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Sample records for springs-upper coachella valley

  1. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  3. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  4. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no...

  5. Data from geothermal gradient wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes drillers ' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California. A map shows the locations of the wells and also included is the location-numbering system for wells. (USGS)

  6. Long-term sand supply to Coachella Valley Fringe-toed Lizard Habitat in the Northern Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Kaehler, Charles A.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    The Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) is a federally listed threatened species that inhabits active sand dunes in the vicinity of Palm Springs, California. The Whitewater Floodplain and Willow Hole Reserves provide some of the primary remaining habitat for this species. The sediment-delivery system that creates these active sand dunes consists of fluvial depositional areas fed episodically by ephemeral streams. Finer fluvial sediments (typically sand size and finer) are mobilized in a largely unidirectional wind field associated with strong westerly winds through San Gorgonio Pass. The fluvial depositional areas are primarily associated with floodplains of the Whitewater?San Gorgonio Rivers and Mission Creek?Morongo Wash; other small drainages also contribute fluvial sediment to the eolian system. The eolian dunes are transitory as a result of unidirectional sand movement from the depositional areas, which are recharged with fine-grained sediment only during episodic floods that typically occur during El Ni?o years. Eolian sand moves primarily from west to east through the study area; the period of maximum eolian activity is April through June. Wind speed varies diurnally, with maximum velocities typically occurring during the afternoon. Development of alluvial fans, alteration of stream channels by channelization, in-stream gravel mining, and construction of infiltration galleries were thought to reduce the amount of fluvial sediment reaching the depositional areas upwind of Uma habitat. Also, the presence of roadways, railroads, and housing developments was thought to disrupt or redirect eolian sand movement. Most of the sediment yield to the fluvial system is generated in higher elevation areas with little or no development, and sediment yield is affected primarily by climatic fluctuations and rural land use, particularly livestock grazing and wildfire. Channelization benefits sediment delivery to the depositional plains upwind of the reserves

  7. Intensive early season adulticide applications decrease arbovirus transmission throughout the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, Hugh D; Lothrop, Branka B; Gomsi, Donald E; Reisen, William K

    2008-08-01

    In the Coachella Valley of California the seasonal onset of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected consistently at the shoreline of the Salton Sea near the community of North Shore. The timing and intensity of initial amplification in the Culex tarsalis Coquillett/wild bird cycle at this focus seemed closely linked to the subsequent dispersal of virus to the rest of the Coachella Valley and perhaps southern California. In 2004, an attempt was made to interrupt the amplification and dispersal of WNV using ground ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Pyrenone 25-5. Although these localized treatments were started 1 month after the initial detection in April, surveillance indicated no dispersal from this focus at this time. However, these treatments appeared to have little effect, and WNV eventually was detected throughout the valley, with seven human cases reported in the urbanized upper valley near Palm Springs. In 2005, the initial detection of WNV at North Shore at the end of May was followed rapidly by dispersal throughout the valley precluding efforts at containment. Evaluation of ground and aerial applications at North Shore during May and June 2005, respectively, indicated variable kill of sentinel mosquitoes (overall mortality: ground, 43%; air, 34%) and limited control of the target Cx. tarsalis population. In 2006, aerial ULV applications with the same chemical were begun immediately following the first detection of virus in mid-April, resulting in an apparent reduction of Cx. tarsalis abundance and delay of WNV activity in the rural lower valley and a marked decline in transmission by Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations in the densely populated upper northwestern valley with no human cases reported. PMID:18494603

  8. Land subsidence, groundwater levels, and geology in the Coachella Valley, California, 1993-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.; Solt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with groundwater-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Groundwater has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of groundwater resulted in water-level declines as much as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in groundwater pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated groundwater-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley during 1993–2010. The GPS measurements taken at 11 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2010 in the southern Coachella Valley indicated that the elevation of the land surface changed –136 to –23 millimeters (mm) ±54 mm (–0.45 to –0.08 feet (ft) ±0.18 ft) during the 14-year period. Changes at 6 of the 11 monuments exceeded the maximum expected uncertainty of ±54 mm (±0.18 ft) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2010. GPS measurements taken at 17 geodetic monuments in 2005 and 2010 indicated that the elevation of the land surface changed –256 to +16 mm ±28 mm (–0.84 to +0.05 ft ±0.09 ft) during the 5-year period. Changes at 5 of the 17 monuments exceeded the maximum expected uncertainty of ±28 mm (±0.09 ft) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred

  9. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  10. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  11. Salton Seismic Imaging Project Line 5—the San Andreas Fault and Northern Coachella Valley Structure, Riverside County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, M. J.; Fuis, G.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M.; Tarnowski, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Matti, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale, active- and passive-source seismic project designed to image the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the adjacent basins (Imperial and Coachella Valleys) in southern California. Here, we focus on SSIP Line 5, one of four 2-D NE-SW-oriented seismic profiles that were acquired across the Coachella Valley. The 38-km-long SSIP-Line-5 seismic profile extends from the Santa Rosa Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains and crosses both strands of the SAF, the Mission Creek (MCF) and Banning (BF) strands, near Palm Desert. Data for Line 5 were generated from nine buried explosive sources (most spaced about 2 to 8 km apart) and were recorded on approximately 281 Texan seismographs (average spacing 138 m). First-arrival refractions were used to develop a refraction tomographic velocity image of the upper crust along the seismic profile. The seismic data were also stacked and migrated to develop low-fold reflection images of the crust. From the surface to about 8 km depth, P-wave velocities range from about 2 km/s to more than 7.5 km/s, with the lowest velocities within a well-defined (~2-km-deep, 15-km-wide) basin (< 4 km/s), and the highest velocities below the transition from the Coachella Valley to the Santa Rosa Ranges on the southwest and within the Little San Bernardino Mountains on the northeast. The MCF and BF strands of the SAF bound an approximately 2.5-km-wide horst-type structure on the northeastern side of the Coachella Valley, beneath which the upper crust is characterized by a pronounced low-velocity zone that extends to the bottom of the velocity image. Rocks within the low-velocity zone have significantly lower velocities than those to the northeast and the southwest at the same depths. Conversely, the velocities of rocks on both sides of the Coachella Valley are greater than 7 km/s at depths exceeding about 4 km. The relatively narrow zone of shallow high-velocity rocks between the surface traces of

  12. Analog model study of the ground-water basin of the Upper Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyley, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    An analog model of the ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley was constructed to determine the effects of imported water on ground-water levels. The model was considered verified when the ground-water levels generated by the model approximated the historical change in water levels of the ground-water basin caused by man's activities for the period 1986-67. The ground-water basin was almost unaffected by man's activities until about 1945 when ground-water development caused the water levels to begin to decline. The Palm Springs area has had the largest water-level decline, 75 feet since 1986, because of large pumpage, reduced natural inflow from the San Gorgonio Pass area, and diversions of natural inflows at Snow and Falls Creeks and Chino Canyon starting in 1945. The San Gorgonio Pass inflow had been reduced from about 18,000 acre-feet in 1986 to about 9,000 acre-feet by 1967 because of increased ground-water pumpage in the San Gorgonio Pass area, dewatering of the San Gorgonio Pass area that took place when the tunnel for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was drilled, and diversions of surface inflow at Snow and Falls Creeks. In addition, 1944-64 was a period of below-normal precipitation which, in part, contributed to the declines in water levels in the Coachella Valley. The Desert Hot Springs, Garnet Hill, and Mission Creek subbasins have had relatively little development; consequently, the water-level declines have been small, ranging from 5 to 15 feet since 1986. In the Point Happy area a decline of about 2 feet per year continued until 1949 when delivery of Colorado River water to the lower valley through the Coachella Canal was initiated. Since 1949 the water levels in the Point Happy area have been rising and by 1967 were above their 1986 levels. The Whitewater River subbasin includes the largest aquifer in the basin, having sustained ground-water pumpage of about 740,000 acre-feet from 1986 to 1967, and will probably

  13. Geometry, Timing, and Rates of Active Northeast Tilting Across the Southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Langenheim, V. E.; McNabb, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Coachella Valley occupies an important transition along the San Andreas fault (SAF) from strong transpression in the north to transtension and lithospheric rupture in the south. The deformation processes and crustal architecture that accommodate this transition are not well understood. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and gravity data support a hypothesis for northeast tilting of a large tilt block in the southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains, between the San Jacinto fault zone on the SW (dated in other studies at ~1.2 Ma) and the SAF on the NE. The Santa Rosa fault (SRF) is a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone that marks the steep SW flank of the Santa Rosa Mts and merges with the Clark fault beneath Clark Valley. The SRF is an active normal fault with well developed triangular facets, steeply SW-dipping fault zone with brittle gouge and microfaults, and narrow footwall canyons that feed steep alluvial fans in the hanging wall (east side of Clark Valley). Pliocene marine deposits have been raised by Quaternary uplift in the footwall of the SRF to ~625 m elevation in the Santa Rosa Mts (King et al., 2002). The subsurface Clark basin is ~4 km deep, and the pre-SRF West Salton detachment fault projects ~1.5 km above the valley floor in the Santa Rosa Mts. A steep linear gravity gradient reveals combined vertical separation of ~5.5 km across the SRF and Clark fault, for an average slip rate of ~4.5 mm/yr across the two faults. The NE side of the Santa Rosa Mts has a gentler surface gradient and no large-offset active faults. The ratio of alluvial fan area to catchment area is 0.5-0.6 for fan-catchment pairs along the SRF, compared to an average of ~1.1-1.2 on the NE slope of the Santa Rosa Mts. The different ratios suggest rapid subsidence in the hanging wall of the SRF and relatively slow subsidence in the NE-tilting footwall (cf. Allen and Hovius, 1998). The depth of the southern Coachella Valley increases from the SW side, where sediments onlap

  14. Population ecology and dispersal of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D

    1995-07-01

    During 5 bimonthly experiments in 1993, 55,548 host-seeking and 22,563 newly emerged Culex tarsalis Coquillett females were marked with fluorescent dust and released at a marsh along the Salton Sea. Overall, 3,758 (6.7%) host-seeking and 37 (0.2%) newly emerged females were recaptured in dry ice-baited traps and walk-in red boxes operated for 7-12 consecutive days after release. The recapture of newly emerged females was unexpectedly low and insufficient for further analysis. The recapture rates and dispersiveness of females collected host-seeking within the study area were not different from females collected host-seeking at a site 16 km SE of the release site, indicating that Cx. tarsalis may not rely on memorized flight paths. Loss rates of host-seeking females were high, because many females readily dispersed from the marsh study area during host-seeking flights. Estimates of population size ranged from 914,000 in February to 4,000 in July and were well correlated with catch size in CO2 traps. The wing length and fructose positivity rate of released females did not vary as a function of age or dispersal distance at recapture. Parity of released females increased over time, but nullipars were collected during all recapture periods, perhaps indicating difficulty in blood meal acquisition. Cohort dispersal progressed at the rate of about 0.2 km/d and was sufficient to disseminate arboviruses in the southern Coachella Valley. PMID:7650710

  15. Host selection patterns of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) at wetlands near the Salton Sea, Coachella Valley, California, 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Lothrop, Hugh D; Thiemann, Tara

    2013-09-01

    The bloodmeal hosts used by Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected along the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, CA, during 1998-2002 were identified using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene identified from Barcode of Life database. Overall, 265 (83.3%) of 318 bloodmeals were identified, of which 76.6% fed on birds, 18.1% on mammals, and 5.3% on reptiles. Forty-seven different hosts were identified, none of which comprised > 12.5% of the total. Although Cx. tarsalis exhibits specific host-seeking flight patterns, bloodmeals seemed to be acquired opportunistically, thereby limiting potential arbovirus transmission efficiency in species-rich environments. PMID:24180112

  16. Anomalous record of October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley, California, earthquake from Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bycroft, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    A recording obtained at the Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4 of the October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley earthquake shows a dominant 2 Hz frequency. This feature is very unusual and an attempt has been made to determine if the recording is real or spurious. As the pumping station is a small heavily constructed bunker type of structure located on material of low shear wave velocity it was considered likely that soil-structure interaction might be responsible for the 2 Hz component. However, both an experimental and theoretical investigation fail to establish this. This report describes the theoretical investigation. The experimental investigation is described in a separate open-file report.

  17. Host Selection Patterns of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Wetlands Near the Salton Sea, Coachella Valley, California, 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    REISEN, WILLIAM K.; LOTHROP, HUGH D.; THIEMANN, TARA

    2014-01-01

    The bloodmeal hosts used by Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected along the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, CA, during 1998–2002 were identified using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene identified from Barcode of Life database. Overall, 265 (83.3%) of 318 bloodmeals were identified, of which 76.6% fed on birds, 18.1% on mammals, and 5.3% on reptiles. Forty-seven different hosts were identified, none of which comprised >12.5% of the total. Although Cx. tarsalis exhibits specific host-seeking flight patterns, bloodmeals seemed to be acquired opportunistically, thereby limiting potential arbovirus transmission efficiency in species-rich environments. PMID:24180112

  18. Paleomagnetic Determination of Vertical-Axis Block Rotation and Magnetostratigraphy in the Coachella Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitroff, C.; Housen, B. A.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Burmester, R. F.; Messe, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    sites is D = 11, I = 49, k=51, a95=11. The paleomagnetic results from the Coachella Valley collectively indicate that this area has experienced modest (in most cases less than 10 degrees) CW or CCW rotation during the past 1-2 Ma. The lack of variation in amount or sense of rotation as a function of age suggest that rotation has been relatively recent (during the past ~ 1 Ma).

  19. Ecology of Aedes dorsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D; Chiles, R E

    1998-07-01

    The ecology of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEE) was studies during 1994-1996 along a portion of the north shore of the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, California, known to support a focal Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) population. WEE was detected during 1995 by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens concurrently at sites within and outside of the area supporting Ae. dorsalis. WEE was not detected during 1994 or 1996; neither was WEE detected by seroconversion of sentinel rabbits nor by isolation from host-seeking females of either the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett (42,083 females tested in 913 pools), or Ae. dorsalis (10,804 females tested in 245 pools and 1,940 adults reared from field-collected immatures tested in 72 pools). Collectively, the results of this and previous investigations indicate that Ae. dorsalis may not be essential for the maintenance or amplification of WEE virus in southeastern California. PMID:9701945

  20. Salton Seismic Imaging Project Line 6: San Andreas Fault and Northern Coachella Valley Structure, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Fuis, G.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Tarnowski, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Matti, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale, active- and passive-source seismic project designed to image the San Andreas fault (SAF) and adjacent basins (Imperial and Coachella Valleys) in southernmost California. Data and preliminary results from many of the seismic profiles are reported elsewhere (including Fuis et al., Rymer et al., Goldman et al., Langenheim et al., this meeting). Here, we focus on SSIP Line 6, one of four 2-D seismic profiles that were acquired across the Coachella Valley. The 44-km-long, SSIP-Line-6 seismic profile extended from the east flank of Mt. San Jacinto northwest of Palm Springs to the Little San Bernardino Mountains and crossed the SAF (Mission Creek (MCF), Banning (BF), and Garnet Hill (GHF) strands) roughly normal to strike. Data were generated by 10 downhole explosive sources (most spaced about 3 to 5 km apart) and were recorded by approximately 347 Texan seismographs (average spacing 126 m). We used first-arrival refractions to develop a P-wave refraction tomography velocity image of the upper crust along the seismic profile. The seismic data were also stacked and migrated to develop low-fold reflection images of the crust. From the surface to about 7 km depth, P-wave velocities range from about 2.5 km/s to about 7.2 km/s, with the lowest velocities within an ~2-km-deep, ~20-km-wide basin, and the highest velocities below the transition zone from the Coachella Valley to Mt. San Jacinto and within the Little San Bernardino Mountains. The BF and GHF strands bound a shallow sub-basin on the southwestern side of the Coachella Valley, but the underlying shallow-depth (~4 km) basement rocks are P-wave high in velocity (~7.2 km/s). The lack of a low-velocity zone beneath BF and GHF suggests that both faults dip northeastward. In a similar manner, high-velocity basement rocks beneath the Little San Bernardino Mountains suggest that the MCF dips vertically or southwestward. However, there is a pronounced low-velocity zone

  1. Coarse and fine particles and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ostro, B D; Broadwin, R; Lipsett, M J

    2000-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies provide evidence of an association between ambient particles, measured as PM10, and daily mortality. Most of these studies have been conducted in urban areas where PM10 is highly correlated with and dominated by fine particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5). Fewer studies have investigated impacts associated with the fraction of coarse mode particles (between 2.5 and 10 microm in diameter). In a previous study using data from 1989 through 1992 in the Coachella Valley, a desert resort and retirement area east of Los Angeles, we reported associations between PM10 and several different measures of mortality [Ostro B.D., Hurley S., and Lipsett M.J. Air pollution and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: a study of PM10 dominated by coarse particles. Environ. Res. 1999: 81: 231-238]. In this arid environment, coarse particles of geologic origin are highly correlated with and comprise approximately 60% of PM10, increasing to >90% during wind events. This study was intended to repeat the earlier investigation using 10 years (1989-1998) of daily data on mortality and PM10. The last 2.5 years of data also included daily measures of PM2.5, allowing examination of size-specific impacts. To ensure adequate statistical power, we attempted to develop predictive models for both fine and coarse particles to use in analyses of the full 10-year period. An acceptable fit was found only for coarse particles, which were found to be a cubic function of PM10 (R2 = 0.95). Outcome variables included several measures of daily mortality, including all-cause (minus accidents and homicides), cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses using generalized additive models were employed to explain the variation in these endpoints, controlling for temperature, humidity, day of the week, season, and time, using locally weighted smoothing techniques. Pollution lags of up to 4 days were examined. Several

  2. Landscape affects the host-seeking patterns of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2001-03-01

    Effective arbovirus transmission requires that the principal vertebrate hosts and vectors have frequent contact. Vegetation and other landscape features used by roosting or nesting birds at night dictate their exposure to nocturnally active host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett and therefore to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Precipitin tests on 645 Cx. tarsalis that were collected resting and host-seeking near the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, CA, indicated that passeriform birds (64%) and rabbits (25%) were the most frequent bloodmeal hosts and that the percentage of females feeding on birds varied temporally as an inverse fuction of mosquito abundance. Blood meals were not taken from communally roosting water birds. The spatial distribution of host-seeking females then was investigated by deploying dry ice baited traps within seven sites representative of habitats found along the Salton Sea. Mosquito catch was greatest at traps within elevated vegetation such as Tamarisk, mesquite, cattails, and orchards and lowest at traps positioned at snags over water, sand bars, open fields, and within housing in a small rural community. These data indicate that host-seeking Cx. tarsalis females congregated at specific landscape features that were not necessarily associated with large concentrations of potential bloodmeal hosts. PMID:11296843

  3. Persistence and amplification of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Coachella Valley of California, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D; Chiles, R E; Cusack, R; Green, E G N; Fang, Y; Kensington, M

    2002-09-01

    The introduction of a St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) genotype new to southeastern California during 2000 was followed by focal enzootic amplification in the Coachella Valley that was detected by seroconversions of 29 sentinel chickens in five of nine flocks of 10 chickens each, isolations of virus from 30 of 538 pools of 50 Culex tarsalis Coquillett females, and collection of 30 positive sera from 2,205 wild birds. This SLE strain over wintered successfully and then amplified during the summer of 2001, with 47 sentinel seroconversions in eight of nine flocks, 70 virus isolations from 719 pools of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus Say, and 40 positive sera from 847 wild birds. Human illness was not detected by passive case surveillance, despite issuance of a health alert during 2001. Virus amplification during both years was associated with above average temperatures conducive for extrinsic incubation and below average precipitation during spring associated with below average vector abundance. Seroconversions by sentinel chickens provided the timely detection of virus activity, with initial conversions detected before positive mosquito pools or wild bird infections. Vertical infection was not detected among Cx. tarsalis adults reared from immatures collected during the fall-winter of 2000, even though SLE over wintered successfully in this area. Early seroconversions by a sentinel chicken during February 2001 and a recaptured Gambel's quail in April 2001 provided evidence for transmission during winter and spring when ambient temperatures averaged below 17 degrees C, the threshold for SLE replication. PMID:12349864

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  5. Coarse particles and heart rate variability among older adults with coronary artery disease in the Coachella Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, Michael J; Tsai, Feng C; Roger, Linda; Woo, Mary; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-08-01

    Alterations in cardiac autonomic control, assessed by changes in heart rate variability (HRV), provide one plausible mechanistic explanation for consistent associations between exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and increased risks of cardiovascular mortality. Decreased HRV has been linked with exposures to PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameterCoachella Valley, California, a desert resort and retirement area in which ambient PM10 consists predominantly of PM10-2.5. Study subjects wore Holter monitors for 24 hr once per week for up to 12 weeks during spring 2000. Pollutant concentrations were assessed at nearby fixed-site monitors. We used mixed models that controlled for individual-specific effects to examine relationships between air pollutants and several HRV metrics. Decrements in several measures of HRV were consistently associated with both PM10 and PM10-2.5; however, there was little relationship of HRV variables with PM2.5 concentrations. The magnitude of the associations (approximately 1-4% decrease in HRV per 10-microg/m3 increase in PM10 or PM10-2.5) was comparable with those observed in several other studies of PM. Elevated levels of ambient PM10-2.5 may adversely affect HRV in older subjects with coronary artery disease.

  6. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Stork, Sylvia V.; Ikehara, Marti E.

    2002-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. The location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in Coachella Valley between 1998 and 2000 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements made at 15 geodetic monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that -34 to +60 millimeters ? 45 millimeters (-0.11 to +0.20 foot ? 0.15 foot) of vertical change in the land surface occurred during the 2-year period. Changes at three of the monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ? 45 millimeters (? 0.15 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, which indicates that small amounts of uplift occurred at these monuments between October 1998 and August 2000. Water-level measurements made at wells near the three uplifted monuments during this 2-year period indicate that the water levels fluctuate seasonally; water-level measurements made at these wells in September 1998 and September 2000 indicate that the water levels rose slightly near two monuments and declined slightly near the third. The relation between the seasonally fluctuating, but fairly stable, water levels between

  7. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley, resulting in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels from the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, the demand for water in the valley has exceeded the deliveries of imported surface water, again resulting in increased pumping and ground-water-level declines. The magnitude and temporal occurrence of land subsidence in the lower Coachella Valley are not well known; data are sparse and accuracy varies. Also, the area is tectonically active and has subsided during the past several million years, which further complicates interpretations of the data. Land-surface-elevation data have been collected by many agencies using various methods and different geographic scales; because of this, the -150 millimeters (-0.5 foot) of subsidence determined for the southern parts of the valley for 1930-96 may have a possible error of plus or minus (?)90 millimeters (?0.3 foot). The location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements for 14 monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that the vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 ranged from -13 to -67 millimeters ? 40 millimeters (-0.04 to -0.22 foot ?0.13 foot). Changes at seven of the monuments exceeded the measurement error of ?40 millimeters (?0.13 foot), which indicates that small amounts of land subsidence occurred at these monuments between 1996 and 1998. Some of the water levels measured

  8. Landscape ecology of arboviruses in southern California: patterns in the epizootic dissemination of western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Coachella Valley, 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Hardy, J L; Lothrop, H D

    1995-05-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the initiation and dissemination of western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis virus activity in Coachella Valley during 1991 and 1992 were detected by testing pools of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett for virus infection and sentinel chickens for seroconversions. Both viruses repeatedly were detected first at a salt marsh adjacent to the Salton Sea in the southeastern corner of the study area and then disseminated to the northwest to freshwater marsh, agricultural, and residential habitats. Virus dissemination was relatively slow (< 1 km/d) and may have been accomplished by dispersive host-seeking mosquitoes. Repeated early-season recovery of virus activity indicated that both viruses may persist interseasonally in salt marsh habitat. PMID:7616516

  9. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System Surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley. GPS measurements made at 13 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2005 in the southern Coachella Valley indicate that the elevation of the land surface had a net decline of 333 to 22 millimeters ?58 millimeters (1.1 to 0.07 foot ?0.19 foot) during the 9-year period. Changes at 10 of the 13 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?58 millimeters (?0.19 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2005. GPS measurements made at 20 geodetic monuments in 2000 and in 2005 indicate that the elevation of the land surface changed -312 to +25 millimeters ?42 millimeters (-1.0 to +0.08 foot ?0.14 foot) during the 5-year period. Changes at 14 of the 20 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?42 millimeters (?0.14 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at

  10. The Weakness of Tight Ties: Why Scientists Almost Destroyed the Coachella Valley Multispecies Habitat Conservation Plan in Order to Save it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Bruce Evan

    2010-08-01

    Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group’s biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements.

  11. Mode of existence and seasonality of midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in man-made lakes in the Coachella Valley, southern California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, B B; Mulla, M S

    1995-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, numerous man-made ponds and lakes constructed in country clubs and on golf courses in the Coachella Valley have become ideal habitats for various chironomid species. Large numbers of adult midges emerging from these water bodies pose nuisance and economic problems. During 1992 and 1993 we initiated comprehensive studies on the nature and scope of the nuisance midge problem in the valley. We sampled on a biweekly basis 2 lakes supplied with well water, 2 supplied with tertiary effluent water, and one supplied with a mixture of these 2 sources, to determine the midge larval fauna and the mode of existence, seasonal abundance, and population trends of these midges. Climbers, clingers, portable sand tube builders, and tube builders on plants predominated in well-water habitats with submerged vegetation and detritus bottoms. Tube builders and burrowers predominated in the tertiary water, which characteristically had a detritus bottom, devoid of vegetation. Habitats holding a mixture of the 2 water types with sandy bottoms supported midge larvae known to be sprawlers.

  12. Constraints on Shallow Crustal Structure across the San Andreas Fault Zone, Coachella Valley, Southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A.; Persaud, P.; Bauer, K.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strong influence of basin structure and crustal heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation suggests that these factors should be included in calculations of strong ground shaking. Knowledge of the shallow subsurface is thus essential for an accurate seismic hazard estimate for the densely populated Coachella Valley, the region north of the potential M7.8 rupture near the Salton Sea. Using SSIP data, we analyzed first arrivals from nine 65-911 kg explosive shots recorded along a profile in the Coachella Valley in order to evaluate the interpretation of our 2D tomographic results and give added details on the structural complexity of the shallow crust. The line extends 37 km from the Peninsular Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains crossing the major strands of the San Andreas Fault Zone. We fit traveltime curves to our picks with forward modeling ray tracing, and determined 1D P-wave velocity models for traveltime arrivals east and west of each shot, and a 2D model for the line. We also inferred the geometry of near-vertical faults from the pre-stack line migration method of Bauer et al. (2013). In general, the 1D models east of individual shots have deeper basement contacts and lower apparent velocities, ~5 km/s at 4 km depth, whereas the models west of individual shots have shallower basement and velocities up to 6 km/s at 2 km depth. Mismatches in basement depths (assuming 5-6 km/s) between individual 1D models indicate a shallowly dipping basement, deepening eastward towards the Banning Fault and shoaling abruptly farther east. An east-dipping structure in the 2D model also gives a better fit than horizontal layers. Based on high velocity zones derived from traveltimes at 9-20 km from the western end of the line, we included an offset from ~2 km to 4 km depth near the middle of the line, which significantly improved the 2D model fit. If fault-related, this offset could represent the Garnet Hill Fault if it continues southward in the subsurface.

  13. Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Lindsay A.

    1978-01-01

    From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Introduction and establishment of tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae) in a date garden for biological control of mosquitoes in the Coachella Valley, Southern California.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard), has been reported to have a potential as a biocontrol agent for larval mosquitoes breeding in intermittently flooded habitats. To develop and promote this predator for controlling mosquitoes, a date garden devoid of preexisting TPS populations was chosen in the Coachella Valley, southern California in 2000 to receive introductions of TPS eggs and mature TPS. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in the plots one year after their introductions. In a selected block on this ranch, 2 rows were stocked with TPS eggs, where soil containing approximately 2,000 eggs was spread over the surface of dry ground in each row before flooding. Another 2 rows were used for mature TPS introduction, where about 400 mature TPS were released into standing water in each row 1 day after flooding. After a single egg or mature TPS introduction, active TPS in water and viable eggs in dry surface soil were noted in increasing numbers during the 3-4 subsequent irrigations. Disking before irrigation, which turned the eggs over and mixed them into the soil column, reduced TPS egg populations at the soil surface and subsequent active TPS populations in standing water after irrigation. After one or two irrigations, viable eggs and active shrimp were found in centers adjacent to the introduced plots in the stocked rows. Ample evidence is presented to show that TPS populations were established after a single introduction of eggs or mature TPS. TPS eggs and/or newly hatched TPS were also carried into the neighboring rows across the borders by the overflowing irrigation water, and TPS populations became established there too, as active TPS were noted after each irrigation in the adjacent unstocked rows. Considering the ease and economical storage, transportation and handling, dessication--resistant eggs have advantages over mature TPS for field introductions. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in rows with and without TPS in July 2001, one year after

  15. Introduction and establishment of tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae) in a date garden for biological control of mosquitoes in the Coachella Valley, Southern California.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard), has been reported to have a potential as a biocontrol agent for larval mosquitoes breeding in intermittently flooded habitats. To develop and promote this predator for controlling mosquitoes, a date garden devoid of preexisting TPS populations was chosen in the Coachella Valley, southern California in 2000 to receive introductions of TPS eggs and mature TPS. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in the plots one year after their introductions. In a selected block on this ranch, 2 rows were stocked with TPS eggs, where soil containing approximately 2,000 eggs was spread over the surface of dry ground in each row before flooding. Another 2 rows were used for mature TPS introduction, where about 400 mature TPS were released into standing water in each row 1 day after flooding. After a single egg or mature TPS introduction, active TPS in water and viable eggs in dry surface soil were noted in increasing numbers during the 3-4 subsequent irrigations. Disking before irrigation, which turned the eggs over and mixed them into the soil column, reduced TPS egg populations at the soil surface and subsequent active TPS populations in standing water after irrigation. After one or two irrigations, viable eggs and active shrimp were found in centers adjacent to the introduced plots in the stocked rows. Ample evidence is presented to show that TPS populations were established after a single introduction of eggs or mature TPS. TPS eggs and/or newly hatched TPS were also carried into the neighboring rows across the borders by the overflowing irrigation water, and TPS populations became established there too, as active TPS were noted after each irrigation in the adjacent unstocked rows. Considering the ease and economical storage, transportation and handling, dessication--resistant eggs have advantages over mature TPS for field introductions. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in rows with and without TPS in July 2001, one year after

  16. Landscape ecology of arboviruses in southern California: temporal and spatial patterns of vector and virus activity in Coachella Valley, 1990-1992.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D; Presser, S B; Milby, M M; Hardy, J L; Wargo, M J; Emmons, R W

    1995-05-01

    Consistent temporal and spatial patterns in the activity of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were delineated that were useful in developing a stratified surveillance program. Vernal increases in Cx. tarsalis abundance typically were associated with flooding of saline marshes along the north shore of the Salton Sea and were followed 6-8 wk later by the onset of WEE and SLE virus activity. Viruses then spread to managed marsh (duck club) and agricultural habitats in the Whitewater Channel flood plain and, depending upon the intensity of amplification, to agricultural and residential areas in the more elevated northwestern portion of the valley. Mean annual Cx. tarsalis abundance was correlated inversely with elevation and distance from the Salton Sea. Abundance was greatest at managed marsh habitats. Although spatially correlated with vector abundance among sites, virus transmission rates to sentinel chickens were asynchronous temporally with vector abundance. Seroconversion rates were related to flock location but not flock size (10 versus 20 chickens). Human cases were not detected during the study period, despite elevated transmission rates of both WEE and SLE viruses to sentinel chickens positioned in peridomestic habitats. PMID:7616515

  17. Landscape ecology of arboviruses in southern California: temporal and spatial patterns of vector and virus activity in Coachella Valley, 1990-1992.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D; Presser, S B; Milby, M M; Hardy, J L; Wargo, M J; Emmons, R W

    1995-05-01

    Consistent temporal and spatial patterns in the activity of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were delineated that were useful in developing a stratified surveillance program. Vernal increases in Cx. tarsalis abundance typically were associated with flooding of saline marshes along the north shore of the Salton Sea and were followed 6-8 wk later by the onset of WEE and SLE virus activity. Viruses then spread to managed marsh (duck club) and agricultural habitats in the Whitewater Channel flood plain and, depending upon the intensity of amplification, to agricultural and residential areas in the more elevated northwestern portion of the valley. Mean annual Cx. tarsalis abundance was correlated inversely with elevation and distance from the Salton Sea. Abundance was greatest at managed marsh habitats. Although spatially correlated with vector abundance among sites, virus transmission rates to sentinel chickens were asynchronous temporally with vector abundance. Seroconversion rates were related to flock location but not flock size (10 versus 20 chickens). Human cases were not detected during the study period, despite elevated transmission rates of both WEE and SLE viruses to sentinel chickens positioned in peridomestic habitats.

  18. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  19. Relation between proposed developments of water resources and seepage from the All-American Canal, eastern Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeltz, Omar J.; Leake, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A two-layer digital model designed for this study indicated that sealing of the Coachella branch of the All-American Canal would cause an eventual increase in seepage from the All-American Canal of about 15,000 acre-feet annually. Sealing of both the Coachella Canal and the segment of the All-American Canal between Pilot Knob and Drop 1 would result in a lessening of seepage rates from the All-American Canal of 57,000 acre-feet in 1985, but of only 39,000 acre-feet in 2030. Sealing both the Coachella and the All-American Canals would reduce the outflow to Mexicali Valley from 120,000 acre-feet in 1980 to less than 9 ,000 acre-feet in 2030. The model also indicated that if only the Coachella Canal was sealed, a little less than 40% of water pumped from proposed well fields near the All-American Canal ultimately would be derived from increased seepage from the All-American Canal; between 50 and 60% of the water pumped would be water that otherwise would flow to Mexicali Valley. (USGS)

  20. Changes in fish communities following concrete lining of the Coachella Canal, southeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon; Bryant, Gary; Burke, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The fish community of a 3.4-km section of the concrete-lined Coachella Canal, Imperial County, California, was comprised of six species, with an absolute density of 0.039 fish/m2 and estimated biomass of 4.367 g/m2. When compared to studies conducted in the canal prior to lining, or in other unlined areas, these data suggest reductions in species diversity (-14.3 to -62.5%), density (+8.9 to =83.8%), and biomass (-30.1 to -91.2%). These data support speculations that numbers of river-adapted fish would remain relatively high in a concrete-lined canal, but lentic and cover-oriented fishes such as centrarchis would decline.

  1. San Andreas fault earthquake chronology and Lake Cahuilla history at Coachella, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Philibosian, B.; Fumal, T.; Weldon, R.

    2011-01-01

    The southernmost ~100 km of the San Andreas fault has not ruptured historically. It is imperative to determine its rupture history to better predict its future behavior. This paleoseismic investigation in Coachella, California, establishes a chronology of at least five and up to seven major earthquakes during the past ~1100 yr. This chronology yields a range of average recurrence intervals between 116 and 221 yr, depending on assumptions, with a best-estimate average recurrence interval of 180 yr. The most recent earthquake occurred c.1690, more than 300 yr ago, suggesting that this stretch of the fault has accumulated a large amount of tectonic stress and is likely to rupture in the near future, assuming the fault follows a stress renewal model. This study also establishes the timing of the past 5-6 highstands of ancient Lake Cahuilla since A.D. 800.We found that earthquakes do not tend to occur at any particular stage in the lake cycle.

  2. Photomosaics and Logs of Trenches on the San Andreas Fault near Coachella, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Philibosian, Belle; Fumal, Thomas E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Bemis, Sean P.; Burgette, Reed J.; Wisely, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    Valley in southern California east of Dillon Road and south of Avenue 44. Three benched trenches, a total of more than 950 m, were excavated across the fault zone as part of an Alquist-Priolo fault investigation study. These trenches exposed a thick section of latest Holocene lacustrine, fluvial, and shoreline deposits. Only the central and eastern trenches exposed faulting so we confined our investigations to those two trenches. In the central trench, we photographed and logged in detail both walls of about 70 m of the trench where it spanned several zones of complex faulting which form a 15-m-wide depression. After carefully cleaning the trench walls, we put up a 1- by 0.5-m string- and nail-grid. We photographed each 1- by 0.5-m panel individually and then photologged features directly on these unrectified photos. The photos were digitally rectified later to remove distortion caused by irregularities in the trench walls and to correct the slight distortion introduced by the camera lens. The rectified photos were spliced together to make photomosaics of the trench walls. Most of the field linework and descriptions were then transferred to the rectified photomosaics. For the eastern trench, we took a set of overview photographs of the full length (about 200 m) of each wall. These photographs were taken from the top of the trench towards the opposite wall. Because the photographs were taken at a downward angle, there is significant distortion. We logged directly on these photos in the field, recording significant contacts, primarily between lacustrine and subaerial deposits, along with descriptions. For this report, we spliced together these unrectified overview photos and transfered field linework and some descriptions. For both trenches, contacts and lithologhic descriptions of stratigraphic units, faults and carbon sample locations are indicated on the photomosaics. Lacustrine deposits are tinted to better show deformation across the fault zones. Evidence for

  3. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Valley Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    24 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the walls and floor of a valley in the western Memnonia region of Mars. The finely-textured ridges and pits found on the valley walls and upland outside of the valley were formed by wind erosion.

    Location near: 487.5oS, 155.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  5. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  6. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  9. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  10. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  11. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  12. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  13. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  14. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. California: Diamond Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S. history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million ... water storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against ...

  16. Lily of the valley

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the valley poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  17. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  18. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  19. Grizzly Valley fault system, Sierra Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jack; Briggs, Rich; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault system (GVFS) strikes northwestward across Sierra Valley, California and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). To investigate Quaternary motion across the GVFS, we analyzed high-resolution (0.25 m) airborne LiDAR data (Figure 2) in combination with six, high-resolution, P-wave, seismic-reflection profiles [Gold and others, 2012]. The 0.5- to 2.0-km-long seismic-reflection profiles were sited orthogonal to suspected tectonic lineaments identified from previous mapping and our analysis of airborne LiDAR data. To image the upper 400–700 m of subsurface stratigraphy of Sierra Valley (Figure 3), we used a 230-kg accelerated weight drop source. Geophone spacing ranged from 2 to 5 m and shots were co-located with the geophones. The profiles reveal a highly reflective, deformed basal marker that we interpret to be the top of Tertiary volcanic rocks, overlain by a 120- to 300-m-thick suite of subhorizontal reflectors we interpret as Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits. Three profiles image the principle active trace of the GVFS, which is a steeply dipping fault zone that offsets the volcanic rocks and the basin fill (Figures 4 & 5).

  20. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  2. Rippled Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a ripple-covered valley floor in the Hyblaeus Fossae region. Winds blowing up and down the length of the valley have helped to concentrate windblown grains to form these large, megaripples.

    Location near: 26.3oN, 225.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  3. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  4. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  5. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  6. Paradise Valley Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Paradise Valley Community College (PVCC), located in Phoenix, Arizona, is part of the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD). PVCC was founded in 1987 and in the fall of 2007 served 8,739 students in credit courses. Since 1997, PVCC has been on a quest to become a "more learning centered" college. As a result of placing student…

  7. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  8. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  9. Valley South of Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-413, 6 July 2003

    To date, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle system has only imaged about 3% of the martian surface. Thus, a new discovery can come at any time, as additional places are covered every day. This MOC image shows a portion of a shallow valley south of Cerberus that was just discovered in April 2003. The valley may have been cut but torrents of mud-laden water; alternatively, an extremely fluid lava was involved. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the left. North is toward the top/upper right. The picture is located near 4.6oN, 204.3oW.

  10. The Owens Valley LWA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Owens Valley LWA is a new array of 256 dual polarization antennas at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). It hosts the LEDA correlator, which provides full cross-correlation capability and enables instantaneous snapshot imaging of most of the viewable sky, as well as a dedicated back-end for transient searching. Developed in collaboration between Caltech, JPL and the LEDA and LWA consortia, the array targets the 28-88 MHz band with primary focus on high redshift HI (Dark Ages), radio transients (particularly radio exoplanets), solar dynamic imaging spectroscopy and measurement of coronal magnetic fields, and production of a full-Stokes, low frequency, all-sky catalog. The array comprises a 230m diameter dense core and outriggers at 365m capable of imaging with a resolution of 1 degree. Over the next 12 months, 32 additional antennas will be installed, powered by solar panels and serviced by optical fiber, with the goal of delivering instantaneous all-sky images with ~10' resolution. The associated data rate for the latter array will be extremely large, at 1.5 GB per integration, corresponding to 45,000 baselines x 4 polarizations x 2000 channels (60 MHz). Our collaboration is also working towards a much larger next generation array for study of HI and transients, sited at or near the Owens Valley observatory. I will briefly discuss some of the related ongoing technical development and data processing challenges.

  11. Fretted Terrain Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 December 2003 This December 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows lineated textures on the floor of a valley in the Deuteronilus region of Mars. Deuteronilus, and neighboring Protonilus and Nilosyrtis, have been known since the Mariner 9 mission as regions of 'fretted terrain.' In this context, 'fretted' does not mean 'worried,' it means 'eroded.' The fretted terrains of Mars are regions along the boundary between cratered highlands and northern lowland plains that have been broken-down into mesas, buttes, and valleys. On the floors of some of these valleys occurs a distinctive lineated and pitted texture--like the example shown here. The cause of the textures is not known, although for decades some scientists have speculated that ice is involved. While this is possible, it is far from a demonstrated fact. This picture is located near 40.1oN, 335.1oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. The California Valley grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  13. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  14. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  16. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  17. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  18. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  19. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  20. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  1. [Rift Valley fever].

    PubMed

    Pépin, M

    2011-06-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF.

  2. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  3. Nonlocal topological valley transport at large valley Hall angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beconcini, Michael; Taddei, Fabio; Polini, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Berry curvature hot spots in two-dimensional materials with broken inversion symmetry are responsible for the existence of transverse valley currents, which give rise to giant nonlocal dc voltages. Recent experiments in high-quality gapped graphene have highlighted a saturation of the nonlocal resistance as a function of the longitudinal charge resistivity ρc ,x x, when the system is driven deep into the insulating phase. The origin of this saturation is, to date, unclear. In this work we show that this behavior is fully compatible with bulk topological transport in the regime of large valley Hall angles (VHAs). We demonstrate that, for a fixed value of the valley diffusion length, the dependence of the nonlocal resistance on ρc ,x x weakens for increasing VHAs, transitioning from the standard ρc,x x 3 power law to a result that is independent of ρc ,x x.

  4. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  5. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  7. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  8. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  9. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  10. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  11. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  12. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  13. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  14. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  15. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  16. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  17. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., (1956, Photorevised 1971, Minor Revision 1994); (8) Mendenhall Springs, CA (1996); (9) La Costa Valley... Valley viticultural area is located in the State of California in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. The.../R2E range line on the La Costa Valley map, T4S; then (16) Continue southwest in a straight...

  18. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  19. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  2. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  3. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  5. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  8. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  9. 27 CFR 9.69 - Yakima Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.69 Yakima Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yakima Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Yakima Valley...

  10. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  11. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  12. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  13. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.50 Temecula Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Temecula Valley.” (b) Approved map.The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Temecula Valley...

  14. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  15. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  16. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  17. 27 CFR 9.29 - Sonoma Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.29 Sonoma Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Sonoma valley viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  19. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The maps showing the boundaries of the Napa Valley viticultural area are the: (1) “Mt....

  20. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  1. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.58 Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  3. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.100 Mesilla Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Mesilla Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Mesilla Valley...

  4. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  5. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  6. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  7. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics.

  8. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  9. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  10. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-11-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  11. Integrated Modeling of Water Policy Futures in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, M. K.; Forster, C. B.; Grant, W. E.; Collins, K.

    2004-12-01

    Divided by an international border, the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) are linked by shared history, natural resources, culture and economy. This region is experiencing changes driven by policy makers both within and outside the IMVs. The largest external decision, the Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003, opens the door to a laboratory for studying the consequences of a massive transfer of agricultural water to municipal users. Two irrigation districts, two urban water agencies and the State of California have agreed to a 75 year of more than 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from agricultural to urban use. Although Imperial Valley farmers will be compensated for water conservation and land fallowing, the economic, environmental and social consequences are unclear. Farmers who fallow will likely cause a greater impact on local businesses and government than those choosing on-field water conservation. Reduced agricultural water use causes reduced flow of irrigation runoff, at higher salinity than before, to the Salton Sea that, in turn, impacts the population dynamics of Ichthyan and Avian species at the Salton Sea. Municipal wastewater discharged into the New River by Mexicali, Mexico is also an important source of inflow to the Salton Sea that will be reduce by plans to reclaim the wastewater for various uses, including cooling water for two new power plants in the Mexicali. A restoration program is funded to produce a Sea with much reduced surface area. But this approach may, in turn, lead to increases in windblown dust from the dry lakebed that will contribute to an air basin already designated as a federal nonattainment area for particulate emissions. Additional water will be conserved by lining the All American and Coachella canals. But, eliminating seepage from the All American canal reduces groundwater recharge to aquifers used by Mexican farmers. A complex interplay of water-related issues must be accounted for if

  12. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... desert valley located in the northwest portion of Death Valley National Park. Despite the variety of... passage of the California Desert Protection Act in 1994. Under NPS management, efforts have been made...

  13. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, and Tri-State Generation and...

  15. Structure of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    In 1976, the second oil field in Nevada - Trap Springs - was discovered in Railroad Valley. Since then, more than 100 oil wells have been drilled in Nye County, and most of these have been in Railroad Valley. This well-control helped to unravel the complex structure of Railroad Valley and enabled the construction of more accurate maps of this valley than any other. This information can be used to construct models for exploring other valleys in the Basin and Range Province of eastern Nevada. The basic stratigraphy of the valley consists of Paleozoic carbonates and shales overlain by Tertiary volcanics, overlain, in turn, by valley fill. The areal extent of Tertiary volcanics, which can be a good reservoir rock, is controlled by tensional normal faulting and paleotopography. In some areas, these volcanics can be in excess of 5000 ft thick, but absent within a few miles, owing to paleotopography and/or faulting. The Paleozoic rocks are deformed by a pre-basin and range compressional history that folded and faulted them. As a result, the structure within the Paleozoics is more complex. Thrust faulting played an important role in the deformation of these rocks. Crystalline basement rocks can be found juxtaposed between Paleozoic outcrops in the flanks of the valley, and Paleozoic rocks found in well control farther out in the valley. The geothermal history of Railroad Valley plays an important role in constructing a structural map of the valley, taking into account the Mesozoic thrust faulting and Tertiary normal faulting. Air photos, combined with good well control and published reports, assist in mapping the geologic structure in Railroad Valley.

  16. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  17. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  18. Nearly perfect valley filter in silicene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingtian; Chan, K S; Long, Mengqiu

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate theoretically how a perfect valley filter can be obtained in silicene under the effects of a ferromagnetic stripe and an electric field perpendicular to silicene. A ferromagnetic stripe or an electric field alone can not generate any valley polarization in silicene, but a combination of them can make a perfect valley filter. Two configurations, one with magnetization of the ferromagnetic stripe being perpendicular to the silicene plane and one being parallel to the current direction, are considered. Our proposed device is useful for the realization of a valley beam filter in the development of valleytronic devices.

  19. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  20. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  1. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described..., “Green Valley of Russian River Valley” is a term of viticultural significance. “Sonoma County...

  2. North Valley/South Valley Survey--Perceptions of Utah Valley State College and the Need for a Branch Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bart R.

    Utah Valley Community College became Utah Valley State College (UVSC) in 1993, due to the increasing need for a four-year, degree-granting institution in Utah County. UVSC now offers 21 four-year programs, and enrollment has been growing at an average rate of 8% per year since 1986. There were 20,946 students enrolled for fall term 2000, and…

  3. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  4. Work through the valley: plan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  5. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  6. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  8. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Redwood Valley. 9.153 Section 9.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.153 Redwood Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  9. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Approved Maps. The two United States Geological Survey 1:100,000 scale topographic (30 × 60 Minute Quadrangle) maps used to determine the boundaries of the Ramona Valley viticultural area are titled— (1) Borrego Valley, California, 1982 edition; and (2) El Cajon, California, 1979 edition. (c) Boundary....

  10. 27 CFR 9.176 - Capay Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Capay Valley viticultural area is the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) topographic map titled: 30X60 Minute Quadrangle (Healdsburg, California 1972) (Scale: 1:100,000). (c) Boundaries. The Capay Valley viticultural area...

  11. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  12. Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John P.

    The Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program was conceived with the goals of retaining existing industries in the area and saving presently available jobs for the area's citizens. A program committee, formed in March 1982 of representatives from state government, Illinois Valley Community College (IVCC), and local businesses, undertook a survey…

  13. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.76 Knights Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Knights Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are— (1) “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  14. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.76 Knights Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Knights Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are— (1) “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  15. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.45 Suisun Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Suisun Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Mt. George Quadrangle, California”, 7.5...

  16. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.76 Knights Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Knights Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are— (1) “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  17. 27 CFR 9.38 - Cienega Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.38 Cienega Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cienega Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Hollister Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  18. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.45 Suisun Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Suisun Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Mt. George Quadrangle, California”, 7.5...

  19. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.76 Knights Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Knights Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are— (1) “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  20. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.76 Knights Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Knights Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are— (1) “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  1. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.45 Suisun Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Suisun Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Mt. George Quadrangle, California”, 7.5...

  2. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.45 Suisun Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Suisun Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Mt. George Quadrangle, California”, 7.5...

  3. 27 CFR 9.38 - Cienega Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.38 Cienega Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cienega Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Hollister Quadrangle, California,” 7.5...

  4. 27 CFR 9.45 - Suisun Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.45 Suisun Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Suisun Valley... viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Mt. George Quadrangle, California”, 7.5...

  5. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  6. Model Program: Conestoga Valley School District, PA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features the Conestoga Valley School District and its Technology Education program. Conestoga Valley, which is located in historic Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, covers 56 square miles comprising a population of approximately 29,000 people in an area that is best described as agricultural and rural-residential. Situated near the…

  7. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmerlee-Greiner, Gloria

    To meet the needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents in Boulder Valley (Colorado), the local public school district has developed the Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program, now in its 12th year. The program was designed to help teen parents to mature to meet the challenges of parenting, enhance the school district's dropout/intervention…

  8. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yadkin Valley. 9.174... Yadkin Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yadkin Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin...

  9. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yadkin Valley. 9.174... Yadkin Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yadkin Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin...

  10. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yadkin Valley. 9.174... Yadkin Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yadkin Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin...

  11. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yadkin Valley. 9.174... Yadkin Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yadkin Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin...

  12. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yadkin Valley. 9.174... Yadkin Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Yadkin Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin...

  13. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  15. The San Joaquin Valley: 20 years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of irrigation development and the need for disposal of saline drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley was described to provide background for the drainage water disposal problem that resulted from the closure of the Kesterson Reservoir. A 5 year study developed in Valley alternatives fo...

  16. Desegregation in the South San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rodolfo G.

    Notably isolated from the large metropolitan centers by geography and predominantly agricultural in its economy, Kern County is California's third largest county in land area. About one-third of the county is situated on the flat valley floor at the extreme southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The area relies heavily on Chicano and Black manual…

  17. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Valley Vortex States in Sonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-03-01

    Valleytronics is quickly emerging as an exciting field in fundamental and applied research. In this Letter, we study the acoustic version of valley states in sonic crystals and reveal a vortex nature of such states. In addition to the selection rules established for exciting valley polarized states, a mimicked valley Hall effect of sound is proposed further. The extraordinary chirality of valley vortex states, detectable in experiments, may open a new possibility in sound manipulations. This is appealing to scalar acoustics that lacks a spin degree of freedom inherently. In addition, the valley selection enables a handy way to create vortex matter in acoustics, in which the vortex chirality can be controlled flexibly. Potential applications can be anticipated with the exotic interaction of acoustic vortices with matter, such as to trigger the rotation of the trapped microparticles without contact.

  19. The Long Valley Caldera GIS database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Williams, M.J.; Venezky, D.Y.; Hill, D.P.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Sneed, M.; Segall, P.

    2003-01-01

    This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in eastern California from 1975 to 2001. The database includes geologic, monitoring, and topographic datasets related to Long Valley caldera. The CD-ROM contains a scan of the original geologic map of the Long Valley region by R. Bailey. Real-time data of the current activity of the caldera (including earthquakes, ground deformation and the release of volcanic gas), information about volcanic hazards and the USGS response plan are available online at the Long Valley observatory web page (http://lvo.wr.usgs.gov). If you have any comments or questions about this database, please contact the Scientist in Charge of the Long Valley observatory.

  20. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  1. Valley of the Brahmaputra, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this true-color MODIS image from October 23, 2001, the semi-arid Tibetan Plateau (upper left) meets up with the Himalayas to the south. From the heights of the Himalayas, snow-covered on their northern flanks, and lush with vegetation to the south, numerous rivers, brown with churned up sediment, flow into the valley of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra turns southward at the border of Bangladesh and is soon joined by the Ganges River, flowing in from image left. The mighty river splits into numerous channels as it runs out toward the Bay of Bengal, giving the region the name 'Mouths of the Ganges.' Vast amounts of sediment are being emptied into the Bay by the river, and greenish blue swirls could be a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  3. Valley blockade and multielectron spin-valley Kondo effect in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, A.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Rotta, D.; De Michielis, M.; Mazzeo, G.; Fanciulli, M.; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.; Prati, E.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the valley blockade and the multielectron Kondo effect generated by an impurity atom in a silicon nanofield effect device. According to the spin-valley nature of tunneling processes, and consistently with those allowed by the valley blockade regime, the manifestation of Kondo effect at occupation N =1 ,2 ,3 has the periodicity 4 of the electron filling sequence typical of silicon. The spin-valley Kondo effect emerges under different kinds of screening depending on the electron filling. By exploiting the valley blockade regime, valley index conservation in the Kondo SU(4) is deduced with no need of an external magnetic field. Microwave irradiation suppresses the Kondo effect at occupancies up to three electrons.

  4. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to...

  5. Valley and electric photocurrents in 2D silicon and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, S. A.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2013-12-04

    We show that the optical excitation of multi-valley systems leads to valley currents which depend on the light polarization. The net electric current, determined by the vector sum of single-valley contributions, vanishes for some peculiar distributions of carriers in the valley and momentum spaces forming a pure valley current. We report on the study of this phenomenon, both experimental and theoretical, for graphene and 2D electron channels on the silicon surface.

  6. 27 CFR 9.150 - Cucamonga Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1981; (10) Corona North, Calif., 1967, photorevised 1981. (c) Boundary. The Cucamonga Valley... it ends at Limonite Avenue in the northeast corner of the Corona North, Calif., U.S.G.S. map;...

  7. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  8. Small Martian valleys - Pristine and degraded morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.; Partridge, J. B.

    1986-03-01

    This study is concerned with a more detailed investigation of the small valley networks on Mars. The dual nature of many valley systems is pointed out, taking into account a relatively fresh-appearing network portion versus an apparent larger, less distinct network system. These separate network characteristics are referred to as pristine and degraded. The valley networks included in this study are all located in the equatorial zone of heavily cratered uplands, between latitudes 30 deg N and 40 deg S. Aspects of network morphology are examined, taking into account drainage density, network dissection ratio, and valley length parameters. Age relationships are also discussed, giving attention to crater age, counting problems, a conservative method, and a crater-fraction method.

  9. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  10. Mississippi Valley State University educational outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Pat Gaspard, a visitor relations specialist with NASA's StenniSphere visitor center, speaks to Mississippi Valley State University students. Gaspard spoke July 15 during Stennis Space Center's three-day educational outreach program at the college.

  11. 27 CFR 9.150 - Cucamonga Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1981; (10) Corona North, Calif., 1967, photorevised 1981. (c) Boundary. The Cucamonga Valley... it ends at Limonite Avenue in the northeast corner of the Corona North, Calif., U.S.G.S. map;...

  12. 27 CFR 9.150 - Cucamonga Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1981; (10) Corona North, Calif., 1967, photorevised 1981. (c) Boundary. The Cucamonga Valley... it ends at Limonite Avenue in the northeast corner of the Corona North, Calif., U.S.G.S. map;...

  13. 27 CFR 9.150 - Cucamonga Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1981; (10) Corona North, Calif., 1967, photorevised 1981. (c) Boundary. The Cucamonga Valley... it ends at Limonite Avenue in the northeast corner of the Corona North, Calif., U.S.G.S. map;...

  14. 27 CFR 9.150 - Cucamonga Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1981; (10) Corona North, Calif., 1967, photorevised 1981. (c) Boundary. The Cucamonga Valley... it ends at Limonite Avenue in the northeast corner of the Corona North, Calif., U.S.G.S. map;...

  15. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  16. An evaluation of Skylab (EREP) remote sensing techniques applied to investigation of crustal structure. [Death Valley and Greenwater Valley (CA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study of Greenwater Valley indicates that the valley is bounded on the north and east by faults, on the south by a basement high, and on the west by the dip slope of the black mountains, movement of ground water from the valley is thus Movement of ground water from the valley is thus restricted, indicating the valley is a potential water reservoir.

  17. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele’s evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  18. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35736, must be filed with the Surface.... Board decisions and notices are available on our Web site at www.stb.dot.gov . Decided: May 20, 2013....

  19. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated age of 29 years.

  20. Origin of the Valley Networks On Mars: A Hydrological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2000-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Martian valley networks is examined from a hydrological perspective for their compatibility with an origin by rainfall, globally higher heat flow, and localized hydrothermal systems. Comparison of morphology and spatial distribution of valleys on geologic surfaces with terrestrial fluvial valleys suggests that most Martian valleys are probably not indicative of a rainfall origin, nor are they indicative of formation by an early global uniformly higher heat flow. In general, valleys are not uniformly distributed within geologic surface units as are terrestrial fluvial valleys. Valleys tend to form either as isolated systems or in clusters on a geologic surface unit leaving large expanses of the unit virtually untouched by erosion. With the exception of fluvial valleys on some volcanoes, most Martian valleys exhibit a sapping morphology and do not appear to have formed along with those that exhibit a runoff morphology. In contrast, terrestrial sapping valleys form from and along with runoff valleys. The isolated or clustered distribution of valleys suggests localized water sources were important in drainage development. Persistent ground-water outflow driven by localized, but vigorous hydrothermal circulation associated with magmatism, volcanism, impacts, or tectonism is, however, consistent with valley morphology and distribution. Snowfall from sublimating ice-covered lakes or seas may have provided an atmospheric water source for the formation of some valleys in regions where the surface is easily eroded and where localized geothermal/hydrothermal activity is sufficient to melt accumulated snowpacks.

  1. Valley polarization in Si(100) at zero magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Takashina, K; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A; Takahashi, Y; Hirayama, Y

    2006-06-16

    The valley splitting, which lifts the degeneracy of the lowest two valley states in a SiO(2)/Si(100)/SiO(2) quantum well, is examined through transport measurements. We demonstrate that the valley splitting can be observed directly as a step in the conductance defining a boundary between valley-unpolarized and -polarized regions. This persists to well above liquid helium temperature and shows no dependence on magnetic field, indicating that single-particle valley splitting and valley polarization exist in (100) silicon even at zero magnetic field.

  2. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  3. Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tengfei; Qiao, Xiaofen; Tan, Pingheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed to be in analogy to the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley pseudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26490157

  4. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Anning, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrogeology of the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins of Mohave County in northwestern Arizona to develop a better understanding of groundwater storage within the basin fill aquifers. In our investigation we used geologic maps, well-log data, and geophysical surveys to delineate the sedimentary textures and lithology of the basin fill. We used gravity data to construct a basin geometry model that defines smaller subbasins within the larger basins, and airborne transient-electromagnetic modeled results along with well-log lithology data to infer the subsurface distribution of basin fill within the subbasins. Hydrogeologic units (HGUs) are delineated within the subbasins on the basis of the inferred lithology of saturated basin fill. We used the extent and size of HGUs to estimate groundwater storage to depths of 400 meters (m) below land surface (bls). The basin geometry model for the Hualapai Valley basin consists of three subbasins: the Kingman, Hualapai, and southern Gregg subbasins. In the Kingman subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,200 m deep, saturated basin fill consists of a mixture of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. The Hualapai subbasin, which is the largest of the subbasins, contains a thick halite body from about 400 m to about 4,300 m bls. Saturated basin fill overlying the salt body consists predominately of fine-grained older playa deposits. In the southern Gregg subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,400 m deep, saturated basin fill is interpreted to consist primarily of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. Groundwater storage to 400 m bls in the Hualapai Valley basin is estimated to be 14.1 cubic kilometers (km3). The basin geometry model for the Detrital Valley basin consists of three subbasins: northern Detrital, central Detrital, and southern Detrital subbasins. The northern and central Detrital subbasins are characterized by a predominance of playa evaporite and fine

  6. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.

    2016-07-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  7. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  8. VEGETATION CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CONTRASTING RIPARIAN SITES, WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the native riparian vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, has been replaced with agricultural crops or invasive non-native plant species. Detailed information about current Willamette Valley riparian vegetation is generally lacking. Plant species composition data...

  9. 25. LONG VALLEY DAM AT SOUTHEAST END OF CROWLEY LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LONG VALLEY DAM AT SOUTHEAST END OF CROWLEY LAKE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 26. VIEW NORTH CROWLEY LAKE AND OWENS RIVER VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW NORTH CROWLEY LAKE AND OWENS RIVER VALLEY - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN DISTANCE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  13. 11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING DETAIL OF OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. 12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING SOUTH END OF OVERHEAD WIRING TERMINATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  15. 10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  16. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  17. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  18. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  1. Chuckwalla Valley multiple-well monitoring site, Chuckwalla Valley, Riverside County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everett, Rhett

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, is evaluating the geohydrology and water availability of the Chuckwalla Valley, California. As part of this evaluation, the USGS installed the Chuckwalla Valley multiple-well monitoring site (CWV1) in the southeastern portion of the Chuckwalla Basin. Data collected at this site provide information about the geology, hydrology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the local aquifer system, thus enhancing the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Chuckwalla Valley. This report presents construction information for the CWV1 multiple-well monitoring site and initial geohydrologic data collected from the site.

  2. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle Rio Grande Valley... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Middle Rio Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundaries of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle Rio Grande Valley... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Middle Rio Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundaries of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  5. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  6. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  7. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  8. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  9. Death Valley California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This oblique handheld Hasselblad 70mm photo shows Death Valley, near California's border with Nevada. The valley -- the central feature of Death Valley National Monument -- extends north to south for some 140 miles (225 kilometers). Hemmed in to the east by the Amargosa Range and to the west by the Panamints, its width varies from 5 to 15 miles (8 to 24 kilometers).

  10. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  11. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  12. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  13. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  14. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  15. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  16. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  17. Treasure Valley Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  18. Small Valley Network Near Schiaparelli Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Camera image 36204 shows a small Martian valley network east of the impact basin Schiaparelli near 1.5oS, 335oW. One of the lowest resolution views taken by MOC during its first year in orbit (original scale is 16 m per picture element), it nonetheless illustrates important attributes of the valley networks. The area is heavily blanketed with windblown dust and sand (the latter seen as dunes within the valley). The upland surface shows tributaries about 1 km across, but none smaller. Since impact craters smaller than 1 km are preserved but often mantled, the smaller tributaries, if formed by surface runoff from precipitation, should be visible. Their absence suggests that groundwater processes have played a more substantive role in the formation of the valley systems than rainfall.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  19. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  20. Preceramic occupations in the orinoco river valley.

    PubMed

    Barse, W P

    1990-12-01

    Two sites in the Orinoco Valley containing preceramic from excavated contexts are described. Radiocarbon dating and stylistic comparisons indicate that the northern tropical lowlands were inhabited at the onset of the Holocene, suggesting a time depth of 9000 years before the present for tropical forest-savanna adaptations in northern South America.

  1. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “High Valley” viticultural area are three United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Clearlake... 1994. (c) Boundary. The High Valley viticultural area is located in Lake County, California, near...

  2. Active faults in the Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The risk of earthquake is ever increasing in mountains along with rapid growth of population and urbanization. Over half a million people died in the last decade due to earthquakes. The devastations of Sumatra and Thai coasts in 2004, of Kashmir and New Orleans in 2005, of SW Java in 2006, of Sumatra again in 2007, W Sichuan and Myanmar in 2008, of Haiti in 2010, Japan, New Zealand and Turkey in 2011, brought enormous damage. The primary step in this regard could be to establish an earthquake risk model. The Kashmir valley is a NW-SE trending oval-shaped inter-mountain basin. A number of low magnitude earthquakes have recently been reported from the border and few inside the Kashmir valley. A number of active reverse faults were identified in this valley using remote sensing images and active geomorphic features. NE dipping reverse faults uplifted the young alluvial fan at the SW side. An active tectonic environment has been created by these reverse faults; sediment filled streams at NE, and uplifted quaternary deposits at SW. These resulted in an overall tilting of the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Dating of displaced deposits is required to estimate the total convergence along these faults. Broadly, these faults are because of the convergence of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

  3. Remedial Reading Students at Moraine Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In an effort to assess the effectiveness of their remedial reading courses, Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in Palos Hills, Illinois, undertook a study of the retention, course completion, and graduation rates of students who completed one of three remedial reading courses: RDG-040, basic skills for students reading below the 7th grade…

  4. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  5. Antelope Valley Bridge from Education to Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Union High School District, Lancaster, CA.

    The Antelope Valley Union High School District's regional plan for career education and lifelong learning represents a model for educational levels/districts cooperation. The plan provides a bridge from education to careers that takes into consideration changes in the economic marketplace. The career development plan includes elementary, middle,…

  6. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  7. Arbovirus infection in a Murray Valley community.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J R; Christie, D G; Gust, I D; White, J; Leach, R; Macaulay, E D; Ahern, A P; Alexander, J; Jones, J M; Lung, D Y

    1986-02-01

    Serum antibodies to Ross River virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus were measured during 1974-1975 in residents of Echuca, an urban Murray Valley community. A representative group of volunteers was obtained by random selection of households. The prevalence of antibodies to both viruses increased progressively with age. Prevalence was equal in both sexes for both viruses in all age groups, indicating that the risk of infection was mainly determined by geography rather than by personal activities. Antibody levels remained unchanged in the following year when there was no disease activity in the area. The stability of antibody levels permitted retrospective estimates of mean rates of infection. These were approximately 0.4% per annum for both viruses when age was used as the index for years of exposure. With allowance for other factors, the best estimate for both virus infections is probably closer to 1%. The morbidity rate for Ross River virus infection appeared to be low. It is concluded that infection with Ross River virus and with Murray Valley encephalitis-related viruses is endemic in the Murray Valley. PMID:3010928

  8. Transition Handbook: Valley Transitional School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Rehabilitation Services, Richmond.

    The handbook was developed by the 3-year Valley Transitional School Project, serving Augusta, Staunton, and Waynesboro schools, all located in Augusta County, Virginia. The purpose of the project was to develop and validate a model which would assist school youth with severe disabilities to make the transition from school to employment, in the…

  9. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  10. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  11. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  12. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  13. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  14. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  15. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  16. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  17. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16...

  18. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2... village of Clearlake Oaks. The boundary of the High Valley viticultural area is as described below: (1) The point of beginning is on the Clearlake Oaks map on the northern boundary line of section 16...

  19. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... straight line to Benchmark (BM) 680 in Section 30, T.13N., R.13W., located in the northeast portion of...

  20. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... straight line to Benchmark (BM) 680 in Section 30, T.13N., R.13W., located in the northeast portion of...

  1. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... straight line to Benchmark (BM) 680 in Section 30, T.13N., R.13W., located in the northeast portion of...

  2. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... straight line to Benchmark (BM) 680 in Section 30, T.13N., R.13W., located in the northeast portion of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.226 - Inwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inwood Valley. 9.226 Section 9.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... at BM (Benchmark) 1254.4 located along State Route 44 in T31N/R2W. From the beginning point,...

  4. 27 CFR 9.226 - Inwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inwood Valley. 9.226 Section 9.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... at BM (Benchmark) 1254.4 located along State Route 44 in T31N/R2W. From the beginning point,...

  5. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  6. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  7. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  8. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  9. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212 Section 9.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  10. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212 Section 9.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  11. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  12. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212 Section 9.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  13. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  14. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212 Section 9.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  15. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212 Section 9.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  16. Indian Wells Valley FORGE Aeromagnetic Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    1994-11-01

    Aeromagnetic data was collected over the Indian Wells Valley, CA in November 1994. It consisted of 9,033 line-kilometers covering ~4,150 square kilometers, flown at a 250 meter drape with principal line spacing of 0.54 kilometers and 10% cross-lines. The principal orientation is N65E.

  17. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmerlee-Greiner, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Boulder Valley Teen Parenting Program that offers teenage mothers and fathers the opportunity to continue high school and provides services such as pre- and postnatal health care, transportation, career assessment, job placement counseling, and on-site child care. (JOW)

  18. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.

  19. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less

  20. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-05-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu(2+), was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem. PMID:22170424

  1. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-01-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu2+, was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem. PMID:22170424

  2. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-05-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu(2+), was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem.

  3. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  4. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  5. Giant spin splitting, strong valley selective circular dichroism and valley-spin coupling induced in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jinfeng; Peng, Xiangyang; Xiao, Di; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Silicene is a potential candidate for valleytronics. However, in comparison with the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), silicene has a tiny energy gap and zero spin splitting at its Dirac valleys, being unfavorable for valleytronic applications. Based on first principles calculations, we find that by proximity with Bi(111) bilayer, the Dirac valleys of silicene acquire a sizable energy gap and giant spin splittings, which are even larger than the splittings of Mo S2 . Our calculations show that the silicene over Bi layer exhibits a strong valley-contrasting circular dichroism, enabling selective optical pumping of valley carriers. Due to the time reversal symmetry and the breaking of inversion symmetry, the Berry curvatures and the spin splittings are opposite at the K and K' valleys of silicene, and hence the valley and spin are locked and can be simultaneously polarized. In this way, silicene and likely other similar Dirac materials can be comparable to TMDs in valleytronics, which not only adds a new dimension to the properties of silicene but also expands the members of the valleytronic family.

  6. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  7. Generation of Pure Bulk Valley Current in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjin; Low, Tony; Chang, Kai; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Guinea, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The generation of valley current is a fundamental goal in graphene valleytronics but no practical ways of its realization are known yet. We propose a workable scheme for the generation of bulk valley current in a graphene mechanical resonator through adiabatic cyclic deformations of the strains and a chemical potential in the suspended region. The accompanied strain gauge fields can break the spatial mirror symmetry of the problem within each of the two inequivalent valleys, leading to a finite valley current due to quantum pumping. An all-electrical measurement configuration is designed to detect the novel state with pure bulk valley currents.

  8. Quantum pumping of valley current in strain engineered graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Chan, K. S. E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn; Lin, Zijing E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-01-06

    We studied the generation of valley dependent current by adiabatic quantum pumping in monolayer graphene in the presence of electric potential barriers, ferromagnetic field and strain. The pumped currents in the two valleys have same magnitudes and opposite directions; thus, a pure valley current is generated. The oscillation of the pumped pure valley current is determined by the Fabry-Perot resonances formed in the structure. In our calculation, the pumped pure valley current can be as high as 50 nA, which is measurable using present technologies. The proposed device is useful for the development of graphene valleytronic devices.

  9. Meter-Scale Characteristics of Martian Channels and Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Malin, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor images, with resolutions as high as 1.5 m pixel, enable characterization of martian channels and valleys at resolutions one to two orders of magnitude better than was previously possible. A major surprise is the near-absence of valleys a few hundred meters wide and narrower. The almost complete absence of fine-scale valleys could be due to lack of precipitation, destruction of small valleys by erosion, or dominance of infiltration over surface runoff. V-shaped valleys with a central channel, such as Nanedi Vallis, provide compelling evidence for sustained or episodic flow of water across the surface. Larger valleys appear to have formed not by headward erosion as a consequence of groundwater sapping but by erosion from water sources upstream of the observed sections. The freshest appearing valleys have triangular cross sections, with talus from opposing walls meeting at the center of the valley. The relations suggest that the width of the valleys is controlled by the depth of incision and the angle of repose of the walls. The flat floors of less fresh-appearing valleys result primarily from later eolian fill. Several discontinuous valleys and lines of craters suggest massive subsurface solution or erosion. The climatic implications of the new images will remain obscure until the cause for the scarcity of fine-scale dissection is better understood. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Aivazian, G.; Gong, Zhirui; Jones, Aaron M.; Chu, Rui-Lin; Yan, J.; Mandrus, D. G.; Zhang, Chuanwei; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, X.

    2015-01-26

    Local energy extrema of the bands in momentum space, or valleys, can endow electrons in solids with pseudo-spin in addition to real spin1-5. In transition metal dichalcogenides this valley pseudo-spin, like real spin, is associated with a magnetic moment1,6 which underlies the valley-dependent circular dichroism6 that allows optical generation of valley polarization7-9, intervalley quantum coherence10, and the valley Hall effect11. However, magnetic manipulation of valley pseudospin via this magnetic moment12-13, analogous to what is possible with real spin, has not been shown before. Here we report observation of the valley Zeeman splitting and magnetic tuning of polarization and coherence ofmore » the excitonic valley pseudospin, by performing polarization-resolved magneto-photoluminescence on monolayer WSe2. Our measurements reveal both the atomic orbital and lattice contributions to the valley orbital magnetic moment; demonstrate the deviation of the band edges in the valleys from an exact massive Dirac fermion model; and reveal a striking difference between the magnetic responses of neutral and charged valley excitons which is explained by renormalization of the excitonic spectrum due to strong exchange interactions.« less

  11. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedik, Nuh

    Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. In this talk, I will show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer TMD WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley-selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (approximately 100 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  12. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-07-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time--a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation--is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron-hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  13. Valley selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Edbert J.; McIver, James W.; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Fu, Liang; Kong, Jing; Gedik, Nuh

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer semiconductors, such as WS2, have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. Here we show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (200 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  15. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  16. Microscopic identification of prokaryotes in modern and ancient halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Brian A; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 microm diameter cocci, <2.5 microm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  17. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  18. Microscopic identification of prokaryotes in modern and ancient halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Brian A; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 microm diameter cocci, <2.5 microm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System. PMID:19566426

  19. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-collected populations of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) from Coachella Valley, CA, Imperial Valley, CA, Riverside, CA and Yuma Valley, AZ, were evaluated for susceptibility to several active ingredients representing ten classes of insecticide chemistry. Both leaf-spray and leaf-dip bioassays wer...

  20. Dynamical Model of Flow in Martian Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Witek, Piotr; Misiura, Katarzyna

    On the surface of Mars, under current conditions, liquid water could exist only occasionally in lowest regions of the planet. This water contains probably some components that decrease its freezing point and raised its boiling point. However billions years ago more dense atmosphere on the Mars allows for the presence of large volume of liquid water. There are a number of structures apparently resulting from flowing liquid water in the past. They are of two types: outflow channels and valley networks. We investigate here the possible flow in some chosen valley networks. The numerical model is used. We try to determine the basic properties of the flow, its erosion as well as the transport efficiencies of the material. The comparison with the terrestrial rivers indicates some important differences. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the National Science Centre (grant 2011/01/B/ST10/06653).

  1. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  2. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  3. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  4. Spin-valley lifetimes in a silicon quantum dot with tunable valley splitting.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Rossi, A; Ruskov, R; Lai, N S; Mohiyaddin, F A; Lee, S; Tahan, C; Klimeck, G; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2013-01-01

    Although silicon is a promising material for quantum computation, the degeneracy of the conduction band minima (valleys) must be lifted with a splitting sufficient to ensure the formation of well-defined and long-lived spin qubits. Here we demonstrate that valley separation can be accurately tuned via electrostatic gate control in a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot, providing splittings spanning 0.3-0.8 meV. The splitting varies linearly with applied electric field, with a ratio in agreement with atomistic tight-binding predictions. We demonstrate single-shot spin read-out and measure the spin relaxation for different valley configurations and dot occupancies, finding one-electron lifetimes exceeding 2 s. Spin relaxation occurs via phonon emission due to spin-orbit coupling between the valley states, a process not previously anticipated for silicon quantum dots. An analytical theory describes the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation rate, including the presence of a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. PMID:23804134

  5. Spin-valley lifetimes in a silicon quantum dot with tunable valley splitting.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Rossi, A; Ruskov, R; Lai, N S; Mohiyaddin, F A; Lee, S; Tahan, C; Klimeck, G; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2013-01-01

    Although silicon is a promising material for quantum computation, the degeneracy of the conduction band minima (valleys) must be lifted with a splitting sufficient to ensure the formation of well-defined and long-lived spin qubits. Here we demonstrate that valley separation can be accurately tuned via electrostatic gate control in a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot, providing splittings spanning 0.3-0.8 meV. The splitting varies linearly with applied electric field, with a ratio in agreement with atomistic tight-binding predictions. We demonstrate single-shot spin read-out and measure the spin relaxation for different valley configurations and dot occupancies, finding one-electron lifetimes exceeding 2 s. Spin relaxation occurs via phonon emission due to spin-orbit coupling between the valley states, a process not previously anticipated for silicon quantum dots. An analytical theory describes the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation rate, including the presence of a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when Zeeman and valley splittings coincide.

  6. Asbestos in the western San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    1988-07-01

    Attention has recently been focused on high selenium concentrations in soil and water along the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley. The occurrence of chrysotile asbestos fibers, another trace substance, in soil and water on the west side of the valley near the city of Coalinga was first detected in 1980 when sampling was performed to identify the source of asbestos fibers in the California Aqueduct. Subsequent data collected primarily by the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has shown the distribution of naturally occurring asbestos fibers in an area centered around the Arroyo Pasajero watershed. This paper discusses watershed geology, the new Idria serpentinite body, hydrology and sediment yield, asbestos measurement techniques, and asbestos distribution in the watershed. The New Idria serpentinite body, which constitutes only about 1% of the total Arroyo Pasajero drainage area, is the primary source of asbestos fibers detected on the alluvial fan deposits of the San Joaquin Valley floor. The asbestos fibers enter the arroyo tributaries in the upper watershed and are transported along with other sediment downstream to the alluvial fan. Stream channel bed and bank erosion in Pleasant Valley and the lower watershed yields additional sediment having low levels of asbestos fibers. Naturally occurring waterborne asbestos concentrations on the lower fan exceed the proposed EPA drinking water standard, a condition not uncommon elsewhere in California. Asbestos concentrations in fan soils are generally just below the level at which the soil could be classified as a hazardous waste by the California Administrative Code. These results demonstrate to what extent a very small portion of the watershed can contribute to downstream trace concentrations.

  7. Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, J.C.

    2008-06-15

    In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  8. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  9. A Valley in the Libya Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (A) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (B) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (C)

    This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle image (top) shows an intermountain valley floor in the Libya Montes region of Mars. Its regional setting is seen in the wide angle color mosaic (Figure A). The Libya Montes were formed by the giant impact that created the ancient Isidis basin. The Libya Mountains and valleys--like the one shown here--were subsequently modified and eroded by other processes, including wind, impact cratering, and flow of liquid water to make the small valley that runs across the middle of the scene. Until the mission was canceled, the Libya Montes region was among the top two candidates for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. This image, illuminated by sunlight from the left, covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and 19 kilometers (11.8 miles) long. The scene is located near 1.5oN, 278.4oW and was acquired on June 27, 1999. The high resolution color view (top) was created by combining the colors derived from Mars Orbiter Camera Wide Angle views of the region obtained in May 1999 (Figures A and B) with the high resolution view obtained in June 1999 (Figure C).

  10. Victor Valley College Agreement between the Victor Valley Community College District and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association Chapter 1170. July 1989 - June 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor Valley Community Coll. District, Victorville, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Victor Valley College Board of Trustees and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1989 through June 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; district and…

  11. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  12. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  13. Valley optoelectronics and spin-valley coupling: from graphene to monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wang

    2013-03-01

    The Bloch bands in many crystals have a degenerate set of energy extrema in momentum space known as valleys. The band-edge carriers then have an extra valley index which may also be used to encode information for device applications provided that dynamic control of valley index is possible. In this talk, we show that, when inversion symmetry is broken, a pair of valleys which are equivalent by time-reversal are distinguishable by their magnetic moment and Berry curvature. These quantities give rise to valley Hall effect and circularly-polarized valley optical transition selection rule both in graphene (where inversion symmetry can be broken in a controlled way in gated bilayers), and in monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (where the 2D crystal has inherent structural inversion asymmetry). Moreover, in monolayer dichalcogenides, we find the electrons and holes at the band edges are described by massive Dirac Fermions with strong spin-valley coupling, which further results in valley and spin dependent optical selection rule, and coexistence of valley Hall and spin Hall effects. These phenomena make possible dynamic control of valley and spin by electric and optical means for device applications in monolayer dichalcogenides. We will report photoluminescence studies on dichalcogenide thin films, which show the first evidence on valley optical selection rule and optical valley pumping, and signature of the spin-valley coupling. The work was supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU706412P). The author acknowledges collaborations with Guibin Liu, Zhirui Gong, Hongyi Yu, Xiaodong Cui, Di Xiao, Qian Niu and Xiaodong Xu.

  14. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (<0.8) ratios; (2) dissolution of highly soluble salts (e.g., halite, gypsum) in the host sediments resulting in typically lower Br/Cl signal (<2 ?? 10-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  16. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-05-19

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene.

  17. Collimation and splitting of valley electron diffraction in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Bai, Yan-Kui; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    We reported the collimation and splitting effects of the diffraction of valley electrons in graphene. When the incident energy increases from the neutral point, the diffraction tends to be collimated for one valley and split for the other valley. The difference in the diffraction between valleys results in valley-dependent transport. We investigated the left-right conductance of a four-terminal graphene device. The conductance ratio between the two valleys was derived to be 1 -(8 /3 )E , where E is the incident energy in units of the atom-atom hopping. The ratio is independent of the device dimensions and reflects the intrinsic properties of the electronic structure of graphene.

  18. A valley and spin filter based on gapped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Long, Mengqiu; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Hu, Yue; Wang, Gaofeng; Chan, K. S.

    2016-07-01

    We study highly valley- and spin-polarized current in single-layer gapped graphene without spin–orbit coupling. The structure considered is a three-barrier structure with one spin-splitting barrier and two electrical potential barriers with vector potentials. The electrons in the two valleys transmit differently because of the valley-dependent reflection between two adjacent barriers, while the spin-up and spin-down electrons transmit differently because of the spin splitting. The structure is different from other structures in which spin–orbit coupling plays an important role in the observation of valley- and spin-polarized current. We can control the spin and valley polarization by changing the width of the barrier or the strength of the spin splitting. The structure proposed in this paper can be used to make valley and spin devices.

  19. Controllable photo-induced spin and valley filtering in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Nia, Borhan Arghavani

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin- and valley-dependent ballistic transport in silicene, which is assumed to be modulated by local application of a gate voltage and off-resonant circularly polarized light. We show that, due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom in silicene, the current through it is spin and valley polarized. The spin (valley) polarization can be enhanced by tuning the light intensity and the value of the perpendicular electric field, leading to perfect spin (valley) filtering for certain of their values. It is also found that the spin (valley) polarization can be inverted by reversing the perpendicular electric field (by reversing the perpendicular electric field or reversing the circular polarization of the light irradiation).

  20. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  2. Scaling relationships and concavity of small valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penido, Julita C.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Som, Sanjoy M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley networks are widely interpreted as the preserved erosional record of water flowing across the martian surface. The manner in which valley morphometric properties scale with drainage area has been widely examined on Earth. Earlier studies assessing these properties on Mars have suggested that martian valleys are morphometrically distinct from those on Earth. However, these earlier measurements were generally made on large valley systems because of the limited topographic data available. In this study, we determine the scaling properties of valley networks at smaller scales than have been previously assessed, using digital elevation models from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). We find a Hack's law exponent of 0.74, larger than on Earth, and our measurements also reveal that individual small valleys have concave up, concave down, and quasi-linear longitudinal profiles, consistent with earlier studies of dissected terrain on Mars. However, for many valleys, widths are observed to increase downstream similarly to how they scale in terrestrial channels. The similarities and differences between valley networks on Mars and Earth are consistent with the idea that valleys on Mars are comparatively immature, and precipitation was a likely mechanism for delivering water to these networks.

  3. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    PubMed

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization. PMID:24705384

  4. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  5. Electron dynamics and valley relaxation in 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides are 2D semiconducting systems with unique electronic band structure. Two-valley energy bands along with strong spin-orbital coupling lead to valley dependent career spin polarization, which is the basis for recently proposed valleytronic applications. Since the durations of valley population provide the time window in which valley specific processes take place, it is an essential parameter for developing valleytronic devices. These systems also exhibit unusually strong many body affects, such as strong exciton and trion binding, due to reduced dielectric screening of Coulomb interactions. But there is not much known about the impact of strong many particle correlations on spin and valley polarization dynamics. Here we report direct measurements of ultrafast valley specific relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2 and WS2. We found that excitonic many body interactions significantly contribute to the relaxation process. Biexciton formation reveals hole valley spin relaxation time. Our results also suggest initial fast intervalley electron scattering and electron spin relaxation leads to loss of electron valley polarization, which then facilitates hole valley relaxation via excitonic spin exchange interaction.

  6. Valley-polarized insulating states in zigzag silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Zhao, Shangqian; Zhang, Yuchun; Liu, Hong; Lu, Wengang; Liang, Wenjie

    2014-12-01

    Valley-polarized insulating states are found numerically in zigzag-edged silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) because of the strong spin-orbit couplings and the spin-polarized electronic structures. We further investigate the effects of the valley-polarization on the transport and optical properties of ZSiNRs: it splits the degeneracy of ZSiNRs’ conductance plateaus and offers valley-polarized transport channels; new optical activation modes appear for the singlet exciton states due to unequal cancellation of the contributions from different valleys.

  7. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  8. Impact of valley polarization on the resistivity in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Takashina, K; Niida, Y; Renard, V T; Fujiwara, A; Fujisawa, T; Muraki, K; Hirayama, Y

    2011-05-13

    We examine the temperature dependence of resistivity in a two-dimensional electron system formed in a silicon-on-insulator quantum well. The device allows us to tune the valley splitting continuously in addition to the electron density. Our data provide a global picture of how the resistivity and its temperature dependence change with valley polarization. At the boundary between valley-polarized and partially polarized regions, we demonstrate that there is an insulating contribution from spin-degenerate electrons occupying the upper valley-subband edge.

  9. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    PubMed

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  10. Formation Timescales of the Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, M. T.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of valley networks across much of the ancient surface of Mars [e.g. 1] together with the locations and morphologies of the Martian deltas [e.g. 2] and ancient paleolakes [e.g. 3, 4], provides strong evidence that the Martian surface environment was once capable of sustaining long-lived flowing water. Many of the larger Martian valley networks exhibit characteristics consistent with their formation primarily from surface runoff of precipitated water [5-7]. Their formation likely followed similar processes as those that formed terrestrial river valleys, including the gradual erosion and transport of sediment downstream by bed load, suspended load, and wash load processes. When quantifying flow rates on Mars, some researchers have modified the Manning equation for depth- and width-averaged flow velocity in an attempt to better-fit Martian conditions [e.g. 3, 8-10]. These attempts, however, often result in flow velocities on Mars that are overestimated by up to a factor of two [10]. An alternative to the Manning equation that is often overlooked in the planetary science community is the Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) equation [11], which, unlike the Manning equation, maintains a dependence on the acceleration due to gravity. Although the D-W equation relies on a dimensionless friction function that has been fitted to terrestrial data, it is not a constant like the Manning coefficient. Rather, the D-W friction factor is a function of bed slope, flow depth, and median grain size [e.g. 8, 10, 12-14], and therefore it is better suited to model flow velocity on Mars. In this work, we investigate the formation timescales of the Martian valley networks through the use of four different sediment transport models [14], the D-W equation for average flow velocity, and a variety of parameters to encompass a range of possible formation conditions. This is done specific to each of eight large valley networks, all of which have crater densities that place their formation in the

  11. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is

  12. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  14. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, A. S.; Bürgmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ˜1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ˜0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ˜6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ˜7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ˜0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  15. Paleoseismic Study in Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, A. C.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2009-12-01

    Antelope Valley is sited at the western limit of the Basin and Range province within the central Walker Lane at ~38.59° N latitude. Mapping of Quaternary deposits, the measurements of fault scarps, and structural and stratigraphic relationships exposed in a trench excavated across the active fault bounding the western edge of Antelope Valley are the basis to place bounds on the seismic hazard and rate of crustal deformation in the region. The valley is bounded on its western edge by a 16+ km long north-northwesterly trending normal fault. The fault is manifest by an abrupt range front exhibiting triangular facets and scarps in young alluvium at numerous fan heads. The trench exposure records two Holocene earthquakes and a third event of an older but unknown age on a fault that dips about 56°. Displacements for the most recent and penultimate events determined from the thickness of the colluvial wedge deposits were at minimum 3.6 and 3.1 m respectively. Radiocarbon ages on buried soil indicate the most recent earthquake occurred near or subsequent to 1312-1414 cal ybp, and that the penultimate event closely predated 6196-6294 cal ybp. If it is assumed that the time between the two events represents the average recurrence interval (4882 yr), division of the most recent offset by the average recurrence interval implies a fault slip rate on the order of ~0.7 mm/yr. Scarp offsets ranging from 2.4 to 5.7 m are observed in what appear to be similar age deposits along 16 km of the fault and may also in part record more than one event. Using a regression of surface rupture length on moment magnitude requires the last earthquake was at minimum Mw=6.48.

  16. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation (Rogue Valley),\\1\\ a Class III rail carrier... White City Terminal & Utility Co. (WCTU) and was indirectly controlled by Berkshire Hathaway...

  17. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...

  18. 77 FR 12527 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Management District and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These...

  19. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecić, Ina

    2015-04-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  20. Environmental Assessment : Happy Valley [Substation Project].

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1982-05-01

    The proposed Happy Valley project consists of construction of a new BPA customer service 69-kV substation south of Sequim in Clallam County, Washington. A tie line, to be constructed by the customer as part of this project, will link the new BPA facility to the existing customer's transmission system in the area. This project responds to rapid load growth in the Olympic Peninsula, and will strengthen the existing BPA system and interconnected utility systems. It will reduce transmission losses presently incurred, especially on the BPA system supplying power to the Olympic Peninsula. This report describes the potential environmental impact of the proposed actions. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [The Great Rift Valley. Parasitological results].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    East Africa is separated from the continent by the Great Rift Valley which was created at the end of the secondary era limiting then the East Africa under-continent with peculiar fauna and flora features. A several million years long isolation, during the tertiary era, seems to explain that a certain number of protozoan and helminthic diseases present peculiar clinical, epidemiological, therapeutical and parasitological features. The occurrence of those peculiar strains tends to indicate that in this region, for example, the resistance of P. falciparum to amino-4-quinolines is a regional feature which should not largely expand to the rest of the African continent.

  2. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  3. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Lee, Bonmyong

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome. PMID:26425383

  4. Recurrence of Rift Valley fever in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R R; el-Sharkawy, M S; Cope, S E; Botros, B A; Oun, S; Morrill, J C; Shope, R E; Hibbs, R G; Darwish, M A; Imam, I Z

    1993-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been recorded in man and in domestic animals in Egypt after a 12-year absence. Human infections were first noted in the Aswan Governorate in late May, 1993. Only cases of ocular disease, an infrequent and late manifestation, were reported. Of 41 cases, 35 were tested serologically and 27 (77%) had RVF virus-specific IgM antibodies. An estimated 600-1500 infections occurred in the region. Abortions in cattle and buffalo were seen concurrently and antibodies to RVFV were present in 39% of domestic livestock, presumably unvaccinated. RVFV was isolated from an aborted water buffalo fetus.

  5. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  6. Subglacial extensional fracture development and implications for Alpine Valley evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2014-01-01

    stresses induced through exhumation and tectonic processes play a key role in the topographic evolution of alpine valleys. Using a finite difference model combining the effects of tectonics, erosion, and long-term bedrock strength, we assess the development of near-surface in situ stresses and predict bedrock behavior in response to glacial erosion in an Alpine Valley (the Matter Valley, southern Switzerland). Initial stresses are derived from the regional tectonic history, which is characterized by ongoing transtensional or extensional strain throughout exhumation of the brittle crust. We find that bedrock stresses beneath glacial ice in an initial V-shaped topography are sufficient to induce localized extensional fracturing in a zone extending laterally 600 m from the valley axis. The limit of this zone is reflected in the landscape today by a valley "shoulder," separating linear upper mountain slopes from the deep U-shaped inner valley. We propose that this extensional fracture development enhanced glacial quarrying between the valley shoulder and axis and identify a positive feedback where enhanced quarrying promoted valley incision, which in turn increased in situ stress concentrations near the valley floor, assisting erosion and further driving rapid U-shaped valley development. During interglacial periods, these stresses were relieved through brittle strain or topographic modification, and without significant erosion to reach more highly stressed bedrock, subsequent glaciation caused a reduction in differential stress and suppressed extensional fracturing. A combination of stress relief during interglacial periods, and increased ice accumulation rates in highly incised valleys, will reduce the likelihood of repeat enhanced erosion events.

  7. The Rate at Which Asexual Populations Cross Fitness Valleys

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel B.; Desai, Michael M.; Fisher, Daniel S.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2010-01-01

    Complex traits often involve interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, whereby a set of mutations are individually deleterious or neutral but in combination confer a fitness benefit. In order to acquire the beneficial genotype, an asexual population must cross a fitness valley or plateau by first acquiring the deleterious or neutral intermediates. Here, we present a complete, intuitive theoretical description of the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We calculate the rate at which a population crosses a fitness valley or plateau of arbitrary width, as a function of the mutation rates, the population size, and the fitnesses of the intermediates. We find that when intermediates are close to neutral, a large population can cross even wide fitness valleys remarkably quickly, so that valley-crossing dynamics may be common even when mutations that directly increase fitness are also possible. Thus the evolutionary dynamics of large populations can be sensitive to the structure of an extended region of the fitness landscape – the population may be likely to pass up directly uphill paths in favor of paths across valleys and plateaus that lead eventually to fitter genotypes. In smaller populations, we find that below a threshold size which depends on the width of the fitness valley and the strength of selection against intermediate genotypes, valley-crossing is much less likely and hence the evolutionary dynamics are less influenced by distant regions of the fitness landscape. PMID:19285994

  8. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  9. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  10. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  11. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  12. 27 CFR 9.194 - San Antonio Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... significance. (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the San Antonio Valley viticultural area are ten United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1...) Boundary. The San Antonio Valley viticultural area is located in Monterey County, California. The...

  13. Mid-Mon Valley Survey: Education and Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Pearley; Sandrock, Brad L.

    In May 1991, a survey was conducted of businesses and industries in the Mid-Mon Valley in Pennsylvania to develop a profile of the companies, determine their competitiveness and expansion since completion of a 1987 Business Outreach Survey, determine their use of technology, identify training needs for the Mid-Mon Valley, and examine how companies…

  14. 22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. EYE BOLTS IN ROCK FACE AT RIGHT WERE USED BRIEFLY IN PLACE OF PIERS TO SUSPEND PIPE BY CHAIN BECAUSE THE CONCRETE PIERS WERE SUSCEPTIBLE TO HEAVY WAVE ACTION IN THIS AREA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  15. Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nang L; Zhao, Guoyan; Hull, Rene; Shelly, Mark A; Wong, Susan J; Wu, Guang; St George, Kirsten; Wang, David; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2013-06-01

    Cache Valley virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes and had been linked to central nervous system-associated diseases. A case of Cache Valley virus infection is described. The virus was cultured from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid and identified with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing, which also yielded the complete viral coding sequences.

  16. Cache Valley Virus in a Patient Diagnosed with Aseptic Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nang L.; Zhao, Guoyan; Hull, Rene; Shelly, Mark A.; Wong, Susan J.; Wu, Guang; St. George, Kirsten; Wang, David

    2013-01-01

    Cache Valley virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes and had been linked to central nervous system-associated diseases. A case of Cache Valley virus infection is described. The virus was cultured from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid and identified with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing, which also yielded the complete viral coding sequences. PMID:23515536

  17. 63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 395 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 935 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 27 CFR 9.64 - Dry Creek Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.64 Dry Creek Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Dry Creek Valley... viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. topographic maps. They are— (1) “Geyserville Quadrangle,...

  20. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.37 California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... Valley viticultural area are two 1962 U.S.G.S. maps. The maps are titled: “Fiddletown...

  1. 27 CFR 9.64 - Dry Creek Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.64 Dry Creek Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Dry Creek Valley... viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. topographic maps. They are— (1) “Geyserville Quadrangle,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.37 California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... Valley viticultural area are two 1962 U.S.G.S. maps. The maps are titled: “Fiddletown...

  3. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.37 California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... Valley viticultural area are two 1962 U.S.G.S. maps. The maps are titled: “Fiddletown...

  4. 27 CFR 9.64 - Dry Creek Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.64 Dry Creek Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Dry Creek Valley... viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. topographic maps. They are— (1) “Geyserville Quadrangle,...

  5. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.37 California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... Valley viticultural area are two 1962 U.S.G.S. maps. The maps are titled: “Fiddletown...

  6. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.37 California Shenandoah Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... Valley viticultural area are two 1962 U.S.G.S. maps. The maps are titled: “Fiddletown...

  7. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  8. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  12. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  13. 21. VIEW EAST ALONG PALI TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW EAST ALONG PALI TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF ELEVATED PIPELINE ON CONCRETE PIERS. PIPE IS BURIED AT THIS POINT. NOTE REMAINS OF WOOD FRAMEWORK FOR CATWALK (DESTROYED). - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. 78 FR 9686 - Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Valley Electric Association, Inc. filed a notice of material changes in certain of...

  15. Water supply issues of the San Joaquin Valley in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is undoubtedly one of the most productive agricultural regions of the United States, and of the world. The valley was a Miocene epicontinental sea bounded by the Sierra Nevada igneous arc in the east and the Coast Range accretionary terrane in the west. It is now...

  16. 27 CFR 9.25 - San Pasqual Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Pasqual Valley. 9.25... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.25 San Pasqual Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  17. 27 CFR 9.25 - San Pasqual Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Pasqual Valley. 9.25... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.25 San Pasqual Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  18. 27 CFR 9.194 - San Antonio Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Antonio Valley. 9.194... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.194 San Antonio Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  19. Valley Fever: Danger Lurking in a Dust Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Larry; Gaab, Erin M.; Sanchez, Javier; Bui, Phuong Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Hoyer, Katrina K.; Peterson, Michael W.; Ojcius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii contribute to the development of Valley Fever. The ability of these fungal pathogens to evade the host immune system creates difficulty in recognition and treatment of this debilitating infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of Valley Fever and approaches to improve prevention, detection, and treatment. PMID:25038397

  20. Lone Tree prospect area, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-02-01

    Continued exploration in the Basin and Range of Nevada has resulted in a number of small field discoveries that confirm widespread oil generation and suggest potential in local prospect settings. One such setting, the Lone Tree prospect area, lies approximately 6.5 mi (10.4 km) southwest of Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley. Discovered in 1983, this field had produced nearly 20 million bbl of oil by June 1996, mostly from two wells. Oil is entrapped in a slide block of fractured Paleozoic strata juxtaposed against Mississippian source rocks along a detachment fault of probable early Tertiary age. Subsequent exploration has focused on attempts to identify such blocks elsewhere in east-central Nevada, particularly in Railroad and Pine Valleys. Well, gravity, and two-dimensional seismic data suggested the existence of such a block in the Lone Tree area. These data were used as a basis for a three-dimensional seismic survey. Information from this survey identified a prospect at the structural culmination of the interpreted block. The resulting well, the 13-14 Timber Mountain, was commercially unsuccessful but yielded important new data, suggesting a need to revise existing stratigraphy and structural history. In addition, a second prospect, located farther updip, was indicated.

  1. Hydrocarbon potential of Dead Sea Rift valley

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.; Kashai, E.L.; Croker, P.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Dead Sea Rift is one of the world's unique geologic and topographic features, whose petroleum potential has not yet been evaluated. The sector of the Dead Sea is an asymmetric graben 20 km (12 mi) from rim to rim and over 120 km (75 mi) long. The total throw from the west rim, where the Upper Cretaceous crops out to the deeper portion of the grabens, is more than 8 km (26,200 ft). Throw on the eastern side is considerably greater as the valley wall is largely Precambrian. The level of the Dead Sea is -400 m (-1300 ft) - the lowest place on earth. Asphalt blocks floating from the Dead Sea, along with asphalt and heavy oil seeps in the valley, have been known since biblical times. These are suggestive of leaks from deeper accumulations. Although some exploration drilling has been done, no test has yet reached objectives in the deeper sunken block where the Miocene is figured to be at a depth of at least 7 km (23,000 ft.)

  2. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  3. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  4. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  6. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  7. Precipitation depth-duration characteristics, Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, James C.; Nasseri, Iraj; ,

    1995-01-01

    To document the changes in runoff characteristics of basins subject to urbanization, streamflow and precipitation data were collected at eight small basins in Antelope Valley, California, for the period 1990-93. The data collected at U.S. Geological Survey stations were supplemented by data collected at 35 long-term precipitation stations. These data will be used to calibrate and verify rainfall-runoff models for the eight basins and for estimating basin runoff characteristics throughout Antelope Valley. Annual precipitation in Antelope Valley varies from more than 50 cm in the mountains to less than 10 cm on the valley floor. Most precipitation in the valley occurs during the winter months, December through March, but cyclonic storms in the fall and convectional storms in the summer sometimes occur.

  8. Magma energy exploratory well Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bender-Lamb, S.

    1991-04-01

    Intensive study of Long Valley over the past 15 years indicates evidence for magma at depths accessible to drilling. The Department of Energy's Magma Energy Extraction Program is currently drilling a 20,000 foot exploratory well into the Long Valley caldera. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of producing electrical power from magma. If the magma energy experiment is successful, the Long Valley caldera could hypothetically supply the electrical power needs of California for 100 years at present power consumption rates. The paper describes calderas, the potential of geothermal energy, Long Valley geology, the Long Valley magma energy exploratory well, the four phases of the exploratory well drilling program, and Phase 1 results.

  9. Modeling Bulk Atmospheric Drainage Flow in a Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosy, Ronald J.

    1989-09-01

    Most simulations of bulk valley-drainage flows depend heavily on parameterizations. The 1984 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado, provided an unprecedented density of measurements in a natural valley of simple shape, allowing tests of assumptions and parameterizations developed from laboratory measurements and detailed numerical simulations. This paper uses the ASCOT data to test a model that computes total fluxes of mass (volume) and momentum-determining buoyant and pressure-gradient forces from measured temperature profiles, and parameterizing drag, entrainment, and sidewall and tributary drainage. Computed divergences of volume and momentum flux are within a factor of 2 of the Doppler lidar measurements in Brush Creek Valley. The relative importance of individual terms as parameterized in the model is discussed. A major problem for future work is the treatment of the interaction between valley drainage and ambient flow.

  10. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  11. Tuning surface Dirac valleys by strain in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Jianfeng; Gu, Bing-Lin; Duan, Wenhui

    2015-05-01

    A topological crystalline insulator has an even number of Dirac cones (i.e., multiple valleys) in its surface band structure, thus potentially leading to valleytronic applications such as graphene. Using the density-functional-theory method, we systematically investigate the strain-induced evolution of topological surface states on the SnTe(111) surface. Our results show that compressive strain can shift the Dirac cones at the Γ ¯ and M ¯ valleys to different extents (even oppositely) in energy, while the tensile strain can induce different band gaps at the valleys due to the enhanced penetration depths of surface states. Exploiting a strain-induced nanostructure with well-defined edges on the (111) surface, we demonstrate strong valley-selective filtering for massless Dirac fermions by dynamically applying local external pressure. Our findings may pave the way for strain-engineered valley-resolved manipulation of Dirac fermions with high tunability and scalability.

  12. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  13. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and Antelope Valley College Faculty Association, June 13, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Coll., Lancaster, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and the Antelope Valley College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all full- and part-time certificated employees of the District, covering the period from June 1988 to June 1990. The articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1)…

  14. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global

  15. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  16. Valley floor climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica, 1986-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, P.T.; McKay, C.P.; Clow, G.D.; Dana, G.L.; Fountain, A.G.; Nylen, T.; Lyons, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, East Antarctica are presented from a network of seven valley floor automatic meteorological stations during the period 1986 to 2000. Mean annual temperatures ranged from -14.8??C to -30.0??C, depending on the site and period of measurement. Mean annual relative humidity is generally highest near the coast. Mean annual wind speed increases with proximity to the polar plateau. Site-to-site variation in mean annual solar flux and PAR is due to exposure of each station and changes over time are likely related to changes in cloudiness. During the nonsummer months, strong katabatic winds are frequent at some sites and infrequent at others, creating large variation in mean annual temperature owing to the warming effect of the winds. Katabatic wind exposure appears to be controlled to a large degree by the presence of colder air in the region that collects at low points and keeps the warm less dense katabatic flow from the ground. The strong influence of katabatic winds makes prediction of relative mean annual temperature based on geographical position (elevation and distance from the coast) alone, not possible. During the summer months, onshore winds dominate and warm as they progress through the valleys creating a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.992) of increasing potential temperature with distance from the coast (0.09??C km-1). In contrast to mean annual temperature, summer temperature lends itself quite well to model predictions, and is used to construct a statistical model for predicting summer dry valley temperatures at unmonitored sites. Copyright 2002 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W C; Weingartl, H M; Drolet, B S; Davé, K; Harpster, M H; Johnson, P A; Faburay, B; Ruder, M G; Richt, J A; McVey, D S

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is concern that this virus could spread because of global warming, increased animal trade or through bioterrorism. This paper discusses the current and developing approaches to diagnosis of RVF. Diagnostic assays are available for RVF, but availability can be limited and there is a need for global harmonization. Continued improvement of standard serological and viral genome amplification approaches, including new embedded/syndromic testing, biosensor, emerging virus detection and characterization technologies is needed.

  18. Valley plasmonics in transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewald, R. E.; Rösner, M.; Schönhoff, G.; Haas, S.; Wehling, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    The rich phenomenology of plasmonic excitations in the dichalcogenides is analyzed as a function of doping. The many-body polarization, the dielectric response function, and electron energy loss spectra are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic Coulomb interactions, band structure, and spin-orbit coupling. Focusing on the representative case of MoS2, a plethora of plasmon bands are observed, originating from scattering processes within and between the conduction or valence band valleys. We discuss the resulting square-root and linear collective modes, arising from long-range versus short-range screening of the Coulomb potential. We show that the multiorbital nature of the bands and spin-orbit coupling strongly affects intervalley scattering processes by gapping certain two-particle modes at large momentum transfer.

  19. Comparison of basal Silurian quartzarenites in Great Valley and Valley and Ridge provinces of central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, T.D.

    1987-05-01

    Throughout the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians, the basal Silurian units are the Tuscarora Sandstone (quartzarenite), Rose Hill (Clinton) Formation (shale), and Keefer Sandstone (quartz subgraywacke). In the Great Valley province to the east, the basal Silurian is represented by a single quartzarenite unit, the Massanutten Sandstone. Based on similar thicknesses and stratigraphic positions, it has been assumed that the Massanutten section is equivalent to the Lower Silurian section in the Valley and ridge. Very little work has been done on the petrography of these two sections to see if there are similarities in terms of depositional environment and provenance to support this correlation. The purpose of this study is to compare the quartzarenite portions of the two sections by means of cathodoluminescence. Cathodoluminescence allows characterization of the source terrane (high versus low-temperature quartz) for a sandstone based on the luminescent colors of the quartz grains. Overall, the ratio of brown to blue luminescing quartz in the Tuscarora differs from that of the Massanutten, suggesting a different source area with more low-temperature quartz supplied to the Tuscarora. Furthermore, within the Massanutten, the ratio of brown to blue quartz decreases from the bottom to the top of the section, consistent with an increased input of high-grade metamorphic or igneous quartz through time. The possible differences in source terranes for the Tuscarora and Massanutten Sandstones are in general agreement with paleogeographic models that have been proposed for the area.

  20. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems. PMID:24671755

  1. Understanding the coupled surface energy flux-valley wind system using observations in an alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Mage, R.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Buoyancy-driven diurnal valley winds depend on relative partitioning of incoming solar radiation into the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Evaporation and transpiration at the surface contribute to the latent heat flux, while heating of the air near the surface results from the sensible heat flux. Thus if more moisture is available at the surface, (e.g. as soil moisture or dew) then more energy will be partitioned into the latent heat flux, and less will be available for the sensible heat flux. Presented here is an analysis of observations from surface weather stations placed throughout the La Fouly catchment (~20 km^2) in southern Switzerland during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The stations were equipped with sensors to measure atmospheric and land surface variables including: incoming solar radiation, 2 m air temperature, skin temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, and soil temperature. Scaling analysis is used to show how the balance between sensible and latent heat fluxes influences the buoyancy-driven valley winds. A preliminary analysis indicates that increased surface soil moisture tends to decrease the strength of slope winds both during the day and at night, while decreased soil moisture has the opposite effect. While this type of relation has been previously investigated through numerical simulations of valley or slope flows, it has not (to the authors' knowledge), been previously observed in the field.

  2. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems.

  3. Preliminary subsidence investigation of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.; Ireland, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Although a number of agencies have made leveling surveys in Sacramento Valley and a valleywide network of first- and second-order control exists, few areas have sufficient control for determining whether land subsidence has occurred and if so, how much, within the time span of vertical control. Available data suggest that 0.2 to 0.9 foot (0.06 to 0.3 m) of subsidence probably has occurred from 1935-42 to 1964 in an extensive agricultural area of heavy ground-water pumping between Zamora and Davis, and that as much as 2 feet (0.6 m) of subsidence has occurred in at least two areas of pumping overdraft--east of Zamora, and west of Arbuckle. A comparison of maps showing long-term water-level decline and average annual ground-water pumpage indicates several other areas of probable subsidence. In six general areas--northwest of Sacramento; northeast of Sacramento; southeast of Yuba City; 10 miles (16 km) north of Willows; 20 miles (32 km) north of Willows; and especially in the Arbuckle area,ground-water declines have quite probably produced significant subsidence. In two areas of most intensive pumping, no long-term water-level declines have occurred, and no subsidence is indicated. If problems of land subsidence are of concern in Sacramento Valley, and if estimates of historic subsidence or subsidence potential are needed, serious consideration should be given to a field program of basic-data collection. Second-order leveling along a few carefully selected lines of existing control, and the installation and operation of two or three compaction recorders in areas of continuing water-level decline, would provide helpful data for estimating .past and future subsidence.

  4. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B; Farrell, Roberta L

    2013-05-28

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution.

  5. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  6. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    SciTech Connect

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  7. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    SciTech Connect

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. The warmer waters are likely to have higher concentrations of sodium and chloride, as well as sulfate, silica, and dissolved solids, than the cooler waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill deposits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Extensive areas underlain by thermal ground water occur near Crump geyser and Fisher Hot Spring.

  8. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  9. The rate of fitness-valley crossing in sexual populations.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Daniel B; Feldman, Marcus W; Fisher, Daniel S

    2010-12-01

    Biological traits result in part from interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, in which a beneficial adaptation involves a combination of individually deleterious or neutral mutations; in this case, a population must cross a "fitness valley" to adapt. Recombination can assist this process by combining mutations from different individuals or retard it by breaking up the adaptive combination. Here, we analyze the simplest fitness valley, in which an adaptation requires one mutation at each of two loci to provide a fitness benefit. We present a theoretical analysis of the effect of recombination on the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We find that low recombination rates can speed up valley crossing relative to the asexual case, while higher recombination rates slow down valley crossing, with the transition between the two regimes occurring when the recombination rate between the loci is approximately equal to the selective advantage provided by the adaptation. In large populations, if the recombination rate is high and selection against single mutants is substantial, the time to cross the valley grows exponentially with population size, effectively meaning that the population cannot acquire the adaptation. Recombination at the optimal (low) rate can reduce the valley-crossing time by up to several orders of magnitude relative to that in an asexual population.

  10. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Long; Shi, Zhiwen; Nair, Nityan; Lv, Yinchuan; Jin, Chenhao; Velasco, Jairo; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Zettl, Alex; Analytis, James; Wang, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene. A tunable bandgap can be induced in bilayer graphene by an external electric field, and such gapped bilayer graphene is predicted to be a topological insulating phase protected by no-valley mixing symmetry, featuring quantum valley Hall effects and chiral edge states. Observation of such chiral edge states, however, is challenging because inter-valley scattering is induced by atomic-scale defects at real bilayer graphene edges. Recent theoretical work has shown that domain walls between AB- and BA-stacked bilayer graphene can support protected chiral edge states of quantum valley Hall insulators. Here we report an experimental observation of ballistic (that is, with no scattering of electrons) conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls. We employ near-field infrared nanometre-scale microscopy (nanoscopy) to image in situ bilayer graphene layer-stacking domain walls on device substrates, and we fabricate dual-gated field effect transistors based on the domain walls. Unlike single-domain bilayer graphene, which shows gapped insulating behaviour under a vertical electrical field, bilayer graphene domain walls feature one-dimensional valley-polarized conducting channels with a ballistic length of about 400 nanometres at 4 kelvin. Such topologically protected one-dimensional chiral states at bilayer graphene domain walls open up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene.

  11. Valley relaxation in graphene due to charged impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boross, Péter; Pályi, András

    2015-07-01

    Monolayer graphene is an example of materials with multivalley electronic structure. In such materials, the valley index is being considered as an information carrier. Consequently, relaxation mechanisms leading to loss of valley information are of interest. Here, we calculate the rate of valley relaxation induced by charged impurities in graphene. A special model of graphene is applied, where the pz orbitals are two-dimensional Gaussian functions, with a spatial extension characterized by an effective Bohr radius aeB. We obtain the valley relaxation rate by solving the Boltzmann equation, for the case of noninteracting electrons, as well as for the case when the impurity potential is screened due to electron-electron interaction. For the latter case, we take into account local-field effects and evaluate the dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Our main findings are as follows: (i) The valley relaxation rate is proportional to the electronic density of states at the Fermi energy. (ii) Charged impurities located in the close vicinity of the graphene plane, at distance d ≲0.3 Å , are much more efficient in inducing valley relaxation than those farther away, the effect of the latter being suppressed exponentially with increasing graphene-impurity distance d . (iii) Both in the absence and in the presence of electron-electron interaction, the valley relaxation rate shows pronounced dependence on the effective Bohr radius aeB. The trends are different in the two cases: In the absence (presence) of screening, the valley relaxation rate decreases (increases) for increasing effective Bohr radius. This last result highlights that a quantitative calculation of the valley relaxation rate should incorporate electron-electron interactions as well as an accurate knowledge of the electronic wave functions on the atomic length scale.

  12. Holocene sedimentation history of the major fan valleys of Monterey fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.R.; Normark, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are three major fan valleys on upper Monterey fan. Deep-tow geophysical profiles and 40 sediment cores provide the basis for evaluation of the sedimentation histories of these valleys. Monterey fan valley leads from Monterey canyon to a major suprafan and is bounded by levees that crest more than 400 m above the valley floor. The valley passes through a large z-bend or meander. Monterey East fan valley joins Monterey fan valley at the meander at about 150 m above the valley floor, and marks an earlier position of the lower Monterey fan valley. Ascension valley, a hanging contributary to the Monterey fan valley, appears to have once been the shoreward head of the lower part of the present Monterey fan valley. The relief of Monterey fan valley appears from deep-tow profiles to be erosional. The valley is floored with sand. Holocene turbidity currents do not overtop the levees 400 m above the valley floor, but do at times overflow and transport sand into Monterey East valley, producing a sandy floor. An 1100 m by 300 m dune field was observed on side scan sonar in Monterey East valley. Ascension fan valley was floored with sand during glacial intervals of lowered sea level, then was cut off from its sand source as sea level rose. A narrow (500 m), erosional, meandering channel was incised into the flat valley floor; the relief features otherwise appear depositional, with a hummocky topography perhaps produced in the manner of a braided riverbed. The sand is mantled by about 6 m of probable Holocene mud. Hummocky relief on the back side of the northwestern levees of both Ascension and Monterey valleys is characteristic of many turbidite valleys in the northeast Pacific. The hummocky topography is produced by dune-like features that migrate toward levee crests during growth. ?? 1976.

  13. "P8400564 Grand Valley Project view of GV Diversion Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "P8-400-564 Grand Valley Project - view of GV Diversion Dam on Col. River completed in 1915 by BOR to divert water to irrigate the Grand Valley Project. 7-18-58 by Stan Rasmussen." Note integration of the dam and canal headgate at center left, proximity of the river and railroad tracks at lower left, and gatekeeper's house on lower right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  14. Holocene alluvial fills in the South Loup Valley, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, David W.

    1989-07-01

    Four Holocene alluvial fills are present in Nebraska's South Loup River valley. Fill IV, the oldest and thickest, was deposited between 10,200 and 4800 14C yr B.P.; Fill III has an age of about 3000 14C yr B.P.; Fill II is younger than 2100 and older than 900 14C yr B.P.; and Fill I is younger than 900 14C yr B.P. Regional contemporaneity of valley alluviation in the eastcentral Great Plains suggests that climate has controlled long-term sediment storage in the South Loup River valley.

  15. 7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and lands to be irrigated by the Agua Fria Water and Land Company. Photographer Mark Durben, 1987 Source: 'Map of the Agua Fria Valley and the Western Portion of the Salt River Valley Showing the System of Reservoirs and Canals of the Agua Fria Water and Land Company and the Land to be Irrigated Thereby 160,000 Acres of New Land to be Reclaimed in the Maricopa County, Arizona Territory,' (Brochure) Union Photo Engraving Company, c. 1895, Salt River Project Research Archives, Tempe, Arizona. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Meander in valley crossing a deep-ocean fan.

    PubMed

    Shepard, F P

    1966-10-21

    Seaward of most submarine canyons there are large sediment fans comparable to the fans at the base of mountain ranges. Many of the submarine fans are cut by valleys called fan-valleys which usually connect with the mouths of submarine canyons. Loop-like bends or meanders characterize the channels of rivers in their lower flood plains, but have never been found in the shallow channels that cross the alluvial fans at the base of mountain canyons. Therefore, it was surprising to find that the channel in a very deep submarine fan-valley off Monterey Bay, California, has a tight meander. PMID:17751705

  17. Groundwater Availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  18. Meander in valley crossing a deep-ocean fan.

    PubMed

    Shepard, F P

    1966-10-21

    Seaward of most submarine canyons there are large sediment fans comparable to the fans at the base of mountain ranges. Many of the submarine fans are cut by valleys called fan-valleys which usually connect with the mouths of submarine canyons. Loop-like bends or meanders characterize the channels of rivers in their lower flood plains, but have never been found in the shallow channels that cross the alluvial fans at the base of mountain canyons. Therefore, it was surprising to find that the channel in a very deep submarine fan-valley off Monterey Bay, California, has a tight meander.

  19. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Long; Shi, Zhiwen; Nair, Nityan; Lv, Yinchuan; Jin, Chenhao; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Bechtel, Hans; Martin, Michael; Zettl, Alex; Analytis, James; McEuen, Paul; Wang, Feng

    Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene. An external electric field can induce a tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene, and domain walls between AB- and BA-stacked bilayer graphene can support protected chiral edge states of quantum valley Hall insulators. In this talk, I will present our efforts on revealing the topologically protected edge states at AB-BA domain walls by combining near field infrared nanoscopy with electrical transport measurement. These one-dimensional valley-polarized conducting channels feature a ballistic length of about 400 nanometres at 4 kelvin.

  20. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e...)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O....

  1. Evolution of valley-fill terraces in the Alaknanda Valley, NW Himalaya: Its implication on river response studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrani, Rahul; Singh, Vimal

    2014-12-01

    The present study attempts to understand the importance of place and local factors in the process of valley filling in an active mountain belt. The accumulation of sediments in a valley stretch depends upon the relationship between sediment carried from upstream by the main river entering into the stretch (qi), locally derived sediments (i.e., from local streams (qt), hillslopes (qh), and glacial and periglacial processes (qg)), and sediment exiting that stretch (qo); these are in turn governed by other processes like tectonic activity, intensity of precipitation, and lithology. As an example a valley stretch in the NW Himalaya is chosen in the Alaknanda River, one of the two uppermost tributaries of the Ganga River. This stretch is called as Pipalkoti Valley after the name of the main town; it is located close to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and falls in the zone of orographic precipitation. Detailed geomorphic mapping reveals four surfaces and two terraces. Three debris-flow surfaces suggest their deposition by local mass flows and stream flows with very small contributions from the Alaknanda River. Terrace T2 occurs as a strath in some parts and is made up of fluvial and lacustrine sediments in others. The presence of lacustrine sediments suggests local damming of the river. Thick fluvial sediment is deposited in stretches of the rivers where it becomes wide due to the joining of a tributary. Synsedimentary deformation has been noted indicating that tectonic activity has affected sedimentation. The results suggest that local processes played a dominant role in the accumulation of sediments in this valley stretch. A model is proposed showing the role of glacial activity, high intensity meteorological events, river width, active faults and landslide damming in the origin of valley-fill deposits of the Pipalkoti Valley. It is concluded that before correlating valley-fill deposits along the lengths of the Himalayan valleys, it is important to evaluate the role of

  2. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  3. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley.

  5. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  6. Channels and valley networks. [of planet Mars surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Carr, Michael H.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Williams, Cameron R.; Marley, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Martian channels and valley networks, since they have become a principal element of evidence to the effect that the Martian atmosphere evolved from an early volatile-rich state to its present condition. The outflow channels are relatively young, later Hesperian or Amazonian in age. They formed by immense outbursts of fluid from subsurface sources. Complexity in outflow-channel morphology was generated by varying amounts of sediment and ice in the aqueous-fluid flow systems. The overall cataclysmic-flood morphology may thus be locally transitional to morphologies generated by ice and debris flowage. Although local areas of valley networks, such as on Alba Patera, formed coevally with outflow channel activity, regionally extensive networks dominate in the heavily cratered terrains. The morphology of many valleys suggests genesis by ground-water sapping; for some valleys, surface runoff may have been more important.

  7. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that cause valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis , live in desert soil. The fungal spores become airborne when wind ... according to the society. The fungi occur in desert regions ranging from western Texas, Arizona and northern ...

  8. 59. VIEW OF DEER VALLEY TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING SOUTH. SUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. VIEW OF DEER VALLEY TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING SOUTH. SUMP PUMP DRAINING INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL IS IN THE FOREGROUND Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

  10. Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar Thomson works from a bluff at North Braddock (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  12. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. McMurdo LTER: streamflow measurements in Taylor Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.; House, H.; Von Guerard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Has established a stream gaging network for the three major lake basins in Taylor Valley. These data are critical for determining nutrient budgets for the lake ecosystems and for understanding physical factors controlling microbial mats in the streams.

  15. Synchronized Swimming--The Training at Squaw Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Margaret M.

    1979-01-01

    The Olympic Training Center at Squaw Valley is available to individuals and groups interested in advanced skill development. It offers training in sports and sports medicine techniques. Its use by the Olympic synchronized swimming team is highlighted. (JMF)

  16. 15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Wyoming Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  17. 114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley in distance, alligator back, and overlook in foreground. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. ANALYSIS OF LOTIC MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using multivariate and cluster analyses, we examined the relaitonships between chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at sites sampled by R-EMAP in California's Central Valley. By contrasting results where community structure was summarized as met...

  19. Sociocultural and Economic Dimensions of Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Geoffrey Otieno; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary; Affognon, Hippolyte

    2015-01-01

    Health researchers have advocated for a cross-disciplinary approach to the study and prevention of infectious zoonotic diseases, such as Rift Valley Fever. It is believed that this approach can help bring out the social determinants and effects of the zoonotic diseases for the design of appropriate interventions and public health policy. A comprehensive literature review using a systematic search strategy was undertaken to explore the sociocultural and economic factors that influence the transmission and spread of Rift Valley Fever. Although the findings reveal a paucity of social research on Rift Valley Fever, they suggest that livestock sacrificial rituals, food preparation and consumption practices, gender roles, and inadequate resource base for public institutions are the key factors that influence the transmission. It is concluded that there is need for cross-disciplinary studies to increase the understanding of Rift Valley Fever and facilitate appropriate and timely response and mitigation measures. PMID:25688166

  20. Pleistocene entrenched valley/canyon systems, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, G.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mississippi Submarine Canyon is the seaward extension of the late Wisconsin entrenched alluvial valley. Geophysical and geologic data provide evidence for the continuity of the Mississippi entrenched valley, the Timbalier channel, and the submarine canyon. The Mississippi entrenched valley/canyon system is one of several systems recognized in the Pleistocene section of offshore Louisiana. Most of these systems were produced by the ancestral Mississippi River. They typically exhibit a three-gradient profile with their maximum erosional relief at the preexisting shelf margin. The canyons extend onto the pre-existing shelf for 20 to 50 mi, with erosion commonly exceeding 1000 ft. All of these systems delivered large quantities of sediment to the Pleistocene slope and abyssal plain. The fan deposits are the products of sediment passing through and being removed from the entrenched valley/canyon systems.

  1. Technology push, market pull, and the Valley of Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Gregory W.

    2005-09-01

    The Valley of Death is the gap between fundamental research and product development, where apparently promising technologies can stall or disappear. Fundamental researchers may hope for potential applications of their work, and they try to push technology based on their research. Businesses may hope that new technology might serve their market needs, and they try to find promising new technologies that can be pulled toward practical use. The valley between the researchers and the businesses can be surprisingly twisted and thorny, despite government attempts to build roads across it. The histories of cryogenic engineering in the late 20th century and of thermoacoustics work at Los Alamos offer examples of both useful and misguided strategies in this valley. Although global thermoacoustics R&D has not (yet?) been as successful as cryogenic engineering, thermoacoustics has thus far avoided some of the worst pitfalls in the valley.

  2. The Corporate Illiterates: The Hidden Illiterates of Silicon Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing and business communication problems of college-educated workers in Silicon Valley. Discusses hidden illiterates in the universities and in the workplace. Offers solutions for professors and managers faced with the problem of hidden illiterates. (PRA)

  3. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  4. Loess stratigraphy of the Lower Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, E.M.; Guccione, M.J.; Markewich, H.W.; Wysocki, D.A.; Ward, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Loesses of the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) are world-famous. Sir Charles Lyell (1847), Hilgard (1860), Stafford (1869), Call (1891) and Mabry (1898), thought the LMV loess was a single water deposit although "double submergence" was noted by Call (1891) and Salisbury (1891). Shimek (1902) and Emerson (1918) recognized LMV loess as a wind deposit which came from the valley. Although wind-deposited loess gained wide acceptance, Russell (1944a) published his controversial theory of "loessification" which entailed weathering of backswamp deposits, downslope movement and recharge by carbonates to form loess. Wascher et al. (1947) identified three LMV loesses, mapped distributions and strongly supported eolian deposition. Leighton and Willman (1950), identified four loesses and supported eolian deposition as did Krinitzsky and Turnbull (1967) and Snowden and Priddy (1968), but Krinitzsky and Turnbull questioned the deepest loess. Daniels and Young (1968) and Touchet and Daniels (1970) studied the distribution of loesses in south-central Louisiana. West et al. (1980) and Rutledge et al. (1985) studied the source areas and wind directions which deposited the loesses on and adjoining Crowley's Ridge. B.J. Miller and co-workers (Miller et al., 1985, 1986, Miller and Alford, 1985) proposed that the Loveland Silt was Early Wisconsin rather than Illinoian age and advanced the name Sicily Island loess. They proposed the underlying loess was Illinoian and advanced the name Crowley's Ridge. We termed the loesses, from the surface downward, Peoria Loess, Roxana Silt, Loveland/Sicily Island loess, Crowley's Ridge Loess and Marianna loess. Researchers agree that the surfical Peoria Loess is Late Wisconsin and the Roxana Silt is Late to Middle Wisconsin, but little agreement exists on the age of the older loesses. Pye and Johnson (1988) proposed Early Wisconsin for the Loveland/Sicily Island. McKay and Follmer (1985) suggested this loess correlated with a loess under Illinoian till

  5. North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes physics, geology, and zoology departments shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch to the foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Categorization of nocturnal drainage flows in the Anderson Creek valley

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Walton, J.J.

    1981-06-01

    A network of eight meteorological towers was operated over about a one-year period within the Anderson Creek valley in the Geysers Geothermal Area of northern California. The purpose was to define the noctural wind and temperature structure along the valley's sloped surfaces for use in evaluating the frequency of drainage flows throughout the year and to assess the representativeness of the flows observed during the few nights that intensive studies were undertaken. (ACR)

  7. Formation of Ice Eddies in Mountain Valleys of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. R.; Creyts, T. T.; Rice, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show complex structures deep in ice sheets. Folds and accretion ice have been reported for both Greenland and Antarctica. Mismatched stratigraphy in the nearby GRIP and GISP2 cores in Greenland as well as overturning in the NEEM ice core suggest variable behavior within the ice sheet. Furthermore, ice penetrating radar data taken across both ice sheets shows folding at scales up to half the ice thickness. Because individual strata can be traced through the folds, it is clear that ice flow dynamics play an important role. Here we consider the possible formation of recirculation eddies in subglacial mountain valleys. Modeling the ice as a creeping homogeneous power-law shear-thinning viscous fluid, recirculation eddies are shown to form in valleys when the angle of the wall is steep enough that fluid inside the valley cannot return to the main flow. This is analogous to Moffatt eddies for a Newtonian viscous fluid. Using a no-slip boundary condition at the valley wall, ice can recirculate in these valleys indefinitely. We examine eddies in the basal ice using theory and simulations based on topography of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in central East Antarctica. The Gamburtsevs are a large mountain range (~750km×250km) with steep relief typical of an alpine glacier system. Analytic results point to a necessary critical angle, and for a power-law shear-thinning fluid such as ice, these eddies occur at lower angles than in a Newtonian viscous fluid. We further develop metrics for determining valleys that are likely to contain eddies based on flow velocity and the total relief of the valley. Our simulations show that in some valleys eddies of order one hundred meters form. We then compare our simulations to radar observations to show potential for near-bed stratigraphic disturbances.

  8. Comparison of lateral and vertical diffusion in several valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.

    1983-01-01

    The turbulent dispersion of tracers nocturnal in four valleys was examined. Two are reasonably large with greater than 600-m terrain relief and two are well-formed but are shallow and narrow. Both Anderson Creek, California and Parachute Creek, Colorado are large and deep enough to produce a systematic cool air drainage wind regime although the difference in valley shapes makes the structure of that wind field quite different. Parachute Creek is a deep linear valley in which a vigorous down-valley flow develops and exits at the mouth without significant obstruction. Anderson Creek is a three-dimensional bowl with a very flat outflow region from which the cool air backs up to form a quasi-stagnant pool 200 to 300 m deep. Inhomogeneous turbulence is a major factor in the transport history of tracers in Anderson Creek. In the slope-wind potion of the basin the plume growth is systematic and about 1.5 to 2 Pasquill-Gifford categories more vigorous than estimated by radiation and windspeed. The slower mean wind and greater meandering that the plume encounters in the cool air pool makes a distinct change in the tracer cloud behavior. Residence times are long and the apparent width of a time integrated plume is much greater than predicted by plume model considerations. The two small-scale terrain features, Corral Gulch and Los Alamos Canyon, tend to channel the wind generated locally on the next larger scale but produce only weak, shallow slope-wind characteristics themselves. The gross diffusion is more vigorous by about one Pasquill-Gifford category than indicated by the radiation- windspeed system and is consistent with measured sigma/sub A/ values. Both valleys tend to constrain the lateral spread of tracer. Vertical growth estimates suggest that plumes can grow above the height of the valley walls. It is reasonable to expect that material thus exhaled by a valley is distributed in the surrounding area including adjacent valleys.

  9. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  10. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  11. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  12. An Interpretation of Schroeters Valley and Other Lunar Sinuous Rills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Winifred S.

    1963-01-01

    Several more or less unsatisfactory theories have been proposed for the origin of lunar sinuous rills such as Schroeter's Valley. This paper presents a new explanation of the formation of these rills, namely, that they are valleys eroded by nuees ardentes. Characteristics of the rills, including form and association, are cited in support of this theory. Supporting evidence is found in the similarity of the rills to furrows eroded by nuees ardentes on the earth.

  13. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 2, Job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections A through MM. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Rose window; front windows; drinking fountain alcove; proscenium arch; stage door. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 12, job no. 692. Various scales. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 9, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Details of corbels and soffit; lettering detail for frieze. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet W.P.A. 2, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. May 18, 1937. (no state stamp. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Clock and finial details; tower roof plan. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 16, job no. 692. Various scales. July 15, 1937. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, July 24, 1937. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 4, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  4. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes sections AA-KK (except DD). Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Includes map drawers, surveying equipment lockers, counters, platforms, etc. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 8, job no. 312. Scales 1/2 inch to the foot (details) and 1/64 inch to the foot (plot plan). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 1, job no. 692. Scale 1 inch to forty feet. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  9. Urban air quality of Kathmandu valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley occupying about 600 sq. km. of area is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the alley, i.e. Kathmandu, Litilpur, and Bhaktapur. Out of the three the most populated is the Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has 668,000 population in an area of approximately 50 sq. km. The city population consumes energy about 1/3 of total imports of Nepal in the form of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicle has increased several fold leading in recent months to 100,000 in number in a road of about 900 kms., out of which 25% is only metalled. Most of two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission gases as well as dust particulate. SO{sub 2} has been found to go as high as 202 micro grams per cubic meter and NO{sub 2} to 126 micro gram particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10:00 AM in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m{sup 3} a day and also liquid waste directly dumping in Bagmati river to the tune of 500,000 liters per day makes city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water, and land are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals are considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50 to 60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce legal frame work for pollution control but it will take time to be effective like in other developing countries unless government is strong.

  10. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  11. Valley polarization in graphene with out-of-plane deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dawei; Sandler, Nancy

    At low energy, the energy dispersion of graphene shows a conical valley structure with the conduction and valence bands touching at the Dirac points. The existence of two inequivalent Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, thus two valleys, suggests they may be used as new degrees of freedom to carry information. Several schemes based on different mechanisms have been advanced to achieve valley separation in this material, however the proposed setups remain challenging for experimental observation. In this work we investigate graphene with out-of-plane deformations- one of the most naturally occurring and practically realizable settings, as a candidate system to produce valley polarization. Local strains produced by the deformations serve as scattering potentials for electronic states. A second-order Born approximation calculation based on the continuum model reveals the existence of valley polarization and its dependence on the geometrical parameters of the deformations. We characterize the efficiency of valley filtering for different geometries and energies and discuss their implementation in currently available experimental setups. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1508325.

  12. Late Cenozoic tectonism of the Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.S.; Helley, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Structure contours drawn on top of the Cretaceous rocks in the Sacramento Valley define a large number of diversely oriented folds and faults that are expressed in topographic, hydrologic, and geologic features at the land surface. Although many of the structures in the valley have a protracted history of movement, some dating back to the late Mesozoic, a remarkable number of these structures show late Cenozoic deformation that can be accurately determined from folding and faulting of widespread, dated Pliocene and Pleistocene volcanic units. These time-stratigraphic units are used to define structural domains of essentially contemporaneous late Cenozoic deformation that was characterized by east-west compressive stress. The oldest structural domain is located in the southeastern part of the valley, where east-side-up reverse movement on the Willows fault ceased prior to deposition of continentally derived sediments of late Miocene and early Pliocene age. In the middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene, east-west compressive deformation progressed northward through the valley so that the youngest late Cenozoic deformation is recorded in east-northeast-trending folds and faults in the Battle Creek domain, at the northern-most part of the valley. The northward progression of east-west compressive deformation appears to be related to the northward eclipse of eastward subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate before the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the continental margin west of the valley.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  14. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  15. Spin-valley physics in realistic silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, Rusko; Tahan, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, one must contend with new physics due to the multi-valley nature of silicon. At a Si heterostructure interface the valley degeneracy is lifted and the different valley subspaces of the confined electron spin configurations do not interact. When, however, the valley states are brought at resonance in the presence of a non-ideal interface, spin-valley mixing can occur via spin-orbit coupling. Within the same theoretical framework, we can successfully describe the spin relaxation processes in non-ideal quantum dots [e.g., relaxation ``hot spots'' in C. H. Yang, A. Rossi, R. Ruskov, N. S. Lai, F. A. Mohiyaddin, S. Lee, C. Tahan, G. Klimeck, A. Morello, and A. S. Dzurak, Nature Comm. 4, 2069, (2013)] and a new electron spin resonance (ESR) anticrossing splitting in a double quantum dot transport experiment [X. Hao, R. Ruskov, M. Xiao, C. Tahan, and H. W. Jiang, work in preparation]. Understanding the spin-valley physics of inelastic tunneling is critical to a proper understanding of the transport through double quantum dots, with or without an ESR drive field.

  16. Structure, stratigraphy, and tectonics of the Dixie Valley geothermal site, Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Tens of millions of dollars have been spent drilling high-temperature wells within or in the vicinity of the Dixie Valley geothermal reservoir which have ultimately proven to be unproductive. Because the potential exists for further development of the field(s), it is important to assess the details of rock geometry and type on both sides of the range front fault which seems to delineate in some fashion the geothermal reservoir. There exists a large body of industry surface and subsurface geological and geophysical data in the area of the geothermal site. Exploration and production to date have proven at least one large geothermal field to exist in Dixie Valley, and there remains the potential for others to be found in parts of the valley which have seen little or no deep drilling to date. However, a number of wells with temperatures high enough for power generation have been unsuccessful in penetrating the fractures required for production. These wells occur both between other successful production or injection wells and outside the boundaries of the known reservoir. From the relatively large number of these dry wells and dry legs it is readily apparent that an improved knowledge and understanding of the details of the local geology should be obtained before additional drilling is undertaken. The geology is complex and most new wells continue to add to the apparent complexity. A new strategy for enhancing the resolution of the geothermal reservoir involves the detailed mapping of the footwall of the range front fault, exposed along the east face of the Stillwater Range, in order to infer the structure of the slip face of the hanging wall. After detailed maps and structural models are well established and projected beneath the geothermal site, seismic reflection data will be reprocessed in support of the hypothesized subsurface architecture.

  17. Groundwater sapping valleys: Experimental studies, geological controls and implications to the interpretation of valley networks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach using experimental laboratory models, field studies of terrestrial analogs, and remote studies of terrestrial field sites were applied to the goals of understanding the nature and morphology of valley networks formed by groundwater sapping. In spite of problems with scaling, the experimental studies provide valuable insights into concepts relating to the initiation, development, and evolution of valleys by groundwater sapping. These investigations are also aimed at developing geomorphic criteria for distinguishing valleys formed by surface runoff from those formed by groundwater sapping processes. Channels that were field classified as sapping vs. runoff were successfully distinguished using statistical analysis of their respective morphologies; therefore, it may be possible to use similar techniques to interpret channel genesis on Mars. The terrestrial and flume studies provide the ground truth dataset which can be used (and will be during the present year) to help interpret the genesis of valley networks on Mars.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  19. Late Quaternary environments in Ruby Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Palynological data from sediment cores from the Ruby Marshes provide a record of environmental and climatic changes over the last 40,000 yr. The modern marsh waters are fresh, but no deeper than ???3 m. A shallow saline lake occupied this basin during the middle Wisconsin, followed by fresh and perhaps deep waters by 18,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. No sediments were recovered for the period between 15,000 and 11,000 yr B.P., possibly due to lake desiccation. By 10,800 yr B.P. a fresh-water lake was again present, and deeper-than-modern conditions lasted until 6800 yr B.P. The middle Holocene was characterized by very shallow water, and perhaps complete desiccation. The marsh system deepened after 4700 yr B.P., and fresh-water conditions persisted until modern times. Vegetation changes in Ruby Valley were more gradual than those seen in the paleolimno-logical record. Sagebrush steppe was more widespread than at present through the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, giving way somewhat to expanded shadscale vegetation between 8500 and 6800 yr B.P. Shadscale steppe contracted by 4000 yr B.P., but had greater than modern coverage until 1000 to 500 yr ago. Pinyon-juniper woodland was established in the southern Ruby Mountains by 4700 yr B.P. ?? 1992.

  20. Superlattice valley engineering for designer topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    2014-09-30

    A topological insulator is a novel state of quantum matter, characterized by symmetry-protected Dirac interfacial states within its bulk gap. Tremendous effort has been invested into the search for topological insulators. To date, the discovery of topological insulators has been largely limited to natural crystalline solids. Therefore, it is highly desirable to tailor-make various topological states of matter by design, starting with but a few accessible materials or elements. Here, we establish that valley-dependent dimerization of Dirac surface states can be exploited to induce topological quantum phase transitions, in a binary superlattice bearing symmetry-unrelated interfacial Dirac states. This mechanism leads to a rich phase diagram and allows for rational design of strong topological insulators, weak topological insulators, and topological crystalline insulators. Our ab initio simulations further demonstrate this mechanism in [111] and [110] superlattices of calcium and tin tellurides. While our results reveal a remarkable phase diagram for the binary superlattice, the mechanism is a general route to design various topological states.

  1. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    PubMed Central

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D’Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward. PMID:27682108

  2. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    PubMed Central

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D’Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  3. Long Valley magma energy extraction project

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Magma Energy Extraction Project has as its goal the extraction of geothermal energy from magma. To this end, the DOE is planning to drill close to or into magma from site in the Long Valley caldera in northeastern California. Scientific emphasis will be on the technology required to drill the hole under high temperatures and on the development of information on the geology. The drilling work is to be carried out in three stages. The first stage with drilling tentatively slated to start in October 1987, will take the hole to about 3000 feet. The second stage, starting around September 1989, will take the well to 7500 feet. The third stage, starting in September 1990, will take the hole to 18,000 feet or 500/sup 0/C. Basic tests planned for the well include temperature profile, seismic, fluid sampling, pressure, stress, and core sampling tests. It's anticipated that the temperature at about 14,000 feet will be around 325/sup 0/C, or 617/sup 0/F.

  4. The Long Valley Well: Phase II operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August--September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6868 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  5. The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.

    1992-03-24

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August-September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6808 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500 C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  6. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  7. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  8. [Rift Valley fever virus: evolution in progress].

    PubMed

    Tolou, H; Plumet, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couissinier-Paris, P

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses now circulating in tropical zones around the globe are potential threats for ever-increasing human populations even in temperate zones that have long remained unaffected. The mechanisms underlying transport and transmission, which can be enhanced by human activity, can be even stronger in zones where factors needed to support development of these viruses, i.e., hosts, reservoirs and vectors, are already present. This possibility has been illustrated by dengue virus, and now by the rapid spread of the Chikungunya virus on Reunion Island in 2005 and then in Italy in 2007. The spreading of Chikungunya virus despite its mild reputation had a major unexpected impact. It showed that the evolution of the virus, whether a cause or consequence of observed events, could be determinant. The risk of extension of more pathogenic viruses due to similar mechanisms must be considered as a possibility. In this regard the Rift Valley fever virus, that already involves a large area and has a major reservoir, is one of the viruses that deserves close surveillance.

  9. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  10. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  11. Lessons from the Tennessee Valley Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchens, Carl Thomas

    This dissertation is a program evaluation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) the largest publicly owned utility in the United States. The first essay in this dissertation examines the TVA's use of eminent domain in order to acquire property for the construction of reservoirs. It develops a new model of asymmetric information and then tests the model predictions using property level data from TVA property purchases in the 1930's. The second essay of this dissertation examines the unintended consequences of reservoir development my examining changes in the malaria rate associated with TVA reservoirs. Using panel data methods, I find that the presence of a TVA reservoir leads to large increases in the malaria mortality and morbidity rate, which cost up to 30 percent of TVA federal appropriations. The final essay in this dissertation examines the impact of TVA electrification programs on economic growth. It combines archival and panel data methods to show that contrary to the historical account, TVA electric rates did not differ substantially from the rates charged by private utilities, and secondly, shows that counties that had electricity contracts with the TVA did not have differential economic growth rates for a variety of economic outcomes. In order to control for selection into contracts, I adopt an instrumental variables strategy based on the cost of electric service.

  12. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  13. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  14. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  15. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  16. Interactions Between the Nighttime Valley-Wind System and a Developing Cold-Air Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Chemel, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast numerical model is used to characterize the influence of a thermally-driven down-valley flow on a developing cold-air pool in an idealized alpine valley decoupled from the atmosphere above. Results for a three-dimensional (3D) valley, which allows for the formation of a down-valley flow, and for a two-dimensional (2D) valley, where the formation of a down-valley flow is inhibited, are analyzed and compared. A key result is that advection leads to a net cooling in the 2D valley and to a warming in the 3D valley, once the down-valley flow is fully developed. This difference stems from the suppression of the slope-flow induced upward motions over the valley centre in the 3D valley. As a result, the downslope flows develop a cross-valley circulation within the cold-air pool, the growth of the cold-air pool is reduced and the valley atmosphere is generally warmer than in the 2D valley. A quasi-steady state is reached for which the divergence of the down-valley flow along the valley is balanced by the convergence of the downslope flows at the top of the cold-air pool, with no net contribution of subsiding motions far from the slope layer. More precisely, the inflow of air at the top of the cold-air pool is found to be driven by an interplay between the return flow from the plain region and subsidence over the plateaux. Finally, the mechanisms that control the structure of the cold-air pool and its evolution are found to be independent of the valley length as soon as the quasi-steady state is reached and the down-valley flow is fully developed.

  17. Advances in Modelling of Valley Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Surendra

    For glaciological conditions typical of valley glaciers, the central idea of this research lies in understanding the effects of high-order mechanics and parameterizing these for simpler dynamical and statistical methods in glaciology. As an effective tool for this, I formulate a new brand of dynamical models that describes distinct physical processes of deformational flow. Through numerical simulations of idealized glacier domains, I calculate empirical correction factors to capture the effects of longitudinal stress gradients and lateral drag for simplified dynamical models in the plane-strain regime. To get some insights into real glacier dynamics, I simulate Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. As geometric effects overshadow dynamical effects in glacier retreat scenarios, it appears that high-order physics are not very important for Haig Glacier, particularly for evaluating its fate. Indeed, high-order and reduced models all predict that Haig Glacier ceases to exist by about AD2080 under ongoing climate warming. This finding regarding the minimal role of high-order physics may not be broadly valid, as it is not true in advance scenarios at Haig Glacier and it may not be representative of other glaciological settings. Through a 'bulk' parameterization of high-order physics, geometric and climatic settings, sliding conditions, and transient effects, I also provide new insights into the volume-area relation, a widely used statistical method for estimating glacier volume. I find a steady-state power-law exponent of 1:46, which declines systematically to 1:38 after 100 years of sustained retreat, in good accord with the observations. I recommend more accurate scaling relations through characterization of individual glacier morphology and degree of climatic disequilibrium. This motivates a revision of global glacier volume estimates, of some urgency in sea level rise assessments.

  18. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  19. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well

  20. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.