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Sample records for springs-upper coachella valley

  1. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11161

  3. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  4. Data from geothermal wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Drillers' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California, are presented. The wells were drilled in 1978 under contract to the US Geological Survey as part of an appraisal of geothermal resources in the lower Coachella Valley.

  5. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  6. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no additional...

  7. Paleoseismic displacement history, Coachella Valley segment, San Andreas fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines individual earthquake displacements and slip curves for the southern segment of the San Andreas fault. In prior work, detailed geomorphic slip evidence (features offset up to ~20 meters right-laterally) were inventoried along the southern 50 km (Bombay Beach to Thermal) of the Coachella Valley Segment (CVS). Compilation of that survey, and current work indicate that the latest 5 events produced moderate offsets, averaging 3-4 meters from Durmid Hill (adjacent to the Salton Sea) through the central Indio Hills (adjacent to Palm Desert). Streams exhibiting cumulative offset of 15 to 18 meters are interpreted to record five events, with locally higher values obtained in the southern Mecca Hills and central Indio Hills. Stream displacements of 21 to 24 and 25 to 28 meters have been documented at a small number of sites. The presence of larger values, and absence of intervening values, indicates these events likely were characterized by offsets larger than 3-4 meters. Addressing the contribution to total offset from fault creep is especially important to characterize slip-per-event on the CVS, since creep contributes up to 20 to 30% of the long-term slip rate there (Sieh and Williams 1990). While creep probably can't be discriminated from seismic offset in geomorphic study of multi-event fault offsets, the consistency of field evidence indicates that creep may be a neutral or minor factor in interpreting the offset record: i.e., the surface slip in a given earthquake cycle, while a sum of seismic + postseismic surface slip, approximates total seismogenic slip at depth. In the present open interval, for example, the strongest signal for prior event slip is ~3.5m. 1-1.5m of this is presumed to be postseismic creep (ibid). Thus the latest seismic surface slip was probably about 2-2.5m, and the latest seismogenic rupture (at depth) was probably in the range of 3-3.5 m, and 1-1.5m of this occurred as postseismic slip plus creep at the surface. Prior event

  8. Data from geothermal gradient wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes drillers ' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California. A map shows the locations of the wells and also included is the location-numbering system for wells. (USGS)

  9. Long-term sand supply to Coachella Valley Fringe-toed Lizard Habitat in the Northern Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Kaehler, Charles A.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    The Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) is a federally listed threatened species that inhabits active sand dunes in the vicinity of Palm Springs, California. The Whitewater Floodplain and Willow Hole Reserves provide some of the primary remaining habitat for this species. The sediment-delivery system that creates these active sand dunes consists of fluvial depositional areas fed episodically by ephemeral streams. Finer fluvial sediments (typically sand size and finer) are mobilized in a largely unidirectional wind field associated with strong westerly winds through San Gorgonio Pass. The fluvial depositional areas are primarily associated with floodplains of the Whitewater?San Gorgonio Rivers and Mission Creek?Morongo Wash; other small drainages also contribute fluvial sediment to the eolian system. The eolian dunes are transitory as a result of unidirectional sand movement from the depositional areas, which are recharged with fine-grained sediment only during episodic floods that typically occur during El Ni?o years. Eolian sand moves primarily from west to east through the study area; the period of maximum eolian activity is April through June. Wind speed varies diurnally, with maximum velocities typically occurring during the afternoon. Development of alluvial fans, alteration of stream channels by channelization, in-stream gravel mining, and construction of infiltration galleries were thought to reduce the amount of fluvial sediment reaching the depositional areas upwind of Uma habitat. Also, the presence of roadways, railroads, and housing developments was thought to disrupt or redirect eolian sand movement. Most of the sediment yield to the fluvial system is generated in higher elevation areas with little or no development, and sediment yield is affected primarily by climatic fluctuations and rural land use, particularly livestock grazing and wildfire. Channelization benefits sediment delivery to the depositional plains upwind of the reserves

  10. Intensive early season adulticide applications decrease arbovirus transmission throughout the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, Hugh D; Lothrop, Branka B; Gomsi, Donald E; Reisen, William K

    2008-08-01

    In the Coachella Valley of California the seasonal onset of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected consistently at the shoreline of the Salton Sea near the community of North Shore. The timing and intensity of initial amplification in the Culex tarsalis Coquillett/wild bird cycle at this focus seemed closely linked to the subsequent dispersal of virus to the rest of the Coachella Valley and perhaps southern California. In 2004, an attempt was made to interrupt the amplification and dispersal of WNV using ground ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Pyrenone 25-5. Although these localized treatments were started 1 month after the initial detection in April, surveillance indicated no dispersal from this focus at this time. However, these treatments appeared to have little effect, and WNV eventually was detected throughout the valley, with seven human cases reported in the urbanized upper valley near Palm Springs. In 2005, the initial detection of WNV at North Shore at the end of May was followed rapidly by dispersal throughout the valley precluding efforts at containment. Evaluation of ground and aerial applications at North Shore during May and June 2005, respectively, indicated variable kill of sentinel mosquitoes (overall mortality: ground, 43%; air, 34%) and limited control of the target Cx. tarsalis population. In 2006, aerial ULV applications with the same chemical were begun immediately following the first detection of virus in mid-April, resulting in an apparent reduction of Cx. tarsalis abundance and delay of WNV activity in the rural lower valley and a marked decline in transmission by Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations in the densely populated upper northwestern valley with no human cases reported.

  11. Building a Commitment to Partnerships in the Coachella Valley: The Santa Rosa Mountains-A Case Study

    Treesearch

    Russell L. Kaldenberg

    1992-01-01

    The Coachella Valley is situated in eastern Riverside County, California, approximately 100 miles east of Los Angeles. During the 1980s it was one of the fastest growing areas in the nation with an annual growth rate of 8.3 percent. As open space diminished, many governing jurisdictions, and environmental and educational organizations began looking for a commitment to...

  12. Late Cenozoic Vertical Motions of the Coachella Valley Using Apatite U-Th/He and 4/3He Thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, C. C.; Spotila, J. A.; Fame, M. L.; Dorsey, R. J.; Shuster, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Coachella Valley of southern California (USA) is a late Cenozoic transform-related sedimentary basin created by top-to-the-east extension on the West Salton detachment fault and dextral strike-slip offset on the San Andreas fault (Axen and Fletcher, 1998), which has continued to subside as a result of northeastward tilting since initiation of the San Jacinto fault ca. 1.2 Ma. Though it is generally agreed that these large regional faults are responsible for creation of high relief and deep subsidence in the Coachella Valley, the timing, magnitude, and geometries of fault offsets on these structures are still debated. This project applies an integrated source-to-sink approach to investigate tectonic models for evolution of the Pacific-North American plate boundary as recorded in the world-class natural laboratory of the Coachella Valley. In this study we integrate new thermochronometry-constrained kinematic models with tectonostratigraphic interpretations to help quantify the timing, rates, and magnitudes of tectonically driven vertical crustal motions and resulting mass fluxes. We sampled bedrock for U-Th/He (A-He) thermochronometry in the Mecca Hills, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, and Little San Bernardino Mountains in both spatially focused and widely distributed areas. We also present new results from apatite 4/3He thermochronometry to help constrain the most recent exhumation histories. A-He results reveal spatially variable exhumation ages. The southwest Santa Rosa Mountains experienced late Miocene-early Pliocene exhumation along their southwest flank, while new A-He ages from ranges bounding Coachella Valley reveal complex uplift histories. We integrate our data set with previously published thermochronometric data to improve a regional synthesis of late Cenozoic vertical motions of the Coachella Valley.

  13. Subsidence and Differential Surface Movement in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, as Indicated by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, B. A.; Schmidt, D.

    2005-12-01

    We present interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results for the Coachella Valley, California, indicating land subsidence in the Upper Coachella Valley and regions of differential movement along faults east of San Gorgonio Pass. The Coachella Valley is a northwest trending basin, bounded to the east by the southern San Andreas Fault, to the west by the San Jacinto and Santa Rosa Mountains, and to the south by the Salton Sea. To the northwest, the Coachella Valley terminates in the San Gorgonio Pass stepover region, a contractional left step in the San Andreas Fault Zone, composed of a complex system of interacting faults. Several hundred differential interferograms are processed using SAR data from ERS1/2 satellite to image the deformation from 1992-2000. Up to 20 differential interferograms with temporal baselines greater than 3 years are stacked to reduce atmospheric noise. The greatest land subsidence rates indicated by the InSAR results can be seen in the Upper Coachella Valley, located along the Interstate 10 corridor. The maximum subsidence rates observed are ~5mm/yr from 1992-2000, and encompass the cities of Coachella, Indio, and Palm Springs. Subsidence rates of ~3mm/yr near Thousand Palms, Palm Desert and the Coachella Valley Preserve are also observed. We quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of subsidence in the region and compare subsidence time histories with well level data. Surface deformation is detected along the northwest trending, right-lateral Garnet Hill Fault (GHF) and along the sub-parallel, right-lateral Coachella Valley segment of the Banning Fault (CVBF). A deformation signal is detected along a section of the CVBF currently considered inactive due to a lack of surface geomorphic expression categorically associated with other active fault strands in the region. A range change of 1-1.5mm/yr is seen across each fault. The sign of the range change across these faults would correspond to left-lateral motion if it is

  14. Land subsidence, groundwater levels, and geology in the Coachella Valley, California, 1993-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.; Solt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with groundwater-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Groundwater has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of groundwater resulted in water-level declines as much as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in groundwater pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated groundwater-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley during 1993–2010. The GPS measurements taken at 11 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2010 in the southern Coachella Valley indicated that the elevation of the land surface changed –136 to –23 millimeters (mm) ±54 mm (–0.45 to –0.08 feet (ft) ±0.18 ft) during the 14-year period. Changes at 6 of the 11 monuments exceeded the maximum expected uncertainty of ±54 mm (±0.18 ft) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2010. GPS measurements taken at 17 geodetic monuments in 2005 and 2010 indicated that the elevation of the land surface changed –256 to +16 mm ±28 mm (–0.84 to +0.05 ft ±0.09 ft) during the 5-year period. Changes at 5 of the 17 monuments exceeded the maximum expected uncertainty of ±28 mm (±0.09 ft) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred

  15. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  16. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Fisher, Mark; Muth, Allan

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  17. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  18. The Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan: A Decade of Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagona, Peter S.; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the history of the Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (CVMSHCP), in the Riverside County region of Southern California. When this collaborative biodiversity conservation planning process began, in 1994, local participants and supporters had numerous factors working in their favor. Yet, as of April 2007, nearly 13 years had passed without an approved plan. This is a common problem. Many multiple species habitat conservation plans now take more than a decade to complete, and the long duration of these processes often results in negative consequences. The CVMSHCP process became bogged down—despite strong scientific input and many political advantages—due to problematic relationships between the Plan’s local supporters, its municipal signatory parties, and officials from the state and federal wildlife agencies, particularly the regional office of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. This case study demonstrates the crucial importance of institutional structures and relationships, process management, and timeliness in habitat conservation planning. We conclude by offering several related recommendations for future HCP processes.

  19. The Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan: a decade of delays.

    PubMed

    Alagona, Peter S; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the history of the Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (CVMSHCP), in the Riverside County region of Southern California. When this collaborative biodiversity conservation planning process began, in 1994, local participants and supporters had numerous factors working in their favor. Yet, as of April 2007, nearly 13 years had passed without an approved plan. This is a common problem. Many multiple species habitat conservation plans now take more than a decade to complete, and the long duration of these processes often results in negative consequences. The CVMSHCP process became bogged down-despite strong scientific input and many political advantages-due to problematic relationships between the Plan's local supporters, its municipal signatory parties, and officials from the state and federal wildlife agencies, particularly the regional office of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. This case study demonstrates the crucial importance of institutional structures and relationships, process management, and timeliness in habitat conservation planning. We conclude by offering several related recommendations for future HCP processes.

  20. Analog model study of the ground-water basin of the Upper Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyley, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    An analog model of the ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley was constructed to determine the effects of imported water on ground-water levels. The model was considered verified when the ground-water levels generated by the model approximated the historical change in water levels of the ground-water basin caused by man's activities for the period 1986-67. The ground-water basin was almost unaffected by man's activities until about 1945 when ground-water development caused the water levels to begin to decline. The Palm Springs area has had the largest water-level decline, 75 feet since 1986, because of large pumpage, reduced natural inflow from the San Gorgonio Pass area, and diversions of natural inflows at Snow and Falls Creeks and Chino Canyon starting in 1945. The San Gorgonio Pass inflow had been reduced from about 18,000 acre-feet in 1986 to about 9,000 acre-feet by 1967 because of increased ground-water pumpage in the San Gorgonio Pass area, dewatering of the San Gorgonio Pass area that took place when the tunnel for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was drilled, and diversions of surface inflow at Snow and Falls Creeks. In addition, 1944-64 was a period of below-normal precipitation which, in part, contributed to the declines in water levels in the Coachella Valley. The Desert Hot Springs, Garnet Hill, and Mission Creek subbasins have had relatively little development; consequently, the water-level declines have been small, ranging from 5 to 15 feet since 1986. In the Point Happy area a decline of about 2 feet per year continued until 1949 when delivery of Colorado River water to the lower valley through the Coachella Canal was initiated. Since 1949 the water levels in the Point Happy area have been rising and by 1967 were above their 1986 levels. The Whitewater River subbasin includes the largest aquifer in the basin, having sustained ground-water pumpage of about 740,000 acre-feet from 1986 to 1967, and will probably

  1. Anomalous record of October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley, California, earthquake from Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bycroft, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    A recording obtained at the Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4 of the October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley earthquake shows a dominant 2 Hz frequency. This feature is very unusual and an attempt has been made to determine if the recording is real or spurious. As the pumping station is a small heavily constructed bunker type of structure located on material of low shear wave velocity it was considered likely that soil-structure interaction might be responsible for the 2 Hz component. However, both an experimental and theoretical investigation fail to establish this. This report describes the theoretical investigation. The experimental investigation is described in a separate open-file report.

  2. Paleomagnetic Determination of Vertical-Axis Block Rotation and Magnetostratigraphy in the Coachella Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitroff, C.; Housen, B. A.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Burmester, R. F.; Messe, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    sites is D = 11, I = 49, k=51, a95=11. The paleomagnetic results from the Coachella Valley collectively indicate that this area has experienced modest (in most cases less than 10 degrees) CW or CCW rotation during the past 1-2 Ma. The lack of variation in amount or sense of rotation as a function of age suggest that rotation has been relatively recent (during the past ~ 1 Ma).

  3. Salton Seismic Imaging Project Line 6: San Andreas Fault and Northern Coachella Valley Structure, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Fuis, G.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Tarnowski, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Matti, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale, active- and passive-source seismic project designed to image the San Andreas fault (SAF) and adjacent basins (Imperial and Coachella Valleys) in southernmost California. Data and preliminary results from many of the seismic profiles are reported elsewhere (including Fuis et al., Rymer et al., Goldman et al., Langenheim et al., this meeting). Here, we focus on SSIP Line 6, one of four 2-D seismic profiles that were acquired across the Coachella Valley. The 44-km-long, SSIP-Line-6 seismic profile extended from the east flank of Mt. San Jacinto northwest of Palm Springs to the Little San Bernardino Mountains and crossed the SAF (Mission Creek (MCF), Banning (BF), and Garnet Hill (GHF) strands) roughly normal to strike. Data were generated by 10 downhole explosive sources (most spaced about 3 to 5 km apart) and were recorded by approximately 347 Texan seismographs (average spacing 126 m). We used first-arrival refractions to develop a P-wave refraction tomography velocity image of the upper crust along the seismic profile. The seismic data were also stacked and migrated to develop low-fold reflection images of the crust. From the surface to about 7 km depth, P-wave velocities range from about 2.5 km/s to about 7.2 km/s, with the lowest velocities within an ~2-km-deep, ~20-km-wide basin, and the highest velocities below the transition zone from the Coachella Valley to Mt. San Jacinto and within the Little San Bernardino Mountains. The BF and GHF strands bound a shallow sub-basin on the southwestern side of the Coachella Valley, but the underlying shallow-depth (~4 km) basement rocks are P-wave high in velocity (~7.2 km/s). The lack of a low-velocity zone beneath BF and GHF suggests that both faults dip northeastward. In a similar manner, high-velocity basement rocks beneath the Little San Bernardino Mountains suggest that the MCF dips vertically or southwestward. However, there is a pronounced low-velocity zone

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  5. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Mission Creek strand of the Southern San Andreas Fault, northern Coachella Valley, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J. J.; Behr, W. M.; Sharp, W. D.; Fryer, R.; Gold, P. O.

    2016-12-01

    Slip on the southern San Andreas fault in the northwestern Coachella Valley in Southern California is partitioned between three strands, the Mission Creek, Garnet Hill, and Banning strands. In the vicinity of the Indio Hills, the NW striking Mission Creek strand extends from the Indio Hills into the San Bernardino Mountains, whereas the Banning and Garnet Hill strands strike WNW and transfer slip into the San Gorgonio Pass region. Together, these three faults accommodate 20 mm/yr of right-lateral motion. Determining which strand accommodates the majority of fault slip and how slip rates on these strands have varied during the Quaternary is critical to seismic hazard assessment for the southern California region. Here we present a new Holocene geologic slip rate from an alluvial fan offset along the Mission Creek strand at the Three Palms site in the Indio Hills. Field mapping and remote sensing using the B4 LiDAR data indicates that the Three Palms fan is offset 57 +/- 3 meters. U-series dating on pedogenic carbonate rinds collected at 25-100 cm depth within the fan deposit constrain the minimum depositional age to 3.49 +/- 0.92 ka, yielding a maximum slip rate of 16 +6.1/-3.8 mm/yr. This Holocene maximum slip rate overlaps within errors with a previously published late Pleistocene slip rate of 12-22 mm/yr measured at Biskra Palms, a few kilometers to the south. Cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure samples were also collected from the fan surface to bracket the maximum depositional age. These samples have been processed and are currently awaiting AMS measurement.

  6. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Stork, Sylvia V.; Ikehara, Marti E.

    2002-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. The location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in Coachella Valley between 1998 and 2000 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements made at 15 geodetic monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that -34 to +60 millimeters ? 45 millimeters (-0.11 to +0.20 foot ? 0.15 foot) of vertical change in the land surface occurred during the 2-year period. Changes at three of the monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ? 45 millimeters (? 0.15 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, which indicates that small amounts of uplift occurred at these monuments between October 1998 and August 2000. Water-level measurements made at wells near the three uplifted monuments during this 2-year period indicate that the water levels fluctuate seasonally; water-level measurements made at these wells in September 1998 and September 2000 indicate that the water levels rose slightly near two monuments and declined slightly near the third. The relation between the seasonally fluctuating, but fairly stable, water levels between

  7. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

  8. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley, resulting in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels from the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, the demand for water in the valley has exceeded the deliveries of imported surface water, again resulting in increased pumping and ground-water-level declines. The magnitude and temporal occurrence of land subsidence in the lower Coachella Valley are not well known; data are sparse and accuracy varies. Also, the area is tectonically active and has subsided during the past several million years, which further complicates interpretations of the data. Land-surface-elevation data have been collected by many agencies using various methods and different geographic scales; because of this, the -150 millimeters (-0.5 foot) of subsidence determined for the southern parts of the valley for 1930-96 may have a possible error of plus or minus (?)90 millimeters (?0.3 foot). The location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements for 14 monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that the vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 ranged from -13 to -67 millimeters ? 40 millimeters (-0.04 to -0.22 foot ?0.13 foot). Changes at seven of the monuments exceeded the measurement error of ?40 millimeters (?0.13 foot), which indicates that small amounts of land subsidence occurred at these monuments between 1996 and 1998. Some of the water levels measured

  9. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System Surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley. GPS measurements made at 13 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2005 in the southern Coachella Valley indicate that the elevation of the land surface had a net decline of 333 to 22 millimeters ?58 millimeters (1.1 to 0.07 foot ?0.19 foot) during the 9-year period. Changes at 10 of the 13 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?58 millimeters (?0.19 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2005. GPS measurements made at 20 geodetic monuments in 2000 and in 2005 indicate that the elevation of the land surface changed -312 to +25 millimeters ?42 millimeters (-1.0 to +0.08 foot ?0.14 foot) during the 5-year period. Changes at 14 of the 20 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?42 millimeters (?0.14 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at

  10. The weakness of tight ties: why scientists almost destroyed the Coachella Valley multispecies habitat conservation plan in order to save it.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bruce Evan

    2010-08-01

    Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group's biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements.

  11. Constraints on Shallow Crustal Structure across the San Andreas Fault Zone, Coachella Valley, Southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A.; Persaud, P.; Bauer, K.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strong influence of basin structure and crustal heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation suggests that these factors should be included in calculations of strong ground shaking. Knowledge of the shallow subsurface is thus essential for an accurate seismic hazard estimate for the densely populated Coachella Valley, the region north of the potential M7.8 rupture near the Salton Sea. Using SSIP data, we analyzed first arrivals from nine 65-911 kg explosive shots recorded along a profile in the Coachella Valley in order to evaluate the interpretation of our 2D tomographic results and give added details on the structural complexity of the shallow crust. The line extends 37 km from the Peninsular Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains crossing the major strands of the San Andreas Fault Zone. We fit traveltime curves to our picks with forward modeling ray tracing, and determined 1D P-wave velocity models for traveltime arrivals east and west of each shot, and a 2D model for the line. We also inferred the geometry of near-vertical faults from the pre-stack line migration method of Bauer et al. (2013). In general, the 1D models east of individual shots have deeper basement contacts and lower apparent velocities, ~5 km/s at 4 km depth, whereas the models west of individual shots have shallower basement and velocities up to 6 km/s at 2 km depth. Mismatches in basement depths (assuming 5-6 km/s) between individual 1D models indicate a shallowly dipping basement, deepening eastward towards the Banning Fault and shoaling abruptly farther east. An east-dipping structure in the 2D model also gives a better fit than horizontal layers. Based on high velocity zones derived from traveltimes at 9-20 km from the western end of the line, we included an offset from ~2 km to 4 km depth near the middle of the line, which significantly improved the 2D model fit. If fault-related, this offset could represent the Garnet Hill Fault if it continues southward in the subsurface.

  12. Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Lindsay A.

    1978-01-01

    From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Introduction and establishment of tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae) in a date garden for biological control of mosquitoes in the Coachella Valley, Southern California.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard), has been reported to have a potential as a biocontrol agent for larval mosquitoes breeding in intermittently flooded habitats. To develop and promote this predator for controlling mosquitoes, a date garden devoid of preexisting TPS populations was chosen in the Coachella Valley, southern California in 2000 to receive introductions of TPS eggs and mature TPS. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in the plots one year after their introductions. In a selected block on this ranch, 2 rows were stocked with TPS eggs, where soil containing approximately 2,000 eggs was spread over the surface of dry ground in each row before flooding. Another 2 rows were used for mature TPS introduction, where about 400 mature TPS were released into standing water in each row 1 day after flooding. After a single egg or mature TPS introduction, active TPS in water and viable eggs in dry surface soil were noted in increasing numbers during the 3-4 subsequent irrigations. Disking before irrigation, which turned the eggs over and mixed them into the soil column, reduced TPS egg populations at the soil surface and subsequent active TPS populations in standing water after irrigation. After one or two irrigations, viable eggs and active shrimp were found in centers adjacent to the introduced plots in the stocked rows. Ample evidence is presented to show that TPS populations were established after a single introduction of eggs or mature TPS. TPS eggs and/or newly hatched TPS were also carried into the neighboring rows across the borders by the overflowing irrigation water, and TPS populations became established there too, as active TPS were noted after each irrigation in the adjacent unstocked rows. Considering the ease and economical storage, transportation and handling, dessication--resistant eggs have advantages over mature TPS for field introductions. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in rows with and without TPS in July 2001, one year after

  14. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Palm Spring and Mecca Formations, Mecca Hills, CA: spatial variation of vertical axis rotation in the Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Fattaruso, L.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Messe, G. T.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    to the NW of the Mecca Hills, which are bound by the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, (Hehn et al, 1996) indicated consistent 10 to 20° CCW rotations. Overall, these results highlight significant variations in the amount and sense of block rotations in the Coachella Valley. Patterns and magnitudes of CW and CCW rotations derived from 3-D boundary element models (see also Fattaruso et al, this session) of the Coachalla Valley can be compared with these independent paleomagnetic data. Initial comparison indicates that the zones of CW and CCW rotation observed in the paleomagnetic results from the San Timoteo and Borrego Badlands, and the Mecca Hills agree well with model results. Additionally, smaller faults- such as the Painted Canyon and Inspiration Point faults- often demarcate areas with differing amounts, and sense, of vertical axis rotation, and thus these structures play an important role in the structural development of these fault zones.

  15. Region 9: California Los Angeles (Coachella) Adequate Letter (4/18/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack Broadbent, Director, to Catherine Witherspoon regarding Coachella Valley's transportation conformity motor vehicle emissions budgets in the particulate matter (PM-10) progress and attainment plan and motor vehicle emissions

  16. Aquifer and Shallow San Andreas Fault Permeabilities Inferred from Poroelastic Modeling of InSAR Measurements of Land Surface Deformation in Coachella Valley, California. Ravi Appana and Martin O. Saar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appana, R.; Saar, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    Coachella Valley, in southern California, is located in a region where the southern San Andreas Fault system, comprising three main faults, cuts through the valley aquifer dividing it into many sub-basins. Satellite interferometry (InSAR) has revealed differential uplift of the land surface across the Banning Strand - San Andreas Fault (BSF) and the Garnet Hill Fault (GHF) in the upper Coachella Valley. This uplift is suggested to be caused by the elastic response of the aquifer to artificial groundwater recharge and the tectonic stresses acting in this region. However, the differential uplift appears to be mainly caused by the semi-permeable faults which partially restrict pore-fluid pressure diffusion and related groundwater flow. Hence, by employing numerical models of coupled groundwater flow and poroelastic deformation of the aquifer sediments, the land surface uplift can be utilized to constrain a large-scale hydrologic model of the region that includes hydraulic representations of the faults and the sub-basins. Such a regional model can aide in developing better groundwater management strategies that aim at uniform restorations of ground surface elevations and groundwater table levels and would better constrain fault permeabilities with implications for research related to earthquake dynamics and estimates of potential slip along segments of the southern San Andreas Fault system. Studies have suggested that these segments have reached the end of the inter-seismic strain accumulation period posing the biggest risk to seismic hazards in California. InSAR data showing regional land surface uplift and well data of water table elevations, collected in this region, are used to constrain the model yielding hydraulic parameters. Specifically, our results suggest that the horizontal permeability, kxWWB, of the White Water sub-basin (WWB) and its permeability anisotropy, aWWB = (kz/kx)WWB, are on the order of 0.20x10-11 m2 ≤ kxWWB ≤ 1.2x10-11 m2 and 0.04 ≤ a

  17. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  18. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  19. Relation between proposed developments of water resources and seepage from the All-American Canal, eastern Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeltz, Omar J.; Leake, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A two-layer digital model designed for this study indicated that sealing of the Coachella branch of the All-American Canal would cause an eventual increase in seepage from the All-American Canal of about 15,000 acre-feet annually. Sealing of both the Coachella Canal and the segment of the All-American Canal between Pilot Knob and Drop 1 would result in a lessening of seepage rates from the All-American Canal of 57,000 acre-feet in 1985, but of only 39,000 acre-feet in 2030. Sealing both the Coachella and the All-American Canals would reduce the outflow to Mexicali Valley from 120,000 acre-feet in 1980 to less than 9 ,000 acre-feet in 2030. The model also indicated that if only the Coachella Canal was sealed, a little less than 40% of water pumped from proposed well fields near the All-American Canal ultimately would be derived from increased seepage from the All-American Canal; between 50 and 60% of the water pumped would be water that otherwise would flow to Mexicali Valley. (USGS)

  20. San Andreas fault earthquake chronology and Lake Cahuilla history at Coachella, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Philibosian, B.; Fumal, T.; Weldon, R.

    2011-01-01

    The southernmost ~100 km of the San Andreas fault has not ruptured historically. It is imperative to determine its rupture history to better predict its future behavior. This paleoseismic investigation in Coachella, California, establishes a chronology of at least five and up to seven major earthquakes during the past ~1100 yr. This chronology yields a range of average recurrence intervals between 116 and 221 yr, depending on assumptions, with a best-estimate average recurrence interval of 180 yr. The most recent earthquake occurred c.1690, more than 300 yr ago, suggesting that this stretch of the fault has accumulated a large amount of tectonic stress and is likely to rupture in the near future, assuming the fault follows a stress renewal model. This study also establishes the timing of the past 5-6 highstands of ancient Lake Cahuilla since A.D. 800.We found that earthquakes do not tend to occur at any particular stage in the lake cycle.

  1. Photomosaics and Logs of Trenches on the San Andreas Fault near Coachella, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Philibosian, Belle; Fumal, Thomas E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Bemis, Sean P.; Burgette, Reed J.; Wisely, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    Valley in southern California east of Dillon Road and south of Avenue 44. Three benched trenches, a total of more than 950 m, were excavated across the fault zone as part of an Alquist-Priolo fault investigation study. These trenches exposed a thick section of latest Holocene lacustrine, fluvial, and shoreline deposits. Only the central and eastern trenches exposed faulting so we confined our investigations to those two trenches. In the central trench, we photographed and logged in detail both walls of about 70 m of the trench where it spanned several zones of complex faulting which form a 15-m-wide depression. After carefully cleaning the trench walls, we put up a 1- by 0.5-m string- and nail-grid. We photographed each 1- by 0.5-m panel individually and then photologged features directly on these unrectified photos. The photos were digitally rectified later to remove distortion caused by irregularities in the trench walls and to correct the slight distortion introduced by the camera lens. The rectified photos were spliced together to make photomosaics of the trench walls. Most of the field linework and descriptions were then transferred to the rectified photomosaics. For the eastern trench, we took a set of overview photographs of the full length (about 200 m) of each wall. These photographs were taken from the top of the trench towards the opposite wall. Because the photographs were taken at a downward angle, there is significant distortion. We logged directly on these photos in the field, recording significant contacts, primarily between lacustrine and subaerial deposits, along with descriptions. For this report, we spliced together these unrectified overview photos and transfered field linework and some descriptions. For both trenches, contacts and lithologhic descriptions of stratigraphic units, faults and carbon sample locations are indicated on the photomosaics. Lacustrine deposits are tinted to better show deformation across the fault zones. Evidence for

  2. The Effect of Blowsand Reduction on the Abundance of the Fringe-Toed Lizard (Uma inornata) in the Coachella Valley, California,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    dunes" (England and Nelson 1976). In fact, Plot 1 included one of the study areas used by England and Nelson. Both Norris (1958) and Pough (1970) have...inhibit burrowing by Uma (Norris 1958, Pough 1970), these measures were of little use in understanding the densities of Uma in Plots 1-9. In fact, when...situations (Stebbins 1944, Norris 1958) but some of Pough’s (1970) observations are at odds with these earlier ideas. Pough observed that Uma retreated at

  3. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  5. Valley fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... southwestern United States, and in Central and South America. You get it by breathing in the fungus ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  6. 77 FR 28846 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae (Coachella Valley Milk-Vetch.... coachellae (Coachella Valley milk-vetch) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also... all of the costs of milk-vetch conservation efforts may ultimately be borne by current landowners...

  7. Martian Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a martian valley, perhaps long, long ago carved by a liquid such as water, in northern Terra Cimmeria. The channel that might have once run down through the valley is no longer visible; the floor is covered with large, light-toned, windblown ripples.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 227.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  8. Saline Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11164

  9. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Valley precession and valley polarization in graphene with inter-valley coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the valley precession and valley polarization in graphene under inter-valley coupling. Our results show that the inter-valley coupling can induce valley polarization in graphene and also precess valleys in real space in a manner similar to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction rotating spins. Moreover, using strain modulation, we can achieve high valley polarization with large valley-polarized currents. These findings provide a new way to create and manipulate valley polarization in graphene.

  11. Sacramento Valley, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley (40.5N, 121.5W) of California is the northern extension of the Central Valley, main agriculture region of the state. Hundreds of truck farms, vineyards and orchards can be seen throughout the length and breadth of the valley which was reclaimed from the desert by means of intensive and extensive irrigation projects.

  12. Sacramento Valley, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-04-179 (22 June 1973) --- The Sacramento Valley (40.5N, 121.5W) of California is the northern extension of the Central Valley, main agriculture region of the state. Hundreds of truck farms, vineyards and orchards can be seen throughout the length and breadth of the valley which was reclaimed from the desert by means of intensive and extensive irrigation projects. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  14. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  15. Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-02

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. They are so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow and ice cover. This image was acquired December 8, 2002 by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  16. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  17. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  18. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  19. Old Martian Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-578, 18 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an ancient, unnamed, martian valley in the Xanthe Terra region, located near 3.3oS, 54.9oW. This valley might have been a conduit for flowing water, but there is no way to be certain because it is so old that none of its original features have been preserved. Bright, windblown ripples are now found on the valley floor. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York, is to be solidified (vitrified) in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. This waste material resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972. Project costs are shared by the US Department of Energy (90 percent) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (10 percent). The site on which the Project is located is owned by New York State. This report is an overview of West Valley's plans and accomplishments.

  1. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Studies, Dry Lake Valley, Muleshoe Valley, Delamar Valley, Pahroc Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    Cretaceous to Pliocene in age and consist predominantly of welded and nonwelded pyro- w clastics (air falls, ash flows, ignimbrites ) of rhyolitic and...Vu Ignimbrite Valley 53 DLCDP-A53 Delamar Vu Rhyolite Valley 54 DLCDP-A54 Delamar Vu Andesite Valley 55 DLCDP-A55 Delamar Vu Rhyolitic Tuff Valley 56

  2. Purge at West Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  3. Mzab Valley, Algeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    Located 600 km south of Algiers, Algeria in the heart of the Sahara Desert, the five ksour fortified villages of the MZab Valley form an extraordinarily homogenous ensemble in this image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  4. Death Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-29

    Death Valley, Calif., has the lowest point in North America, Badwater at 85.5 meters 282 feet below sea level. It is also the driest and hottest location in North America. This image is from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  5. California: Diamond Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... water storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against ... to stand out prominently by taking advantage of the strong change in brightness between the two view angles and the contrasting angular ...

  6. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  7. Green Valley Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.

    2014-12-01

    The "green valley" is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech), in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u-r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, "main" sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominanlty disk) morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the "green valley" using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all) of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012), Salim et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2007), as well as other results.

  8. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  9. Grizzly Valley fault system, Sierra Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jack; Briggs, Rich; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault system (GVFS) strikes northwestward across Sierra Valley, California and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). To investigate Quaternary motion across the GVFS, we analyzed high-resolution (0.25 m) airborne LiDAR data (Figure 2) in combination with six, high-resolution, P-wave, seismic-reflection profiles [Gold and others, 2012]. The 0.5- to 2.0-km-long seismic-reflection profiles were sited orthogonal to suspected tectonic lineaments identified from previous mapping and our analysis of airborne LiDAR data. To image the upper 400–700 m of subsurface stratigraphy of Sierra Valley (Figure 3), we used a 230-kg accelerated weight drop source. Geophone spacing ranged from 2 to 5 m and shots were co-located with the geophones. The profiles reveal a highly reflective, deformed basal marker that we interpret to be the top of Tertiary volcanic rocks, overlain by a 120- to 300-m-thick suite of subhorizontal reflectors we interpret as Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits. Three profiles image the principle active trace of the GVFS, which is a steeply dipping fault zone that offsets the volcanic rocks and the basin fill (Figures 4 & 5).

  10. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Valley near Olympus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-539, 9 November 2003

    A suite of channels and valleys are carved into the plains southeast of the martian volcano, Olympus Mons. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 16.5oN, 124.8oW. Whether the valley was cut by water is unknown. Today it is dry, has dust-covered wind ripples on the floor of the innermost channel, and small craters have formed here and there on the valley terrain. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  12. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  13. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291

  14. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  15. Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2009-12-01

    From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 μstrain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.

  16. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  17. DESOLATION VALLEY WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Fillo, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    The Desolation Valley Wilderness covers an area of 101 sq mi in El Dorado County, California, near the southwestern shore of Lake Tahoe. A mineral survey disclosed the presence of a small mineralized area with demonstrated gold resources. Exploratory drilling is necessary before the resource potential of gold-bearing rocks can be assessed.

  18. Boyne Valley Tombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  19. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  20. Rift Valley Fever Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  1. Mars Marathon Valley Overlook

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows part of "Marathon Valley," a destination on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as seen from an overlook north of the valley. The scene spans from east, at left, to southeast. It combines four pointings of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) on March 13, 2015, during the 3,958th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. The rover team selected Marathon Valley as a science destination because observations of this location using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter yielded evidence of clay minerals, a clue to ancient wet environments. By the time Opportunity explores Marathon Valley, the rover will have exceeded a total driving distance equivalent to an Olympic marathon. Opportunity has been exploring the Meridiani Planum region of Mars since January 2004. This version of the image is presented in approximate true color by combining exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters at each of the four camera pointings, using filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19151

  2. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  3. Fretted Terrain Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of a fretted terrain valley in the Coloe Fossae region. Valleys found at north middle latitudes, such as this one, often have odd linear features on them. When seen at much lower resolution by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s, investigators assumed that the linear features indicated flow of ice or ice-rich debris, as might occur in a glacier or rock glacier. MOC images show little evidence to support the notion that these materials flow; indeed, similar ridges occur in closed valleys, from which nothing can flow. This picture shows a close-up of one such closed valley.

    Location near: 35.3oN, 303.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  4. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  5. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  6. An Ancient Valley Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Most of the oldest terrains on Mars have eroded into branching valleys, as seen here in by NASA's Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, much like many land regions of Earth are eroded by rain and snowmelt runoff. This is the primary evidence for major climate change on Mars billions of years ago. How the climate of Mars could have supported a warmer and wetter environment has been the subject of scientific debates for 40 years. A full-resolution enhanced color closeup reveals details in the bedrock and dunes on the valley floor (upper left). The bedrock of ancient Mars has been hardened and cemented by groundwater. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21630

  7. [Rift valley fever].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Pantiukhov, V B; Markov, V I; Bondarev, V P

    2012-01-01

    In the last quarter of century virus of Rift valley fever (RVF) sharply extended its distribution by moving from Africa to Asia and evolving from low- to high pathogenic for humans causing severe hemorrhagic disease, practically equaling in this respect with some members ofa group of extremely dangerous pathogens. Morbidity and epidemics of RVF are analyzed. Evolution of epidemic development of the infection is examined. Necessity of development of means and methods for diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of RVF is underlined.

  8. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1989-10-01

    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  9. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  10. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however,more » remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.« less

  11. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  12. Death Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-11

    STS059-S-026 (11 April 1994) --- This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the Valley range from 70 meters below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3300 meters above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about the Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans help scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are bulit up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation, and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (or inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. the goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global cimate-change scenarios

  13. The California Valley grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  14. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  16. Valley Glaciers on Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-17

    Ice (probably frozen nitrogen) that appears to have accumulated on the uplands on the right side of this 390-mile (630-kilometer) wide image is draining from Pluto's mountains onto the informally named Sputnik Planum through the 2- to 5-mile (3- to 8- kilometer) wide valleys. The flow front of the ice moving into Sputnik Planum is outlined by the blue arrows. The origin of the ridges and pits on the right side of the image remains uncertain. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19944

  17. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  18. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  19. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures. These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black. In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03463

  20. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  1. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  2. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-05-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  3. Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, camels and humans. The causative agent of RVF, the RVF virus (RVFV), has the capacity to cause large and severe outbreaks in animal and human populations and to cross significant natural geographic barriers. Rift Valley fever is usually inapparent in non-pregnant adult animals, but pregnant animals and newborns can be severely affected; outbreaks are characterised by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. The majority of human infections are subclinical or associated with moderate to severe, non-fatal, febrile illness, but some patients may develop a haemorrhagic syndrome and/or ocular and neurological lesions. In both animals and humans, the primary site of RVFV replication and tissue pathology is the liver. Outbreaks of RVF are associated with persistent high rainfalls leading to massive flooding and the emergence of large numbers of competent mosquito vectors that transmit the virus to a wide range of susceptible vertebrate species. Outbreaks of RVF have devastating economic effects on countries for which animal trade constitutes the main source of national revenue. The propensity of the virus to spread into new territories and re-emerge in traditionally endemic regions, where it causes large outbreaks in human and animal populations, presents a formidable challenge for public and veterinary health authorities. The presence of competent mosquito vectors in RVF-free countries, the wide range of mammals susceptible to the virus, altering land use, the global changes in climate, and increased animal trade and travel are some of the factors which might contribute to international spread of RVF.

  4. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  5. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles Valley...

  6. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  7. Dawn in the Apollo Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-18

    Beam Wave Guide antennas at Goldstone, known as the Beam Waveguide Cluster. They are located in an area at Goldstone called Apollo Valley. The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is located in the Mojave Desert in California, USA.

  8. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  9. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  10. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-03-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  11. [Rift Valley fever].

    PubMed

    Pépin, M

    2011-06-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  13. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  14. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Channels and valleys on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tentative conclusions about the origins of channels and valleys on Mars based on the consensus of investigators who have studied the problem are presented. The morphology of outflow channels is described in detail, and the morphology, distribution, and genesis of Martian valleys are addressed. Secondary modification of channels and valleys by mass-wasting phenomena, eolian processes, cratering, and mantling by lava flows is discussed. The physics of the flows needed to account for the immense volumes of Martian outflow channels is considered in detail, including the possible influence of debris flows and mudflows, glaciers, and ice sheets. It is concluded that Mars once probably possessed an atmosphere with higher temperatures and pressures than at present which played an essential role in an active hydrological cycle.

  16. Groundwater formation of martian valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malin, M.C.; Carr, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The martian surface shows large outflow channels, widely accepted as having been formed by gigantic floods that could have occurred under climatic conditions like those seen today. Also present are branching valley networks that commonly have tributaries. These valleys are much smaller than the outflow channels and their origins and ages have been controversial. For example, they might have formed through slow erosion by water running across the surface, either early or late in Mars' history, possibly protected from harsh conditions by ice cover. Alternatively, they might have formed through groundwater or ground-ice processes that undermine the surface and cause collapse, again either early or late in Mars' history. Long-duration surface runoff would imply climatic conditions quite different from the present environment. Here we present high-resolution images of martian valleys that support the view that ground water played an important role in their formation, although we are unable as yet to establish when this occurred.

  17. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-09-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  19. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ramona Valley viticultural area is located in central San Diego County, California. The area's boundaries..., passing through Barona Valley, to the peak (1,002 feet) near the center of the unnamed island in the San...

  20. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  1. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... CFR 385.206 and 385.212 (2011), Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  3. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  4. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  5. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  6. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... Facility trackage (the Line), in Chicago, Ill., pursuant to an operating agreement with Ag Valley Holdings, LLC, (Ag Valley Holdings). AVRR states that there are no mileposts on the Line. Based on the map...

  7. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  8. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.”...

  9. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    use of the valley has been limited to livestock grazing. b. Geology and Soils : This discussion of the geologic charac- teristics of Dry Lake Valley...aged alluvial fans are the predominant surficial geologic units within the valley. Soils range from.sandy gravels near the mountain fronts to sandy silts...Coyote Wash, the central stream channel flowing into Dry Lake Valley from Muleshoe Valley, contains with fine-grained soils and is grown over with

  10. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  11. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  12. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  13. Small Glaciofluvial Valleys on Amazonian Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassett, C.; Dickson, J.; Head, J. W.; Levy, J. S.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present new observations of small valleys associated with glacial features in the Martian mid-latitudes, based on a survey of images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These valleys are small (~50-400 m wide) and short (<~10 km in length); indeed, the small-scale of these valleys appears to have hindered earlier recognition. The valleys usually are adjacent to probable glacial landforms (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill and viscous flow features); the mechanism most likely to explain their origin is top-down melting of these cold-based glaciers. Some valleys have associated sedimentary deposits (small fans) (e.g., Fig. 1). Both stratigraphic relations and crater counting constrain most such valleys to the Amazonian period. The observed glaciofluvial valleys are typically on slopes of <<10°, which makes them morphologically distinct from young Mars gullies, which form only on steep slopes (~15-30°). These features are also qualitatively different from valley networks that date from the Noachian/Early Hesperian, as these larger valley systems were integrated into networks that were up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers in extent. Thus, we interpret these small glaciofluvial valleys as representing a distinct class of fluvial features on Mars. Their presence shows that the hydrology of Amazonian Mars is more diverse than previously thought. Figure 1. A small valley emanating from concentric crater fill (interpreted as glacial / ice-rich) inside a 70-km crater (352.5°E, 41.5°S; CTX image P16_007256_1383). The valley begins in a small alcove, where remnant glacial materials are now ~1 km from the valley head. The valley is ~5.5 km long, has an average slope of 5°, and terminates in an elongate fan.

  14. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  15. The Valley Networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, V. C.

    2002-12-01

    Despite three decades of exploration, the valley networks on Mars still seem to raise more questions than they answer. Valley systems have formed in the southern highlands, along some regions of the dichotomy boundary and the south rim of Valles Marineris, around the rim of some impact craters, and on the flanks of some volcanoes. They are found on some of the oldest and youngest terrains as well as on intermediate aged surfaces. There is surprisingly little consensus as to the formation and the paleoclimatic implications of the valley networks. Did the valleys require a persistent solar-driven atmospheric hydrological cycle involving precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration and groundwater outflow as they typically do on Earth? Or are they the result of magmatic or impact-driven thermal cycling of ground water involving persistent outflow and subsequent runoff? Are they the result of some other process(es)? Ground-water sapping, surface-water runoff, debris flows, wind erosion, and formation mechanisms involving other fluids have been proposed. Until such basic questions as these are definitively answered, their significance for understanding paleoclimatic change on Mars remains cloudy. I will review what is known about valley networks using data from both past and current missions. I will discuss what we have learned about their morphology, environments in which they formed, their spatial and temporal associations, possible formation mechanisms, relation to outflow channel and gully formation, as well as the possible implications for past climate change on Mars. Finally I will discuss how future, meter to submeter scale imaging and other remote sensing observations may shed new light on the debate over the origin of these enigmatic features.

  16. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  17. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  18. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  19. Integrated Modeling of Water Policy Futures in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, M. K.; Forster, C. B.; Grant, W. E.; Collins, K.

    2004-12-01

    Divided by an international border, the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) are linked by shared history, natural resources, culture and economy. This region is experiencing changes driven by policy makers both within and outside the IMVs. The largest external decision, the Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003, opens the door to a laboratory for studying the consequences of a massive transfer of agricultural water to municipal users. Two irrigation districts, two urban water agencies and the State of California have agreed to a 75 year of more than 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from agricultural to urban use. Although Imperial Valley farmers will be compensated for water conservation and land fallowing, the economic, environmental and social consequences are unclear. Farmers who fallow will likely cause a greater impact on local businesses and government than those choosing on-field water conservation. Reduced agricultural water use causes reduced flow of irrigation runoff, at higher salinity than before, to the Salton Sea that, in turn, impacts the population dynamics of Ichthyan and Avian species at the Salton Sea. Municipal wastewater discharged into the New River by Mexicali, Mexico is also an important source of inflow to the Salton Sea that will be reduce by plans to reclaim the wastewater for various uses, including cooling water for two new power plants in the Mexicali. A restoration program is funded to produce a Sea with much reduced surface area. But this approach may, in turn, lead to increases in windblown dust from the dry lakebed that will contribute to an air basin already designated as a federal nonattainment area for particulate emissions. Additional water will be conserved by lining the All American and Coachella canals. But, eliminating seepage from the All American canal reduces groundwater recharge to aquifers used by Mexican farmers. A complex interplay of water-related issues must be accounted for if

  20. The Owens Valley solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Gary, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    Solar microwave emission contains essential information for the study of the coronal magnetic structure of active regions and of thermal and nonthermal flare electrons. To exploit this potential requires BOTH imaging and spectroscopy with sufficient resolution to resolve spatial and spectral features. The VLA provides excellent solar imaging (when in the C and D configurations) but inadequate spectral coverage. The existing Owens Valley system has excellent spectral coverage but imaging that is adequate only for very simple sources. The Owens Valley system is currently undergoing an expansion, which when completed in October 1990 will provide a SOLAR-DEDICATED 5 antenna array (10 baselines). By using frequency-synthesis, this will provide a significant imaging capability in addition to its current spectral coverage.

  1. VALDRIFT--A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwine, K. Jerry; Bian, Xindi; Whiteman, C. David; Thistle, Harold W.

    1997-08-01

    VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological-that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, although in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are 1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, 2) convective boundary layer growth, 3) inversion descent, and 4) nocturnal temperature inversion breakup. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions in which the winds in the valley are predominantly along the valley's axis. The model is configured to operate through one diurnal cycle for a single narrow valley. The inputs required are the valley topographic characteristics, pollutant release rate as a function of time and space, wind speed and direction as functions of time measured at one height, lateral and vertical turbulent eddy diffusivities as functions of stability, and the valley temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise. The outputs are three-dimensional concentration fields and ground-level deposition fields as functions of time. The scientific foundations of VALDRIFT are given in this paper along with a brief discussion of the model inputs and outputs. Air concentrations estimated by VALDRIFT compare favorably with results from a tracer experiment conducted in a deep mountain valley.

  2. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  3. Optical tuning of electronic valleys (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Edbert J.; Gedik, Nuh

    2017-02-01

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WS2 are prime examples of atomically thin semiconducting crystals that exhibit remarkable electronic and optical properties. They have a pair of valleys that can serve as a new electronic degree of freedom, and these valleys obey optical selection rules with circularly polarized light. Here, we discuss how ultrafast laser pulses can be used to tune their energy levels in a controllable valley-selective manner. The energy tunability is extremely large, comparable to what would be obtained using a hundred Tesla of magnetic field. We will also show that such valley tunability can be performed while we effectively manipulate the valley selection rules. Finally, we will explore the prospect of using this technique through photoemission spectroscopy to create a new phase of matter called a valley Floquet topological insulator.

  4. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  5. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  6. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Prowers County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Prowers County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  7. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  8. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2017-04-01

    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  9. Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kai; Xu, Lixiang; Wu, Fengcheng; Nagler, Philipp; Tran, Kha; Ma, Xin; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; MacDonald, Allan H.; Moody, Galan; Li, Xiaoqin

    2017-06-01

    The emerging field of valleytronics aims to exploit the valley pseudospin of electrons residing near Bloch band extrema as an information carrier. Recent experiments demonstrating optical generation and manipulation of exciton valley coherence (the superposition of electron-hole pairs at opposite valleys) in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a critical step towards control of this quantum degree of freedom. The charged exciton (trion) in TMDs is an intriguing alternative to the neutral exciton for control of valley pseudospin because of its long spontaneous recombination lifetime, its robust valley polarization, and its coupling to residual electronic spin. Trion valley coherence has however been unexplored due to experimental challenges in accessing it spectroscopically. In this work, we employ ultrafast 2D coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect trion valley coherence in monolayer MoSe2 demonstrating that it persists for a few-hundred femtoseconds. We conclude that the underlying mechanisms limiting trion valley coherence are fundamentally different from those applicable to exciton valley coherence.

  10. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Treesearch

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  11. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  12. Precision Mapping of Valley Networks in Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Luo, W.; Qi, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Valley networks in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle are mapped using a computer algorithm. The new map reveals wider existence of valleys than has been inferred from older maps. This suggests runoff as the primary mechanism for origin of the valleys.

  13. 2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued.

  15. North Valley/South Valley Survey--Perceptions of Utah Valley State College and the Need for a Branch Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bart R.

    Utah Valley Community College became Utah Valley State College (UVSC) in 1993, due to the increasing need for a four-year, degree-granting institution in Utah County. UVSC now offers 21 four-year programs, and enrollment has been growing at an average rate of 8% per year since 1986. There were 20,946 students enrolled for fall term 2000, and…

  16. M’zab Valley, Algeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired Feb. 9, 2011 Less than 5 percent of Algeria’s land surface is suitable for growing crops, and most precipitation falls on the Atlas Mountains along the coast. Inland, dust-laden winds blow over rocky plains and sand seas. However, in north central Algeria—off the tip of Grand Erg Occidental and about 450 kilometers (280 miles) south of Algiers—lies a serpentine stretch of vegetation. It is the M’zab Valley, filled with palm groves and dotted with centuries-old settlements. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image of M’zab Valley on February 9, 2011. ASTER combines infrared, red, and green wavelengths of light. Bare rock ranges in color from beige to peach. Buildings and paved surfaces appear gray. Vegetation is red, and brighter shades of red indicate more robust vegetation. This oasis results from water that is otherwise in short supply in the Sahara Desert, thanks to the valley’s approximately 3,000 wells. Chemical analysis of Algerian aquifers, as well studies of topography in Algeria and Tunisia, suggest this region experienced a cooler climate in the late Pleistocene, and potentially heavy monsoon rains earlier in the Holocene. The M’zab region shows evidence of meandering rivers and pinnate drainage patterns. The vegetation lining M’zab Valley highlights this old river valley’s contours. Cool summer temperatures and monsoon rains had long since retreated from the region by eleventh century, but this valley nevertheless supported the establishment of multiple fortified settlements, or ksours. Between 1012 A.D. and 1350 A.D., locals established the ksours of El-Atteuf, Bounoura, Melika, Ghardaïa, and Beni-Isguen. Collectively these cities are now a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage site. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon and Jesse Allen, using data from the GSFC

  17. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  18. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  19. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  20. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  2. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  3. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  4. Rift Valley fever in Namibia, 2010.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Calistri, Paolo; Molini, Umberto; Bishi, Alec; Conte, Annamaria; Scacchia, Massimo; Lelli, Rossella

    2013-12-01

    During May-July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009-2010.

  5. Model Program: Conestoga Valley School District, PA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features the Conestoga Valley School District and its Technology Education program. Conestoga Valley, which is located in historic Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, covers 56 square miles comprising a population of approximately 29,000 people in an area that is best described as agricultural and rural-residential. Situated near the…

  6. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Southern Mauritania, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September–November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

  7. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmerlee-Greiner, Gloria

    To meet the needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents in Boulder Valley (Colorado), the local public school district has developed the Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program, now in its 12th year. The program was designed to help teen parents to mature to meet the challenges of parenting, enhance the school district's dropout/intervention…

  8. Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Calistri, Paolo; Molini, Umberto; Bishi, Alec; Conte, Annamaria; Scacchia, Massimo; Lelli, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    During May–July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009–2010. PMID:24274469

  9. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  10. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  11. Properties of the West Valley waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Cadoff, L.H.; Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical properties of an envelope of West Valley waste form compositions that encompass the centroid composition and which fulfill criteria mandating high chemical durability and good processibility. Data are presented to demonstrate that full-scale process controls at West Valley are sufficiently good to produce acceptably durable non-radioactive glass waste forms.

  12. Ground water in Pavant Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, P. E.; Maxey, G.B.; Thomas, H.E.

    1946-01-01

    The users of wells for irrigation in Pavant Valley, particularly in the Flowell district, have long been cognizant of their utter dependency upon ground water for livelihood, and were among the first in the State to make an organized effort to conserve supplies by prevention of waste. Since passage of the State ground-water law in 1935, the State Engineer has not approved applications for new wells in the areas of most concentrated development, and has deferred adjudication of existing water rights until adequate data concerning the ground-water resources become available. The investigation of ground-water resources in Pavant Valley was suggested by the State Engineer and constitutes one of a series that are being made in the important groundwater basins of Utah by the Federal Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. The investigation was under the general supervision of Oscar E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the ground-water division of the Federal Geological Survey. H. E. Thomas, in charge of groundwater investigations in Utah, returned from military service overseas in time to assist in the completion of the manuscript, and edited the report.

  13. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Long Valley Caldera GIS database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Williams, M.J.; Venezky, D.Y.; Hill, D.P.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Sneed, M.; Segall, P.

    2003-01-01

    This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in eastern California from 1975 to 2001. The database includes geologic, monitoring, and topographic datasets related to Long Valley caldera. The CD-ROM contains a scan of the original geologic map of the Long Valley region by R. Bailey. Real-time data of the current activity of the caldera (including earthquakes, ground deformation and the release of volcanic gas), information about volcanic hazards and the USGS response plan are available online at the Long Valley observatory web page (http://lvo.wr.usgs.gov). If you have any comments or questions about this database, please contact the Scientist in Charge of the Long Valley observatory.

  15. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  16. Automatic mapping of valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, I.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2007-06-01

    Martian valley networks bear some resemblance to terrestrial drainage systems, but their precise origin remains an active research topic. A limited number of valley networks have been manually mapped from images, but the vast majority remains unmapped because standard drainage mapping algorithms are inapplicable to valleys that are poorly organized and lack spatial integration. In this paper, we present a novel drainage delineation algorithm specially designed for mapping the valley networks from digital elevation data. It first identifies landforms characterized by convex tangential curvature, and then uses a series of image processing operations to separate valleys from other features having a convex form. The final map is produced by reconnecting all valley segments along drainage directions. Eight test sites on Mars are selected and manually mapped for valley networks. The algorithm is applied to the test sites and delineated networks are compared to mapped networks using a series of quantitative quality factors. We have found a good agreement between delineated and mapped networks. In the process of comparing manual and delineated networks some shortcomings of manual mapping became apparent. We argue that delineated networks are indeed of better quality than the networks manually mapped from images. Although the algorithm has been developed to study Martian surface, it may also be relevant to terrestrial geomorphology.

  17. Martian valleys: morphology, distribution, age, and origin.

    PubMed

    Pieri, D C

    1980-11-21

    Branching valley networks throughout the heavily cratered terrain of Mars exhibit no compelling evidence for formation by rainfall-fed erosion. The networks are diffuse and inefficient, with irregular tributary junction angles and large, undissected intervalley areas. Rather, the deeply entrenched canyons, with blunt amphitheater terminations, cliff-bench wall topography, lack of evidence of interior erosion by flow, and clear structural control, suggest headward extension by basal sapping. The size-frequency distributions of impact craters in these valleys and in the heavily cratered terrain that surrounds them are statistically indistinguishable, suggesting that valley formation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years.

  18. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  19. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  20. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  1. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  3. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  4. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  5. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  6. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  8. Valley caloritronics and its realization by graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    2015-10-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate an idea of valley caloritronics where quantum transport of the valley degrees of freedom is thermally induced. Valley caloritronics addresses questions such as thermal generation of valley polarized current and, more importantly, pure valley current without an accompanying charge current. After establishing a general physical picture, we show that heat-induced pure valley current can be generated by virtue of wedge-shaped graphene nanoribbons in a two-probe device setup. We discover that the quantum transport properties of the valley degree of freedom can be very different when driven by a voltage bias or by a temperature bias. A very surprising result is that an alternating valley current can be thermally generated via gate control: namely the heat-induced valley current changes its flow direction in some quasiperiodic manner versus the value of a gate voltage at a fixed polarity. Our results indicate a vast potential for developing valley caloritronic devices.

  9. Gate-tunable valley currents, nonlocal resistances, and valley accumulation in bilayer graphene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azari, Mohammadhadi; Kirczenow, George

    2017-05-01

    Using the Büttiker-Landauer formulation of transport theory in the linear response regime, the valley currents and nonlocal resistances of bilayer graphene nanostructures with broken inversion symmetry are calculated. It is shown that broken inversion symmetry in bilayer graphene nanostructures leads to striking enhancement of the nonlocal four-terminal resistance and to valley currents several times stronger than the conventional electric current when the Fermi energy is in the spectral gap close to the energy of Dirac point. The scaling relation between local and nonlocal resistances is investigated as the gate voltage varies at zero Fermi energy and a power law is found to be satisfied. The valley velocity field and valley accumulation in four-terminal bilayer graphene nanostructures are evaluated in the presence of inversion symmetry breaking. The valley velocity and nonlocal resistance are found to scale differently with the applied gate voltage. The unit cell-averaged valley accumulation is found to exhibit a dipolar spatial distribution consistent with the accumulation arising from the valley currents. We define and calculate a valley capacitance that characterizes the valley accumulation response to voltages applied to the nanostructure's contacts.

  10. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  11. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Photorevised 1974; (2) Sleepy Valley, CA, 1995; (3) Del Sur, CA, 1995; and (4) Lake Hughes, CA, 1995. (c... along the 3,600-foot elevation line, through section 4 and crossing onto the Lake Hughes map, to its...

  12. UTAH VALLEY DUST AFFECTS HUMAN BAL LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with elevated levels of inhalable air particles. Causative constituents of PM and pathophysiological mechanisms involved have not been determined. A unique situation in the Utah Valley during a three yr period permitted ex...

  13. Valley Networks in the Ancient Martian Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-18

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft the valley networks on Mars are terrains eroded by flowing water billions of years ago. Where bedrock is well exposed, a variety of colors due to altered minerals and polygonal patterns.

  14. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  15. Ground water in the Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, J.E.; Worts, George Frank

    1951-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of interpretive reports on the water resources of the major valleys of Santa Barbara County, Calif., prepared by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Santa Barbara County. The first three reports described the other major valleys in the county: the south-coast basins, Goleta and Carpinteria, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez River valleys. This report deals with the Cuyama Valley in the northeastern part of the county and adjoining parts of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and Ventura Counties. It includes estimates of natural discharge, pumpage, and yield of ground water, and all data on water levels, well records, and water quality that were available up to June 1946.

  16. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  17. UTAH VALLEY DUST AFFECTS HUMAN BAL LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with elevated levels of inhalable air particles. Causative constituents of PM and pathophysiological mechanisms involved have not been determined. A unique situation in the Utah Valley during a three yr period permitted ex...

  18. Martian valleys - Morphology, distribution, age, and origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The article summarizes the geological and geomorphological evidence concerning the formation of the valley networks of Mars which were observed in the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter images. There is no clear evidence of direct fluid erosion in any Martian valley. The networks are diffuse and inefficient, with irregular tributary junction angles and large, undissected intervalley regions. The deeply entrenched canyons, with steep-walled amphitheater terminations suggest headward extension (sapping) by basal undermining and wall collapse. It is believed that valley formation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years because the size-frequency distributions of impact craters in these valleys and in the heavily cratered terrain which surrounds them are statistically insignificant.

  19. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry.

  20. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  1. Measured crustal deformation in Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    Precise geodetic surveys since 1972 indicate that significant vertical deformation of the land surface continues in Imperial Valley, California. Measured vertical changes as great as 3-5 cm per year indicate that two types of tectonic movement are occurring: (1) a downward regional tilt of the valley surface from the Mexican border northward toward Salton Sea, and (2) a deepening of the structural trough presently occupied by Salton Sea. A comparison of 1972ndash;1977 change contours with 1927 topographic contours shows gross parallelism, suggesting that the recent deformation is a continuation of the tectonism that formed the Salton trough. Ground movement since 1972 has tended to steepen slightly the gradients of streams, canals, and drains on the valley floor and to increase the capacity of Salton Sea. A usable record of eight years of background measurements of tectonic change are available prior to the impact of geothermal production in Imperial Valley. ?? 1979.

  2. Small Martian valleys - Pristine and degraded morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Partridge, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This study is concerned with a more detailed investigation of the small valley networks on Mars. The dual nature of many valley systems is pointed out, taking into account a relatively fresh-appearing network portion versus an apparent larger, less distinct network system. These separate network characteristics are referred to as pristine and degraded. The valley networks included in this study are all located in the equatorial zone of heavily cratered uplands, between latitudes 30 deg N and 40 deg S. Aspects of network morphology are examined, taking into account drainage density, network dissection ratio, and valley length parameters. Age relationships are also discussed, giving attention to crater age, counting problems, a conservative method, and a crater-fraction method.

  3. Mississippi Valley State University educational outreach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-15

    Pat Gaspard, a visitor relations specialist with NASA's StenniSphere visitor center, speaks to Mississippi Valley State University students. Gaspard spoke July 15 during Stennis Space Center's three-day educational outreach program at the college.

  4. Mississippi Valley State University educational outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Pat Gaspard, a visitor relations specialist with NASA's StenniSphere visitor center, speaks to Mississippi Valley State University students. Gaspard spoke July 15 during Stennis Space Center's three-day educational outreach program at the college.

  5. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  6. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  7. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  8. An evaluation of Skylab (EREP) remote sensing techniques applied to investigation of crustal structure. [Death Valley and Greenwater Valley (CA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study of Greenwater Valley indicates that the valley is bounded on the north and east by faults, on the south by a basement high, and on the west by the dip slope of the black mountains, movement of ground water from the valley is thus Movement of ground water from the valley is thus restricted, indicating the valley is a potential water reservoir.

  9. Fretted Terrain Valley in Coloe Fossae Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft).

    Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181

  10. Geometric valley Hall effect and valley filtering through a singular Berry flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Conventionally, a basic requirement to generate valley Hall effect (VHE) is that the Berry curvature for conducting carriers in the momentum space be finite so as to generate anomalous deflections of the carriers originated from distinct valleys into different directions. We uncover a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) in which the valley-contrasting Berry curvature for carriers vanishes completely except for the singular points. The underlying physics is a singular non-π fractional Berry flux located at each conical intersection point in the momentum space, analogous to the classic Aharonov-Bohm effect of a confined magnetic flux in real space. We demonstrate that, associated with gVHE, exceptional skew scattering of valley-contrasting quasiparticles from a valley-independent, scalar type of impurities can generate charge-neutral, transverse valley currents. As a result, the massless nature of the quasiparticles and their high mobility are retained. We further demonstrate that, for the particular Berry flux of π /2 , gVHE is considerably enhanced about the skew scattering resonance, which is electrically controllable. A remarkable phenomenon of significant practical interest is that, associated with gVHE, highly efficient valley filtering can arise. These phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorders, making them promising for valleytronics applications.

  11. Origin of the Valley Networks On Mars: A Hydrological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2000-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Martian valley networks is examined from a hydrological perspective for their compatibility with an origin by rainfall, globally higher heat flow, and localized hydrothermal systems. Comparison of morphology and spatial distribution of valleys on geologic surfaces with terrestrial fluvial valleys suggests that most Martian valleys are probably not indicative of a rainfall origin, nor are they indicative of formation by an early global uniformly higher heat flow. In general, valleys are not uniformly distributed within geologic surface units as are terrestrial fluvial valleys. Valleys tend to form either as isolated systems or in clusters on a geologic surface unit leaving large expanses of the unit virtually untouched by erosion. With the exception of fluvial valleys on some volcanoes, most Martian valleys exhibit a sapping morphology and do not appear to have formed along with those that exhibit a runoff morphology. In contrast, terrestrial sapping valleys form from and along with runoff valleys. The isolated or clustered distribution of valleys suggests localized water sources were important in drainage development. Persistent ground-water outflow driven by localized, but vigorous hydrothermal circulation associated with magmatism, volcanism, impacts, or tectonism is, however, consistent with valley morphology and distribution. Snowfall from sublimating ice-covered lakes or seas may have provided an atmospheric water source for the formation of some valleys in regions where the surface is easily eroded and where localized geothermal/hydrothermal activity is sufficient to melt accumulated snowpacks.

  12. Mars Rover Opportunity Panorama of Marathon Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-14

    "Marathon Valley" on Mars opens northeastward to a view across the floor of Endeavour Crater in this scene from the panoramic camera (Pancam) of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The scene merges multiple Pancam exposures taken during the period April 16 through May 15, 2016, corresponding to sols (Martian days) 4,347 through 4,375 of Opportunity's work on Mars. It spans from north, at the left, to west-southwest, at the right. The high point in the right half of the scene is "Knudsen Ridge," which forms part of the southern edge of Marathon Valley. Portions of the northeastern and eastern rim of Endeavour crater appear on the distant horizon. Endeavour Crater is 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. The fractured texture of Marathon Valley's floor is visible in the foreground. The view merges exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). It is presented in approximately true color. The rover team calls this image the mission's "Sacagawea Panorama," for the Lemhi Shoshone woman, also commemorated on U.S. dollar coins, whose assistance to the Lewis and Clark expedition helped enable its successes in 1804-1806. Many rocks and other features in Marathon Valley were informally named for members of Lewis and Clark's "Corps of Discovery" expedition. Opportunity entered Marathon Valley in July 2015. The valley's informal name was chosen because Opportunity's arrival at this point along the western rim of Endeavour Crater coincided closely with the rover surpassing marathon-footrace distance in its total driving odometry since landing on Mars in January 2004. The team's planned investigations in the valley were nearing completion when the component images for this scene were taken. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20749

  13. Quantum valley Hall effect and perfect valley filter based on photonic analogs of transitional metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleu, O.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2017-06-01

    We consider theoretically staggered honeycomb lattices for photons which can be viewed as photonic analogs of transitional metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. We propose a simple realization of a photonic quantum valley Hall effect (QVHE) at the interface between two inverted lattices. This results in the formation of valley-polarized propagating modes whose existence relies on the difference between the valley Chern numbers, an analog of the Z2 topological invariant. We show that the magnitude of the photonic spin-orbit coupling based on the energy splitting between TE and TM photonic modes allows to control the number and propagation direction of these interface modes. Finally, we consider the interface between a staggered and a regular honeycomb lattice subject to a nonzero Zeeman field, therefore showing quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). In such a case, the topologically protected one-way modes of the QAHE become valley-polarized and the system behaves as a perfect valley filter.

  14. Seismic responses of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J.W.; Jia, S.; Hou, Z.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, dynamic characteristics of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys are analyzed. The scattering solution of SH-waves by a shallow circular alluvial valley is used to evaluate ground motion, and pipeline-soil interaction is considered. The results show that the alluvial valley has spectacular effects on dynamic behaviors of the pipelines, and for a narrow valley, damage will appear at two interfaces between the alluvial deposit and the riverbed, and for a wider valley, the damage will appear not only at two interfaces but also in the alluvial deposit, this depends on the valley width and the wavelength of incidence seismic waves.

  15. 76 FR 67055 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Valley City, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... airspace for Valley City, ND. Decommissioning of the Valley City non-directional beacon (NDB) at Barnes... Valley City, ND area. Decommissioning of the Valley City NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach at...

  16. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  17. The hydrology of San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    The San Bernardino basin lies near the eastern end of the valley of southern California.  Under the latter term is included that general lowland area which is definitely limited on the north by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino ranges and on the east by the latter range and the San Jacinto group, but whose southern boundary is irregular and difficult to define.  In this direction there is an interdigitation of ridges and valleys as the Sierra Madre Range of San Diego County dies out toward the north.  The more or less indefinite heights that represent its extension in this direction are separated by lowlands, which in turn are to be regarded as southwest lobes of the well-defined east-west valley that lies along the base of the San Gabriel Range.

  18. Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tengfei; Qiao, Xiaofen; Tan, Pingheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed to be in analogy to the D′yakonov-Perel′ mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley pseudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26490157

  19. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  20. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Anning, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrogeology of the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins of Mohave County in northwestern Arizona to develop a better understanding of groundwater storage within the basin fill aquifers. In our investigation we used geologic maps, well-log data, and geophysical surveys to delineate the sedimentary textures and lithology of the basin fill. We used gravity data to construct a basin geometry model that defines smaller subbasins within the larger basins, and airborne transient-electromagnetic modeled results along with well-log lithology data to infer the subsurface distribution of basin fill within the subbasins. Hydrogeologic units (HGUs) are delineated within the subbasins on the basis of the inferred lithology of saturated basin fill. We used the extent and size of HGUs to estimate groundwater storage to depths of 400 meters (m) below land surface (bls). The basin geometry model for the Hualapai Valley basin consists of three subbasins: the Kingman, Hualapai, and southern Gregg subbasins. In the Kingman subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,200 m deep, saturated basin fill consists of a mixture of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. The Hualapai subbasin, which is the largest of the subbasins, contains a thick halite body from about 400 m to about 4,300 m bls. Saturated basin fill overlying the salt body consists predominately of fine-grained older playa deposits. In the southern Gregg subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,400 m deep, saturated basin fill is interpreted to consist primarily of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. Groundwater storage to 400 m bls in the Hualapai Valley basin is estimated to be 14.1 cubic kilometers (km3). The basin geometry model for the Detrital Valley basin consists of three subbasins: northern Detrital, central Detrital, and southern Detrital subbasins. The northern and central Detrital subbasins are characterized by a predominance of playa evaporite and fine

  1. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated age of 29 years.

  2. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  3. 12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING SOUTH END OF OVERHEAD WIRING TERMINATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. 11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING DETAIL OF OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. Restoring Hetch Hetchy Valley: The Role of Modeling in Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, Sarah E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-10-01

    In 1923, following years of opposition and debate, the City of San Francisco, Calif., completed the O'Shaughnessy Dam, which flooded Hetch Hetchy Valley in California's Yosemite National Park. Today, the future of Hetch Hetchy Valley is still debated.

  7. 79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN DISTANCE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. VEGETATION CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CONTRASTING RIPARIAN SITES, WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the native riparian vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, has been replaced with agricultural crops or invasive non-native plant species. Detailed information about current Willamette Valley riparian vegetation is generally lacking. Plant species composition data...

  9. Geometric decoherence of valley excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z. R.; Jiang, Z. F.; Xu, Fuming; Wang, B.; Fu, H. C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effects of the Berry phases of the valley excitons in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) when the valley excitons are manipulated by an external terahertz field. We find that the decoherence of the valley degree of freedom of the valley excitons is spontaneously induced because of the different Berry phases of valley excitons accumulated along the opposite trajectories under the manipulation of the external field. It is called the geometric decoherence because it completely results from the geometric phases. The obvious phenomenon related to such spontaneous decoherence is the gradual decrement of the dipole moment matrix element of the valley exciton and consequently the decrement of the emitted signals after the valley excitons are recombined. Moreover, another effect due to the Berry phases is the giant Faraday rotation of the polarization of the emitted photons. Such imperfection of the valley degree of freedom is supposed to provide the potential limits of the valleytronics based on the TMDs optoelecronic devices.

  10. 32. VIEW SOUTH INTO WAIALEIA VALLEY. PIPELINE CAN BE SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW SOUTH INTO WAIALEIA VALLEY. PIPELINE CAN BE SEEN TOWARDS LOWER LEFT WITHIN ROCK WALL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  11. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  12. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  13. Intercrater plains deposits and the origin of Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping of portions of the Thaumasia Fossae and Aeolis Quandrangles has documented several interesting relationships between valley development and local geology. Formation of the valley development was discussed.

  14. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  18. Sediment Trajectories Through a Semiarid Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmon, D. V.; Dunne, T.; Reneau, S. L.

    2002-12-01

    Particles follow a range of trajectories through valley floors: some particles pass directly through the channel, reaching the basin outlet rapidly after being introduced to the fluvial system, while others remain in the valley floor for long periods in deposits such as floodplains. The trajectory of a particle through a valley floor can be viewed as a random process, consisting of a series of mobilization, transport, and deposition events, whose probabilities are determined by the sediment budget. We formalized and then tested this theory by modeling the redistribution and radioactive decay of particle-bound 137Cs in a small alluvial valley downstream of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and comparing the modeled distribution in 1997 with the distribution measured independently by mapping. Field monitoring, sampling, and theoretical calculations were used to compute the long term sediment budget of two particle size fractions. Rates of sediment exchange with both the channel and floodplain are large compared with the total sediment flux, and the sediment budget is dominated by events which occur on average at least once per year. Samples of datable deposits and flood-borne sediment were used to reconstruct the release history of 137Cs into the valley over the past 50 years, and the 137Cs was used as a tracer to examine long term sediment trajectories. The probability distributions of sediment residence times are strongly right-skewed, especially for floodplain sediment. Coarse sediment moves gradually through the channel in a wave-like pattern. In contrast, some of the fine particles move rapidly through the system while the trajectories of others involve long term storage in the floodplain. The modeled 1997 inventory of 137Cs was higher than the measured inventory by a factor of 3, but this discrepancy is small compared with the estimated total amount of 137Cs which entered the valley over the past 50 years. The relative spatial distribution of the contaminant throughout

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  20. Advanced seismic imaging of overdeepened alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Tanner, David; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Major European alpine valleys and basins are densely populated areas with infrastructure of international importance. To protect the environment by, e.g., geohazard assessment or groundwater estimation, understanding of the geological structure of these valleys is essential. The shape and deposits of a valley can clarify its genesis and allows a prediction of behaviour in future glaciations. The term "overdeepened" refers to valleys and basins, in which pressurized melt-water under the glacier erodes the valley below the fluvial level. Most overdeepened valleys or basins were thus refilled during the ice melt or remain in the form of lakes. The ICDP-project Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE) intends to correlate the sedimentary succession from boreholes between valleys in the entire alpine range. Hereby, seismic exploration is essential to predict the most promising well path and drilling site. In a first step, this DFG-funded project investigates the benefit of multi-component techniques for seismic imaging. At two test sites, the Tannwald Basin and the Lienz Basin, the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics acquired P-wave reflection profiles to gain structural and facies information. Built on the P-wave information, several S-wave reflection profiles were acquired in the pure SH-wave domain as well as 6-C reflection profiles using a horizontal S-wave source in inline and crossline excitation and 3-C receivers. Five P-wave sections reveal the structure of the Tannwald Basin, which is a distal branch basin of the Rhine Glacier. Strong reflections mark the base of the basin, which has a maximum depth of 240 metres. Internal structures and facies vary strongly and spatially, but allow a seismic facies characterization. We distinguish lacustrine, glacio-fluvial, and deltaic deposits, which make up the fill of the Tannwald Basin. Elements of the SH-wave and 6-C seismic imaging correlate with major structures in the P-wave image, but vary in detail. Based on

  1. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  2. Ground water in Tooele Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.S.; Keller, O.A.

    1970-01-01

    This short report was written by condensing parts of a technical report on the ground water in Tooele Valley, which was prepared as part of a cooperative program between the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the U. S. Geological Survey to study water in Utah. If you would like to read the more detailed technical report, write for a copy of the Utah State Engineer Technical Publication 12, “Reevaluation of the ground-water resources of Tooele Valley, Utah” by J. S. Gates. Copies can be obtained free of charge from the Division of Water Rights, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A.; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed. PMID:22172568

  4. Wilderness, water, and quality of life in the Bitterroot Valley

    Treesearch

    Kari Gunderson; Clint Cook

    2007-01-01

    The Bitterroot Valley is located in western Montana, U.S.A. Most of the Bitterroot Range above the Bitterroot Valley is protected as wilderness, and is a source of much of the water that flows down and through the valley floor. With an annual precipitation of only 12.3 inches, the Bitterroot Valley is classified as a high desert environment. Today the quality of life...

  5. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  6. Evidence for gap flows in the Birch Creek Valley, Idaho

    Treesearch

    D. Finn; B. Reese; B. Butler; N. Wagenbrenner; K. L. Clawson; J. Rich; E. Russell; Z. Gao; H. Liu

    2016-01-01

    A field study was conducted of flows in the Birch Creek Valley in eastern Idaho. There is a distinct topographic constriction in the Birch Creek Valley that creates two subbasins: an upper and lower valley. The data were classified into one of three groups based on synoptic influence (weak/absent, high wind speeds, and other evidence of synoptic influence). Gap flows...

  7. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Russian River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Russian...

  8. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  9. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  10. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  11. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  12. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  13. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  14. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  15. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  16. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  17. Death Valley California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This oblique handheld Hasselblad 70mm photo shows Death Valley, near California's border with Nevada. The valley -- the central feature of Death Valley National Monument -- extends north to south for some 140 miles (225 kilometers). Hemmed in to the east by the Amargosa Range and to the west by the Panamints, its width varies from 5 to 15 miles (8 to 24 kilometers).

  18. Death Valley California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This oblique handheld Hasselblad 70mm photo shows Death Valley, near California's border with Nevada. The valley -- the central feature of Death Valley National Monument -- extends north to south for some 140 miles (225 kilometers). Hemmed in to the east by the Amargosa Range and to the west by the Panamints, its width varies from 5 to 15 miles (8 to 24 kilometers).

  19. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such real...

  20. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such real...

  1. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such real...

  2. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such real...

  3. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such real...

  4. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Swan Valley Conservation Area on August 6, 2012,...

  5. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  6. Observation of acoustic valley vortex states and valley-chirality locked beam splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Wen, Xinhua; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ke, Manzhu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-05-01

    We report an experimental observation of the classical version of valley polarized states in a two-dimensional hexagonal sonic crystal. The acoustic valley states, which carry specific linear momenta and orbital angular momenta, were selectively excited by external Gaussian beams and conveniently confirmed by the pressure distribution outside the crystal, according to the criterion of momentum conservation. The vortex nature of such intriguing bulk crystal states was directly characterized by scanning the phase profile inside the crystal. In addition, we observed a peculiar beam-splitting phenomenon, in which the separated beams are constructed by different valleys and locked to the opposite vortex chirality. The exceptional sound transport, encoded with valley-chirality locked information, may serve as the basis of designing conceptually interesting acoustic devices with unconventional functions.

  7. Prediction of a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using satellite measurements to detect elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and subsequent elevated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in Africa, we predicted an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in humans and animals in the Horn of Africa during September 2006-May 2007. We det...

  8. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  9. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  10. Indian Wells Valley FORGE Aeromagnetic Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    1994-11-01

    Aeromagnetic data was collected over the Indian Wells Valley, CA in November 1994. It consisted of 9,033 line-kilometers covering ~4,150 square kilometers, flown at a 250 meter drape with principal line spacing of 0.54 kilometers and 10% cross-lines. The principal orientation is N65E.

  11. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16 (also...

  12. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16 (also...

  13. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16 (also...

  14. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16 (also...

  15. Tennessee Valley Authority 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, S.

    1983-01-01

    In the Tennessee Valley Authority's 1983 Annual Report, activities of TVA during the fiscal year (ended September 30, 1983), are covered. This report was submitted to the President, Senate and House of Representatives of the US. Contents include Energy, Economic Development, Natural Resources and Fertilizer and Farming.

  16. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  17. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; ...

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less

  18. Treasure Valley Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  19. Minimum Input Techniques for Valley Oak Restocking

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Tedmund J. Swiecki

    1991-01-01

    We set up experiments at four locations in northern California to demonstrate minimum input techniques for restocking valley oak, Quercus lobata. Overall emergence of acorns planted in 1989 ranged from 47 to 61 percent. Use of supplemental irrigation had a significant positive effect on seedling growth at two of three sites. Mulch, of organic...

  20. Antelope Valley Bridge from Education to Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Union High School District, Lancaster, CA.

    The Antelope Valley Union High School District's regional plan for career education and lifelong learning represents a model for educational levels/districts cooperation. The plan provides a bridge from education to careers that takes into consideration changes in the economic marketplace. The career development plan includes elementary, middle,…

  1. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  2. Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010.

    PubMed

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-02-01

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

  3. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yakima Valley. 9.69 Section 9.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  4. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guenoc Valley. 9.26 Section 9.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  5. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Valley. 9.29 Section 9.29 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  6. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58 Section 9.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  7. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section 9.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23...

  8. 27 CFR 9.38 - Cienega Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cienega Valley. 9.38 Section 9.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  9. 27 CFR 9.60 - Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shenandoah Valley. 9.60 Section 9.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  10. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Valley. 9.29 Section 9.29 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  11. 27 CFR 9.60 - Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shenandoah Valley. 9.60 Section 9.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  12. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temecula Valley. 9.50 Section 9.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  13. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Livermore Valley. 9.46 Section 9.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  14. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  15. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knights Valley. 9.76 Section 9.76 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  16. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guenoc Valley. 9.26 Section 9.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  17. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suisun Valley. 9.45 Section 9.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  18. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yakima Valley. 9.69 Section 9.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  19. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section 9.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23...

  20. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temecula Valley. 9.50 Section 9.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  1. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82 Section 9.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  2. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suisun Valley. 9.45 Section 9.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  3. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guenoc Valley. 9.26 Section 9.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  4. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58 Section 9.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  5. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Valley. 9.29 Section 9.29 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  6. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section 9.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23...

  7. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.

  8. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  9. Mars Marathon Valley Overlook, in Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    This stereo scene from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows part of "Marathon Valley," a destination on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as seen from an overlook north of the valley. The image combines views from the left eye and right eye of Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) to appear three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses with the red lens on the left. The component Pancam images were taken on March 13, 2015, during the 3,958th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. The scene spans from east, at left, to southeast. The rover team selected Marathon Valley as a science destination because observations of this location using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter yielded evidence of clay minerals, a clue to ancient wet environments. By the time Opportunity explores Marathon Valley, the rover will have exceeded a total driving distance equivalent to an Olympic marathon. Opportunity has been exploring the Meridiani Planum region of Mars since January 2004. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19153

  10. Forest resources of the Susitna Valley, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Karl M. Hegg

    1970-01-01

    This report summarizes the data from the first intensive inventory of the forests in the Susitna Valley, Alaska, conducted during the period 1964-65. The primary purposes of the inventory were to determine the total area of forested lands, the commercial forest area and timber volume, and the condition and growth of this resource, and to report on...

  11. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  12. Conduction band valley splitting in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, T. B.; Eriksson, M.; Friesen, M.; Coppersmith, S. N.; von Allmen, P.; Oyafuso, F.; Lee, S.

    2004-03-01

    A theory based on localized-orbital approaches is developed to describe the valley splitting observed in silicon nano-structures. The theory is appropriate in the limit of low electron density and relevant for proposed quantum computing architectures. The valley splitting is computed for realistic devices using the quantitative nanoelectronic modeling tool NEMO using the empirical tight binding model sp^3d^5s. The tight binding parameters have been fitted to bulk bandstructure behavior of Si using a genetic algorithm. A 1-D quantum well simulation in NEMO shows the basic features of conduction band valley splitting as a coherent, confinement-induced phenomenon. No additional intervalley scattering parameters are needed. The splitting is in general nonzero even in the absence of electric field. The splitting oscillates as a function of N, the number of layers in the quantum well, with a period that is determined by the location of the valley minimum in the Brillouin zone. The envelope of the splitting decays as N^3. The qualitative physics remain the same irrespective of the details of the quantum well boundaries or the details of the strain treatment in the quantum well.

  13. Little Tennessee Valley Charrette. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peccolo, Charles M.

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Little Tennessee Valley Charrette, a 3-county experiment in community participation in identification of educational needs and planning new programs. An evaluation team interviewed charrette participants and group discussion leaders to obtain information on the program as the basis for…

  14. Twin Valley, Wild Rice River, Minnesota. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    David Rockwell, TSB, EPA Billy Fairless, CRL. EPA Gary Schenzel, Water Div, EPA Charlie Delos, Planning. EPA Michael Sullivan, Planning, EPA Harlan Hirt...Twin Valley-Norman 868 " WRR Hahnomen-Mahn 1,312 " WRR Felton-Clay 232 " Felton D. WRR Borup-Norman 128 " Ditch SBWRR Begon -Mahnomen 157 None Marsh WRR

  15. Seasonal PM 10 dynamics in Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Rupak Kumar; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Karki, Rahul; Gurung, Anup; Kandasamy, Jaya; Pathak, Bipin Kumar; Sharma, Suman; Giri, Nirita

    Data on ambient PM 10 levels from six locations in the Kathmandu Valley recorded by means of continuous sampling using low volume air samplers from October 2002 to March 2007 were used to investigate PM 10 concentration dynamics in the valley. Monthly average data of the urban areas, which have much higher concentrations than the rural areas, even exceeded the daily standard level of PM 10, in Nepal, 120 μm m -3. Repetitive peaks and troughs each year indicated annual patterns. Monthly average showed seasonal patterns are different between rural area and urban sites. The highest monthly average concentration was observed in February, the end of winter in urban areas where as in rural found in spring, and the lowest concentration was observed in July (monsoon period). The continuous increase in PM 10 concentration from December to February in urban areas showed accumulation of PM 10 in the ambient air during the wintertime. Rainfall in June and September, during the monsoon period, caused a PM 10 concentration decrease, demonstrating that precipitation is effective in removing PM 10 from the valley. Cross correlation analyses among the PM 10 levels measured simultaneously at the sampling stations showed a poor relationship in winter; however, there were good relationships in the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Both the PM 10 concentration and the air-mixing environment in the valley were closely associated with the temperature and wind speed.

  16. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-14

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground.

  17. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  18. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the boundary of the Leona Valley viticultural area are titled: (1) Ritter Ridge, Calif., 1958... Ridge map at the intersection of Elizabeth Lake Pine Canyon Road and the section 23 east boundary line... to and south of the Portal Ridge to the elevation line's intersection with the section 7...

  19. Reemergence of Rift Valley Fever, Mauritania, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C.M.; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O.; Zanotto, Paolo M.A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa. PMID:24447381

  20. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  1. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16...

  2. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  3. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmerlee-Greiner, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Boulder Valley Teen Parenting Program that offers teenage mothers and fathers the opportunity to continue high school and provides services such as pre- and postnatal health care, transportation, career assessment, job placement counseling, and on-site child care. (JOW)

  4. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  5. Remedial Reading Students at Moraine Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In an effort to assess the effectiveness of their remedial reading courses, Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in Palos Hills, Illinois, undertook a study of the retention, course completion, and graduation rates of students who completed one of three remedial reading courses: RDG-040, basic skills for students reading below the 7th grade…

  6. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  7. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  8. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  9. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  10. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  11. Mars Marathon Valley Overlook (False Color)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows part of "Marathon Valley," a destination on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as seen from an overlook north of the valley. In this version of the image, the landscape is presented in false color to make differences in surface materials more easily visible. The scene spans from east, at left, to southeast. It combines four pointings of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) on March 13, 2015, during the 3,958th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. The rover team selected Marathon Valley as a science destination because observations of this location using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter yielded evidence of clay minerals, a clue to ancient wet environments. By the time Opportunity explores Marathon Valley, the rover will have exceeded a total driving distance equivalent to an Olympic marathon. Opportunity has been exploring the Meridiani Planum region of Mars since January 2004. The image combines exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters at each of the four camera pointings, using filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19152

  12. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  13. Forest regeneration research at Fort Valley

    Treesearch

    L. J. (Pat) Heidmann

    2008-01-01

    When G. A. Pearson arrived at Fort Valley to establish the first Forest Service Experiment Station he found many open park-like stands similar to those in Figure 1. Within two years, Pearson had outlined the major factors detrimental to the establishment of ponderosa pine seedlings (Pearson 1910). During the next almost 40 years, he wrote many articles on methods of...

  14. Mentor Training in the Lehigh Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Rita S.; Schuehler, Susan S.

    Moravian College developed a model training program for 246 educational mentors in the Lehigh Valley. The mentors were supervisors or counselors from business and industry, labor unions, churches, and support agencies. The mentors received training in psychology of the adult learner, the use of self-scoring inventories, and educational planning…

  15. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES&H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  16. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  17. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  18. 27 CFR 9.103 - Mimbres Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., edition of 1964. (c) Boundaries. The Mimbres Valley viticultural area is located within Grant and Luna... an unimproved dirt road at benchmark 4911 in Luna County, New Mexico on the northern part of Section... map as Luna/Grant Country line), T19S/R10W on the Dwyer, N. Mex. U.S.G.S. map; (12) The boundary...

  19. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  20. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-05-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu(2+), was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem.

  1. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-01-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu2+, was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem. PMID:22170424

  2. Fire and fuels research at Fort Valley and Long Valley Experimental Forests (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Stephen S. Sackett; Sally M. Haase

    2008-01-01

    Fire research began on the Fort Valley and Long Valley Experimental Forests in the mid 1970s. The U.S. Forest Service and other agencies in the Southwest (BIA and state) had been utilizing prescribed fire to reduce piled hazardous fuels from harvesting. Most managers had not viewed the use of prescribed fire to reduce natural fuels on a broad scale positively. The use...

  3. Fire and fuels research at Fort Valley and Long Valley Experimental Forests

    Treesearch

    Stephen S. Sackett

    2008-01-01

    Fire research began on the Fort Valley and Long Valley Experimental Forests in the mid 1970s. The U.S. Forest Service and other agencies in the Southwest (BIA and state) had been utilizing prescribed fire to reduce piled hazardous fuels from harvesting. Most managers had not viewed the use of prescribed fire to reduce natural fuels on a broad scale positively. The use...

  4. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  5. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  6. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  7. Revisiting the 1872 Owens Valley, California, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Hutton, K.

    2008-01-01

    The 26 March 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is among the largest historical earthquakes in California. The felt area and maximum fault displacements have long been regarded as comparable to, if not greater than, those of the great San Andreas fault earthquakes of 1857 and 1906, but mapped surface ruptures of the latter two events were 2-3 times longer than that inferred for the 1872 rupture. The preferred magnitude estimate of the Owens Valley earthquake has thus been 7.4, based largely on the geological evidence. Reinterpreting macroseismic accounts of the Owens Valley earthquake, we infer generally lower intensity values than those estimated in earlier studies. Nonetheless, as recognized in the early twentieth century, the effects of this earthquake were still generally more dramatic at regional distances than the macroseismic effects from the 1906 earthquake, with light damage to masonry buildings at (nearest-fault) distances as large as 400 km. Macroseismic observations thus suggest a magnitude greater than that of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which appears to be at odds with geological observations. However, while the mapped rupture length of the Owens Valley earthquake is relatively low, the average slip was high. The surface rupture was also complex and extended over multiple fault segments. It was first mapped in detail over a century after the earthquake occurred, and recent evidence suggests it might have been longer than earlier studies indicated. Our preferred magnitude estimate is Mw 7.8-7.9, values that we show are consistent with the geological observations. The results of our study suggest that either the Owens Valley earthquake was larger than the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or that, by virtue of source properties and/or propagation effects, it produced systematically higher ground motions at regional distances. The latter possibility implies that some large earthquakes in California will generate significantly larger ground motions than San

  8. Aggregate Resources Study Garden and Coal Valleys, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-02

    Garden Aafg Sandy Gravel/ GP/SP T 50 50 T Valley Gravelly Sand 24 GN-B5 Garden Vb Andesite Valley G 25 GN-B6 Quinn Vu Rhyodacite Canyon Range Nntai...Intrusive 60 CL-B5 Seaman Vu Andesite Range 61 CL-B6 Coal Valley Aafs Gravelly Sand SP-SM 62 CL-B78 Seaman Cau Limestone Range 63 CL-B8 Seaman Vu Rhyolitic...CTON UNIT DESCRIPTION SYMBOL PECT __j~ C - C. > 64 CL-B9 Coal Valley Vu Andesitic Tuff 65 CL-B1O Seaman Ls Limestone Range 66 CL-B11 Coal Valley Aafs

  9. Generation of Pure Bulk Valley Current in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjin; Low, Tony; Chang, Kai; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Guinea, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The generation of valley current is a fundamental goal in graphene valleytronics but no practical ways of its realization are known yet. We propose a workable scheme for the generation of bulk valley current in a graphene mechanical resonator through adiabatic cyclic deformations of the strains and a chemical potential in the suspended region. The accompanied strain gauge fields can break the spatial mirror symmetry of the problem within each of the two inequivalent valleys, leading to a finite valley current due to quantum pumping. An all-electrical measurement configuration is designed to detect the novel state with pure bulk valley currents.

  10. The influence of tributaries on nocturnal valley flows

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Walker, H.

    1994-04-01

    While much is known about nocturnal drainage flow down a mountain valley, the factors that determine the structure of the valley flow are not completely understood. For example, there are a number of questions regarding the influence of tributaries on the valley flow. Does the presence of tributaries increase or decrease the mass flux out of the valley; does their presence alter the mass flux along the valley; how is the drainage jet structure modified by the presence of tributaries; or, is their presence insignificant? In this study, we investigate these questions via numerical experiments.

  11. A Fresh Shallow Valley Transitions to an Inverted Channel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a portion of a long valley system in northern Arabia Terra. The valley must be relatively young because it cuts through the ejecta of an impact crater that still retains it entire ejecta blanket, indicating the crater is also fairly young and fresh. The valley is interesting because it transitions to an inverted channel near its end point. Inverted channels form when a valley fills with materials. Later, erosion removes the surrounding terrain leaving behind higher standing and more resistant material that filled the valley. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19861

  12. Quantum pumping of valley current in strain engineered graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Chan, K. S. E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn; Lin, Zijing E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-01-06

    We studied the generation of valley dependent current by adiabatic quantum pumping in monolayer graphene in the presence of electric potential barriers, ferromagnetic field and strain. The pumped currents in the two valleys have same magnitudes and opposite directions; thus, a pure valley current is generated. The oscillation of the pumped pure valley current is determined by the Fabry-Perot resonances formed in the structure. In our calculation, the pumped pure valley current can be as high as 50 nA, which is measurable using present technologies. The proposed device is useful for the development of graphene valleytronic devices.

  13. Valley-dependent beam manipulators based on photonic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Yong; Dong, Li-Juan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Shi, Yun-Long

    2017-02-01

    Trigonal warping distortion in energy band lifts the degeneracy of two valleys (K and K' points) of graphene. In this situation, electron transport becomes valley dependent, which can be used to design the valley beam splitter, collimator, or guiding device. Here, valley-dependent beam manipulators are designed based on artificial photonic graphene. In this scheme, the finite-size artificial photonic graphene is intentionally designed to realize the novel device functionalities. This kind of valley-dependent beam manipulators can work at an arbitrary range of electromagnetic waves from microwave to visible light. It potentially paves the way for the application of photonic graphene in future integrated photonic devices.

  14. Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Aivazian, G.; Gong, Zhirui; Jones, Aaron M.; ...

    2015-01-26

    Local energy extrema of the bands in momentum space, or valleys, can endow electrons in solids with pseudo-spin in addition to real spin1-5. In transition metal dichalcogenides this valley pseudo-spin, like real spin, is associated with a magnetic moment1,6 which underlies the valley-dependent circular dichroism6 that allows optical generation of valley polarization7-9, intervalley quantum coherence10, and the valley Hall effect11. However, magnetic manipulation of valley pseudospin via this magnetic moment12-13, analogous to what is possible with real spin, has not been shown before. Here we report observation of the valley Zeeman splitting and magnetic tuning of polarization and coherence ofmore » the excitonic valley pseudospin, by performing polarization-resolved magneto-photoluminescence on monolayer WSe2. Our measurements reveal both the atomic orbital and lattice contributions to the valley orbital magnetic moment; demonstrate the deviation of the band edges in the valleys from an exact massive Dirac fermion model; and reveal a striking difference between the magnetic responses of neutral and charged valley excitons which is explained by renormalization of the excitonic spectrum due to strong exchange interactions.« less

  15. Meter-Scale Characteristics of Martian Channels and Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Malin, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor images, with resolutions as high as 1.5 m pixel, enable characterization of martian channels and valleys at resolutions one to two orders of magnitude better than was previously possible. A major surprise is the near-absence of valleys a few hundred meters wide and narrower. The almost complete absence of fine-scale valleys could be due to lack of precipitation, destruction of small valleys by erosion, or dominance of infiltration over surface runoff. V-shaped valleys with a central channel, such as Nanedi Vallis, provide compelling evidence for sustained or episodic flow of water across the surface. Larger valleys appear to have formed not by headward erosion as a consequence of groundwater sapping but by erosion from water sources upstream of the observed sections. The freshest appearing valleys have triangular cross sections, with talus from opposing walls meeting at the center of the valley. The relations suggest that the width of the valleys is controlled by the depth of incision and the angle of repose of the walls. The flat floors of less fresh-appearing valleys result primarily from later eolian fill. Several discontinuous valleys and lines of craters suggest massive subsurface solution or erosion. The climatic implications of the new images will remain obscure until the cause for the scarcity of fine-scale dissection is better understood. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R.; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-12-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ability to break the valley degeneracy by filtering and spatially splitting valleys to generate valley polarized currents. Here, we suggest a way to obtain valley polarization using strain-induced inhomogeneous pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) that act oppositely on the two valleys. Notably, the suggested method does not involve external magnetic fields, or magnetic materials, unlike previous proposals. In our proposal the strain is due to experimentally feasible nanobubbles, whose associated PMFs lead to different real space trajectories for K and K' electrons, thus allowing the two valleys to be addressed individually. In this way, graphene nanobubbles can be exploited in both valley filtering and valley splitting devices, and our simulations reveal that a number of different functionalities are possible depending on the deformation field.

  17. Meter-Scale Characteristics of Martian Channels and Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Michael H.; Malin, Michael C.

    2000-08-01

    Mars Global Surveyor images, with resolutions as high as 1.5 m pixel, enable characterization of martian channels and valleys at resolutions one to two orders of magnitude better than was previously possible. A major surprise is the near-absence of valleys a few hundred meters wide and narrower. The almost complete absence of fine-scale valleys could be due to lack of precipitation, destruction of small valleys by erosion, or dominance of infiltration over surface runoff. V-shaped valleys with a central channel, such as Nanedi Vallis, provide compelling evidence for sustained or episodic flow of water across the surface. Larger valleys appear to have formed not by headward erosion as a consequence of groundwater sapping but by erosion from water sources upstream of the observed sections. The freshest appearing valleys have triangular cross sections, with talus from opposing walls meeting at the center of the valley. The relations suggest that the width of the valleys is controlled by the depth of incision and the angle of repose of the walls. The flat floors of less fresh-appearing valleys result primarily from later eolian fill. Several discontinuous valleys and lines of craters suggest massive subsurface solution or erosion. The climatic implications of the new images will remain obscure until the cause for the scarcity of fine-scale dissection is better understood.

  18. Spatial valley separation in strained graphene pn junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, HongYu; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Valleytronics in analogy to spintronics aims to use the electron valley degree of freedom to carry and manipulate information, and one of urgent tasks in this field is to generate valley-polarized electrons. In this work, we propose using the electron focusing effect in a strained graphene pn junction to separate valleys spatially through a beam of valley-unpolarized electrons, since the strain-induced pseudo-gauge potentials are opposite for K and K^\\prime valleys and severely affect the trajectories of K and K^\\prime electron propagation. We numerically simulate this valley-separated Veselago lens effect in a lattice model and demonstrate that pseudo-gauge potentials can efficiently control valley separation patterns.

  19. Pure valley and spin polarization current in ferromagnetic graphene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the band structure and spin- and valley-dependent transport in ferromagnetic graphene double junctions using the transfer matrix method. The ferromagnetic double junctions include a lateral layout of normal/magnetic vector potential/normal/effective exchange field/normal graphene regions. We find that the strain combined with magnetic vector potentials breaks the valley degeneracy, and the strain combined with the effective exchange field breaks the spin degeneracy, so that there exists a spin- and valley-dependent gap in the ferromagnetic graphene double junctions, which allows only one spin species with special valley characteristics to be transported. Thus, this type of junction can achieve simultaneously pure spin- and pure valley-polarized currents and function as a perfect valley filter and a perfect spin filter. The exact nature of the valley filtering and spin filtering can be tuned by the strain, magnetic barrier, and effective exchange field strength.

  20. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  1. Water resources of Beaver Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Willis Thomas

    1908-01-01

    Location and extent of area examined. Beaver Valley is located in Beaver County, in southwestern Utah, about 175 miles south of Salt Lake. It lies between the Tushar Mountains on the east and the Beaver Mountains on the west. The principal town of the valley is Beaver, which is most conveniently reached from Milford, a station on the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. The valley, together with its neighboring highlands, occupies the eastern third of Beaver County, an area of about 1,200 square miles. A large part of this area, however, is rocky upland and unproductive desert, the tillable land comprising a comparatively small area in the immediate vicinity of the streams.Purpose and scope of work. The purpose of this paper is to present information concerning the waters of Beaver Valley and to point out ways and means of increasing their usefulness. The presence of a large amount of water in Beaver Valley results from local topograhic conditions, the water being supplied by precipitation in the highland to the east. Its conservation and distribution result from geologic conditions, the water being held in loose gravel and sand, which are more or less confined between ridges of consolidated rocks. The rock basins were formed partly by erosion and partly by faulting and surface deformation. In order to accomplish the purpose in view it is therefore necessary to describe the geographic and geologic conditions in Beaver Valley and neighboring regions.The investigation included the determination of the flow of streams and springs, of the manner of occurrence and quantity of the underground waters as shown by the geologic and geographic conditions of the region and by the distribution of springs and wells, and of the chemical character of the waters with reference to their adaptability to domestic use and to irrigation. The chemical data were obtained (a) by field assays, which are approximately correct and probably of sufficient accuracy to be of value in

  2. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  3. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  4. Microscopic identification of prokaryotes in modern and ancient halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Brian A; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 microm diameter cocci, <2.5 microm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  5. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field-collected populations of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) from Coachella Valley, CA, Imperial Valley, CA, Riverside, CA and Yuma Valley, AZ, were evaluated for susceptibility to several active ingredients representing ten classes of insecticide chemistry. Both leaf-spray and leaf-dip bioassays wer...

  6. The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

  7. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  8. The pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2011-05-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis.

  9. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  10. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  11. Valley Receives 2003 N. L. Bowen Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essene, Eric J.; O'Neil, James R.

    2004-04-01

    John W. Valley received the Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2003 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December. Jim O'Neil and I are particularly pleased to present Professor John Valley, of the University of Wisconsin, for this year's Bowen Award. We have known John for about 25 years, first as a graduate student, and now as colleague and good friend. We nominated him in recognition of his recent work on zircons from early Archean rocks of northwestern Australia, which provides documentation of previously missing Earth history with evidence for an early ocean and a relatively cool history during the Hadean Eon. John has also published a major review on oxygen isotope variations of magmatic zircons preserved through geologic time, as a result of which he proclaims that ``zircons are forever.''

  12. Multiple Valley Couplings in Nanometer Si MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Xia, Jian-Bai; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2008-07-11

    We investigate the couplings between different energy band valleys in a MOSFET device using self-consistent calculations of million-atom Schroedinger-Poisson Equations. Atomistic empirical pseudopotentials are used to describe the device Hamiltonian and the underlying bulk band structure. The MOSFET device is under nonequilibrium condition with a source-drain bias up to 2V, and a gate potential close to the threshold potential. We find that all the intervalley couplings are small, with the coupling constants less than 3 meV. As a result, the system eigenstates derived from different bulk valleys can be calculated separately. This will significantly reduce the simulation time, because the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix scales as the third power of the total number of basis functions.

  13. Valley caloritronics and its realization by graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    We propose and theoretically investigate a new idea of valley caloritronics where quantum transport of the valley degrees of freedom is thermally induced. Valley caloritronics addresses questions such as thermal generation of valley polarized current and more importantly, pure valley current without an accompanying charge current. After establishing a general physical picture, we show that heat-induced pure valley current can be generated by virtue of wedge-shaped graphene nanoribbons in a two-probe device setup. We discover that the quantum transport properties of the valley degree of freedom can be very different when driven by a voltage bias or by a temperature bias. A very surprising result is that an alternating valley current can be thermally generated via gate control: namely the heat-induced valley current changes its flow direction in some quasi-periodic manner versus the value of a gate voltage at a fixed polarity. Our results indicate a vast potential for developing valley caloritronic devices. Nserc, CSC, MESRS, Calcul Québec, and Compute Canada.

  14. Ground-water conditions in southern Utah Valley and Goshen Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    The investigation of ground-water conditions in southern Utah Valley and Goshen Valley, Utah, was made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, to investigate the water resources of the State. The purposes of the investigation were to (1) determine the occurrence, recharge, discharge, movement, storage, chemical quality, and availability of ground water; (2) appraise the effects of increased withdrawal of water from wells; and (3) evaluate the effect of the Central Utah Project on the ground-water reservoir and the water supply of Utah Lake.This report presents a description of the aquifer system in the two valleys, a detailed description of the ground-water resources, and conclusions about potential development and its effect on the hydrologic conditions in the valleys. Two supplementary reports are products of the investigation. A basic-data release (Cordova, 1969) contains most of the basic data collected for the investigation, including well characteristics, drillers' logs, water levels, pumpage from wells, chemical analyses of ground and surface waters, and discharge of selected springs, drains, and streams. An interpretive report (Cordova and Mower, 1967) contains the results of a large-scale aquifer test in southern Utah Valley.

  15. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  16. Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, J.C.

    2008-06-15

    In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. Tennessee Valley Authority annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This 1980 Annual Report of the Tennessee Valley Authority to the US president, Senate, and House of Representatives contains information on energy supply and demand, energy conservation, load management, electric rate structures, and economic development in the TVA region, agricultural activities of the TVA, use of natural resources including land and water, and statistics on the power plants, power generation, and financial status of the TVA power system. (LCL)

  18. Historic Settlement in the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    I REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Historic Settlement in...THE 1880s 139 XIV. THE RIVER IN THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE UPPER TOMBIGBEE VALLEY: 1890-1940 149 XV. STEAMBOAT TYPES AND OPERATIONS ON THE TOMBIGBEE...and type in the support structures associated with plantations, farms, and tenancies? The number, type , and size of specific outbuildings may be

  19. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,” 7.5 minute series; (2) “Jericho Valley Quadrangle, California,” 7.5 minute series; (3) “Detert Reservoir Quadrangle, California,” 7.5 minute series; and (4) “Aetna Springs Quadrangle, California,” 7.5 minute...

  20. History of the Tennessee Valley Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The history of the Tennessee Valley Authority beginning with its inception during the depression years and proceeding through the 1970's is reviewed with information on the socio-economic impact of TVA on the Southeast Region, the construction of hydro, fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, the environmental effects of these plants, the development of waterways and flood control, recreational areas developed by TVA, and agricultural benefits. (LCL)

  1. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approximately 4.4 miles to the 999-meter (3,278-foot) peak of Witch Creek Mountain, T13S, R2E, east of Ballena...-meter (2,894-foot) peak of Woodson Mountain, T13S, R1W, proceed straight north-northwest approximately 3.25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley...

  2. Facility decontamination for reuse at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, R.F.; Tundo, D.; Lawrence, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has been created to decontaminate and decommission a civilian fuel reprocessing plant. This activity involves decontamination of the former facility for installation of high- and low-level liquid waste processing equipment. About 70% of the plant has been decontaminated and liquid waste processing equipment installed. The decontamination effort utilized both contact and remote practices and a variety of commonplace and unique tools and equipment. Lessons learned during the cleanup are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Recent landscape change in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Long term monitoring of land use and land cover in California's intensively farmed Central Valley reveals several key physical and socioeconomic factors driving landscape change. As part of the USGS Land Cover Trends Project, we analyzed modern land-use/land-cover change for the California Central Valley ecoregion between 2000 and 2010, monitoring annual change between 2005 and 2010, while creating two new change intervals (2000-2005 and 2005-2010) to update the existing 27-year, interval-based analysis. Between 2000 and 2010, agricultural lands fluctuated due to changes in water allocations and emerging drought conditions, or were lost permanently to development (240 square km). Land-use pressure from agriculture and development also led to a decline in grasslands and shrublands across the region (280 square km). Overall, 400 square km of new developed lands were added in the first decade of the 21st century. From 2007 to 2010, development only expanded by 50 square km, coinciding with defaults in the banking system, the onset of historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. Our annual LULC change estimates capture landscape-level change in response to regional policy changes, climate, and fluctuations (e.g., growth or decline) in the national and global economy. The resulting change data provide insights into the drivers of landscape change in the California Central Valley and the combination of two consistent mapping efforts represents the first continuous, 37-year endeavor of its kind.

  4. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-03-15

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars.

  5. Cotton Valley depositional systems of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1983-09-01

    The Jurassic Cotton Valley Group in Mississippi is considered generally to be one formation, roughly equivalent to the Schuler Formation of Louisiana. Gross changes in lithology and electric log characteristics are observed across the state of Mississippi. These lateral variations are best discussed in terms of the depositional systems operant during Cotton Valley sedimentation. Through use of sand percentage and sand isolith maps, various depositional systems can be discerned. Two delta systems existed in Mississippi: a constructive delta in the west-central part of the state, and a destructive delta in the east-central part. An interdeltaic system in central Mississippi, between the two delta systems, was bounded possibly on the south by a barrier-bar system. Elevation above wave base, caused by positive influence of the Wiggins arch and Hancock County high, resulted in development of a strand-plain system in southeast Mississippi. Lack of well control precludes a definitive statement about depositional environment in the southwest part of the state. By geographic relationship to the other depositional systems, a shelf system is inferred. Recognition of the Cotton Valley depositional systems in Mississippi aids in identifying potentially productive trends which have yet to be adequately explored.

  6. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  7. Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is

  8. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  9. Panorama Above 'Perseverance Valley' on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-20

    Toward the right side of this enhanced-color scene is a broad notch in the crest of the western rim of Endeavour Crater. Wheel tracks in that area were left by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it observed "Perseverance Valley" from above in the spring of 2017. The valley is a major destination for the rover's extended mission. It descends out of sight on the inner slope of the rim, extending down and eastward from that notch. Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) took the component images for this view from a position outside the crater during the span of June 7 to June 19, 2017, sols 4753 to 4765 of the rover's work on Mars. This scene includes features that might have been ancient channels from water, ice or wind moving toward the notch in the rim, which might have been a spillway. Perseverance Valley, just on the other side, was likely carved by action of some fluid, such as water, water-lubricated debris, or wind. The mission is investigating to learn more about that process from evidence in place. The panorama spans about three-fourths of a full-circle view, from southeastward on the left, through westward in the middle, to northeastward on the right. High points visible on the rim of Endeavour Crater include "Winnemucca" on the left and "Cape Tribulation" on the right. Winnemucca is part of the "Cape Byron" portion of the crater rim. The horizon at far right extends across the floor of Endeavour Crater, which is about 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. Opportunity has been investigating sites on and near the western rim of Endeavour since 2011, following seven years of exploring smaller craters after its 2004 landing. This view merges exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). Color is enhanced in this version to make differences in surface materials more easily visible. The rover team calls this the "Sprained Ankle

  10. Panorama Above 'Perseverance Valley' (Enhanced Color)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-20

    Toward the right side of this enhanced-color scene is a broad notch in the crest of the western rim of Endeavour Crater. Wheel tracks in that area were left by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it observed "Perseverance Valley" from above in the spring of 2017. The valley is a major destination for the rover's extended mission. It descends out of sight on the inner slope of the rim, extending down and eastward from that notch. Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) took the component images for this view from a position outside the crater during the span of June 7 to June 19, 2017, sols 4753 to 4765 of the rover's work on Mars. This scene includes features that might have been ancient channels from water, ice or wind moving toward the notch in the rim, which might have been a spillway. Perseverance Valley, just on the other side, was likely carved by action of some fluid, such as water, water-lubricated debris, or wind. The mission is investigating to learn more about that process from evidence in place. The panorama spans about three-fourths of a full-circle view, from southeastward on the left, through westward in the middle, to northeastward on the right. High points visible on the rim of Endeavour Crater include "Winnemucca" on the left and "Cape Tribulation" on the right. Winnemucca is part of the "Cape Byron" portion of the crater rim. The horizon at far right extends across the floor of Endeavour Crater, which is about 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. Opportunity has been investigating sites on and near the western rim of Endeavour since 2011, following seven years of exploring smaller craters after its 2004 landing. This view merges exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). Color is enhanced in this version to make differences in surface materials more easily visible. The rover team calls this the "Sprained Ankle

  11. Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is

  12. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  13. Valley optoelectronics and spin-valley coupling: from graphene to monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wang

    2013-03-01

    The Bloch bands in many crystals have a degenerate set of energy extrema in momentum space known as valleys. The band-edge carriers then have an extra valley index which may also be used to encode information for device applications provided that dynamic control of valley index is possible. In this talk, we show that, when inversion symmetry is broken, a pair of valleys which are equivalent by time-reversal are distinguishable by their magnetic moment and Berry curvature. These quantities give rise to valley Hall effect and circularly-polarized valley optical transition selection rule both in graphene (where inversion symmetry can be broken in a controlled way in gated bilayers), and in monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (where the 2D crystal has inherent structural inversion asymmetry). Moreover, in monolayer dichalcogenides, we find the electrons and holes at the band edges are described by massive Dirac Fermions with strong spin-valley coupling, which further results in valley and spin dependent optical selection rule, and coexistence of valley Hall and spin Hall effects. These phenomena make possible dynamic control of valley and spin by electric and optical means for device applications in monolayer dichalcogenides. We will report photoluminescence studies on dichalcogenide thin films, which show the first evidence on valley optical selection rule and optical valley pumping, and signature of the spin-valley coupling. The work was supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU706412P). The author acknowledges collaborations with Guibin Liu, Zhirui Gong, Hongyi Yu, Xiaodong Cui, Di Xiao, Qian Niu and Xiaodong Xu.

  14. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (<0.8) ratios; (2) dissolution of highly soluble salts (e.g., halite, gypsum) in the host sediments resulting in typically lower Br/Cl signal (<2 ?? 10-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water-budget studies of lower Mesilla Valley and El Paso Valley, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, W.R.; Gordon, J.D.

    1973-01-01

    The total inflow of water to the lower Mesilla Valley in 1970 was 390,510 acre-feet. Of this amount, 43,300 acre-feet was consumptively used by crops and phreatophytes and 4,700 acre-feet was lost by evaporation. Ground-water storage increased by 320 acre-feet, and 360,860 acrefeet left the valley as surface- and ground-water outflow. Ground-water recharge was approximately 26,170 acre-feet.The total inflow to .the lower Mesilla Valley in 197l was 282,880 acre-feet, of which 41,800 acre-feet was consumptively used by crops and phreatophytes and 4,500 acre-feet was lost by evaporation. Ground-water storage decreased by 3,970 acre-feet and 244,320 acre-feet left the valley as surface- and ground-water outflow. Ground-water recharge was approximately 33,500 acre-feet. The average yearly inflow to the El Paso Valley in 1968-71 was 301,770 acre-feet. The average consumptive use by irrigated crops and phreatophytes was 138,870 acre-feet; the average evaporation loss was 27,000 acre-feet; the average change in ground-water storage was a decrease-of 3,225 acre-feet; and the average outflow from the valley was 96,640 acre-feet. Ground-water recharge averaged about 80,710 acre-feet.

  16. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... northeastern corner, the Chalk Hill viticultural area (27 CFR 9.52), and in the southwest, the Green Valley of... located entirely within the Northern Sonoma viticultural area as follows: Chalk Hill, Alexander Valley..., Russian River Valley, and Knights Valley. The Sonoma County Green Valley and Chalk Hill areas are each...

  17. Control of Exciton Valley Coherence in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Marie, X.; Liu, B. L.; Amand, T.; Robert, C.; Cadiz, F.; Renucci, P.; Urbaszek, B.

    2016-10-01

    The direct gap interband transitions in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers are governed by chiral optical selection rules. Determined by laser helicity, optical transitions in either the K+ or K- valley in momentum space are induced. Linearly polarized laser excitation prepares a coherent superposition of valley states. Here, we demonstrate the control of the exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2 by tuning the applied magnetic field perpendicular to the monolayer plane. We show rotation of this coherent superposition of valley states by angles as large as 30° in applied fields up to 9 T. This exciton valley coherence control on the ps time scale could be an important step towards complete control of qubits based on the valley degree of freedom.

  18. Observation of topological valley transport of sound in sonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ye, Liping; Fan, Xiying; Ke, Manzhu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-04-01

    The concept of valley pseudospin, labelling quantum states of energy extrema in momentum space, is attracting attention because of its potential as a new type of information carrier. Compared with the non-topological bulk valley transport, realized soon after predictions, topological valley transport in domain walls is extremely challenging owing to the inter-valley scattering inevitably induced by atomic-scale imperfections--but an electronic signature was recently observed in bilayer graphene. Here, we report the experimental observation of topological valley transport of sound in sonic crystals. The macroscopic nature of sonic crystals permits a flexible and accurate design of domain walls. In addition to a direct visualization of the valley-selective edge modes through spatial scanning of the sound field, reflection immunity is observed in sharply curved interfaces. The topologically protected interface transport of sound, strikingly different from that in traditional sound waveguides, may serve as the basis for designing devices with unconventional functions.

  19. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  20. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Cuyama Valley, California hydrologic study: an assessment of water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources are under pressure throughout California, particularly in agriculturally dominated valleys. Since 1949, the Cuyama Valley’s irrigated acreage has increased from 13 to 35 percent of the valley. Increased agriculture has contributed to the demand for water beyond natural recharge. The tools and information developed for this study can be used to help understand the Cuyama Valley aquifer system, an important resource of Santa Barbara County.

  2. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  3. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Skull Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the second in a series by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Skull Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understandingof the valley's water supply.

  4. Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Medium (1:2,000,000) and high (1:500,000) resolution Viking images were used to locate, map, and analyze drainage systems of six moderate-sized Martian volcanoes of various ages (including Ceraunius Tholus, Hecates Tholus, Alba Patera, Hadriaca Patera, Apollinaris Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera) in order to determine the origin and the evolution of valley forms on these volcanoes. The morphological characteristics of the drainage forms were compared to those of terrestrial volcanic valleys of known origin. On the basis of studies of valleys on the Hawaiian volcanoes, an evolutionary sequence for valleys on the Martian volcanoes is proposed.

  5. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  6. Scaling relationships and concavity of small valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penido, Julita C.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Som, Sanjoy M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley networks are widely interpreted as the preserved erosional record of water flowing across the martian surface. The manner in which valley morphometric properties scale with drainage area has been widely examined on Earth. Earlier studies assessing these properties on Mars have suggested that martian valleys are morphometrically distinct from those on Earth. However, these earlier measurements were generally made on large valley systems because of the limited topographic data available. In this study, we determine the scaling properties of valley networks at smaller scales than have been previously assessed, using digital elevation models from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). We find a Hack's law exponent of 0.74, larger than on Earth, and our measurements also reveal that individual small valleys have concave up, concave down, and quasi-linear longitudinal profiles, consistent with earlier studies of dissected terrain on Mars. However, for many valleys, widths are observed to increase downstream similarly to how they scale in terrestrial channels. The similarities and differences between valley networks on Mars and Earth are consistent with the idea that valleys on Mars are comparatively immature, and precipitation was a likely mechanism for delivering water to these networks.

  7. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WS e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kha; Singh, Akshay; Seifert, Joe; Wang, Yiping; Hao, Kai; Huang, Jing-Kai; Li, Lain-Jong; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Li, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WS e2 . By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  8. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  9. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  10. Tunable Valley Polarization and Valley Orbital Magnetic Moment Hall Effect in Honeycomb Systems with Broken Inversion Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Quhe, Ruge; Liu, Shunquan; Li, Yan; Feng, Ji; Yang, Yingchang; Lu, Jing; Yang, Jinbo

    2015-09-11

    In this Letter, a tunable valley polarization is investigated for honeycomb systems with broken inversion symmetry such as transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) monolayers through elliptical pumping. Compared to circular pumping, elliptical pumping is a more universal and effective method to create coherent valley polarization. When two valleys of MX2 monolayers are doped or polarized, a novel anomalous Hall effect (called valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect) is predicted. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect can generate an orbital magnetic moment current without the accompaniment of a charge current, which opens a new avenue for exploration of valleytronics and orbitronics. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect is expected to overshadow spin Hall effect and is tunable under elliptical pumping.

  11. Tunable Valley Polarization and Valley Orbital Magnetic Moment Hall Effect in Honeycomb Systems with Broken Inversion Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigang; Quhe, Ruge; Liu, Shunquan; Li, Yan; Feng, Ji; Yang, Yingchang; Lu, Jing; Yang, Jinbo

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, a tunable valley polarization is investigated for honeycomb systems with broken inversion symmetry such as transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) monolayers through elliptical pumping. Compared to circular pumping, elliptical pumping is a more universal and effective method to create coherent valley polarization. When two valleys of MX2 monolayers are doped or polarized, a novel anomalous Hall effect (called valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect) is predicted. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect can generate an orbital magnetic moment current without the accompaniment of a charge current, which opens a new avenue for exploration of valleytronics and orbitronics. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect is expected to overshadow spin Hall effect and is tunable under elliptical pumping. PMID:26358835

  12. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is

  13. Panorama Above 'Perseverance Valley' on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-20

    This June 2017 stereo scene from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover shows the area just above "Perseverance Valley" on the rim of Endeavour Crater. The view combines images from the left eye and right eye of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) to appear three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses with the red lens on the left. Toward the right side of the scene is a broad notch in the crest of the crater's rim. Opportunity left wheel tracks in that area as it observed Perseverance Valley from above in the spring of 2017. The valley is a major destination for the rover's extended mission. It descends out of sight on the inner slope of the rim, extending down and eastward from that notch. Opportunity's Pancam took the component images for this view from a position outside the crater during the span of June 7 to June 19, 2017, sols 4753 to 4765 of the rover's work on Mars. This scene includes features that might have been ancient channels from water, ice or wind moving toward the notch in the rim, which might have been a spillway. Perseverance Valley, just on the other side, was likely carved by action of some fluid, such as water, water-lubricated debris, or wind. The mission is investigating to learn more about that process from evidence in place. The panorama spans about three-fourths of a full-circle view, from southeastward on the left, through westward in the middle, to northeastward on the right. High points visible on the rim of Endeavour Crater include "Winnemucca" on the left and "Cape Tribulation" on the right. Winnemucca is part of the "Cape Byron" portion of the crater rim. The horizon at far right extends across the floor of Endeavour Crater, which is about 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. Opportunity has been investigating sites on and near the western rim of Endeavour since 2011, following seven years of exploring smaller craters after its 2004 landing The rover team calls this the "Sprained Ankle" panorama because the

  14. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps

  15. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is

  16. Formation Timescales of the Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, M. T.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of valley networks across much of the ancient surface of Mars [e.g. 1] together with the locations and morphologies of the Martian deltas [e.g. 2] and ancient paleolakes [e.g. 3, 4], provides strong evidence that the Martian surface environment was once capable of sustaining long-lived flowing water. Many of the larger Martian valley networks exhibit characteristics consistent with their formation primarily from surface runoff of precipitated water [5-7]. Their formation likely followed similar processes as those that formed terrestrial river valleys, including the gradual erosion and transport of sediment downstream by bed load, suspended load, and wash load processes. When quantifying flow rates on Mars, some researchers have modified the Manning equation for depth- and width-averaged flow velocity in an attempt to better-fit Martian conditions [e.g. 3, 8-10]. These attempts, however, often result in flow velocities on Mars that are overestimated by up to a factor of two [10]. An alternative to the Manning equation that is often overlooked in the planetary science community is the Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) equation [11], which, unlike the Manning equation, maintains a dependence on the acceleration due to gravity. Although the D-W equation relies on a dimensionless friction function that has been fitted to terrestrial data, it is not a constant like the Manning coefficient. Rather, the D-W friction factor is a function of bed slope, flow depth, and median grain size [e.g. 8, 10, 12-14], and therefore it is better suited to model flow velocity on Mars. In this work, we investigate the formation timescales of the Martian valley networks through the use of four different sediment transport models [14], the D-W equation for average flow velocity, and a variety of parameters to encompass a range of possible formation conditions. This is done specific to each of eight large valley networks, all of which have crater densities that place their formation in the

  17. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... operate 24 miles of rail line located between milepost 0.0 at Pecos, Tex., and milepost 24.0, north of...

  18. Transmission spectra and valley processing of graphene and carbon nanotube superlattices with inter-valley coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuming; Yu, Zhizhou; Ren, Yafei; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes with inter-valley coupling, e.g., in \\sqrt{3}N× \\sqrt{3}N and 3N× 3N superlattices. By taking the \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} graphene superlattice as an example, we show that tailoring the bulk graphene superlattice results in rich structural configurations of nanoribbons and nanotubes. After studying the electronic characteristics of the corresponding armchair and zigzag nanoribbon geometries, we find that the linear bands of carbon nanotubes can lead to the Klein tunnelling-like phenomenon, i.e., electrons propagate along tubes without backscattering even in the presence of a barrier. Due to the coupling between K and {K}\\prime valleys of pristine graphene by \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} supercells, we propose a valley-field-effect transistor based on the armchair carbon nanotube, where the valley polarization of the current can be tuned by applying a gate voltage or varying the length of the armchair carbon nanotubes.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  20. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01749

  1. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, A. S.; Bürgmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ˜1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ˜0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ˜6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ˜7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ˜0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  2. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania...

  3. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...; California Central Valley Angler Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (Sacramento River winter Chinook, Central Valley spring Chinook, Central Valley steelhead). The survey is... California Department of Fish and Wildlife, with information useful for understanding the economic importance...

  4. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation (Rogue Valley),\\1\\ a Class III rail carrier... White City Terminal & Utility Co. (WCTU) and was indirectly controlled by Berkshire Hathaway...

  5. Environmental Assessment : Happy Valley [Substation Project].

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1982-05-01

    The proposed Happy Valley project consists of construction of a new BPA customer service 69-kV substation south of Sequim in Clallam County, Washington. A tie line, to be constructed by the customer as part of this project, will link the new BPA facility to the existing customer's transmission system in the area. This project responds to rapid load growth in the Olympic Peninsula, and will strengthen the existing BPA system and interconnected utility systems. It will reduce transmission losses presently incurred, especially on the BPA system supplying power to the Olympic Peninsula. This report describes the potential environmental impact of the proposed actions. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecić, Ina

    2015-04-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  7. The Environment Dependence of the Green Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenda, V.; Martínez, H. J.; Muriel, H.

    2017-07-01

    To shed light on the impact of internal and external quenching mechanisms upon galaxies, in this paper we compare properties of star forming, passive and transition galaxies in three discrete environments: field, groups as representative of intermediate mass systems, and the most massive virialised systems in the Universe, X-ray clusters. We classify galaxies into three sequences: passive (PS), green valley (GV) and star forming (SFS), by means of their UV-optical colour 0.1(NUV-r). We study a number of galaxy properties: UV-optical colour, stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation.

  8. Chapter 4. Work Through the Valley: Plan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans. PMID:20088079

  9. Grand valley irrigation return flow case study

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, J.W.

    1981-06-01

    Irrigation water supply is furnished annually to about 71,500 acres of land in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Return flows from that irrigation contribute about 780,000 tpy of salt to the Colorado River, causing an increase of 77 mg/l in the salinity concentration at Imperial Dam. A case study of water quality in this region is focused on: water quality data for irrigation and return flows/ identification of regulations that affect irrigation and return flows/ and a proposed program for controlling salinity levels. (1 map, 9 references, 8 tables)

  10. Water Supply of Indian Wells Valley, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    finite. Water pumipage and consuniptive water use exceeds (he natura rehre to the idale ’s griund-water supplN. In 1984 28.000 acre feet of’ water was...XEROPHY’TES ARTEMISiA PHREATOPHYTES SALTBRUSH PICKLEWEED WATER TABLE 𔃻A 60 ~50 SALTGRASS, ALKALI SACATONE, SAITBAUSH ~40 C-. z cc PASTURE ...limit on the amount of useful water stored in the Valley (Photo 12). MAIN GATE NWC B ONTI 2500 / MODERN ALLUVIUM "-, ~GOO’’- -0.S.5 -300 PPM _ Lu 2000

  11. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  12. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  13. Cosmogenic Effects in the Portales Valley Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonino, G.; Cini Castagnoli, G.; Taricco, C.; Bhandari, N.; Suthar, K. M.; Killgore, M.

    1999-09-01

    The Portales Valley (H6) meteorite shower fell on 13 June 1998 near the town of Portales, New Mexico. About 50 fragments, ranging between 12 g to 34 kg, covered a strew field of about 10 km x 2 km. The different fragments consist of large silicate-rich regions crosscut by unusual thick veins of metallic Fe-Ni of different sizes and abundances. Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with meteoroids in the interplanetary space, thereby producing a large variety of both radioactive and stable nuclides and radiation damage in minerals (tracks) produced by heavy nuclei. As Portales Valley is a large shower, various fragments located at different depth within the meteoroid provide an opportunity to study cosmogenic effects also as a function of depth and for different target element abundance. Measured depth profiles are available only for few meteorites. Furthermore a fresh fall, like Portales Valley, allows to extend this analysis to several nuclides. We measured the gamma-activity in a fragment weighing about 600 g shortly after fall. Twelve cosmogenic radioisotopes with half-lives ranging between 16.1 days to 7.2 x 10(5) years have been measured with high precision. Measurements in other 3 fragments were done successively. These measurements were performed in the underground Laboratory in Torino by a highly sensitive and selective Ge-NaI(Tl) gamma-spectrometer. The Na-22(T_1/2=2.6y)/Al-26(T_1/2=7.2 10(5y) ) ratio, which is nearly independent of meteoroid composition and shielding, gives about the same value of 1.5 for the 4 fragments of Portales Valley , very similar to those of Fermo and Torino (measured in our Laboratory) which fell in 1996 and 1988 respectively, near to the minima (GCR maxima) of the Schwabe cycle of solar activity. In addition we will present results of the nuclear tracks density measureded at PRL and of the chemical analysis and we will discuss these results in relation to the different cosmogenic effects in a meteoroid. Acknowledgments

  14. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  15. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by <500 m. Hence, the valley patterns in and around the Cairngorms have persisted through >1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  16. Subglacial extensional fracture development and implications for Alpine Valley evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2014-01-01

    stresses induced through exhumation and tectonic processes play a key role in the topographic evolution of alpine valleys. Using a finite difference model combining the effects of tectonics, erosion, and long-term bedrock strength, we assess the development of near-surface in situ stresses and predict bedrock behavior in response to glacial erosion in an Alpine Valley (the Matter Valley, southern Switzerland). Initial stresses are derived from the regional tectonic history, which is characterized by ongoing transtensional or extensional strain throughout exhumation of the brittle crust. We find that bedrock stresses beneath glacial ice in an initial V-shaped topography are sufficient to induce localized extensional fracturing in a zone extending laterally 600 m from the valley axis. The limit of this zone is reflected in the landscape today by a valley "shoulder," separating linear upper mountain slopes from the deep U-shaped inner valley. We propose that this extensional fracture development enhanced glacial quarrying between the valley shoulder and axis and identify a positive feedback where enhanced quarrying promoted valley incision, which in turn increased in situ stress concentrations near the valley floor, assisting erosion and further driving rapid U-shaped valley development. During interglacial periods, these stresses were relieved through brittle strain or topographic modification, and without significant erosion to reach more highly stressed bedrock, subsequent glaciation caused a reduction in differential stress and suppressed extensional fracturing. A combination of stress relief during interglacial periods, and increased ice accumulation rates in highly incised valleys, will reduce the likelihood of repeat enhanced erosion events.

  17. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by <500 m. Hence, the valley patterns in and around the Cairngorms have persisted through >1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  18. Small valleys and hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Tanaka, K. L.

    Three diverse types of small valleys in the lower Mangala Valles region of Mars indicate a complex hydrologic history involving two main episodes of valley and channel formation: degraded valleys west of Mangala Valles; theater-headed valleys on either side of Mangala; and ribbon valleys, that cut across older plateau materials and into theater-headed valleys. This paper investigates the precise ages of the small valleys, relative to regional climatic, volcanic, and outflow-channel activity, together with the origins of the small valleys and the hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region.

  19. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  20. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  1. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Valley Fever: Danger Lurking in a Dust Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Larry; Gaab, Erin M.; Sanchez, Javier; Bui, Phuong Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Hoyer, Katrina K.; Peterson, Michael W.; Ojcius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii contribute to the development of Valley Fever. The ability of these fungal pathogens to evade the host immune system creates difficulty in recognition and treatment of this debilitating infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of Valley Fever and approaches to improve prevention, detection, and treatment. PMID:25038397

  4. 27 CFR 9.36 - McDowell Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false McDowell Valley. 9.36... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.36 McDowell Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “McDowell...

  5. VIEW OF TEMPLEFRONTED MAUSOLEA ALONG VALLEY AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TEMPLE-FRONTED MAUSOLEA ALONG VALLEY AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOW TRUNCATED BECAUSE OF TWENTIETH-CENTURY LAND CONDEMNATIONS, VALLEY AVENUE IS A REMNANT OF THE CEMETERY’S EASTERN ROAD NETWORK, WHICH BRANCHED OFF OF THE FORMER MAIN ENTRANCE INTO THE CEMETERY. - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  7. 27 CFR 9.28 - Santa Maria Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Maria Valley. 9.28... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.28 Santa Maria Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa...

  8. Coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Cao, Ting; Niu, Qian; Shi, Junren; Feng, Ji

    2013-03-05

    Conventional electronics are based invariably on the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron, namely its charge and spin. The exploration of novel electronic degrees of freedom has important implications in both basic quantum physics and advanced information technology. Valley, as a new electronic degree of freedom, has received considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we develop the theory of spin and valley physics of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice. We show that by coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order, there is an emergent electronic degree of freedom characterized by the product of spin and valley indices, which leads to spin-valley-dependent optical selection rule and Berry curvature-induced topological quantum transport. These properties will enable optical polarization in the spin-valley space, and electrical detection/manipulation through the induced spin, valley, and charge fluxes. The domain walls of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice harbors valley-protected edge states that support spin-dependent transport. Finally, we use first-principles calculations to show that the proposed optoelectronic properties may be realized in antiferromagnetic manganese chalcogenophosphates (MnPX3, X = S, Se) in monolayer form.

  9. Coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Cao, Ting; Niu, Qian; Shi, Junren; Feng, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Conventional electronics are based invariably on the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron, namely its charge and spin. The exploration of novel electronic degrees of freedom has important implications in both basic quantum physics and advanced information technology. Valley, as a new electronic degree of freedom, has received considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we develop the theory of spin and valley physics of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice. We show that by coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order, there is an emergent electronic degree of freedom characterized by the product of spin and valley indices, which leads to spin–valley-dependent optical selection rule and Berry curvature–induced topological quantum transport. These properties will enable optical polarization in the spin–valley space, and electrical detection/manipulation through the induced spin, valley, and charge fluxes. The domain walls of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice harbors valley-protected edge states that support spin-dependent transport. Finally, we use first-principles calculations to show that the proposed optoelectronic properties may be realized in antiferromagnetic manganese chalcogenophosphates (MnPX3, X = S, Se) in monolayer form. PMID:23435746

  10. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  11. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014.

    PubMed

    Fafetine, José M; Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J A W; Venter, Estelle H

    2016-12-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa.

  12. 78 FR 9686 - Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Valley Electric Association, Inc. filed a notice of material changes in certain of...

  13. 21. VIEW EAST ALONG PALI TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW EAST ALONG PALI TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF ELEVATED PIPELINE ON CONCRETE PIERS. PIPE IS BURIED AT THIS POINT. NOTE REMAINS OF WOOD FRAMEWORK FOR CATWALK (DESTROYED). - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. Home destruction examination: Grass Valley Fire, Lake Arrowhead, California

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Cohen; Richard D. Stratton

    2008-01-01

    The Grass Valley Fire started October 22, 2007 at approximately 0508, one-mile west of Lake Arrowhead in the San Bernardino Mountains. Fuel and weather conditions were extreme due to drought, dry Santa Ana winds, and chaparral and conifer vegetation on steep terrain. The fire proceeded south through the Grass Valley drainage one-mile before impacting an area of dense...

  15. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false California Shenandoah... California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Shenandoah Valley” qualified by the word “California” in direct conjunction with the name “Shenandoah Valley...

  16. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID:27869589

  17. 64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 935 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 395 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley-spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow inside bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.

  20. Organisms of the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Holmes; Gene E. Likens

    1999-01-01

    Lists the organisms, both plant and animal, that have been identified by scientists engaged in multidisciplinary ecological research in the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire, during the past three decades. The Valley encompasses the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Mirror Lake, and nearby areas within the White Mountain region of Grafton County. The species lists...

  1. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  2. Evidence of late glacial runoff in the lower Mississippi Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, Roger T.

    Thousands of cubic kilometers of massive coarse-grained glacial outwash underlie the alluvial plain of the Lower Mississippi Valley between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico. However, valley trains deposited by braided streams characterize less than one-third of the valley area, and those attributable to runoff from the Laurentide Ice Sheet cover less than 15,000 km2, mostly in the St. Francis Basin segment of the valley. There they form a series of subdued terraces that reflect episodes of meltwater release and possibly catastrophic flood events. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores establish that the initial runoff entered the basin about 16.3 ka BP and continued without a significant lull for about 5000 years. The distribution of archeological sites tends to support an effective brief cessation of runoff to the valley about 11.0 ka BP when meltwater is thought to have been diverted from the Mississippi River Valley to the St. Lawrence Valley. Both radiocarbon dates and archeological evidence document a final pulse of outwash to the (Lower) Mississippi Valley about 10.0 ka BP when the Mississippi River occupied Thebes Gap near Cairo and created the Charleston Fan. All outwash deposition ended, and the river adopted a meandering regime not later than 9.8 ka BP.

  3. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  4. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume I. Program Overview and Methodology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    corner of the valley. A molybdenum mine has been proposed for the Pine Grove area in the Wah Wah Mountains to the east of the valley. Three wildcat ...Archeological which was in effect during IOC F4 G Geotechnical Net road length changes are genet C CriteriaCU Cultural All shelter relocations are relative

  5. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Current Status of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents substantial threat to human and public health. It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Pheuniviridae within the order Bunyavirales. The wide distribution of ...

  7. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  8. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  9. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  10. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  11. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  12. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  13. Influence of Valley Floor Landforms on Stream Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Stanley V. Gregory; Gary A. Lamberti; Kelly M. S. Moore

    1989-01-01

    A hierarchical perspective of relationships between valley floor landforms, riparian plant communities, and aquatic ecosystems has been developed, based on studies of two fifth-order basins in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Retention of dissolved nitrogen and leaves were approximately 2-3 times greater in unconstrained reaches than in constrained reaches. Both valley...

  14. 22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. EYE BOLTS IN ROCK FACE AT RIGHT WERE USED BRIEFLY IN PLACE OF PIERS TO SUSPEND PIPE BY CHAIN BECAUSE THE CONCRETE PIERS WERE SUSCEPTIBLE TO HEAVY WAVE ACTION IN THIS AREA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  15. Mid-Mon Valley Survey: Education and Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Pearley; Sandrock, Brad L.

    In May 1991, a survey was conducted of businesses and industries in the Mid-Mon Valley in Pennsylvania to develop a profile of the companies, determine their competitiveness and expansion since completion of a 1987 Business Outreach Survey, determine their use of technology, identify training needs for the Mid-Mon Valley, and examine how companies…

  16. 66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  17. 34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  18. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  19. Water supply issues of the San Joaquin Valley in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is undoubtedly one of the most productive agricultural regions of the United States, and of the world. The valley was a Miocene epicontinental sea bounded by the Sierra Nevada igneous arc in the east and the Coast Range accretionary terrane in the west. It is now...

  20. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  1. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  2. Opportunity Approach to Marathon Valley Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-24

    Cumulative driving by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity surpassed marathon distance on March 24, 2015, as the rover neared a destination called "Marathon Valley," which is middle ground of this stereo view from early March. The scene appears three-dimensional when viewed through blue-red glasses with the red lens on the left. Olympic marathon distance is 26.219 miles (42.195 kilometers). The left-eye and right-eye cameras of Opportunity's navigation camera collected the component images of this scene during the 3,948th and 3,949th Martian days, or sols, of the rover's work on Mars (March 3 and 4, 2015). The view is centered toward the east-southeast, from a location on Endeavour Crater's western rim overlooking Marathon Valley, with the floor of Endeavour beyond, and the eastern rim in the distance. In the foreground at center, Opportunity's robotic arm is positioned for examination of a blocky rock called "Sergeant Charles Floyd." http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19156

  3. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  4. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  5. 3-D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02663

  6. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  7. Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors.

    PubMed

    Mak, K F; McGill, K L; Park, J; McEuen, P L

    2014-06-27

    Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. These systems are predicted to exhibit an anomalous Hall effect whose sign depends on the valley index. Here, we report the observation of this so-called valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated with circularly polarized light, which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, causing a finite anomalous Hall voltage whose sign is controlled by the helicity of the light. No anomalous Hall effect is observed in bilayer devices, which have crystal inversion symmetry. Our observation of the VHE opens up new possibilities for using the valley DOF as an information carrier in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.

  8. Precipitation depth-duration characteristics, Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, James C.; Nasseri, Iraj; ,

    1995-01-01

    To document the changes in runoff characteristics of basins subject to urbanization, streamflow and precipitation data were collected at eight small basins in Antelope Valley, California, for the period 1990-93. The data collected at U.S. Geological Survey stations were supplemented by data collected at 35 long-term precipitation stations. These data will be used to calibrate and verify rainfall-runoff models for the eight basins and for estimating basin runoff characteristics throughout Antelope Valley. Annual precipitation in Antelope Valley varies from more than 50 cm in the mountains to less than 10 cm on the valley floor. Most precipitation in the valley occurs during the winter months, December through March, but cyclonic storms in the fall and convectional storms in the summer sometimes occur.

  9. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  10. Tuning surface Dirac valleys by strain in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Jianfeng; Gu, Bing-Lin; Duan, Wenhui

    2015-05-01

    A topological crystalline insulator has an even number of Dirac cones (i.e., multiple valleys) in its surface band structure, thus potentially leading to valleytronic applications such as graphene. Using the density-functional-theory method, we systematically investigate the strain-induced evolution of topological surface states on the SnTe(111) surface. Our results show that compressive strain can shift the Dirac cones at the Γ ¯ and M ¯ valleys to different extents (even oppositely) in energy, while the tensile strain can induce different band gaps at the valleys due to the enhanced penetration depths of surface states. Exploiting a strain-induced nanostructure with well-defined edges on the (111) surface, we demonstrate strong valley-selective filtering for massless Dirac fermions by dynamically applying local external pressure. Our findings may pave the way for strain-engineered valley-resolved manipulation of Dirac fermions with high tunability and scalability.

  11. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  12. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and Antelope Valley College Faculty Association, June 13, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Coll., Lancaster, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and the Antelope Valley College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all full- and part-time certificated employees of the District, covering the period from June 1988 to June 1990. The articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1)…

  13. A numerical study of effects of valley-weathering and valley-shape-ratio on the ground motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Jay P.; Arafat, Muhammad Y.; Kamal

    2014-09-01

    A study of combined effects of valley-weathering and valley-shape-ratio on the ground motion characteristics and associated differential ground motion (DGM) is documented in this paper. In order to properly quantify the weathering effects, a forth-order-accurate staggered-grid viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference program has been used for the simulation of SH-wave responses. Simulated results revealed that the defocusing caused by valley is frequency-independent in contrast to the ridge-focusing. A decrease of average spectral amplification (ASA) with an increase of shape-ratio of the non-weathered triangular and elliptical valleys was obtained. Overall, the amplification and de-amplification pattern was larger in case of triangular valleys as compared to the elliptical valleys. It can be concluded that the dwelling within or near the topcorners of weathered valleys may suffer more damage as compared to their surroundings. A weathered triangular valley with large shape-ratio may cause unexpected damage very near its top-corners since both the ASA and DGM are largest.

  14. A Numerical Study of Effects of Valley-Weathering and Valley-Shape-Ratio on the Ground Motion Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Jay P.; Arafat, Muhammad Y.; Kamal

    2015-02-01

    A study of combined effects of valley-weathering and valley-shaperatio on the ground motion characteristics and associated differential ground motion (DGM) is documented in this paper. In order to properly quantify the weathering effects, a forth-order-accurate staggered-grid viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference program has been used for the simulation of SH-wave responses. Simulated results revealed that the defocusing caused by valley is frequency-independent in contrast to the ridge-focusing. A decrease of average spectral amplification (ASA) with an increase of shape-ratio of the non-weathered triangular and elliptical valleys was obtained. Overall, the amplification and de-amplification pattern was larger in case of triangular valleys as compared to the elliptical valleys. It can be concluded that the dwelling within or near the topcorners of weathered valleys may suffer more damage as compared to their surroundings. A weathered triangular valley with large shape-ratio may cause unexpected damage very near its top-corners since both the ASA and DGM are largest.

  15. [Agreement Between the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College and the Hudson Valley Community College Faculty Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Valley Community Coll., Troy, NY.

    Presented in this document is the agreement between the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College and the Hudson Valley Community College Faculty Association for the period from August 29, 1972 through August 31, 1974. The articles of the agreement cover professional working conditions, academic freedom and responsibility, faculty…

  16. Valley-contrasting physics in all-dielectric photonic crystals: Orbital angular momentum and topological propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Chen, Min; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2017-07-01

    The valley has been exploited as a binary degree of freedom to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials, in which valley-contrasting physics is indispensable in making the valley index an information carrier. In this Rapid Communication, we reveal valley-contrasting physics in all-dielectric valley photonic crystals. The link between the angular momentum of light and the valley state is discussed, and unidirectional excitation of the valley chiral bulk state is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Characterized by the nonzero valley Chern number, valley-dependent edge states and the resultant broadband robust transport is found in such an all-dielectric system. Our work has potential in the orbital angular momentum assisted light manipulation and the discovery of valley-protected topological states in nanophotonics and on-chip integration.

  17. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  18. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global

  19. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  20. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global