03-01

    A rotavator is a motorized cultivator, popularly used to decrease the total time and human efforts in soil preparation. However, under dynamic loading, rotavator blades are subjected to extreme abrasive wear. The objective of this study was to enhance the working life of the rotavator blade in order to decrease the idle time required to reinstate the blade periodically during cultivation. The objective was carried out by means of thermal spray coatings, where the effect of the coatings on the extent of wear and the wear characteristics of the rotavator blades were examined. Three different detonation gun sprayed coatings, namely WC-Co-Cr, Cr3C2NiCr and Stellite-21 were compared in this study on high tensile steel rotavator blades. The wear rates of Cr3C2NiCr and Stellite-21 coated blades showed significant superiority over the uncoated blade, but not as much as shown by WC-Co-Cr coated blade.

  18. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  19. Use of antimicrobial spray applied with an inside-outside birdwasher to reduce bacterial contamination on prechilled chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Li, Y; Slavik, M

    1998-07-01

    Antimicrobial sprays applied using a modified inside-outside birdwasher to reduce Salmonella typhimurium and total aerobic bacteria on prechilled chicken carcasses were evaluated in a poultry processing pilot plant. Four chemicals, including trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10%), lactic acid (LAC, 2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, 0.5%), and sodium bisulfate (SBS, 5%) were selected to be tested as antimicrobial agents. Each chicken carcass was inoculated by spraying the outside and inside of each carcass with S. typhimurium at 10(5) CFU per carcass. The inoculated carcasses then were passed through the birdwasher and sprayed with selected chemicals at 35 degrees C at a pressure of 413 kPa for 17 s. After a 60-s setting time on a shackle line, the carcasses were sprayed with tap water to rinse off chemical residue. All the chemical treatments reduced Salmonella on the chicken carcasses by approximately 2 log10 CFU per carcass. Total aerobes on the chicken carcasses, however, were reduced by 2.16, 1.66, 1.03, and 0.74 log10 CFU per carcass after spraying with 0.5% CPC, 5% SBS, 2% LAC, or 10% TSP, respectively. Spray treatments of both SBS and LAC caused slight discoloration in part of the chicken skin. The most effective antimicrobial spray treatment for reducing both Salmonella and total aerobes on prechilled chicken carcasses was 0.5% CPC.

  20. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  1. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  2. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  3. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  4. Plasma Spraying Of Dense, Rough Bond Coats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Edmonds, Brian J.; Leissler, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Simple modification of plasma torch facilitates spraying of coarse powders. Shape of nozzle changed to obtain decrease in velocity of gas and consequent increase in time particles spend in flame before impact on substrate. Increased residence time allows melting of coarser powders, spraying of which results in rougher bond surfaces.

  5. Uniform spray coating for large tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    System employs spray facility located within ventilated plastic booth to uniformly coat exterior of large cylindrical tanks with polyurethane foam insulation. Coating target is rotated on turntable while movable spray guns apply overlapping spirals of foam. Entire operation may be controlled by single operator from remote station.

  6. Non-Markov effects in intersecting sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Mahesh; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Deevi, Sri Vallabha; Tangirala, Arun

    2016-11-01

    Sprays have been assumed to follow a Markov process. In this study, we revisit that assumption relying on experimental data from intersecting and non-intersecting sprays. A phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) is used to measure particle diameter and velocity at various axial locations in the intersection region of two sprays. Measurements of single sprays, with one nozzle turned off alternatively are also obtained at the same locations. This data, treated as an unstructured time series is classified into three bins each for diameter (small, medium, large) and velocity (slow, medium, fast). Conditional probability analysis on this binned data showed a higher static correlation between droplet velocities, while diameter correlation is significantly alleviated (reduced) in intersecting sprays, compared to single sprays. Further analysis using serial correlation measures: auto-correlation function (ACF) and partial auto-correlation function (PACF) shows that the lagged correlations in droplet velocity are enhanced while those in the droplet diameter are significantly debilitated in intersecting sprays. We show that sprays are not necessarily Markov processes and that memory persists, even though curtailed to fewer lags in case of size, and enhanced in case of droplet velocity.

  7. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  8. Summary of the Blackmo 88 spray experiment

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus; D. E. Anderson; K. Mierzejewski

    1991-01-01

    The Blackmo 88 spray trial experiment was conducted for two primary purposes: To quantify the effects of local micrometeorological processes, in and near the canopy, on the deposition patterns of aerially applied BT in a mature oak forest; To generate a data set containing simultaneous measurements of spray deposition and detailed micrometeorology, in a canopy of known...

  9. Uniform spray coating for large tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    System employs spray facility located within ventilated plastic booth to uniformly coat exterior of large cylindrical tanks with polyurethane foam insulation. Coating target is rotated on turntable while movable spray guns apply overlapping spirals of foam. Entire operation may be controlled by single operator from remote station.

  10. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  11. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  12. Safety and efficacy of olopatadine hydrochloride nasal spray for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis to mountain cedar.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Paul H; Hampel, Frank C; Amar, Niran J; van Bavel, Julius H; Mohar, Dale; Marple, Bradley F; Roland, Peter S; Wall, G Michael; Brubaker, Michael J; Drake, Margaret; Turner, Darell; Silver, Lewis H

    2005-11-01

    A nasal spray containing the antiallergy agent olopatadine hydrochloride is being developed for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) to mountain cedar. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 concentrations of olopatadine nasal spray vs placebo nasal spray in patients with SAR to mountain cedar. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After a 3- to 21-day placebo run-in, 677 patients aged 12 to 81 years were randomized to receive 0.4% or 0.6% olopatadine or placebo, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients evaluated morning and evening reflective and instantaneous nasal symptoms (sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose, and itchy nose, which compose the total nasal symptom score [TNSS]) and ocular symptoms. Olopatadine spray (0.4% and 0.6%) was statistically significantly superior to placebo for percentage change from baseline in overall reflective and instantaneous TNSSs. Also, 0.6% olopatadine was statistically significantly superior to placebo for reducing the reflective and instantaneous assessments of sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, stuffy nose, itchy eyes, and watery eyes. Olopatadine spray exhibited a safety profile comparable with that of placebo. Olopatadine nasal spray (0.4% and 0.6%) provided statistically significant improvements in allergic rhinitis symptoms compared with placebo regarding TNSSs and individual symptoms, including congestion, itchy and runny nose, sneezing, and itchy and watery eyes, in patients with SAR to mountain cedar. Olopatadine nasal spray administered twice daily was safe and well tolerated in adolescents and adults.

  13. Hot-water spraying is a sensitive test for signs of life before dressing and scalding in pig abattoirs with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning.

    PubMed

    Parotat, S; von Holleben, K; Arnold, S; Troeger, K; Luecker, E

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual

  14. Tapered plug foam spray apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A two-component foam spray gun is readily disassembled for cleaning. It includes a body (1) with reactant (12, 14) and purge gas (16) inlet ports. A moldable valve packing (32) inside the body has a tapered conical interior surface (142), and apertures which match the reactant ports. A valve/tip (40) has a conical outer surface (48) which mates with the valve packing (32). The valve/tip (40) is held in place by a moldable packing washer (34), held at non-constant pressure by a screw (36, 38). The interior of the valve/tip (40) houses a removable mixing chamber (50). The mixing chamber (50) has direct flow orifices (60) and an auxiliary flow path (58, 60) which ameliorate pressure surges. The spray gun can be disassembled for cleaning without disturbing the seal, by removing the valve/tip (40) to the rear, thereby breaking it free of the conical packing. Rotation of the valve/tip (40) relative to the body (1) shuts off the reactant flow, and starts the purge gas flow.

  15. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. Methods and analysis This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). Trial registration number 2013-004313-41; Pre

  16. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  17. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  18. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  19. Aerosol delivery of nanoparticles in uniform mannitol carriers formulated by ultrasonic spray freeze drying.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Chan, John Gar Yan; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Benson, Bryan R; Prud'homme, Robert K; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-11-01

    While most examples of nanoparticle therapeutics have involved parenteral or IV administration, pulmonary delivery is an attractive alternative, especially to target and treat local infections and diseases of the lungs. We describe a successful dry powder formulation which is capable of delivering nanoparticles to the lungs with good aerosolization properties, high loadings of nanoparticles, and limited irreversible aggregation. Aerosolizable mannitol carrier particles that encapsulate nanoparticles with dense PEG coatings were prepared by a combination of ultrasonic atomization and spray freeze drying. This process was contrasted to particle formation by conventional spray drying. Spray freeze drying a solution of nanoparticles and mannitol (2 wt% solids) resulted in particles with an average diameter of 21 ± 1.7 μm, regardless of the fraction of nanoparticles loaded (0-50% of total solids). Spray freeze dried (SFD) powders with a 50% nanoparticle loading had a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 60%. After formulation in a mannitol matrix, nanoparticles redispersed in water to < 1 μm with hand agitation and to < 250 nm with the aid of sonication. Powder production by spray drying was less successful, with low powder yields and extensive, irreversible aggregation of nanoparticles evident upon rehydration. This study reveals the unique advantages of processing by ultrasonic spray freeze drying to produce aerosol dry powders with controlled properties for the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles to the lungs.

  20. Effect of spray nozzle design on fish oil-whey protein microcapsule properties.

    PubMed

    Legako, Jerrad; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2010-08-01

    Microencapsulation improves oxidative stability and shelf life of fish oil. Spray and freeze drying are widely used to produce microcapsules. Newer spray-nozzles utilize multiple fluid channels allowing for mixing of wall and core materials at the point of atomization. Sonic energy has also been employed as a means of atomization. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nozzle type and design on fish oil encapsulation efficiency and microcapsule properties. A total of 3 nozzle types, a pressure nozzle with 1 liquid channel, a pressure nozzle with 2 liquid channels, and a sonic atomizer with 2 liquid channels were examined for their suitability to encapsulate fish oil in whey protein isolate. Physical and chemical properties of freeze dried microcapsules were compared to those of microcapsules produced by spray drying. The 2-fluid pressure and ultrasonic nozzles had the highest (91.6%) and the lowest microencapsulation efficiencies (76%), respectively. There was no significant difference in bulk density of microcapsules produced by ultrasonic and 3-fluid pressure nozzles. The ultrasonic nozzle showed a significantly narrower particle size distribution than the other nozzles. This study demonstrated that new nozzle designs that eliminate emulsion preparation prior to spray drying can be beneficial for microencapsulation applications. However, there is still a need for research to improve microencapsulation efficiency of multiple channel spray nozzles. Practical Application: Since this research evaluates new spray nozzle designs for oil microencapsulation, the information presented in this article could be an interest to fish oil producers and food industry.

  1. Size distribution of heavy metal aerosols in cooling and spray dryer system

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, M.Y.; Yang, J.T.; Peng, C.Y.; Chiang, B.C.

    1999-11-01

    The cooling process prior to treating flue gas and the spray dryer process that removes acid components in flue gas are believed to influence the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metal in fly ash. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metals in fly ash produced from a fluidized bed incineration and a water cooling or spray dryer flue gas treatment system. The operating parameters investigated included (1) the controlling temperature in the gas cooling system; (2) the controlling temperature in the spray dryer system; (3) the addition of organic chlorides; and (4) the addition of inorganic chloride. The experimental results indicated that the water cooling process and spray dryer process increase the amount of coarse fly ash and increase the total concentration of metal in fly ash. The amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash increase with decreasing temperature during the water cooling process. However, the amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash decrease with decreasing temperature during the spray dryer process.

  2. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    some heat transfer calculations and picked out a heater to order for the rig. I learned QBasic programming language to change the operating code for our drops, allowing us to rapidly cycle the spray nozzle open and closed to study the effects. We have derived an equation for flow rate vs. pressure for our experiment. We have recorded several videos of drops at different pressures, some with heated test plate and some without, and have noticed substantial differences in the liquid behavior. I have also changed the computer program to write a file with temperature vs. time profiles for the test plate, and once the necessary thermocouple comes in (it was ordered last week), we will have temperature profiles to accompany the videos. Once we have these temperature profiles to go with the videos, we will be able to see how the temperature is affected by the spray at different pressures, and how the spray changes its behavior once as the plate changes from hot to cool. With quantitative temperature data, we can then mathematically model the heat transfer from the plate to the cooling spray. Finally, we can look at the differences between trials in microgravity and those in normal earth gravity.

  3. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    some heat transfer calculations and picked out a heater to order for the rig. I learned QBasic programming language to change the operating code for our drops, allowing us to rapidly cycle the spray nozzle open and closed to study the effects. We have derived an equation for flow rate vs. pressure for our experiment. We have recorded several videos of drops at different pressures, some with heated test plate and some without, and have noticed substantial differences in the liquid behavior. I have also changed the computer program to write a file with temperature vs. time profiles for the test plate, and once the necessary thermocouple comes in (it was ordered last week), we will have temperature profiles to accompany the videos. Once we have these temperature profiles to go with the videos, we will be able to see how the temperature is affected by the spray at different pressures, and how the spray changes its behavior once as the plate changes from hot to cool. With quantitative temperature data, we can then mathematically model the heat transfer from the plate to the cooling spray. Finally, we can look at the differences between trials in microgravity and those in normal earth gravity.

  4. Heart Rate Variability in Association with Frequent Use of Household Sprays and Scented Products in SAPALDIA

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Carballo, David; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Rochat, Thierry; Schindler, Christian; Schwartz, Joel; Zock, Jan-Paul; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Team, SAPALDIA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Household cleaning products are associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, but the cardiovascular health effects are largely unknown. Objective: We determined if long-term use of household sprays and scented products at home was associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic cardiac dysfunction. Methods: We recorded 24-hr electrocardiograms in a cross-sectional survey of 581 Swiss adults, ≥ 50 years of age, who answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their use of household cleaning products in their homes. The adjusted average percent changes in standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals in 24 hr (24-hr SDNN) and total power (TP) were estimated in multiple linear regression in association with frequency [< 1, 1–3, or 4–7 days/week, unexposed (reference)] of using cleaning sprays, air freshening sprays, and scented products. Results: Decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP were observed with frequent use of all product types, but the strongest reductions were associated with air freshening sprays. Compared with unexposed participants, we found that using air freshening sprays 4–7 days/week was associated with 11% [95% confidence interval (CI): –20%, –2%] and 29% (95% CI: –46%, –8%) decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP, respectively. Inverse associations of 24-SDNN and TP with increased use of cleaning sprays, air freshening sprays, and scented products were observed mainly in participants with obstructive lung disease (p < 0.05 for interactions). Conclusions: In predominantly older adult women, long-term frequent use of household spray and scented products was associated with reduced HRV, which suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular health hazards. People with preexisting pulmonary conditions may be more susceptible. PMID:22538298

  5. Crack-free surface sealing of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings using an excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia coatings are typically used in the aerospace industry as high-temperature thermal barriers. These coatings are normally applied by plasma thermal spray, which has an inherent problem of producing coatings containing a substantial amount of open or closed porosity. Surface sealing of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings with CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers is always associated with the problem of cracking on melted layers. Although some attempts such as pre-heating have been used to overcome the problem, formation of cracking is still not prevented, especially in zirconia-based ceramic coatings. The present work investigates an alternative method of surface sealing of plasma sprayed 8 wt.% Y 2O 3-ZrO 2 coatings using an excimer laser. The results show that smooth, crack-free and crater-free sealing can be obtained. Effects of laser operating parameters on the sealing quality and involved mechanism are also discussed.

  6. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  7. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  8. Pesticide dispersion by spraying under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Tomaz; Mano, Denise; Campos, Maize M; Cunha, Alessandra L M C; De Campos, Tácio M P

    2017-09-26

    Pesticide air pollution by spraying was evaluated under different temperature, humidity and wind climatic conditions in Brazil. Field experiments were performed with application towards the soil and in guava orchards, where spray dispersion was monitored by adding p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a fluorescent substance, as a tracer to the water contained in the spray tanks. Samples were collected with filter membranes (Whatman 180025), and the PABA was extracted from the filters by shaking with water in a Petri dish and measured in a spectrofluorometer. A spray aimed towards the soil with filters positioned on the ground and hung at different heights did not show different upward dispersion as observed when lateral pulverization was conducted. In this case, a tractor with a sprayer moved through a 3 m high and 6 m wide frame with filter membranes mounted at 60 cm intervals. Spray dispersion patterns were modified by guava leaf resistance. No influence of temperature and humidity was observed in this short-lived spraying process. Nevertheless, wind drift can occur during airborne dispersion and is an important pesticide pollution source which requires control. Droplets with PABA powered by assisted spraying upwards returned to the ground by gravity and, therefore, did not constitute a vertical source of atmospheric pollution.

  9. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  10. 7 CFR 3201.88 - Agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural spray adjuvants. 3201.88 Section 3201.88... Designated Items § 3201.88 Agricultural spray adjuvants. (a) Definition. Products mixed in the spray tank... preference for qualifying biobased agricultural spray adjuvants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.88 - Agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural spray adjuvants. 3201.88 Section 3201.88... Designated Items § 3201.88 Agricultural spray adjuvants. (a) Definition. Products mixed in the spray tank... preference for qualifying biobased agricultural spray adjuvants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the...

  12. 40 CFR 61.146 - Standard for spraying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spray applied shall comply with the following requirements: (a) For spray-on application on buildings... Microscopy, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) For spray-on application of materials... requirements of this paragraph. (2) Discharge no visible emissions to the outside air from spray-on...

  13. Thermal spray coatings: New materials, processes and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, F.N.

    1985-01-01

    The major areas of thermal spray, including materials, equipment, processes, coatings and applications, are covered. Emphasis of the papers is on practical recommendations and solutions to present applications. The author provides information on linear gas mass controllers, metal sprayed coating systems, plasma sprayed coatings, thermal sprayed coatings in marine applications and for repairing equipment parts, and advances in arc coating technology.

  14. DRIFTSIM, A Computer Program for Estimating Spray Drift Distances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the severe problems with spraying pesticides is the spray drift. Drift is a problem if chemicals are sprayed too close to residential areas, livestock facilities, bodies of water, or sensitive crops. Complaints regarding spray drift are routinely brought to state departments of agriculture,...

  15. Spray drift reduction techniques for vineyards in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Otto, S; Loddo, D; Baldoin, C; Zanin, G

    2015-10-01

    In intensive agricultural systems spray drift is one of the major potential diffuse pollution pathways for pesticides and poses a risk to the environment. There is also increasing concern about potential exposure to bystanders and passers-by, especially in fragmented landscapes like the Italian pre-Alps, where orchards and vineyards are surrounded by residential houses. There is thus an urgent need to do field measurements of drift generated by air-blast sprayer in vineyards, and to develop measures for its reduction (mitigation). A field experiment with an "event method" was conducted in north-eastern Italy in no-wind conditions, in the hilly area famed for Prosecco wine production, using an air-blast sprayer in order to evaluate the potential spray drift from equipment and the effectiveness of some practical mitigation measures, either single or in combination. A definition of mitigation is proposed, and a method for the calculation of total effectiveness of a series of mitigation measures is applied to some what-if scenarios of interest. Results show that low-drift equipment reduced potential spray drift by 38% and that a fully developed vine curtain mitigated it by about 70%; when the last row was treated without air-assistance mitigation was about 74%; hedgerows were always very effective in providing mitigation of up to 98%. In conclusion, spray drift is not inevitable and can be markedly reduced using a few mitigation measures, most already available to farmers, that can be strongly recommended for environmental regulatory schemes and community-based participatory research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Forensic aspects of the weathering and ageing of spray paints.

    PubMed

    Jost, Cédric; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the degradation of spray paint samples, illustrated by Optical, FTIR and Raman measurements. As opposed to automotive paints which are specifically designed for improved outdoor exposure and protected using hindered amine light absorbers (HALS) and ultra-violet absorbers (UVA), the spray paints on their side are much simpler in composition and very likely to suffer more from joint effects of solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Six different spray paint were exposed to outdoor UV-radiation for a total period of three months and both FTIR and Raman measurements were taken systematically during this time. These results were later compared to an artificial degradation using a climate chamber. For infrared spectroscopy, degradation curves were plotted using the photo-oxidation index (POI), and could be successfully approximated with a logarithmic fitting (R(2)>0.8). The degradation can appear after the first few days of exposure and be important until 2 months, where it stabilizes and follow a more linear trend afterwards. One advantage is that the degradation products appeared almost exclusively at the far end (∼3000cm(-1)) of mid-infrared spectra, and that the fingerprint region of the spectra remained stable over the studied period of time. Raman results suggest that the pigments on the other side, are much more stable and have not shown any sign of degradation over the time of this study. Considering the forensic implications of this environmental degradation, care should be taken when comparing samples if weathering is an option (e.g. an exposed graffiti compared to the paint from a fresh spray paint can). Degradation issues should be kept in mind as they may induce significant differences between paint samples of common origin.

  17. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  18. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  19. Expert system for the plasma spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Petrone, S.

    1994-12-31

    The plasma spray process, like other thermal spray processes, has few on-line monitoring sensors and many process variables which cannot be easily and precisely formulated. This provides an opportunity for improving and controlling the process through artificial intelligence. An expert system has been constructed for selecting plasma spray parameters in the development of new coatings. The expert system is based on operator experience and heuristics on the subject using symbolic reasoning, and coupled with numerical calculations. For less experienced users, the system can assist in solving process problems.

  20. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  1. Laser Sheet Dropsizing of dense sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gal, P.; Farrugia, N.; Greenhalgh, D. A.

    1999-02-01

    A new technique has been developed that produces instantaneous or time-averaged two-dimensional images of Sauter Mean Diameter from a spray. Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) combines elastic and inelastic light scattered from a laser sheet. Compared with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), the new technique offers advantages in increased spatial and temporal resolution and more rapid spray characterisation. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to dense sprays. Successful implementation requires careful calibration, particularly of the effect of dye concentration on the dropsize dependence of the inelastic scattered light.

  2. Organophosphate residues in grasshoppers from sprayed rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; McEwen, L.C.; Lamont, Thair

    1984-01-01

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were collected in pastures that had been sprayed with malathion and acephate to estimate the secondary exposure of insectivorous birds to these pesticides. Residues of malathion were below 3 ppm at 30 'and 54 hours after spraying and no malaoxon was detected. In contrast, acephate was found at 8 and 9 ppm 4 hours after spray; 3-5 ppm of the toxic metabolite methamidophos were also detected at that time. By 53 hours postspray, acephate levels declined to 2 ppm and methamidophos to less than 1 ppm. These results suggest that although malathion may not be a hazard to insectivorous species. acephate may be hazardous through metabolic transformation to methamidophos.

  3. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  4. The design and scale-up of spray dried particle delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khattawi, Ali; Bayly, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Wilson, David

    2017-05-04

    The rising demand for pharmaceutical particles with tailored physicochemical properties has opened new markets for spray drying especially for solubility enhancement, improving inhalation medicines and stabilization of biopharmaceuticals. Despite this, the spray drying literature is scattered and often does not address the principles underpinning robust development of pharmaceuticals. It is therefore necessary to present clearer picture of the field and highlight the factors influencing particle design and scale-up. Areas covered: The review presents a systematic analysis of the trends in development of particle delivery systems using spray drying. This is followed by exploring the mechanisms governing particle formation in the process stages. Particle design factors including those of equipment configurations and feed/process attributes were highlighted. Finally, the review summarises the current industrial approaches for upscaling pharmaceutical spray drying. Expert opinion: Spray drying provides the ability to design particles of the desired functionality. This greatly benefits the pharmaceutical sector especially as product specifications are becoming more encompassing and exacting. One of the biggest barriers to product translation remains one of scale-up/scale-down. A shift from trial and error approaches to model-based particle design helps to enhance control over product properties. To this end, process innovations and advanced manufacturing technologies are particularly welcomed.

  5. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by equivalent monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  6. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by 'equivalent' monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  7. Solvent vapor exposures in booth spray painting and spray glueing, and associated operations.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, L W; Ball, G L; Fine, L J; Langolf, G D

    1984-11-01

    Time-weighted average exposures for all solvents present at detectable levels were obtained for eighty-nine solvent-using workers and thirty-six control-group (unexposed) workers in seven plants of three companies applying paints and glues, primarily by spraying. Over twenty solvents were quantified if detected. Concentrations of specific solvents and cumulative fractions of TLVs were measured for various job types. All spray painting and most spray glueing was conducted in operating spray booths. Only low to moderate exposures were observed, with one TWA exceeding the cumulative TLV and three additional TWAs exceeding 50 percent of the cumulative TLV. It may be concluded that solvent TWA exposures in spraying of paints and glues are often well-controlled by common spray booths, and further, that other solvent-use operations including light-duty solvent wiping and manual paint mixing do not frequently produce high exposures (relative to TLV levels) in the presence of ordinary general room ventilation.

  8. Randomised, double blind trial of oxytocin nasal spray in mothers expressing breast milk for preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fewtrell, M S; Loh, K L; Blake, A; Ridout, D A; Hawdon, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Human milk has considerable short and long term benefits for preterm infants, but mothers may experience difficulties in expressing breast milk for infants too immature or sick to breast feed. Oxytocin has been used to assist breast feeding and milk expression, but few data are available to support this intervention in the neonatal unit setting. Aim To test the hypothesis that oxytocin nasal spray increases early milk output in mothers expressing milk for preterm infants. Methods A randomised, double blind trial of oxytocin nasal spray (100 µl per dose) versus placebo was conducted in mothers delivering infants <35 weeks gestation. Sprays were used before expression of milk using an electric pump up to day 5. Main outcome Total weight of milk expressed while using spray (study powered to detect >1SD difference between groups). Secondary outcomes Pattern of milk production; number of pumping sessions; weight/fat content of milk expressed during a fixed 20 minute period on day 5 (“physiological study”); mother's opinion of expressing and spray assessed by questionnaire. Results Fifty one mothers were randomised (27 oxytocin, 24 placebo). Total milk production did not differ between groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance suggested significantly (p  =  0.001) different patterns of milk production, with initial faster production in the oxytocin group then convergence between groups. Parity did not influence the response to the intervention. No significant differences were seen in milk weight or fat content in the physiological study nor in mothers' opinions of milk expression and treatment. Conclusions Despite marginal differences in the pattern of early milk production, the use of oxytocin nasal spray did not significantly improve outcome. Most mothers believed they were receiving the active spray, suggesting a significant placebo effect (supported by limited data from historical controls) and benefits from the extra breast feeding

  9. Influence of aircraft vortices on spray cloud behavior.

    PubMed

    Mickle, R E

    1996-06-01

    For small droplet spraying, the spray cloud is initially entrained into the wingtip vortices so that the ultimate fate of the spray is controlled by the motion of these vortices. In close to 100 aerial sprays, the emitted spray cloud has been mapped using a scanning laser system that displays diffusion and transport of the spray cloud. Results detailing the concentrations within the spray cloud in space and time are given for sprays in parallel and crosswinds. Wind direction is seen to potentially alter the vortex motion and hence the fate of the spray cloud. In crosswind spraying, the vortex behavior associated with the 2 wings is found to differ, which leads to enhanced deposition from the upwind wing and enhanced drift from the downwind wing.

  10. Closed cannulation of subclavian vein vs open cut-down of cephalic vein for totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) implantation: protocol for a systematic review and proportional meta-analysis of perioperative and postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, Ulla; Grummich, Kathrin; Jensen, Katrin; Saure, Daniel; Contin, Pietro; Hüttner, Felix J; Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip

    2015-04-22

    Totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) implantation is one of the most often performed operations in general surgery (over 100,000/year in Germany). The two main approaches for TIVAP placement are insertion into the cephalic vein through an open cut-down technique (OCD) or closed cannulation technique of the subclavian vein (CC) with Seldinger technique. Both procedures are performed with high success rates and very low complication frequencies. Because of the low incidence of complications, no single interventional trial is able to report a valid comparison of peri- and postoperative complication frequencies between both techniques. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarize evidence for peri- and postoperative complication rates in patients undergoing OCD or CC. A systematic literature search will be conducted in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational clinical studies (OCS), or case series (CS) reporting peri- and/or postoperative complications of at least one implantation technique. A priori defined data will be extracted from included studies, and methodological quality will be assessed. Event rates with their 95% confidence intervals will be derived taking into account the follow-up time per study by patient-months where appropriate. Pooled estimates of event rates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals will be calculated on the base of the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation within a random effect model framework. The findings of this systematic review with proportional meta-analysis will help to identify the procedure with the best benefit/risk ratio for TIVAP implantation. This may have influence on daily practice, and data may be implemented in treatment guidelines. Considering the impact of TIVAP implantation on patients' well being together with its socioeconomic relevance, patients will benefit from evidence-based treatment and health-care costs may

  11. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-03-01

    Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). 2013-004313-41; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  12. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  13. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  14. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  15. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    PubMed

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  16. Clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% add-on therapy to a stable regimen of biologic treatment in patients with moderate to very severe plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Koo, John Y M; Johnson, Lori A; Preston, Norman J

    2009-10-01

    Moderate to severe psoriasis often requires systemic treatment, but even biologic medications do not always induce complete clearing in patients. In many instances, physicians supplement biologic treatment with topical agents as adjunctive therapy to obtain additional clearing of plaques. To evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of a superpotent corticosteroid--clobetasol propionate spray 0.05%--to various psoriasis treatments, a phase 4, multicenter, open-label, community-based trial was conducted. In this study, clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% applied twice daily was added on to a variety of existing stable treatments including systemic biologic agents in participants with moderate, severe, or very severe plaque psoriasis. The decision to add clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% to stable psoriasis therapy was determined by each investigator based on his/her evaluation of a participant's needs. A total of 159 participants from the trial adhered to stable (> or = 3 months' duration) therapeutic regimens that included a biologic treatment. In this population, at the end of the study period, 81.0% of participants with moderate disease at baseline, 79.5% of participants with severe disease at baseline, and 58.8% of participants with very severe disease at baseline were rated as clear or almost clear (target plaque severity [TPS]). Worst skin tolerability response was assessed postbaseline and included erythema (20.3% mild, 8.9% moderate, 1.9% severe), peeling (26.6% mild, 7.0% moderate, 1.3% severe), dryness (34.8% mild, 8.9% moderate, 1.3% severe), and stinging (25.3% mild, 3.8% moderate, 0.6% severe). Telangiectasia and skin atrophy were reported in 1.3% of participants each at some point during the study (postbaseline). Pruritus was reported in 7.6% of participants and folliculitis was reported in 1.9% of participants. Eight participants experienced adverse events (AEs) that were regarded as probably related to the study medication (clobetasol propionate spray

  17. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  18. LSPRAY-III: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    LSPRAY-III is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-III, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  19. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  20. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Amount. Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet the affected areas while avoiding run off of excess product. Administer twice daily for 7 days, then once daily for 7 days, then every...

  1. Turbulent group reaction model of spray dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.K.; Huang, H.S.; Chiu, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    A turbulent group reaction model consisting of several sub-models was developed for the prediction of SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in spray dryers. Mathematical models are developed on the basis of Eulerian-type turbulent Navier-Stokes equations for both gas and condensed phases with interphase transport considerations. The group reaction number, G, is defined as the ratio of the SO/sub 2/ absorption rate to a reference convective mass flux. This number represents the fraction of SO/sub 2/ absorbed into the lime slurry. The model is incorporated into a computer code which permits the investigation of spray dryer design concepts and operating conditions. Hence, it provides a theoretical basis for spray dryer performance optimization and scale-up. This investigation can be a practical guide to achieve high SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in a spray dryer.

  2. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    MedlinePlus

    ... two different kinds of containers: pressurized canisters and pump bottles.Steps for using a pressurized canisterGently blow ... after using the spray.Steps for using a pump bottleGently blow your nose to clear it of ...

  3. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  4. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  5. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  6. Dynamics of flare sprays. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Martin, S. F.; Hansen, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable passband filters, multislit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronagraphs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occurred between 1969-1974 it is concluded that (1) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (2) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumable magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the materials draining back down along one or both legs of the loop.

  7. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  8. LSPRAY-II: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    LSPRAY-II is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-II, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  9. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0095 Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Final Report 11/26/2016...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research...DATES COVERED (From - To)  20 Mar 2013 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT

  10. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  11. Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

    1987-08-01

    Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

  12. Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2006-07-01

    Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(ɛ-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

  13. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  14. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  15. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějíček, J.; Kavka, T.; Bertolissi, G.; Ctibor, P.; Vilémová, M.; Mušálek, R.; Nevrlá, B.

    2013-06-01

    Tungsten-based coatings have potential application in the plasma-facing components in future nuclear fusion reactors. By the combination of refractory tungsten with highly thermal conducting copper, or steel as a construction material, functionally graded coatings can be easily obtained by plasma spraying, and may result in the development of a material with favorable properties. During plasma spraying of these materials in the open atmosphere, oxidation is an important issue, which could have adverse effects on their properties. Among the means to control it is the application of inert gas shrouding, which forms the subject of this study and represents a lower-cost alternative to vacuum or low-pressure plasma spraying, potentially applicable also for spraying of large surfaces or spacious components. It is a continuation of recent studies focused on the effects of various parameters of the hybrid water-argon torch on the in-flight behavior of copper and tungsten powders and the resultant coatings. In the current study, argon shrouding with various configurations of the shroud was applied. The effects of torch parameters, such as power and argon flow rate, and powder morphology were also investigated. Their influence on the particle in-flight behavior as well as the structure, composition and properties of the coatings were quantified. With the help of auxiliary calculations, the mass changes of the powder particles, associated with oxidation and evaporation, were assessed.

  16. Liposomal Nasal Spray versus Guideline-Recommended Steroid Nasal Spray in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Comparison of Tolerability and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Eitenmüller, Anna; Böhm, Myriam; Glowania, Andreas; Pfaar, Oliver; Mösges, Ralph; Klimek, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the tolerability and impact on quality of life of liposomal nasal spray compared to guideline-recommended steroid-based therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptom reduction and use of antisymptomatic medication were also examined. Methods. In this monocenter, prospective, controlled, open, and noninterventional study, 60 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were treated with liposomal nasal spray and 30 patients received steroid-based therapy. The study comprised five visits occurring at intervals of two to four weeks. Efficacy was determined according to the sinusitis symptom score documented daily. The polyp score was recorded at the initial and final visits. Tolerability was determined through the Nasal Spray Evaluation Questionnaire, and quality of life was ascertained with the SNOT-20 Score. Results. Both treatments achieved a significant reduction of sinusitis symptoms (P < 0.05) and also rhinoscopic improvement (P < 0.05). The majority of patients assessed the treatments as “good” or “very good,” and the quality of life improved significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in symptom reduction, QoL, and endoscopic exams between both treatments. Conclusion. The treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with liposomal nasal spray results in a similar, significant reduction of symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life as guideline-recommended treatment and is therefore a comparable alternative. PMID:24963305

  17. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  18. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  19. Structure of high-speed sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Frediano V.

    1995-01-01

    This work covered both measurements and computations and its results are documented in eight appendices. Measurements were made of drop velocity in vaporizing, steady, full-cone sprays and of drop velocity and drop size in non-vaporizing steady full-cone sprays. In similar conditions, measurements had previously been made of the intact core and of the size of the drops in the immediate vicinity of the injector, thus generating an extensive set of data which were particularly useful for the assessment and the development of multidimensional models of engine sprays. On the computational side, a line source technique was introduced to simulate the intact-core in engine sprays and two extensive numerical studies were carried out to explain the strong anisotropy of the drop velocity fluctuations that had been found in the measurements. In another interesting and timely study, the accuracy of the stochastic method of computing drop collisions and coalescence (which is the one universally used) was assessed by corresponding deterministic computations (more accurate but much more time consuming). It was concluded that the accuracy of the stochastic method in practical computations can be wanting. Finally, a numerical study of the structure of hollow-cone sprays was initiated that has since been followed by significant experimental and computational work on liquid-only and air-assisted hollow-cone injectors and sprays.

  20. Monte-Carlo Spray Cooling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitzer, Paul J.; Kuhlman, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Spray cooling is a tremendously complex phenomenon that has yet to be completely and successfully modeled. This is due to the complexity of the detailed droplet impingement processes and the subsequent heat transfer process. Numerous assumptions must be made in order to accurately model spray behavior. Current computational limitations restrict CFD simulations to single droplet simulations. Additional complexity due to droplet interactions negates the possibility of combining multiple single droplet studies to represent the complete spray process. Therefore, a need has been established for the development of a comprehensive spray impingement simulation with adequate physical complexity to yield accurate results within a relatively short run time. The present work attempts to develop such a model using modeling assumptions from the best available literature, and to combine them into a single spray impingement simulation. Initial flow parameters that have been chosen include flow rate of 10 GPH with a velocity of 12 m/s and average droplet diameter of 48 μm. These values produce the following non-dimensional number ranges: We 100-1800, Re 200-4500, Oh 0.01-0.05. Numerical and experimental correlations have been identified that represent crater formation, splashing, film thickness, and droplet size and spatial flux distributions. A combination of these methods has resulted in an initial spray impingement simulation that is capable of simulating 100,000 drops or an actual simulation time of 0.0167 seconds. Comparisons of results from this code with experimental results show a similar trend in surface behavior.

  1. Lidocaine 10% spray to the cervix reduces pain during intrauterine device insertion: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Ülkü; Ozyurt, Sezin; Açmaz, Gökhan; Babayigit, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Fear of pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion can be a barrier to widespread use of this safe and highly effective contraceptive method. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of topical 10% lidocaine spray for pain control during IUD insertion. A total of 200 subjects with the request for IUD insertion were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: lidocaine spray (n=100) and placebo (n=100). The pain experienced during the procedure was measured immediately after insertion by a standard Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) administered by a separate researcher with maintenance of allocation concealment. The mean pain score during the procedure was 1.01±1.20 in the lidocaine spray group and 3.23±1.60 in the placebo spray group (p<0.001). Lidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the overall procedural pain score compared with placebo. Significant pain reduction during IUD insertion can be achieved by using 10% lidocaine spray alone. Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable local anaesthetic method for IUD insertion. NCT02020551. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The use of cold sprayed alloys for metallic stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mangour, Bandar

    With the invention of the coronary stent, which is a wire metal mesh tube designed to keep the arteries open in the treatment of heart diseases, promising clinical outcomes were generated. However, the long term successes of stents have been delayed by significant in-stent restenosis (blockages) and stent fracture. In this research work, it has been proposed to use Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying (CGDS) coating material as an alternative choice to manufacture metallic stent. In CGDS, fine particles are accelerated to a high velocity and undergo solid-state plastic deformation upon impact on the substrate, which leads to particle-particle bonding. The feature of CGDS distinct from other thermal spray techniques is that the processing gas temperature is below the melting point of the feedstock. Therefore, unwanted effects of high temperatures, such as oxidation, grain growth and thermal stresses, are absent. In response to the fact that the majority of stents are made from stainless steel (316L) or Co-Cr alloy (L605), this study specifically addresses the development and characterization of 316L and 316L mixed with L605 coatings produced by the CGDS process. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were used to investigate the microstructural changes of these coatings before and after annealing. The effect of gas type on the microstructure of 316L coatings and the role of post-heat treatment in the microstructure and properties are also studied. Of particular interest are grain refinement, heat treatment, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the cold sprayed material.

  3. Impact of DDT spraying on malaria transmission in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S N; Shukla, R P; Raghavendra, K; Subbarao, Sarala K

    2005-06-01

    Impact of indoor residual spraying of DDT on malaria transmission and vector density was evaluated in six villages of Shergarh PHC, Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh under the operational condition of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) from July 2001 to March 2002 (one transmission season only). Two rounds of DDT (50% WDP) spraying @ 1 g/m2 were done both in the experimental and control villages by the state health authorities. The spraying in experimental villages was supervised by Malaria Research Centre (MRC) whereas the district health authorities supervised the operation in control villages. Mass blood surveys were made three times--before the first round, in between the first and second rounds and after the second round of spraying. The blood smears were examined by the trained microscopists of MRC, Haldwani. From the above examinations epidemiological indicators such as slide positivity rate (SPR), slide falciparum rate (SFR) and infant parasite rate (IPR) were calculated. All malaria positive cases were given radical treatment as per NVBDCP schedule. Entomological parameters such as per man hour mosquito density, parity rate, gonotrophic condition and adult susceptibility status of Anopheles culicifacies to diagnostic dosages of DDT (4%) were monitored as per the standard techniques. A total of 988.5 kg of DDT was consumed during two rounds of spray. The house coverage varied from 87 to 95.3%. Parasitological evaluation revealed significant reduction in malaria cases (p < 0.0005) and infant parasite rate declined from 2.9 to 0%. Entomological observations revealed considerable reduction in the density of malaria vector An. culicifacies despite of its 21.4% mortality against DDT test papers. The overall results of the study revealed that DDT is still a viable insecticide in indoor residual spraying owing to its effectivity in well supervised spray operation and high excito-repellency factor.

  4. Safety and efficacy of olopatadine hydrochloride nasal spray for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Hampel, Frank C; Ratner, Paul H; Bernstein, David I; Larsen, Lawrence V; Berger, William E; Finn, Albert F; Marple, Bradley F; Roland, Peter S; Wall, G Michael; Brubaker, Michael J; Dimas, Carolyn; Potts, Susan L; Silver, Lewis H; Barnes, J Rod

    2005-12-01

    A nasal spray containing the antiallergy agent olopatadine hydrochloride is being developed for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 concentrations of olopatadine nasal spray vs placebo in patients with SAR. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After a 3- to 21-day placebo run-in, 565 patients aged 12 to 80 years were randomized to receive 0.4% or 0.6% olopatadine or placebo, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients evaluated morning and evening reflective and instantaneous nasal symptoms (sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose, and itchy nose, which compose the total nasal symptom score [TNSS]) and ocular symptoms and completed the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Olopatadine spray (0.4% and 0.6%) was significantly superior to placebo for percentage change from baseline in overall reflective (P = .004 and P < .001, respectively) and instantaneous (P = .02 and P = .003, respectively) TNSSs. Also, 0.6% olopatadine was significantly superior to placebo for reducing the reflective and instantaneous assessments of sneezing, runny and itchy nose, and itchy eyes; the instantaneous assessments of watery eyes; and the overall and all 7 domain scores of the RQLQ (P < .05). Olopatadine spray exhibited a safety profile comparable with that of placebo. Olopatadine nasal spray (0.4% and 0.6%) provided statistically significant improvements in allergic rhinitis symptoms compared with placebo regarding TNSSs (reflective and instantaneous) and in quality-of-life variables in patients with SAR. Olopatadine nasal spray administered twice daily was safe and well tolerated in adolescents and adults.

  5. Sugar feeding by coccinellids under field conditions: the effects of sugar sprays in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucrose was applied weekly throughout the growing season at three U.S. locations (SD, MD, and KY), and coccinellids and aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura [Hemiptera: Aphididae]) were sampled 24 h later. Total coccinellid densities were 50-77% greater in sugar-sprayed soybean than in untreated plots. ...

  6. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  7. EVALUATION OF CONVERGENT SPRAY TECHNOLOGYTM SPRAY PROCESS FOR ROOF COATING APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of Convergent Spray TechnologyTM for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilizing recycled materials, a CSTTM spray process portable application cart, a...

  8. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  9. EVALUATION OF CONVERGENT SPRAY TECHNOLOGYTM SPRAY PROCESS FOR ROOF COATING APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of Convergent Spray TechnologyTM for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilizing recycled materials, a CSTTM spray process portable application cart, a...

  10. External characteristics of unsteady spray atomization from a nasal spray device.

    PubMed

    Fung, Man Chiu; Inthavong, Kiao; Yang, William; Lappas, Petros; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-03-01

    The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on industrial applications such as fuel injection that are performed at much higher pressure. An experimental test station was designed in house and an alternative method to characterize the external spray is presented. This involved the use of high-speed camera to capture the temporal development of the spray as it is atomized through actuation of the spray device. An image-processing technique based on edge detection was developed to automate processing through the large number of images captured. The results showed that there are three main phases of spray development (prestable, stable, and poststable) that can be correlated by examining the spray width. A comparison with a human nasal cavity is made to put into perspective the dimensions and geometry that the spray atomization produces. This study aimed to extend the current existing set of data to contribute toward a better understanding in nasal spray drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Progress in fabrication of large magnetic sheilds by using extended YBCO thick films sprayed on stainless steel with the HVOF technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; Bergadano, E.; Ferri, D.

    1997-06-01

    Fabricating a full box-type magnetic shield, by spraying a thick film of commercial YBCO powder on stainless steel with the oxygen-fuel high-velocity technique (HVOF, also referred to as {open_quotes}continuous detonation spray{close_quotes} (CDS)), requires the solution of several specific problems since the design stage of the project. The design problems of this type of shield are examined and the results obtained in the early stages of the realization are discussed.

  12. Advances in supercritical fluid spray application of low-pollution coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dickson, D.J.; Derderian, E.J.; Glancy, C.W.; Goad, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) content of coating formulations, which causes ozone formation in the environment, has now been reduced up to 80% by using supercritical carbon dioxide to replace volatile organic solvents in conventional coating formulations. Toxic solvents classified as hazardous air pollutants by the Clean Air Act can be totally eliminated. The concept can also be applied to high-solids coatings (1) to further reduce VOC emissions and (2) to improve coating performance by using higher molecular weight polymers. Commercial fluid delivery equipment and spray guns are now available. The technology is being demonstrated on industrial spray lines.

  13. Investigation of the changes in aerosolization behavior between the jet-milled and spray-dried colistin powders through surface energy characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Teresa; Li, Jian; Mortonx, David A.V.; Zhou, Qi (Tony); Larson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface energy factors behind improved aerosolization performance of spray-dried colistin powder formulations compared to those produced by jet-milling. Inhalable colistin powder formulations were produced by jet-milling or spray-drying (with or without L-leucine). Scanning electron micrographs showed the jet-milled particles had irregularly angular shapes, while the spray-dried particles were more spherical. Significantly higher fine particle fractions (FPFs) were measured for the spray-dried (43.8-49.6%) vs. the jet-milled formulation (28.4 %) from a Rotahaler at 60L/min; albeit the size distribution of the jet-milled powder was smaller. Surprisingly, addition of L-leucine in the spray drying feed-solution gave no significant improvement in FPF. As measured by inverse gas chromatography, spray-dried formulations had significantly (p<0.001) lower dispersive, specific and total surface energy values and more uniform surface energy distributions than the jet-milled powder. Interestingly, no significant difference was measured in the specific and total surface energy values between the spray-dried formulation with or without L-leucine. Based upon our previous findings in the self-assembling behavior of colistin in aqueous solution and the surface energy data obtained here, we propose the self-assembly of colistin molecules during spray-drying, contributed significantly to the reduction of surface free energy and the superior aerosolization performance. PMID:26886330

  14. CFD modeling of water spray interaction with dense gas plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroney, Robert N.

    2012-07-01

    Numerical calculations are performed to reproduce the transport and dispersion of the continuous release of dense gases over flat homogeneous surfaces with and without the mitigating influence of a downwind water curtain. Frequently such plumes are released as a result of a chemical manufacturing, storage or gas transportation accident resulting in a ground-level hazard due to gas flammability or toxicity. A field situation in which cold carbon dioxide was released upwind of water curtains (Moodie et al., 1981) was simulated using the open-source software FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulator) a full 3-d CFD model. Only water-spray enhancement of dispersion was considered; hence, no chemical removal or reactions were present or simulated. Wind-tunnel measurements for a 1:28.9 scale replication of the Moodie experiments are also compared with the 3-d CFD results. Concentration distributions, percent dilution and forced diffusion parameters were compared in scatter diagrams. Concentration field contours with and without active spray curtains are also presented.

  15. Passive microwave signature of sea spray aerosol production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, I.; Frick, G.; Anguelova, M. D.; Dowgiallo, D. J.; Bobak, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    This ongoing study explores the relationship between passive radiometric signature of the ocean surface and the sea spray source function (SSSF). The study primarily relies on open ocean experimental data obtained in April 2012 during a research cruise onboard of RP FLIP. Within ~7 days of useful measurements wind speed U10 varied in ~3 - 18 m/s range with significant wave height reaching up to ~5 m. Three-point vertical profiles (7.3, 6.0, and 4.9 m) of sea spray aerosol size-dependent concentrations were measured for particles in ~0.5 - 47 micron range. Similarly, smaller particles (i.e., ~0.01 - 0.8 micron) were measured at a fixed height of 9 m above the mean water level. A passive radiometer was installed onboard at a 45° incidence angle to observe ocean surface emissivity at frequencies of 10 and 37 GHz. Additional instruments include collocated visible and infrared cameras and a vertical hydrophone array, as well as standard meteorological stations and wave gauges. Acquired data are used to estimate SSSF and to identify its features. These are then linked to the surface emissivity. The long-term goal is to enable more accurate SSSF estimates using WINDSAT retrievals.

  16. From Powders to Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, Pierre; Montavon, Ghislain; Bertrand, Ghislaine

    2010-01-01

    Since the early stages of thermal spray, it has been recognized that the powder composition, size distribution, shape, mass density, mechanical resistance, components distribution for composite particles play a key role in coating microstructure and thermo mechanical properties. The principal characteristics of particles are strongly linked to the manufacturing process. Coatings also depend on the process used to spray particles and spray parameters. Many papers have been devoted to the relationships existing between coating properties and structures at different scales and manufacturing processes. In many conventional spray conditions resulting in micrometric structures, among the different parameters, good powder flow ability, and dense particles are important features. Thermal plasma treatment, especially by RF plasma, of particles, prepared by different manufacturing processes, allows achieving such properties and it is now developed at an industrial scale. Advantages and drawbacks of this process will be discussed. Another point, which will be approached, is the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, depending very strongly upon the starting composite particle manufacturing. However, as everybody knows, "small is beautiful" and nano- or finely structured coatings are now extensively studied with spraying of: (i) very complex alloys containing multiple elements which exhibit a glass forming capability when cooled-down, their under-cooling temperature being below the glass transition temperature; (ii) conventional micrometer-sized particles (in the 30-90 μm range) made of agglomerated nanometer-sized particles; (iii) sub-micrometer- or nanometer-sized particles via a suspension in which also, instead of particles, stable sol of nanometer-sized particles can be introduced; and (iv) spray solutions of final material precursor. These different processes using plasma, HVOF or sometimes flame and also cold-gas spray will be discussed together with the

  17. The Effect of Spray Distance and Scanning Step on the Coating Thickness Uniformity in Cold Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Deng, Sihao; Liao, Hanlin; Zeng, Chunnian; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-02-01

    In the process of cold spray applications, robot kinematic parameters represent significant influences on the coating quality. Those parameters include: spray distance, spray angle, gun relative velocity to substrate, scanning step, and cycle numbers. The combined effects which are caused by their interactions determine the coating thickness. The increasing requirements of coating productivity lead to the objectivity of analyzing the effect of robot kinematic parameters. So it becomes necessary to optimize the robot trajectory for spraying process in order to obtain a desired coating thickness. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the coating profile and the spray distance, scanning step, and introducing the basic principle of a software toolkit named thermal spray toolkit (TST) developed in our laboratory to generate the optimized robot trajectories in spray processes including thermal spray and cold spray. Experiments have been carried out to check the reliability of the simulated coating profile and the calculated coating thickness by TST.

  18. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  19. How "Open" is Open Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisey, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    The roots of the open learning system approach to education are explored and the relationship between its goals and the succeeding models/methodologies are examined in the context of open and closed systems theories. An open systems orientation to learning system development is recommended. (MSE)

  20. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  1. A laser tomographic investigation of liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yule, A. J.; Ahseng, C.; Felton, P.; Ungut, A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    A light scattering technique is combined with a tomographic transformation to convert line of sight integrated data, measured in sprays, to measurements of droplet size and concentration in volume elements within the spray. The technique is developed and assessed by systematic experiments in axisymmetric sprays generated by twin-fluid atomisers. The good agreement found shows that, provided certain conditions are satisfied by the local spray structure, the technique provides information on spray structure, similar in detail and extent to that derived by photography, but with reduced experimental time. The technique is applied to an investigation of a kerosene spray vaporizing in a hot gas stream.

  2. Topical monotherapy with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in the COBRA trial.

    PubMed

    Menter, Alan

    2007-11-01

    The Clobex Spray Community-Based Research Assessment (COBRA) trial, a large, 4-week, open-label, observational trial, evaluated the use of twice-daily clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis affecting 3% to 20% body surface area (BSA). The study was designed to augment existing phase 3 clinical trial data. In this trial, 1254 subjects in the effectiveness-evaluable (EE) population were treated with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% as monotherapy. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated at weeks 2 and 4 using a 6-point target plaque severity (TPS) scale and 7-point investigators' global assessment of improvement (GAI) scale. Psoriasis TPS at week 0 (baseline) was rated as moderate to severe in more than 90% of subjects. After 2 weeks of clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% monotherapy, statistically significant improvement in TPS was seen at weeks 2 and 4 (P < .001). In addition, statistically significant improvement was seen at week 4 versus week 2 (P < .001) using the GAI scale. Clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% monotherapy was well-tolerated as assessed by erythema, peeling/scaling, dryness, stinging/burning, telangiectasia, skin atrophy, pruritus, and folliculitis. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders as well as general disorders and application-site conditions defined as possibly or probably related to therapy occurred in 1.0% and less than 1.0% of subjects, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of subjects were reported by investigators as being very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with their treatment at week 4. Based on these data, clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% is an effective and convenient topical monotherapy for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

  3. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  4. Microstructures and Tribological Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous Metallic Coatings Deposited via Supersonic Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang-yang; Ma, Guo-zheng; Wang, Hai-dou; Li, Guo-lu; Chen, Shu-ying; Fu, Bin-guo

    2017-08-01

    The effects of the Ar flow rate and spraying power of a supersonic plasma spraying process on the microstructures and amorphous phase contents of Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 amorphous coatings were systematically investigated. The tribological properties of the coatings were evaluated in pin-on-disk mode using a sliding tribometer. The results show that the amorphous phase content and microhardness initially increase with the Ar flow rate and then gradually decrease. However, the amorphous phase content and microhardness increase with the power. In particular, the amorphous phase content of the coating reaches 96.78% with a spraying power of 62 kW and a 110 L min-1 Ar flow rate. Tribological testing demonstrates that the coatings exhibit similar steady-state coefficients of friction (0.75-0.82) with a total test time of 20 min and an applied load of 20 N. However, the wear rates vary with the spraying parameters. In particular, the relative wear rate of the coating can be enhanced up to sixfold under optimal spraying conditions, resulting in excellent wear resistance. Detailed analysis of the coating wear surfaces indicates that the dominant wear mechanisms are abrasive and oxidative wear. Moreover, delamination may occur during the wear process.

  5. A dopant for improved sensitivity in easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jandyson M; Vendramini, Pedro H; Schwab, Nicolas V; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Morais, Damila R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN) has been used to improve sensitivity of sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) is one of the simplest, gentlest and most used spray-based desorption/ionization ambient techniques, but limited sensitivity has been commonly taken as its major drawback. Herein we investigate the use of 3-NBN as a dopant in EASI-MS for improved sensitivity. Using a few typical EASI samples as test cases, the presence of 10 ppm (µg ml(-1) ) of 3-NBN in the spray solvent showed two to fourfold gains in EASI-MS sensitivity as measured both by total ion current and S/N ratios, accompanied with significant reductions in chemical noise. Sensitivity for DESI using 3-NBN as a dopant also improved and dopant DESI versus dopant EASI sensitivities were compared. The use of solvent dopants seems therefore to be a promising strategy to improve sensitivity for spray-based ambient MS techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  7. Efficacy of an aerosol surface spray against container-breeding Aedes.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A; Montgomery, B L; Walsh, I D; Long, S A; Hart, A J

    2001-06-01

    The effectiveness of a residual insect surface spray against container-breeding mosquitoes was tested in Cairns, Australia. A formulation containing imiprothrin and cypermethrin (Mortein Plus Cockroach Lure 'n' Kill High Performance Surface Spray) was selected based on the label claim to "kill continuously for up to 6 months." A 1-sec spray was applied to the water and interior surface of partially flooded tires and terra-cotta pots. Treatments were paired with a control and replicated at 2 sites within 3 residential properties for a total of 6 replicates. All mosquito larvae were removed and counted weekly, and a representative sample was identified in the laboratory. Complete control of Aedes species was achieved for 4 and 5 months in all tires and pots, respectively.

  8. Water sprays in space retrieval operations. [for despinning or detumbling disabled spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments involving liquid jets exhausting into a vacuum have led to significant conclusions regarding techniques for detumbling and despinning disabled spacecraft during retrieval operations. A fine water spray directed toward a tumbling or spinning object may quickly form ice over its surface. The added mass of water will absorb angular momentum and slow the vehicle. As this ice sublimes it carries momentum away with it. Thus, a complete detumble or despin is possible by simply spraying water at a disabled vehicle. Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  9. Water sprays in space retrieval operations. [for despinning or detumbling disabled spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments involving liquid jets exhausting into a vacuum have led to significant conclusions regarding techniques for detumbling and despinning disabled spacecraft during retrieval operations. A fine water spray directed toward a tumbling or spinning object may quickly form ice over its surface. The added mass of water will absorb angular momentum and slow the vehicle. As this ice sublimes it carries momentum away with it. Thus, a complete detumble or despin is possible by simply spraying water at a disabled vehicle. Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  10. Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: Physiological responses to water spray.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-10-01

    /min reduced respiration rate relative to baseline by 4 more breaths/min than 1.3 L/min did (-13 vs. -9 breaths/min, respectively), each additional liter of water decreased this measure by only ≤ 0.1 breaths/min (≤ 1% of the total reduction achieved using 1.3 L/min). We found similar water efficiency patterns for skin temperature and the amount of time that body temperature remained below baseline after treatment ended. Thus, when using this intermittent spray schedule in a hot, dry climate, applying at least 1.3 L/min improved cooling, but above this, additional physiological benefits were relatively minor.

  11. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  12. Analytic modeling of a spray diffusion flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed model for a spray diffusion flame is described. The model is based on the boundary layer form of the equations of motion, with droplet transport accounted for using a discretized droplet size distribution function. Interphase transport of mass and energy are accounted for, with a flame-sheet model used to describe the combustion process on a droplet scale. Near dynamic equilibrium is assumed for the description of droplet transport; droplets can diffuse relative to the gas phase. Gas-phase mixing is accounted for using a two-equation turbulence model; buoyancy effects are included, with a temperature fluctuation equation used to account for buoyancy effects on turbulence structure. Thermal radiation from gas-phase CO2 and H2O is included. Gas-phase chemical kinetics are modeled using a 20-reaction, 10-species version of the advanced quasi-global chemical kinetics formulation. Results are compared with data for a vaporizing Freon spray and a pentane spray flame. It is shown that the computational approach provides a reasonably valid picture of the overall development of a spray diffusion flame, and, furthermore, provides a useful tool for the parametric examination of the spray combustion process.

  13. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  14. Analytic modeling of a spray diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed model for a spray diffusion flame is described. The model is based on the boundary layer form of the equations of motion, with droplet transport accounted for using a discretized droplet size distribution function. Interphase transport of mass and energy are accounted for, with a flame-sheet model used to describe the combustion process on a droplet scale. Near dynamic equilibrium is assumed for the description of droplet transport; droplets can diffuse relative to the gas phase. Gas-phase mixing is accounted for using a two-equation turbulence model; buoyancy effects are included, with a temperature fluctuation equation used to account for buoyancy effects on turbulence structure. Thermal radiation from gas-phase CO2 and H2O is included. Gas-phase chemical kinetics are modeled using a 20-reaction, 10-species version of the advanced quasi-global chemical kinetics formulation. Results are compared with data for a vaporizing Freon spray and a pentane spray flame. It is shown that the computational approach provides a reasonably valid picture of the overall development of a spray diffusion flame, and, furthermore, provides a useful tool for the parametric examination of the spray combustion process.

  15. Dense spray evaporation as a mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, A.; Villermaux, E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the processes by which a dense set of small liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a dry, stirred gas phase. A dense spray of micron-sized liquid (water or ethanol) droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer in a closed chamber. The spray is conveyed in ambient air as a plume whose extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. Standard shear instabilities develop at the plume edge, forming the stretched lamellar structures familiar with passive scalars. Unlike passive scalars however, these lamellae vanish in a finite time, because individual droplets evaporate at their border in contact with the dry environment. Experiments demonstrate that the lifetime of an individual droplet embedded in a lamellae is much larger than expected from the usual d2 law describing the fate of a single drop evaporating in a quiescent environment. By analogy with the way mixing times are understood from the convection-diffusion equation for passive scalars, we show that the lifetime of a spray lamellae stretched at a constant rate γ is tv=1/γ ln(1/+ϕ ϕ ) , where ϕ is a parameter that incorporates the thermodynamic and diffusional properties of the vapor in the diluting phase. The case of time-dependent stretching rates is examined too. A dense spray behaves almost as a (nonconserved) passive scalar.

  16. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  17. M-52 spray booth qualification test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the M-52 spray booth qualification test are documented. The test was conducted at Thiokol Corporation, Space Operations, M-52 Inert Parts Preparation facility. The purpose of this testing sequence was to ensure the spray booth would produce flight qualified hardware. The testing sequence was conducted in two series. The first series was conducted under CTP-0142, Revision 1. The second series was conducted in accordance with CTP-0142, Revision 2. The test sequence started with CTP-0142, Revision 1. The series consisted of the contamination removal test and the performance test. The contamination removal test was used to assess the Teflon level in the spray booth. The performance test consisted of painting and Chemloking a forward dome inside the spray booth per flight procedures. During the performance test, two sets of witness panels (case/insulation and steel/epoxy/steel) were prepared and pull tested. The CTP-0142, Revision 2, series of testing consisted of re-testing the steel/epoxy/steel witness panels. The pull tests analysis indicates the results of the tensile tests were comparable to the systems tunnel witness panel database. The exposed panel set and the control panel set average tensile values were above the 1-basis lower limits established on the systems tunnel witness panel database. It is recommended that the M-52 spray booth be qualified for producing flight hardware.

  18. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  19. Efficacy and safety of azelastine 0.15% nasal spray and azelastine 0.10% nasal spray in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shailen; Berger, William; Lumry, William; La Force, Craig; Wheeler, William; Sacks, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Azelastine is a second-generation antihistamine approved for treatment of allergic rhinitis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of azelastine 0.15% and azelastine 0.10% nasal spray at a dosage of 2 sprays/nostril twice daily in patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). In total, 526 patients were randomized 1:1:1 to treatment with 2 sprays/nostril twice daily of azelastine 0.15%, azelastine 0.10%, or placebo. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in 12-hour reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS; A.M. and P.M. combined), consisting of nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, itchy nose, and sneezing. After 2 weeks, the mean improvement and percentage improvement in the 12-hour reflective TNSS were significant (p < 0.001) with azelastine 0.15% and azelastine 0.10% compared with placebo. In a retrospective analysis, there was a statistical difference (p = 0.047) in the mean improvement versus placebo in the 12-hour reflective TNSS with azelastine 0.15% compared with azelastine 0.10%. Onset of action with azelastine 0.15% was within 30 minutes. Bitter taste was the most common adverse event with both azelastine 0.15% and azelastine 0.10% (8.4% and 9.4% of patients, respectively). Somnolence was reported by 1.7% of patients treated with azelastine 0.15%, 0.6% of patients treated with azelastine 0.10%, and 0.6% of patients treated with placebo. Azelastine 0.15% nasal spray at 2 sprays/nostril twice daily significantly improved the nasal symptoms associated with SAR with an onset of action within 30 minutes and was well tolerated.

  20. Effectiveness and satisfaction with zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray for treatment of migraine in real-life practice: results of a postmarketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Evers, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the needs of migraineurs by actively seeking patient feedback on disease-related disability and treatment satisfaction may lead to improved management and treatment outcomes. Patient feedback can be collected in postmarketing surveillance (PMS) studies. The objective of this PMS study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. Patients received zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray to treat migraine attacks of any severity and were followed up after a maximum of 4 months. Patients evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan nasal spray, and were asked whether they wished to continue using zolmitriptan nasal spray and their preference compared with previous treatments. Physicians also assessed the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan nasal spray. A total of 1838 patients (84.8% females) participated in the study. Within 30 minutes of administration of zolmitriptan nasal spray, 85.0% of patients reported improvements in headache pain, with 25.1% reporting an improvement within 10 minutes. At 1 hour post-dose, 57.9% of patients were pain free and 61.7% were able to resume usual daily activities. Most patients (72.9%) rated zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'better' than previous therapy. The majority (88.8%) expressed a wish to continue using zolmitriptan nasal spray. Physicians evaluated the efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'excellent' or 'good' in 89.4% of patients. Tolerability was evaluated as 'excellent' or 'good' in 91.6% of patients. Zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray provides favourable efficacy and tolerability in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. Most patients assessed zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'better' than previous treatment, with nearly all wishing to continue using it.

  1. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Treesearch

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  2. More About Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Doychak, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents additional information on fabrication process described in "Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metallic Substrates" (LEW-15164). Provides additional information on specific substrate materials advantageously coated in two-stage plasma-spraying process.

  3. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  4. A new HVOF thermal spray concept

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J.A.; Matus, R.J.; Richter, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    HVOF plays an important role in the commercial production of thermal spray coatings from powder. Initially, both the chamber and duct modes were used. Today, the best coatings are produced by high-pressure chamber guns with some manufacturers having switched their designs from the duct to the chamber mode. There has been little or no spraying of wire with HVOF equipment. A new HVOF process -- the shock-stabilized mode -- compliments chamber powder spraying by offering the user a very simple device for wire use. Calculations show that the much higher jet velocities of the chamber mode make that design the better suited for use with powder. Conversely, the greatly increased jet temperatures offered by shock-stabilized combustion give extremely high wire melt-off rates.

  5. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  6. High power plasma spraying of oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Jungklaus, H.; Schwier, G.; Mathesius, H.; Heinrich, P.

    1995-12-31

    New developed high power plasma spray (HPPS) systems offer opportunities for generating both high thermal as well as high kinetic energy transfer to the powder particles. The operation level can be elevated up to 250 kW for continuous processing. PLCs and mass flow controls support high power processing under production conditions. The process is designed for applying large quantities even of high melt materials, such as oxide ceramics. High power plasma processing may result in enhanced coating characteristics. The work in this paper shows first conclusions for processing commercial powders such as alumina, alumina-titania, chromia and a recently developed multicomponent oxide with a HPPS system. Particle velocities were measured after optimizing spraying parameters. Coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy (microstructure and porosity), microhardness and pin-on-disc abrasive wear tests. Powder types and sizes as well as the systems configuration are considered for a general discussion of the capability and limitation in high power plasma spraying.

  7. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  8. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  9. Design of a Microgravity Spray Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysinger, Kerri M.; Yerkes, Kirk L.; Michalak, Travis E.; Harris, Richard J.; McQuillen, John

    2004-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was conducted for the application of spray cooling in a microgravity and high-g environment. Experiments were carried out aboard the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft, which provided the microgravity and high-g environments. In reduced gravity, surface tension flow was observed around the spray nozzle, due to unconstrained liquid in the test chamber and flow reversal at the heat source. A transient analytical model was developed to predict the temperature and the spray heat transfer coefficient within the heated region. Comparison of the experimental transient temperature variation with analytical results showed good agreement for low heat input values. The transient analysis also verified that thermal equilibrium within the heated region could be reached during the 20-25s reduced gravity portion of the flight profile.

  10. Plastic flow of plasma sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Chung, B. T. F.; Braun, M. J.; Mcdonald, G.; Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The plastic flow of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8Y2O3 ceramic has been measured at temperatures up to 1250 C and compared to the plastic flow of pressed and sintered ZrO2-8Y2O3. Plasma spraying of binary oxide ceramics is found to result in a metastable state which is inelastic at high temperature but can also be stabilized or devitrified through heat treating so as to decrease plastic properties. The mechanical properties of the as-plasma sprayed and devitrified ceramic sheet material was measured. An improved algorithm that incorporates the inherently nonlinear thermomechanical field equations was used to determine the influence of inelastic material behavior on the thermomechanical response of ceramic coated seal components. Significant creep was found during the thermal shock and steady heating periods with insufficient time during thermal quench to reverse the process, thereby inducing significant residual stresses into the components.

  11. Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

  12. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  13. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  14. Tomographical transformation of Malvern spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, H. M.; Sun, T. Y.; Chigier, N.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is described which directly transforms Malvern line-integral data into point measurements of the radial drop mean size distribution and liquid volume concentration distribution. The transformed results have been compared with experimental point measurements by photography and the phase/Doppler spray analyzer. The comparison reveals the relation between point measurements and line-of-sight measurements. Three kinds of nozzles were investigated. After tomographical transformation of the Malvern results the different structures of the spray are revealed. A newly derived formula simplifies the transformation procedure. This method provides a direct means to extend the applicability of the Malvern particle sizer and has the potential to be developed for use in unsymmetric sprays.

  15. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  16. Water jet/spray measurement analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide analysis of data obtained under a previous contract entitled Characterization of Drop Spectra from High Volume Flow Water Jets. Measurements of drop spectra were obtained in the spray resulting from the breakup of high volume flow water jets from a variety of nozzle types. The drop spectra measurements were obtained from two drop spectrometers covering a range from 10 microns to 12 millimeters diameter. The task addressed was to select representative spectra from the individual tests and provide analyses in both numerical and graphical formats as outlined in the proposal. The intended application of these results is an evaluation of the feasibility of fog clearing by high volume water sprays. During the tests, a fog event occurred making it possible to test the concept of fog clearing. Visual range data and fog drop spectra were analyzed, with particular emphasis placed on the modification of these parameters due to the water spray.

  17. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, J; Flipse, C F J

    2010-02-10

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method under ambient conditions. This technique has been successfully applied on C(60) dissolved in toluene and carbon disulfide. Monolayer thick C(60) films have been formed on graphite and gold surfaces at particular deposition parameters, as confirmed by atomic force and scanning tunnelling microscopies. Structural and electronic properties of spray coated C(60) films on Au(111) have been found comparable to thermally evaporated C(60). We attribute the monolayer formation in spray coating to a crystallization process mediated by an ultrathin solution film on a sample surface.

  18. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  19. Mechanised spraying device a novel technology for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.V.K. Singh; V.K. Singh

    2004-10-15

    Spontaneous combustion in coal mines plays a vital role in occurrences of fire. Fire in coal, particularly in opencast mines, not only causes irreparable loss of national wealth but damages the surface structure and pollutes the environment. The problem of spontaneous combustion/fire in opencast coal benches is acute. Presently over 75% of the total production of coal in Indian mines is being carried out by opencast mining. Accordingly a mechanised spraying device has been developed for spraying the fire protective coating material for preventing spontaneous combustion in coal benches of opencast mines jointly by Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad and M/s Signum Fire Protection (India) Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur under Science & Technology (S&T) project funded by Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. The objective of this paper is to describe in detail about the mechanised spraying device and its application for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion/fire.

  20. Modeling of gas turbine fuel nozzle spray

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, N.K.; Chin, J.S.; Razdan, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Satisfactory performance of the gas turbine combustor relies on the careful design of various components, particularly the fuel injector. It is, therefore, essential to establish a fundamental basis for fuel injection modeling that involves various atomization processes. A two-dimensional fuel injection model has been formulated to simulate the airflow within and downstream of the atomizer and address the formation and breakup of the liquid sheet formed at the atomizer exit. The sheet breakup under the effects of airblast, fuel pressure, or the combined atomization mode of the air-assist type is considered in the calculation. The model accounts for secondary breakup of drops and the stochastic Lagrangian treatment of spray. The calculation of spray evaporation addresses both droplet heat-up and steady-state mechanisms, and fuel vapor concentration is based on the partial pressure concept. An enhanced evaporation model has been developed that accounts for multicomponent, finite mass diffusivity and conductivity effects, and addresses near-critical evaporation. The present investigation involved predictions of flow and spray characteristics of two distinctively different fuel atomizers under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. The predictions of the continuous phase velocity components and the spray mean drop sizes agree well with the detailed measurements obtained for the two atomizers, which indicates the model accounts for key aspects of atomization. The model also provides insight into ligament formation and breakup at the atomizer exit and the initial drop sizes formed in the atomizer near field region where measurements are difficult to obtain. The calculations of the reacting spray show the fuel-rich region occupied most of the spray volume with two-peak radial gas temperature profiles. The results also provided local concentrations of unburned hydrocarbon and CO in atomizer flowfield.

  1. Synthesis of functional oxides through plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xianzhong

    Thermal spray coatings have become an important part of modern industry, offering customized surface properties for a variety of industrial applications, e.g. thermal barrier coatings, wear resistant coatings, erosion resistant coatings and functional coatings. Although the usage of thermal spray coatings has increased dramatically, the scientific research of these coatings has lagged behind. Good understanding of thermal spray processes can provide the optimistic combination of operation parameters to obtain high quality of coating, improve service life of the product, and lower cost of the system. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the synthesis of functional oxide coatings through plasma spraying techniques. The materials studied in this research are: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) which can be the thermal barrier coating and environmental barrier coating; doped YAG as phosphor; yttrium iron garnet (YIG) applied in telecommunication and data storage; aluminum substituted YIG for biomedical applications; and zirconium substituted yttrium titanate pyrochlore in developing solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The synthesis processes, phase formation, microstructure, and physical properties of above materials have been investigated in a comprehensive and integrated way. The precursor powders or solutions were prepared via different chemical routes. The experiments suggest that formation of phase-pure oxides occurs through different phase evolution pathways and depending on the reaction conditions. Chemically derived precursors and/or powders were used as feedstock in plasma spray to form functional oxide coatings. Due to its rapid heating and cooling features, plasma spraying techniques provide a novel opportunity for functional oxides to transfer from amorphous into crystallized structure at a relatively low temperature in a single step. The properties of assprayed and post-heated coatings strongly depend on their microstructure and phase content.

  2. Low VOC, Plural Component Spray (PCS) Coatings Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    Continuous Application Method Plural Component Spray Benefits • Automated proportioning • Precision mixing • Utilizes HVLP spray guns • Accommodates...255 - 3541 roddy.keish@wpafb.af.mil Birthplace, Home and Future of Aerospace Low VOC, Plural Component Spray (PCS) Coatings Program 7 May 2009 Report...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Low VOC, Plural Component Spray (PCS) Coatings Program 5a

  3. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    PubMed

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  4. Wildlife openings

    Treesearch

    William M. Healy

    1989-01-01

    Openings provide important feeding areas for forest wildlife because herbaceous vegetation grows much more abundantly in the open than beneath a forest canopy. Herbage (grasses and forbs) is generally more nutritious and digestible than woody plant growth. Herbage is important in the diet of deer, especially in late winter and early spring. Voles and rabbits use...

  5. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  6. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Spray-applied waterproofing membranes: effective solution for safe and durable tunnel linings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisova, Barbora; Hilar, Matous

    2017-09-01

    What is the perfect tunnel lining? Cost efficient, easy and fast to build with acceptable environmental impact? How to construct a watertight and safe tunnel lining? Would it be possible to apply a waterproofing system directly onto the rock face just after the tunnel face opening? This might be the system of the future enabling all concrete applied to the rock face to remain permanent. For now though, we would like to focus on an optimisation and examination of currently available technologies and materials, such as tunnel linings with the use of spray-applied waterproofing membranes. In this paper, the failure mechanisms of a tunnel lining with a spray-applied waterproofing membrane are described, the behaviour of spray-applied waterproofing membrane under various conditions (dry, moist, wet) is challenged and the possibilities of interface numerical modelling are presented. Tunnel lining design is mainly dependent on the geological and hydrological conditions in the considered area. The application of tunnel linings with spray-applied waterproofing membrane in both hard rock and soft ground tunnelling, are studied.

  8. Towards an aerogel-based coating for aerospace applications: reconstituting aerogel particles via spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bheekhun, N.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Mustapha, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Hassan, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Silica aerogel is an ultralight and highly porous nano-structured ceramic with its thermal conductivity being the lowest than any solids. Although aerogels possess fascinating physical properties, innovative solutions to tackle today's problems were limited due to their relative high manufacturing cost in comparison to conventional materials. Recently, some producers have brought forward quality aerogels at competitive costs, and thereby opening a panoply of applied research in this field. In this paper, the feasibility of spray-drying silica aerogel to tailor its granulometric property is studied for thermal spraying, a novel application of aerogels that is never tried before in the academic arena. Aerogel-based slurries with yttria stabilised zirconia as a secondary ceramic were prepared and spray-dried according to modified T aguchi experimental design in order to appreciate the effect of both the slurry formulation and drying conditions such as the solid content, the ratio of yttria stabilised zirconia:aerogel added, the amount of dispersant and binder, inlet temperature, atomisation pressure and feeding rate on the median particle size of the resulting spray-dried powder. The latter was found to be affected by all the aforementioned independent variables at different degree of significance and inclination. Based on the derived relationships, an optimised condition to achieve maximum median particle size was then predicted.

  9. Microencapsulation of phenobarbital by spray polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, C; Speiser, P; Soliva, M

    1977-05-01

    A new method for the microencapsulation of solids is described. It is based on the polycondensation of amphiphilic and, thus, tensioactive precondensates on a melamine-formaldehyde base on the surface of suspended particles during spray drying. A film-forming agent, preferably one that reacts chemically with the resin, is indispensable for spray drying and also for the formation of an efficient membrane around the drug particles. The resulting microcapsules are essentially spherical and have, after appropriate curing, a sustained-release effect in vitro. The factors that most influence the formation and properties of the microcapsules are the composition (qualitative and quantitative), pH, and viscosity of the suspension.

  10. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  12. Spray characterization using planar laser imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Lee, W.; Santoro, R. J.; Ryan, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results on the application of a planar polarization ratio technique to spray and soot particle measurements are presented and compared with the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) measurements. With the assumption of a logarithmic normal distribution, reasonable agreement between the two techniques were obtained, demonstrating the capability of the planar polarization ratio technique to differentiate regions containing soot particles from those containing droplets. A comparison of quantitative measurement capabilities of the two techniques showed that the planar polarization ratio technique can be applied to complicated combustion environments for at least semiquantitative investigation of sprays.

  13. Spray characterization using planar laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Lee, W.; Santoro, R. J.; Ryan, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    Results on the application of a planar polarization ratio technique to spray and soot particle measurements are presented and compared with the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) measurements. With the assumption of a logarithmic normal distribution, reasonable agreement between the two techniques were obtained, demonstrating the capability of the planar polarization ratio technique to differentiate regions containing soot particles from those containing droplets. A comparison of quantitative measurement capabilities of the two techniques showed that the planar polarization ratio technique can be applied to complicated combustion environments for at least semiquantitative investigation of sprays.

  14. Turning of thick thermal spray coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.; Fernandes, M. H.; Gutiérrez, A.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2001-06-01

    This technical note looks at several attempts to machine parts coated with Ni5Al thermal spray. This coating is used in the overhaul and repair of gas turbine components. Machining the thermal sprays to achieve the dimensional tolerances and surface finish is needed. Turning tests were performed with small carbide inserts and with CBN. A study was made of tool performance and cutting process. In this way, tool life, wear mechanism, chip formation process, and actual roughness of turned parts were analyzed. In addition to the good performance of CBN inserts, some disadvantages of using coolant with CBN tools were detected and analyzed.

  15. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  16. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Binary Aluminum Alloy Spray - Application to the Spray Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Johnson; J.-P. Delplanque; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; K. M. McHugh

    2005-02-01

    A stochastic, droplet-resolved model has been developed to describe the behavior of a binary aluminum alloy spray during the spray-rolling process. In this process, a molten aluminum alloy is atomized and the resulting spray is depostied on the rolls of a twin-roll caster to produce aluminum strip. The one-way coupled spray model allows the prediction of spray characteristics such as enthalph and solid fraction, and their distribution between the nozzle and the depostion surface. This paper outlines the model development and compares the predicted spray dynamics to PDI measurements performed in a controlled configuration. Predicted and measured droplet velocity and size distributions are presented for two points along the spray centerline along with predicted spray averaged specific enthalph and solid fraction curves.

  17. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  18. Influence of eye surface area on spray vaccination dosage rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray application of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine saves both time and labor for the table egg industry. Optimization of spray application of vaccine is important in maintaining animal health and productivity. Previous work has shown that droplets produced by popular nozzles used for spray...

  19. VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

  20. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.