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Sample records for sps kicker magnet

  1. H5 fast-kicker-magnet pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, W.; Ghoshroy, S.; Cottingham, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The fast extraction kicker magnet for the AGS is powered by a novel pulse generator. A pulse forming network (PFN) is discharged into nearly 100% mismatched load. The pulser delivers a current pulse of 3000 amperes peak pulse with a 2% flat-top ripple into a 1.4 ..mu.. H single turn ferrite core magnet. The pulse is 2.8 ..mu..sec wide with a 180 nsec rise time, at a 0.5 to 1.5 pps repetition rate. The pulse rise time is required to provide clean extraction of the 28 GeV proton beam by bringing the kicker magnet field up to 1.25 kG within the 220 nsec space between proton bunches in the machine. The pulser is mounted adjacent to the kicker magnet in the AGS ring. The thyratron's characteristics are not affected by the ionizing radiation environment during operation of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron).

  2. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI,J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.

  3. Design of kicker magnet and power supply unit for synchrotron beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ju

    1991-03-01

    To inject beams from the positron accumulator ring (PAR) into the synchrotron, a pulsed kicker magnet is used. The specifications of this kicker magnet and the power supply unit are listed and discussed in this report.

  4. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  5. Some fast beam kicker magnet systems at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Genova, L.F.; Grant, J.A.; Mihalka, A.M.; Sukiennick, B.A.; Tomlin, W.T.; Veldhuizen, F.T.; Walz, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires very fast rise and fall times from its kicker magnets. The damping rings and positron source need either one or two bunches deflected from two or three that are separated in time by about 59 ns. The final focus region kicker magnets need a rise time of less than 700 ns and each one deflects only one bunch. This paper discusses the design and characteristics of a thyratron-switched, castor-oil-filled, coaxial, Blumlein line used for one bunch kicking. It discharges a 118 ns (at the base), 50 kV, 3 kA pulse into a 33 cm long, ferrite-loaded, kicker magnet of rectangular coaxial-line geometry, which in turn is terminated by a matched load. Reference is made to a Fermilab (FNAL) designed magnet and a dual-thyratron pulsar that will deflect two serial bunches in or out of the electron ring. Also, a brief description of the final focus magnet is given. Work is continuing on the various subsystem components to decrease the pulse rise and fall time, flattop ripple and jitter and to reduce some of the sources of noise and hv breakdown.

  6. Overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang,; Sandberg,; Tuozzolo,; Cassel,

    2002-06-01

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas.

  7. Operational experience with SLC damping ring kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must provide 7 mrad kicks to 1.2 GeV beams with 60 nsec rise and fall times and fit in a 50 cm length around a 21 mm diameter ceramic beam pipe. This requires that they operate at up to 40 KV. The construction and operation of two types of quasi-coaxial ferrite magnet potted with RTV silicone rubber is discussed. Production yield has been improved by changes in RTV degassing, transfer, and cure. Operation lifetime is dominated by voltage, radiation, and thermal cycling. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Operational experience of the upgraded LHC injection kicker magnets during Run 2 and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M. J.; Adraktas, A.; Bregliozzi, G.; Goddard, B.; Ducimetière, L.; Salvant, B.; Sestak, J.; Vega Cid, L.; Weterings, W.; Vallgren, C. Yin

    2017-07-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, there were also sporadic issues with vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during Long Shutdown 1 (LS 1). These upgrades included a new design of beam screen to reduce both beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet and the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during the first years of Run 2 of the LHC, including a discussion of faults and kicker magnet issues that limited LHC operation. In addition, in light of these issues, plans for further upgrades are briefly discussed.

  9. Fast and reliable kicker magnets for the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.S.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Gross, G.

    1995-06-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a kicker magnet with superior electromagnetic performance and greatly improved radiation tolerance is described. A short flux return of high mu ferrite improves the field strength and linearity with current, and novel metallic field-confining structures minimize the inductance. An 8-cell structure with capacitance integrated into each cell makes the magnet a nearly perfect transmission line. The capacitor dielectric is 1 cm thick alumina-loaded epoxy, processed to eliminate air voids, and cast in a multiple step procedure developed to circumvent epoxy shrinkage. The magnet operates with pulses of up to 40 kV and 3.2 kA at 120 Hz, with magnet transit times of less than 35 nsec and field rise and fall times of less than 60 nsec.

  10. An overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang et al.

    2002-08-19

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed L-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR TRAVELING WAVE KICKER MAGNET APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.; CASSEL,R.; DUCIMETIERE,L.; JENSEN,C.; BARNES,M.; WAIT,G.; WANG,J.

    2002-06-30

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  12. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  13. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    Armett, Donald W.

    2002-08-20

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  14. Fast superconducting kicker magnet. Final technical report, November 1994--October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Mahale, N.K.

    1998-05-01

    Fast kicker magnets are needed in accelerators to deflect the beam out of the storage ring and into experimental targets and beam dumps. The work reported here is on a new type of fast kicker magnet. The basic idea is to transport the beam along the axis of a tube made of Type I superconductor. An ordinary magnet is used to create a field, B{sub o} perpendicular to the axis of the tube. If B{sub o}kicker field to the beam, B{sub o} is increased such that B{sub o}>B{sub c}. The tube of superconductor then goes normal. The field which had been shielded from the beam can now penetrate to the beam. This concept is applicable as a fast magnetic switch. DOE has been granted a patent on this device, which was disclosed to DOE by N.K. Mahale and D. Goren while they were at SSC. A feasibility study of this new form of kicker magnet is reported here.

  15. Mechanical design of ceramic beam tube braze joints for NOvA kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Reilly, R.E.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NO?A Experiment will construct a detector optimized for electron neutrino detection in the existing NuMI neutrino beam. The NuMI beam line is capable of operating at 400 kW of primary beam power and the upgrade will allow up to 700 kW. Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed. The most challenging aspect of fabricating kicker magnets in recent years have been making hermetic vacuum seals on the braze joints between the ceramic and flange. Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. The ceramic-filler metal interface is normally the weak layer when failure does not occur within the ceramic. Differences between active brazing filler metal and the moly-manganese process will be discussed along with the applicable results of these techniques used for Fermilab production kicker tubes.

  16. Thermal analysis of the LHC injection kicker magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, L.; Abánades, A.; Barnes, M. J.; Vlachodimitropoulos, V.; Weterings, W.

    2017-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider LHC is equipped with two fast pulsed magnet systems (MKIs) that inject particle beams coming from the injector chain. Operation with high intensity beams for many hours can lead to significant beam induced heating of the ferrite yokes of the MKIs. When the ferrite exceeds the Curie temperature of 125°C it loses its magnetic properties, preventing further injection until the ferrite cools down, potentially causing a delay of several hours. Hence important upgrades of the beam-screen were implemented after Run 1 of LHC. However, the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC will be operated with significantly higher intensity beams and hence additional measures are required to limit the ferrite temperature. These magnets operate under ultra-high vacuum conditions: convection is negligible and, as a result of low emissivity of the inside of the vacuum tanks, thermal radiation is limited. A detailed study of the thermal behaviour of these magnets is reported and compared with measurements. In addition several options to improve cooling of the ferrites are presented and analysed.

  17. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  18. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  19. Design, analysis and measurement of very fast kicker magnets at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.N.; Bowden, G.B.; Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Harvey, A.; Kulikov, A.V.; Nguyen, M.N.; Odian, A.; Price, V.G.

    1989-03-01

    Recent experience with SLC has shown that very fast, ferrite-loaded, transmission-line, beam-kicker magnets can cause significant and undesirable distortion of a 1.5-2.5 kA, 20-4- kV pulse as it travels through the magnet. In general, there is a net lengthening of the pulse, with increases in its rise and fall times, a decrease in amplitude, and an unsymmetrical rounding of the flattop. In this partially tutorial treatise, a number of practical design considerations are discussed in terms of equivalent circuits, magnet circuit dispersion and dissipation, undesired circuit shunting and coupling, high-voltage breakdown problems and high-order-mode losses that lead to beam tube heating. These effects are linked to the properties of the materials, the presence of radiation and realizable magnet topologies. Measurements and calculations of some of these characteristics for several magnet designs are reviewed. The results presented come from a truly eclectic effort. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  20. ALL-FERRITE RHIC INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; FISCHER,W.; PTITSYN,V.I.; TUOZZOLO,J.E.

    2001-06-18

    Ion beams are transferred from the AGS into RHIC in boxcar fashion as single bunches. The nominal design assumes 60 bunches per ring but increasing the number of bunches to gain luminosity is possible, thereby requiring injection kickers with a shorter rise time. The original injection system consists of traveling-wave dielectric loaded kicker magnets and a Blumlein pulser with a rise time adequate for the present operation. Voltage breakdown in the dielectric kickers suggested the use of all-ferrite magnets. In order to minimize the conversion cost, the design of the all-ferrite kicker uses the same components as the dielectric loaded units. The all-ferrite kickers showed in bench measured good breakdown properties and a current rise time of < 50 ns. A prototype kicker has been installed in the blue ring and was tested with beam. Beam measurements indicate suitability of all-ferrite kicker magnets for upgraded operation.

  1. Recent experience in the fabrication and brazing of ceramic beam tubes for kicker magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Jensen, C.; Reilly, R.; Snee, D.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil (titanium/incusil) alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed in the furnace at 1000 C. The ceramic specified is 99.8% Alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a strong recrystallized high-alumina fabricated by slip casting. Recent experience at Fermilab with the fabrication and brazing of these tubes has brought to light numerous problems including tube breakage and cracking and also the difficulty of brazing the tube to produce a leak-tight joint. These problems may be due to the ceramic quality, voids in the ceramic, thinness of the wall, and micro-cracks in the ends which make it difficult to braze because it cannot fill tiny surface cracks which are caused by grain pullout during the cutting process. Solutions which are being investigated include lapping the ends of the tubes before brazing to eliminate the micro-cracks and also metallization of the tubes.

  2. Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides and new magnetic ceramics using sol-gel and SPS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papynov, E. K.; Shichalin, O. O.; Belov, A. A.; Portnyagin, A. S.; Mayorov, V. Yu.; Gridasova, E. A.; Golub, A. V.; Nepomnyashii, A. S.; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The original way of synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides and based on them magnetic ceramics via sequential combination of sol-gel and SPS technologies has been suggested. High quality of nanostructured iron oxides is defined by porous structure (Sspec up to 47,3 n2/g) and by phase composition of mixed and individual crystal phases (γ-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 i α-Fe2O3), depending on synthesis conditions. High-temperature SPS consolidation of nanostructured hematite powder, resulting in magnetic ceramics of high mechanical strength (fracture strength 249 MPa) has been investigated. Peculiarities of change of phase composition and composite's microstructure in the range of SPS temperatures from 700 to 900 °C have been revealed. Magnetic properties have been studied and regularities of change of magnetization (Ms) and coercive force (Hc) values of the ceramics with respect to SPS sintering temperature have been described.

  3. Accelerator Fast Kicker R&D with Ultra Compact 50MVA Nano-Second FID Pulse Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    overall length of magnet or deflector . This demands a faster kicker system. To inject a 24 GeV beam into RHIC, the rise time of the kicker...kicker magnet or deflector length. In order to maintaining the same overall strength, six kicker modules, instead of four, will be used with shorter...individual kicker magnets or deflector length. This reduces the electrical pulse rise time constraint. The main parameters of injection kicker

  4. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  5. LHC Kicker Beam-Impedance Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1998-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse beam impedances are calculated for the injection kickers designed for use in the CERN large hadron col- Iider. These combine the contributions of a ceramic beam tube with conducting stripes and a traveling-wave kicker magnet. The results show peak impedances of 1300 ohm longitudinal and 8 Mfl/m trans- verse for four units per ring.

  6. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  7. Resonant Kicker System Development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, Tony; Krzaszczak, John; Larrus, Marc; Lira, Antonio de; /SLAC

    2009-04-27

    The design and installation of the Linear Coherent Light Source [1] at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has included the development of a kicker system for selective beam bunch dumping. The kicker is based on an LC resonant topology formed by the 50 uF energy storage capacitor and the 64 uH air core magnet load which has a sinusoidal pulse period of 400us. The maximum magnet current is 500 A. The circuit is weakly damped, allowing most of the magnet energy to be recovered in the energy storage capacitor. The kicker runs at a repetition rate of 120Hz. A PLC-based control system provides remote control and monitoring of the kicker via EPICS protocol. Fast timing and interlock signals are converted by discrete peak-detect and sample-hold circuits into DC signals that can be processed by the PLC. The design and experimental characterization of the system are presented.

  8. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  9. Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, J; Decker, F.-J.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, C.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Originally the PEP-II injection kickers were powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independent power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of four since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independently adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed.

  10. RHIC Injection Kicker Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.

    1997-01-02

    Injecting beam from the AGS to RHIC is performed by single-bunch transfer. The RHIC injection kicker system provides a vertical deflection of 1.86 mrad for beams with a B p = 100 Tm. The available free space for the four kickers limits their effective length to 1.12 m each. Neglecting any contribution from the electric field, the deflecting magnetic field is required to be 415 G inside the beam tube. This leads, with the horizontal aperture of 4.84 cm, to the current requirement of 1.6kA. The magnetic field then becomes 2.13 kG in the back ferrite. In this report, computation studies directed at reducing the electric peak fields, without significant reduction of the capacitance and concomitant increase of the characteristic impedance, are presented.

  11. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of the RHIC Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-04-09

    The RHIC Injection Kicker was conceived as a transmission line magnet in order to achieve the required rise time of <95 nsec. Using a CERN-type "plate-kicker" is the quasi-standard solution to achieve fast rise times. However, following concepts contemplated at SLAC, a kicker configuration in which the lumped capacitors are replaced by high-permittivity ceramic blocks was adopted since it promised to be simpler, more compact, and more economical. The original design for the RHIC injection kicker was generated by Forsyth, et al, and a kicker R&d program was started in 1993. After implementing minor engineering changes to improve the high-voltage performance and the suppress coupling impedance resonances, four production kicker units, each with 1.12m effective length, were fabricated in 1996 and successfully operated at ~32 kV and 1.6 kA in the "Sextant test" to deflect the gold beam.

  12. Kicker thyratron experience from SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cassel, R.L.; Mattison, T.S. ); Reginato, L.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has five fast kickers for the damping ring injectors, extractors, and the electron extractor for the positron target that use multi-gap Deuterium-filled thyratrons. The thyratrons operate with 30 to 70 kV anode voltages and 1 to 5 kA currents, to deliver pulses to kicker magnets with {approx} 30 ns rise times, up to {approx} 150 ns pulse widths, at 120 Hz. Operating and lifetime experience with several types of thyratrons and support electronics are discussed. Floating driver and power supply electronics were replaced by a ferrite choke isolator to allow grounding of the cathode support electronics with a commensurate increase in operating reliability. The construction of a 100 ns Blumlein enabled detailed measurements of the switching times for all SLC thyratrons under similar conditions. In the final focus area, the kickers dump the SLC beams after the e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} collisions. These thyratrons function with 15 kV anode voltages and up to 2 kA currents to produce 1/2 sine pulses with {approx} 300 ns rise times, {approx} 550 ns FWHM, at 120 Hz. Operating experience with these thyratrons will also be presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    KURENNOY,S.S.; DAVINO,D.; LEE,Y.Y.

    2001-06-18

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction kickers [1] consists of 14 modules of windowframe ferrite pulsing magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  14. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. KURENNOY; D. DAVINO; Y. LEE

    2001-06-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system [1] includes 14 modules of window-frame ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  15. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.; Davino, D.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system includes 14 modules of windowframe ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  16. Some calculations for the RHIC kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper starts with a brief discussion of the design of the RHIC injection kicker magnets which calls for longitudinal and capacitive sections of the same order as the aperture, not much larger nor much smaller. This makes accurate analytical prediction of their behavior very difficult. In order to gain at least some qualitative insight of that behavior, the author preformed calculations which are based on the actual dimensions of the kickers but which neglect the end effects of the individual sections. The effects of the sectionalization are therefore exaggerated relative to reality in the results.

  17. Stripline kicker for integrable optics test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Didenko, Alexander; Lebedev, Valeri; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    We present a design of a stripline kicker for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). For its experimental program IOTA needs two full-aperture kickers, capable to create an arbitrary controllable kick in 2D. For that reason their strengths are variable in a wide range of amplitudes up to 16 mrad, and the pulse length 100 ns is less than a revolution period for electrons. In addition, the kicker should have a physical aperture of 40 mm for a proposed operation with proton beam, and an outer size of 70 mm to fit inside existing quadrupole magnets to save space in the ring. Computer simulations using CST Microwave Studio show high field uniformity and wave impedance close to 50 {\\Omega}.

  18. NuMI proton kicker extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.C.; Krafczyk, G.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    This system extracts up to 9.6 {micro}s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than {+-} 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 {micro}s. New kicker magnets were built based on the successful traveling wave magnets built for the Main Injector. Two of these magnets are in series which places a serious constraint on the rise time of the pulser. A forced cooling system using Fluorinert{reg_sign} was designed for the magnet termination resistors to maintain the field flatness and amplitude stability.

  19. The Coupling Impedance of the RHIC Injection Kicker System

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1996-08-30

    The RHIC injection kicker is configured as a "C" cross section magnet with interspersed ferrite (Nickel-Zinc ferrite with high permeability and resistivity for use at frequencies up to ~100 MHz) and dielectric (sintered mixture of Magnesium Titanat and Calcium Titanat with high dielectric constant ε~100) blocks as shown in Fig. 1. The deflection properties of the kicker are dominated (~85%) by the magnetic field and thus by the ferrite properties and its geometrical configuration. The dielectric block provide the capacitance required to achieve a transmission line kicker (<50 nsec current rise time) and to reduce the characteristic impedance so as to match the 50/Ω of the Blumlein pulser. The dielectric blocks impose the de-facto voltage limit of the kicker and represent one of the primary design limitations.

  20. Status of the SLC damping ring kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gough, D.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.; Hutchinson, D.; Nguyen, M.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must meet extreme requirements on rise and fall time, flatness, time and amplitude jitter and drift, voltage, repetition rate, and reliability. After several generations of improvements to the pulsers, magnets, and controls, and evolution in the understanding of the requirements, the kicker systems are no longer a serious constraint on SLC performance. Implications for future linear colliders are discussed. 14 refs.

  1. PSR switchyard kicker system improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Hardek, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A switchyard kicker system which allows time sharing of beam between the Los Alamos WNR/LANSCE complex and other LAMPF users was redesigned as part of the Proton Storage Ring addition. The system consists of two pulsers providing 1750-ampere, 1-msec pulses to a pair of 1 meter long ferrite magnets. The system was designed to operate at 24-Hz maximum repetition rate. In 1986 a modification was made to the equipment to allow operation at 40 Hz. While the system operated reliably this way some difficulties were observed. A desire on the part of the users to operate the system at 60 Hz coupled with a major system failure led to design changes to load resistors, drive cables, charging system, and cooling system. These changes are described along with an analysis of the difficulties encountered with the original hardware. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  3. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-03-29

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED.

  4. Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module.

  5. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  6. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Track reconstruction in the inhomogeneous magnetic field for Vertex Detector of NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlaya, Anastasia; NA61/SHINE collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The heavy-ion programme of the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS is expanding to allow precise measurements of exotic particles with lifetime few hundred microns. A Vertex Detector for open charm measurements at the SPS is being constructed by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration to meet the challenges of high spatial resolution of secondary vertices and efficiency of track registration. This task is solved by the application of the coordinate sensitive CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with extremely low material budget in the new Vertex Detector. A small-acceptance version of the Vertex Detector is being tested this year, later it will be expanded to a large-acceptance version. Simulation studies will be presented. A method of track reconstruction in the inhomogeneous magnetic field for the Vertex Detector was developed and implemented. Numerical calculations show the possibility of high precision measurements in heavy ion collisions of strange and multi strange particles, as well as heavy flavours, like charmed particles.

  8. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  9. Degassing of the AGS extraction magnets with uv light

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Trabocchi, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of degassing sources, a uv lamp and in Infrared (IR) radiant heat lamp, were tested in spare AGS kicker magnets and septum magnets. This paper reports our study of the degassing treatment during pumpdowns of two kicker magnets.

  10. The Abort Kicker System for the PEP-II Storage Rings at SLAC.

    SciTech Connect

    Delamare, Jeffrey E

    2003-06-20

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of election beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 {micro}S (the beam transit time around the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% while there is no beam in the kicker magnet. Originally the kicker system was designed for a rise time of 370nS [1], but because the ion clearing gap was reduced in half, so was the rise time requirement for the kicker. This report discusses the design of the system interlocks, diagnostics, and modulator with the modifications necessary to accommodate an ion clearing gap of 185nS.

  11. Installation and Measurement of the ATF Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Piotr

    2003-05-16

    An injection kicker system of the same type as SLC North Damping Ring (NDR, for e-injection) is used at ATF DR for future linear collider development in KEK. The magnet and the power supply have been constructed at SLAC and installed to the ATF DR at June 1996. The system has been operated from the beginning of commissioning, January 1997, to the present operation, July 1997, with single bunch injection mode. The construction and the operation has been done as a part of the collaboration program of the ATF project. The operation characteristics of the injection kicker were measured using beam. The system configuration and the result are described in this paper.

  12. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Mi, J.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Pai, C.; Sandberg, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Zhang, W.

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  13. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Hahn, H.; Meng, W.; Severance, Michael; McMahan, Brandon

    2014-08-26

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x1011 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite’s temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  14. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  15. Kicker field simulation and measurement for the muon g-2 experiment at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Pyo; Kim, Young Im; Choi, Jihoon; Semertzidis, Yannis; muon g-2 experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the Muon g-2 experiment, muon beam is injected to the storage ring in a slightly tilted orbit whose center is 77 mm away from the center of the ring. The kicker is needed to send the muon beam to the central orbit. The magnetic kicker is designed for the experiment and about 0.1 Tm field integral is needed. The peak current pulse is 4200 A to make this field integral. This strong kicker pulse could make unwanted eddy current occur. This eddy current could spoil the main magnetic field of the storage ring. This could be a critical threat to the precision of experiment. The kicker field simulation has done using OPERA to estimate the effects. Also the kicker field should be measured based on Faraday effect. The measurement has tested in the lab before install the experiment area. In this presentation, the simulation and measurement results will be discussed. This work was supported by IBS-R017-D1-2016-a00.

  16. Investigation of the skin depth effect of a metallic coating on a ceramic beampipe inside a kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Inside a kicker magnet, metallic beampipe cannot be used because it will screen off the rapid rising of the kicker's magnetic field. When a ceramic beampipe is used, one usually coats the inside with a thin layer of metal so as to carry at least part of the beam's image current and to prevent static charge buildup. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether such a coating will alter the risetime constant of the magnetic field significantly, whether such a coating can withstand the strong transient current induced by the fast rising magnetic field, and whether the back magnetic field generated by this transient current is strong enough to upset the designed risetime of the kicker.

  17. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 ..mu..s. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 ..mu..s needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Very fast kicker for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Podgorny, F.V.; Ruemmler, J.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a very fast counter traveling wave kicker with a full pulse width of about 7 ns. Successful test experiment has been done with hi-tech semiconductor technology FET pulse generator with a MHz- range repetition rates and maximum kick strength of the order of 3 G{center_dot}m. Further. increase of the strength seems to be quite possible with the FET pursers, that makes the kicker to be very useful tool for bunch-by-bunch injection/extraction and other accelerator applications.

  19. Measurement of the coupling impedances of the kickers in the SIS and ESR at GSI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blell, U.

    1997-05-01

    At high particle intensities coherent transverse beam oscillations may be excited due to the coupling of the beam to individual accelerators structures. The characteristic values to describe these beam instabilities are the longitudinal- and transverse coupling impedances. One reason for this beam instability is the inductive interaction between the beam and the kicker magnets. The type of the magnet, e.g. window-frame magnet or C-magnet, and its external electrical network are the most important quantities to identify the coupling impedances below the cut-off frequency of the beam pipe. For the kicker modules in the SIS and ESR accelerators at GSI the mathematical basis, theory and measured results will be presented.

  20. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  1. Notes on the RHIC Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, E. B.

    1995-03-01

    The basic design of the RHIC injection kicker has been completed. However a good deal more must be done before the system is operational in RHIC. The purpose of this note is to discuss the outstanding issues and offer guidance on solutions.

  2. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, of the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.

  3. Transmission Line Analysis of Dielectric-Loaded Ferrite Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1994-02-03

    The RHIC injection kicker is constructed as a C-shaped ferrite kicker in which the ferrite blocks are spaced apart and the interstice is filled with high-permittivity ceramic. Due to this ferrite-dielectric composite structure, the kicker behaves like a transmission line rather than a lumped inductor. The electric properties of the kicker, nota bene characteristic impedance and propagation velocity, have been analyzed by Forsyth and his colleagues, Claus and Zhang, as a low pass filter with lumped L and C elements.

  4. Tevatron anti-proton injection kicker waveform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, B.; Finley, D.; /Fermilab

    1996-08-01

    This note describes the measurements of the waveform of the Tevatron antiproton injection kicker using the 150 Gev proton beam. This new horizontal kicker was installed at D48 during the summer of 1995 shutdown. These measurements were taken in two sessions [1] starting on October 10 and October 18, 1995. The measurements use the Tevatron BPM and flying wire systems. This note is a companion to the Tevatron proton injection kicker note published recently [2]. The design specifications for the kicker are given in Dinkel et al. [3].

  5. Precision fast kickers for kiloampere electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Weir, J.T.

    1999-10-06

    These kickers will be used to make fast dipoles and quadrupoles which are driven by sharp risetime pulsers to provide precision beam manipulations for high current kA electron beams. This technology will be used on the 2nd axis of the DARHT linac at LANL. It will be used to provide 4 micropulses of pulse width 20 to 120 nsec. selected from a 2 {micro}sec., 2kA, 20MeV macropulse. The fast pulsers will have amplitude modulation capability to compensate for beam-induced steering effects and other slow beam centroid motion to within the bandwidth of the kicker system. Scaling laws derived from theory will be presented along with extensive experimental data obtained on the test bed ETA-II.

  6. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  7. AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

    2004-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. The large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage in 30 to

  8. Equivalent circuit analysis of the RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-07-01

    The RHIC injection kicker is built as a traveling wave structure in order to assure the required 95 nsec risetime in the deflection strength. The kicker is constructed from 14 cells, each 7.5 cm long, with alternating ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections. The cell structure permits an analysis of the electrical properties of the kicker using lumped L, C, and R circuit elements. Their values are obtained directly from impedance measurements of the full-length kicker, the inductance and shunt capacitance values by measuring the input impedance at 1 MHz with the output shorted and open, respectively. A lossy series resonance circuit in each cell is found to reproduce the measured input impedance of the terminated kicker up to {approximately}100 MHz. The validity of the equivalent circuit was confirmed by comparing the measured output current pulse shape time with that computed by the P-Spice program.

  9. Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

    2000-09-25

    An all solid-state kicker pulser for a high current induction accelerator (the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility DARHT-2) has been designed and fabricated. This kicker pulser uses multiple solid state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk and delivered to a 50 ohm output cable. A lumped element circuit model of the inductive adder has been developed to optimize the performance of the pulser. Results for several stalk geometries will be compared with experimental data.

  10. Investigation of an Ultrafast Harmonic Resonant RF Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu

    2016-10-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based multi-turn electron Circulator Cooler Ring (CCR) is envisaged in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) to cool the ion bunches with high energy (55 MeV), high current (1.5 A), high repetition frequency (476.3 MHz), high quality magnetized electron bunches. A critical component in this scheme is a pair of ultrafast kickers for the exchange of electron bunches between the ERL and the CCR. The ultrafast kicker should operate with the rise and fall time in less than 2.1 ns, at the repetition rate of ~10s MHz, and should be able to run continuously during the whole period of cooling. These -and-fall time being combined together, are well beyond the state-of-art of traditional pulsed power supplies and magnet kickers. To solve this technical challenge, an alternative method is to generate this high repetition rate, fast rise-and-fall time short pulse continuous waveform by summing several finite number of (co)sine waves at harmonic frequencies of the kicking repetition frequency, and these harmonic modes can be generated by the Quarter Wave Resonater (QWR) based multifrequency cavities. Assuming the recirculator factor is 10, 10 harmonic modes (from 47.63 MHz to 476.3 MHz) with proper amplitudes and phases, plus a DC offset are combined together, a continuous short pulse waveform with the rise-and-fall time in less than 2.1 ns, repetition rate of 47.63 MHz waveform can be generated. With the compact and matured technology of QWR cavities, the total cost of both hardware development and operation can be reduced to a modest level. Focuse on the technical scheme, three main topics will be discussed in this thesis: the synthetization of the kicking pulse, the design and optimization of the deflecting QWR multi-integer harmonic frequency resonator and the fabrication and bench measurements of a half scale copper prototype. In the kicking pulse synthetization part, we begin with the Fourier Series expansion of an ideal

  11. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  12. Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Potential organizational options for a solar power satellite system (SPS) were investigated. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international); and cost effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives appeared to offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. A large number of key issues emerged as being factors which would influence the final selection process. Among these issues were a variety having to do with international law, international institutions, environmental controls, economics, operational flexibility, congressional policies, commercial-vs-governmental ownership, national dedication, and national and operational stategic issues.

  13. Longitudinal and transverse feedback kickers for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the development of electromagnetic kickers for coupled-bunch feedback systems at the ALS. Transverse kickers are of a stripline design with one kicker per plane, operating in the baseband, 10 kHz to 250 MHz. Longitudinal lockers are of a coaxial design with electrodes paired in series operating over the band 1.00 to 1.25 GHz. Operating-band measurements and parasitic impedance measurements are presented. Power levels from beam induced signals are presented. Fabrication techniques are discussed.

  14. RF kicker cavity to increase control in common transport lines

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method of controlling e-beam transport where electron bunches with different characteristics travel through the same beam pipe. An RF kicker cavity is added at the beginning of the common transport pipe or at various locations along the common transport path to achieve independent control of different bunch types. RF energy is applied by the kicker cavity kicks some portion of the electron bunches, separating the bunches in phase space to allow independent control via optics, or separating bunches into different beam pipes. The RF kicker cavity is operated at a specific frequency to enable kicking of different types of bunches in different directions. The phase of the cavity is set such that the selected type of bunch passes through the cavity when the RF field is at a node, leaving that type of bunch unaffected. Beam optics may be added downstream of the kicker cavity to cause a further separation in phase space.

  15. Recent advances in kicker pulser technology for linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Cook, E; Davis, B; Dehope, W J; Yen, B

    1999-06-01

    Recent progress in the development and understanding of linear induction accelerator have produced machines with 10s of MeV of beam energy and multi-kiloampere currents. Near-term machines, such as DARHT-2, are envisioned with microsecond pulselengths. Fast beam kickers, based on cylindrical electromagnetic stripline structures, will permit effective use of these extremely high-energy beams in an increasing number of applications. In one application, radiography, kickers were an essential element in resolving temporal evolution of hydrodynamic events by cleaving out individual pulses from long, microsecond beams. Advanced schemes are envisioned where these individual pulses are redirected through varying length beam lines and suitably recombined for stereographic imaging or tomographic reconstruction. Recent advances in fast kickers and their pulsed power technology are described. Kicker pulsers based on both planar triode and all solid-state componentry are discussed and future development plans are presented.

  16. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  17. An IGBT Driven Slotted Beam Pipe Kicker for SPEAR III Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, Richard

    2002-08-21

    The SPEAR III injection kicker system is composed of three kicker magnets, K1, K2, and K3. These magnets, along with the power modulators to drive them constitute an injection system which will be used to deflect an incoming electron beam with an energy of 3.3 GeV by an angle of 2.5 mrad for K1 and K3, and 1 mrad for K2. The pulse shape of the magnetic field in the three magnets must be matched in order to preserve a closed orbit. The pulse duration is required to be less than 780 ns, with rise and fall times of less than 375 ns, and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The aperture of all three magnets is 60 x 34 mm in an 8 inch vacuum vessel. The magnetic length is 1.2 m for K1 and K3, and 0.6 m for K2 [1]. The magnet design employs a slotted beam pipe which is shorted at one end. A solid state IGBT based, induction type of modulator drives the magnets. Modulators for K1 and K3 consist of eight 4.5 kV, 600 A IGBTs, and eight Finemet magnet cores with four 22.5 Ohm output cables to drive 2381 A into the magnets. The modulator for K2 uses four IGBTs and cores, and 8 output cables to produce a 2619 A pulse. Cables of length greater than one half the pulse width must be used in order to avoid reflections from the shorted magnet. The design charge voltage for the modulators is 20 kV for K1 and K3. This paper describes the magnet and modulator design, as and presents test data from a prototype system.

  18. Development of a Fast High-Power Pulser and ILC DR Injection/Extraction Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2007-10-16

    Kicker is an efficient HOM power extractor. Peak HOM voltage and average power at the feeder may be sufficient to act on the kicker pulser. Feeder imperfections (real cable, feedthroughs, kicker electrodes, loads) is one source of residual energy between bunches. HOM spectrum is broad.

  19. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  20. Wake properties of a stripline beam kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B. R.

    1997-05-27

    The transport of a high current relativistic electron beam in a stripline beam kicker is strongly dependent on the wake properties of the structure. The effect of the beam-induced fields on the steering of the beam must be determined for a prescribed trajectory within the structure. A 3-D time domain electromagnetic code is used to determine the wake fields and the resultant Lorentz force on the beam both for an ultra-relativistic electron beam moving parallel to the beamline axis as well as a beam that follows a curved trajectory through the structure. Usually in determining the wake properties of the structure, a wake impedance is found for a beam that is moving parallel to the beamline axis. However, we extend this concept to curved trajectories by calculating beam induced forces along the curved trajectory. Comparisons are made with simple transmission line models of the structure. The wake properties are used in models to transport the beam self-consistently through the structure.

  1. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  2. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  3. Numerical Simulations of the PEP-II Longitudinal Feedback Kicker.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zenghai; Lin, Xintian; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Ko, Kwok; Corlett, John; Byrd, John

    1997-05-01

    The feedback system in PEP-II will employ a drift-tube type kicker to supplement cavity damping in suppressing longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities. In addition to prototyping, numerical modeling has been used to verify the kicker performance and to study related design issues such as beam impedance and parasitic heating. The simulations have been carried out in the time domain using a realistic MAFIA model that includes the coaxial feedthroughs and the delay lines between the electrodes. The calculated shunt impedance and beam impedance are in good agreement with measurements performed on a prototype.

  4. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  5. A Pulsed Modulator Power Supply for the g-2 Muon Storage Ring Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Mi,J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C.; Pappas, G.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95 kV. the damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. this paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  6. A PULSED MODULATOR POWER SUPPLY FOR THE G-2 MUON STORAGE RING INJECTION KICKER.

    SciTech Connect

    MI,J.LEE,Y.Y.MORSE,W.M.PAI,C.I.PAPPAS,G.C.SANDERS,Y.SEMERTIZIDIS,Y.,ET AL.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the 8-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, a damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95kV. The damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. This paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  7. Design of the 0.5 - 1 GHz Planar Recycler Pickup and Kicker Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    The stochastic cooling system in the Recycler ring at Fermilab required the addition of a 0.5-1 GHz cooling system. This requirement dictated the design of a new antenna for this band of the system. The design problem is defined, method of design is illustrated, and the measurement data are reported. The Recycler is a storage ring comprised of mostly permanent magnets located in the tunnel of the Main Injector at Fermilab. The goal for the construction of the Recycler is to collect and store unused antiprotons from collisions in the Tevatron for use in future collisions in the Tevatron. It will both stochastically and electron cool these unused antiprotons before another collision experiment is possible in the Tevatron. By reusing the antiprotons the luminosity of the experiment can be increased faster. The Recycler will use three bands for its stochastic cooling system. It will reuse the existing designs from the Antiproton Source for the 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz systems, and it requires a new design for an additional lower frequency band for the 0.5-1 GHz system. Since the existing designs were fabricated using a microstrip topology it was desired that the new design use a similar topology so that the vacuum tank designs and supporting hardware be identical for all three bands. A primary difference between the design of the pickups/kickers of the Antiproton Source and the Recycler is a different aperture in the machine itself. The Recycler has a bigger aperture and consequently reusing the designs for the existing Antiproton Source pickups/kickers is not electrically optimal but is cost efficient. Measurements will be shown later in this paper for the design of the 0.5-1 GHz system showing the effect of the aperture on the antenna performance. A mockup of the Recycler tank was manufactured for designing and testing the 0.5-1 GHz pickups/kickers. The design procedure was an iterative process and required both a constant dialogue and also a strong relationship with a

  8. PRINCIPLE DESIGN OF 300KHZ MECO RF KICKER BIPOLAR SOLID STATE MODULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; KOTLYAR,Y.

    2004-05-23

    A high speed, high repetition rate, bipolar solid-state high voltage modulator is under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory for Muon Electron Conversion (MECO) Experiment. The modulator will be used to drive a RF kicker consisting a pair of parallel deflecting plates. The principle design is based on the inductive-adder topology. This system requires a fast pulse rise and fall time about 20ns, a pulse width of 100ns, a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz, and a 60 kHz sine-wave amplitude modulation. The fast high voltage MOSFETs are used as main switching devices.Different magnetic materials are being investigated for adder core magnets. The main circuit design, critical subsystems, and major technical issues will be discussed. The circuit simulation, components selection and evaluation, and preliminary test results will be presented.

  9. Technology alternatives for the SPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P.; Chapman, P. K.

    1980-01-01

    Emerging technologies may offer advantages over those selected for the reference design adopted for the SPS. While it is not possible to list all the technological innovations that may affect the SPS, it is feasible to develop a systematic methodology for assessing technical alternatives. This may be of value in evaluating proposed technologies and identifying high priority areas for research. Such a methodology includes involves (1) variation of guidelines; (2) analysis of system functions; (3) analysis of system sensitivity; (4) analysis of technology status and risk; and (5) external costs, problem areas, and criticisms of the SPS concept. The methodology is a first step towards the creation of a formal decision analytic framework which can support design choices and program decisions as development proceeds.

  10. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Wenninger, Jorg; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  12. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-10-27

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1].

  13. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Three appendixes in support of Volume 7 are contained in this document. The three appendixes are: (1) Satellite Power System Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary; (2) SPS cost Estimating Relationships; and (3) Financial and Operational Concept. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are: Executive Summary; SPS Systems Requirements; SPS Concept Evolution; SPS Point Design Definition; Transportation and Operations Analysis; and SPS Technology Requirements and Verification.

  14. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  15. Solid-State Kicker Pulser for DARHT-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Sullivan, J S; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-07

    To replace a hard tube design, a solid-state kicker pulser for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-2) has been designed and tested. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. The modulator features very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility and a high pulse-repetition rate in burst mode. The modulator can drive a 50{Omega} load with voltages up to 20 kV and can be easily configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include test and operational data.

  16. RF Modeling of a Helical Kicker for Fast Chopping

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, Mohamed; Chen, Alex; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Saewert, Gregory; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav

    2015-06-01

    High intensity proton particle accelerators that supports several simultaneous physics experiments requires sharing the beam. A bunch by bunch beam chopper system located after the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is required in this case to structure the beam in the proper bunch format required by the several experiments. The unused beam will need to be kicked out of the beam path and is disposed in a beam dumb. In this paper, we report on the RF modeling results of a proposed helical kicker. Two beam kickers constitutes the proposed chopper. The beam sequence is formed by kicking in or out the beam bunches from the streamline. The chopper was developed for Project X Injection Experiment (PXIE).

  17. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam's surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the surroundings'' are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the outside world''), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  18. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam`s surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the ``surroundings`` are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the ``outside world``), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  19. Study of particle correlations in high energy S + Pb and Pb + Pb interactions with a magnetic-interferometric-emulsion-chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1991-04-01

    Exploratory investigations were made in 1986 with 200 GeV/AMU O-16, followed by the second phase experiments with S-32 ions in 1987, and again in 1990, by using the SPS accelerator of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve, Switzerland. The UAH experimental nuclear group of the present project carries out studies on collisions of these heavy nuclei with target lead nucleus, using a newly invented instrument. This instrument, composed of emulsion films with spacer materials in a high magnetic field, provides spectroscopic details of particles produced in a collision. The instrument is called the Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber, and has evolved further as a hybrid detector coupled with microstrip silicone ring counters. Within the past year a new, improved run with a 200 GeV/n sulfur beam was successfully carried out at the H3 beam line in the West Hall at CERN. The SPS Supercycle, being installed after July 1989, had caused some timing conflicts of heavy-ion run with LEP operation. Due to the very limited kicker timing allowed, kicking out the unwanted beam particles after irradiating specified number of ions at each pulse was not perfectly achieved. Consequently, kicker failures frequently occurred for about 40 percent of the run. Nevertheless, the EMU05 provided a sufficiently large number of chambers to save the experiments from overdose damage. The EMU05 run used improved MAGIC detector, which gives a momentum resolution to 5.2 percent, while previous detectors were limited to 14 percent accuracy.

  20. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  1. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  2. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS). LSST systems and integration task for SPS flight test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    This research activity emphasizes the systems definition and resulting structural requirements for the primary structure of two potential SPS large space structure test articles. These test articles represent potential steps in the SPS research and technology development.

  4. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of U.S. society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society.

  5. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of U.S. society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society.

  6. A Solid-State Modulator for High Speed Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Cook, E G; Chen, Y J; Anaya, R M; Lee, B S; Sullivan, J S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-11

    An all solid-state modulator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high-speed beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. It provides a nominal 18kV pulse with {+-} 10% amplitude modulation on the order of several MHz, rise times on the order of 10nS, and can be configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include measured performance data.

  7. GAS DISCHARGE SWITCH EVALUATION FOR RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; SHELDRAKE,R.; PIRRIE,C.

    2002-06-30

    A gas discharge switch EEV HX3002 is being evaluated at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a possible candidate of RHIC Beam Abort Kicker modulator main switch. At higher beam energy and higher beam intensity, the switch stability becomes very crucial. The hollow anode thyratron used in the existing system is not rated for long reverse current conduction. The reverse voltage arcing caused thyratron hold-off voltage de-rating has been the main limitation of the system operation. To improve the system reliability, a new type of gas discharge switch has been suggested by Marconi Applied Technology for its reverse conducting capability.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The economic and programmatic requirements for a recommended SPS solar photovoltaic baseline concept were analyzed. Costs are determined for the DDT&E; initial capital investment (covers initial procurement and emplacement of each SPS plant and equipment); replacement capital investment (capital asset replacement over the SPS operating life); operations and maintenance (expendables, minor maintenance, repair crews); and taxes/insurance.

  9. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, John

    2012-07-10

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  10. The crab cavities cryomodule for SPS test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoni, C.; Amorim Carvalho, A.; Artoos, K.; Atieh, S.; Brodzinski, K.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Carra, F.; Dassa, L.; Dijoud, T.; Eiler, K.; Favre, G.; Freijedo Menendez, P.; Garlaschè, M.; Giordanino, L.; Jones, T.; E Langeslag, S. A.; Leuxe, R.; Mainaud-Durand, H.; Minginette, P.; Narduzzi, M.; Rude, V.; Sosin, M.; Swieszek, J. S.; Templeton, N.

    2017-07-01

    RF Crab Cavities are an essential part of the HL-LHC upgrade. Two concepts of such systems are being developed: the Double Quarter Wave (DQW) and the RF Dipole (RFD). A cryomodule with two DQW cavities is in advanced fabrication stage for the tests with protons in the SPS. The cavities must be operated at 2 K, without excessive heat loads, in a low magnetic environment and in compliance with CERN safety guidelines on pressure and vacuum systems. A large set of components, such as a thermal shield, a two layers magnetic shield, RF lines, helium tank and tuner are required for the successful and safe operation of the cavities. The sum of all these components with the cavities and their couplers forms the cryomodule. An overview of the design and fabrication strategy of this cryomodule is presented. The main components are described along with the present status of cavity fabrication and processing and cryomodule assembly. The lesson learned from the prototypes and first manufactured systems are also included.

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Accuracy requirements for the SPS antenna pointing control consists of a mechanical pointing accuracy of three arc minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc seconds. Results of this study, based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved for the SPS in practice.

  12. Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, S.R.

    1980-12-01

    To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

  13. SPS flexible system control assessment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Active control of the Satellite Power System (SPS0, a large mechanically flexible aerospace structure is addressed. The control algorithm is the principle component in the feedback link from sensors to actuators. An analysis of the interaction of the SPS structure and its active control system is presented.

  14. SPS issues: The need to look ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybdal, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The need for a systemic examination of SPS for the purpose of identifying potential problem areas and the issues related to those areas, is considered. The use of a systemic approach, a valuable perspective from which to evaluate SPS implementation as a reliable, safe, and cost efficient energy supply of the future, is discussed.

  15. Specific SPS construction studies: Operations and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1980-01-01

    Surface as well as in-space operations of the solar power satellite program are addressed. The primary end products of SPS industrial enterprise are shown SPS and its ground receiving antenna every six months; and (3) construction of electric cargo orbital transfer vehicles. The production of photovoltaic cells and solar blankets is also considered.

  16. Satellite power system (SPS) magnetron tube assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Taks performed to extend the data base and to define a technology development program for the magnetron directional amplifier for the SPS are reviewed. These include: (1) demonstrating the tracking of phase and amplitude of the microwave output to phase and amplitude references; (2) expanding the range of power over which the directional amplifier will operate; (3)recognizing the importance of amplitude control in overall system design and in simplifying power conditioning; (4) developing a preliminary design for the overall architecture of the power module; (5) demonstrating magnetron starting using the amplitude control system; (6) mathematically modelling and performing a computerized study of the pyrolytic graphite radiating fin; (7) defining the mass of the magnetic circuit for the SPS tube; (8) noise measurement; (9) achieving harmonic suppression by notch reflection filters; (10) estimating the mass of the transmitting antenna; (11) developing a magnetron package with power generation, phase control, and power condition functions; and (12) projecting magnetron package characteristics.

  17. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupang, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The integration of Satellite Power System (SPS) power in electric utility power systems is discussed. Specifically, the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power, and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load are treated. It is concluded that if RF beam control is an acceptable method for power control, and that the site distribution of SPS rectennas do not cause a very high local penetration (40 to 50%), SPS may be integrated into electric utility system with a few negative impacts. Increased regulating duty on the conventional generation, and a potential impact on system reliability for SPS penetration in excess of about 25% appear to be two areas of concern.

  18. Microwave Power Transmission Technologies for SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hashimoto, Kozo

    This paper describes the wireless power transmission via microwave (MPT) system for the Space Solar Power Station/Satellite (SPS). The SPS will be hugest space system and we need high efficient, huge, high accurate, light weight and inexpensive phased array for the SPS. Now we do not have any commercial MPT system on ground. Therefore, we have to consider the roadmap of the MPT system from the ground application to the SPS. We propose three step application of the MPT as follows
    1st Step: Weak Power Wireless Power Transmission (Ubiquitous Power Source, RF-ID, Energy Harvesting) under Present Radio Wave Configuration or High Power Wireless Power Transmission in Closed Area
    2nd Step: High Power Wireless Power Transmission to/from Moving Target/Source with Phased Array under New Radio Wave Configuration (Special Frequency for WPT) on Ground
    3rd (Final) Step: Wireless Power Transmission in Space (SPS)

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  20. Design Considerations of Fast Kicker Systems for High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W; Sandberg, J; Parson, W M; Walstrom, P; Murray, M M; Cook, E; Hartouni, E

    2001-06-12

    In this paper, we discuss the specific issues related to the design of the Fast Kicker Systems for high intensity proton accelerators. To address these issues in the preliminary design stage can be critical since the fast kicker systems affect the machine lattice structure and overall design parameters. Main topics include system architecture, design strategy, beam current coupling, grounding, end user cost vs. system cost, reliability, redundancy and flexibility. Operating experience with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection and extraction kicker systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their future upgrade is presented. Additionally, new conceptual designs of the extraction kicker for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos are discussed.

  1. A waveguide overloaded cavity kicker for the HLS II longitudinal feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu-Bin; Zhou, Ze-Ran; Sun, Bao-Gen; Wu, Fang-Fang; Xu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-03-01

    In the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS II), a new digital longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system will be developed to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities in the storage ring effectively. We design a new waveguide overloaded cavity longitudinal feedback kicker as the feedback actuator. The beam pipe of the kicker is a racetrack shape so as to avoid a transition part to the octagonal vacuum chamber. The central frequency and the bandwidth of the kicker have been simulated and optimized to achieve design goals by the HFSS code. A higher shunt impedance can be obtained by using a nose cone to reduce the feedback power requirement. Before the kicker cavity was installed in the storage ring, a variety of measurements were carried out to check its performance. All these results of simulation and measurement are presented.

  2. Satellite Power System (SPS) public outreach experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneal, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    An outreach experiment was conducted to improve the results of the satellite power system (SPS) concept development and evaluation program. The objectives of the outreach were to: (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. The response to the outreach effort was positive, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS project division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The responses were analyzed and from them some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented.

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  4. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.

  5. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Bartosik, Hannes; Cornelis, Karel; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wenninger, Jorg

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  6. Injuries to kickers in American football: the National Football League experience.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Powell, John W; Matava, Matthew J

    2010-06-01

    Very little information is available regarding the incidence, causative mechanisms, and expected duration of time lost after injuries to kickers (placekickers and punters) in American football. Lower extremity musculotendinous injuries are the most common type of injury in American football kickers. The injuries related to punting differ from injuries related to placekicking. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective review of all documented injuries to kickers in the National Football League over a 20-year period (1988-2007) was performed using the League's injury surveillance database. The data were analyzed from multiple perspectives, with emphasis on the type of kick or activity at the time of injury and the factors that affect return to play after injury. There were 488 total injuries over the 20-year period: 72% involved the lower extremity, 9% involved the lumbosacral spine, and 7% involved the head. Muscle-tendon injuries (49%) were the most common, followed by ligamentous injuries (17%). There was a significantly higher risk of injury in games (17.7 per 1000) than during practice (1.91 per 1000). Most injuries (93%) did not require surgery, and the mean time to return to play was 15 days if no surgery was necessary. Kickers over 30 years of age took longer to return to play (mean, 21 days) than younger kickers (mean, 12 days) after nonsurgical injuries (P = .03). Mean return to play after injuries that required surgery was 121 days. Lumbosacral soft tissue injury, lateral ankle sprains, and shoulder injuries were more likely to occur in punters than placekickers. Kicking athletes face a low risk of injury in professional American football. Injuries most commonly involve the lower extremities. Training and injury prevention efforts should reflect that punting is associated with different injuries than placekicking, and that older kickers take longer to recuperate than younger kickers after certain injuries.

  7. CFD Study of the Hydrocarbon Boost Low-Pressure Inducer and Kicker in the Presence of a Circumferential Groove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study done in support of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) sub-scale water flow experiments of the Hydrocarbon Boost (HCB) Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Aerojet. A circumferential groove may be added to the pump to reduce synchronous cavitation and subsequent bearing loads at a minimal performance cost. However, the energy may reappear as high order cavitation (HOC) that spans a relatively large frequency range. Thus, HOC may have implications for the full-scale OTP inducer in terms of reduced structural margin at higher mode frequencies. Simulations using the LOCI/Stream CFD program were conducted in order to explore the fluid dynamical impact of the groove on the low-pressure inducer and kicker. It was found that the circumferential groove has minimal head performance impact, but causes back-flowing high-swirl fluid to interact with the nearly-axial incoming fluid just above the inducer blades. The high-shear interface between the fluids is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, resulting in trains of low pressure regions or 'pearls' forming near the upstream edge of the groove. When the static pressure in these regions becomes low enough and they get cut by the blade leading edge, HOC is thought to occur. Although further work is required, the numerical models indicate that HOC will occur in the runbox of the AFRL/Aerojet HCB OTP. Comparisons to the ongoing water flow experiments will be discussed, as well as possible designs that may mitigate HOC while continuing to reduce synchronous cavitation. December 2011 MSS/LPS/SPS Joint Subcommittee Meeting ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL FORM

  8. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  9. 1400, +/- 900V PEAK PULSE SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES FOR SNS INJECTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.ENG,W.SANDBERG,J.DEWAN,S.HOLMES,R.RUST,K.ZENG,J.

    2004-03-10

    This paper describes simulation and experimental results for a 1400A, {+-} 900V peak rated, switch mode power supply for SNS Injection Kicker Magnets. For each magnet (13 m{Omega}, 160{micro}H), the power supply must supply controlled pulses at 60 Hz repetition rate. The pulse current must rise from zero to maximum in less than 1 millisec in a controlled manner, flat top for up to 2 millisec, and should fall in a controlled manner to less than 4A within 500{micro}s. The low current performance during fall time is the biggest challenge in this power supply. The simulation results show that to meet the controlled fall of the current and the current ripple requirements, voltage loop bandwidth of at least 10 kHz and switching frequency of at least 100 kHz are required. To achieve high power high frequency switching with IGBT switches, a series connected topology with three phase shifted (O{sup o}, 60{sup o} & 120{sup o}) converters each with 40 kHz switching frequency (IGBT at 20kHz), has been achieved. In this paper, the circuit topology, relevant system specifications and experimental results that meet the requirements of the power supply are described in detail. A unique six pulse SCR rectifier circuit with capacitor storage has been implemented to achieve minimum pulse width to meet required performance during current fall time below 50A due to the very narrow pulse width and non-linearity from IGBT turn-on/off times.

  10. Satellite Power System (SPS) student participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.; David, L.

    1978-01-01

    A assessment of methods which are appropriate to initiate student participation in the discussion of a satellite power system (SPS) is presented. Methods which are incorporated into the campus environment and the on-going learning experience are reported. The discussion of individual methods for student participation includes a description of the technique, followed by comments on its enhancing and limiting factors, references to situations where the method has been demonstrated, and a brief consideration of cost factors. The two categories of recommendations presented are: an outline of fourteen recommendations addressing specific activities related to student participation in the discussion of SPS, and three recommendations pertaining to student participation activities in general.

  11. An overview on European SPS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhartz, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The European situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the European Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the European community.

  12. BEAM DYNAMICS ANALYSIS FOR THE ULTRA-FAST KICKER IN CIRCULAR COOLER RING OF JLEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2016-05-01

    An ultra-fast kicker system consisting of four quarter wavelength resonator based deflecting cavities was developed that simultaneously resonates at 10 subharmonic modes of the 476.3MHz bunch repetition frequency. Thus every 10th bunch in the bunch train will experience a transverse kick while all the other bunches are undisturbed. This fast kicker is being developed for the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based electron Circular Cooler Ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously MEIC). The electron bunches can be reused 10-30 turns thus the beam current in the ERL can be reduced to 1/10 - 1/30 (150mA - 50mA) of the cooling bunch current (1.5A). In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform and the comparison made by the beam dynamics tracking in Elegant will be discussed.

  13. Amplitude Control of Solid-State Modulators for Precision Fast Kicker Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Caporaso, G C; Chen, Y J; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, A

    2002-11-15

    A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beam centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL.

  14. The design improvement of horizontal stripline kicker in TPS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, P. J.; Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Hsu, K. T.; Hu, K. H.; Kuan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    We plan to replace the existing horizontal stripline kicker of the transverse feedback system with an improved design. Large reflected power was observed at the downstream port of stripline kicker driven by the feedback amplifier. A rapid surge of vacuum pressure was observed when we tested the high current operation in TPS storage ring in April 2016. A burned feedthrough of the horizontal stripline kicker was discovered during a maintenance shutdown. The improved design is targeted to reduce the reflection of driving power from feedback system and to reduce beam induced RF heating. This major modification of the design is described. The results of RF simulation performed with the electromagnetic code GdfidL are reported as well.

  15. Eliminating the Spot Dilution Due to Kicker Switching in DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Chambers, F W; Paul, A C; Watson, A; Weir, J T

    2003-05-06

    To produce four short x-ray pulses for radiography, the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II) will use a fast kicker to select current pulses out of the 2-ms duration beam provided by the accelerator. Beam motion during the kicker voltage switching could lead to dilution of the time integrated beam spot and make the spot elliptical. A large elliptical x-ray source produced by those beams would degrade the resolution and make radiographic analysis difficult. We have developed a tuning strategy to eliminate the spot size dilution, and tested the strategy successfully on ETA-II with the DARHT-II kicker hardware.

  16. Satellite Power System (SPS) concept definition study (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The SPS program plan is outlined. An overall review of the component systems which comprise the SPS is presented. The report is presented in the form of charts, graphs, data tables, and engineering drawings.

  17. The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS): A Tale of Two Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, Niels; Gatignon, Lau; Hübner, Kurt; Wilson, Edmund

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * SPS Distributed Control System: The Emergence of Local Area Networks * SPS Controls: A Part of Touch-Screen History * The SPS Muon Beam: Energy, Intensity and Precision * Two Very Special K0 Beams: Discovery of Direct CP Violation * Liquid Krypton Calorimetry: Elucidating Nature's Subtle Asymmetries * Bubble Chambers at the SPS: A Technique at its Apogee * Polarized Targets: Pointing to New Directions * The Silicon Age: Micrometre Precision Millions of Times a Second * References

  18. SPS Fabric of the Cosmos Cafe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anish

    2012-02-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best-selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four- part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked-off by 30 ``Cosmic Cafes'' being held around the country funded by an NSF grant which allows SPS-NOVA to fund SPS chapters for these events. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick-off, reviewing and suggesting revisions of resources related to the NOVA series to make them relevant to an SPS audience. I also got to organize and moderate the first ``Cosmic Cafe.'' The Cosmic cafe that I organized was discussion based, with our speaker Dr. James Gates starting with a short talk and then opening the floor up for questions. By organizing a ``Cosmic cafe,'' I got real hand experience about the challenges an SPS chapter would face while organizing a cafe themselves. Based on my experience I shall also discuss the effectiveness of the first ever themed science cafe blitz. A science caf'e is an informal discussion with an expert in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. A science cafe is mostly discussion based, but has a lot of freedom for the format. A ``Cosmic'' cafe is a science cafe which is based around the topics discussed in the documentary ``The Fabric of the Cosmos.''

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program is a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is managed by the SPS Project Office within DOE's Office of Energy Research. SPS project organization is shown in Figure 1. The SPS Project Office was established in 1978 and is responsible for the planning, management and integration of SPS research in four areas: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment. In fulfilling its responsibilities, the SPS Project Office directs research and assessment efforts to determine the feasibility of the SPS concept, funds organizations supporting the program, and disseminates information developed from project research and assessments. The objective of the SPS program is to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. The SPS Project Office annually issues a Program Summary which describes the research undertaken during the preceding fiscal year. This Program Summary covers FY 1979. It includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  20. New options for satellite power systems /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of a satellite power system (SPS) involves the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy with the aid of facilities carried by a geosynchronous satellite, the transmission of the obtained energy to earth in the form of microwave radio frequency energy, and the conversion of the energy received on earth into dc current for distribution into the network. Attention is given to questions concerning suitable microwave radiation density, details of space transportation for the construction of the SPS, and suitable approaches for the transformation of the solar energy into electric energy. It appears that a Rankine cycle using cesium as the main working fluid and a steam bottoming cycle might have advantages over a Brayton cycle concept considered earlier. In the area of solar photovoltaic concepts GaAlAs cells have advantages over silicon cells related to lighter weight, efficiency, and resistance to space radiation. The required amount of gallium seems to become available.

  1. SPS Internship: Working With Physics To Go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Logan

    2008-10-01

    The Physics To Go website (www.physicstogo.com) is one of many collections of ComPADRE, an online library of electronic resources devoted to physics and astronomy education, funded by the National Science Foundation. Physics To Go, produced by the American Physical Society (APS), is a collection focused on informal physics learning, targeted towards self-motivated learners and the general public. My contributions to the site this summer consisted of obtaining useful materials to add to the collection and working to update the homepage's ``mini-magazine'' every two weeks. I was selected for this position at APS by the Society of Physics Students (SPS) summer internship program, hosted by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) in College Park, MD. This internship is presented to a number of physics undergraduates each year and offers opportunities in research and science policy/outreach positions at SPS, APS, AAPT, NASA, and NIST.

  2. Satellite power system (SPS) initial insurance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The beginning of a process to educate the insurance industry about the Satellite Power System is reported. The report is divided into three sections. In the first section a general history describes how space risks are being insured today. This is followed by an attempt to identify the major risks inherent to the SPS. The final section presents a general projection of insurance market reactions to the Satellite Power System.

  3. SPS emissions and comparison with ambient loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of propulsion injections into the atmosphere due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transportation vehicles, and relates the magnitudes of these injections to the ambient burdens of the different chemical species. The significance of the different injections is discussed in terms of a dimensionless perturbation factor, the magnitude of which is a measure of the expected concentration change relative to the existing ambient concentration.

  4. Importance of suspended sediment (SPS) composition and grain size in the bioavailability of SPS-associated pyrene to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Dong; Bao, Yimeng; Li, Husheng; Zhai, Yawei

    2016-07-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) tend to associate with suspended sediment (SPS) in aquatic environments; the composition and grain size of SPS will affect the bioavailability of SPS-associated HOCs. However, the bioavailability of HOCs sorbed on SPS with different compositions and grain sizes is not well understood. In this work, passive dosing devices were made to control the freely dissolved concentration of pyrene, a typical HOC, in the exposure systems. The effect of pyrene associated with amorphous organic carbon (AOC), black carbon (BC), and minerals of SPS with grain sizes of 0-50 μm and 50-100 μm on the immobilization and enzymatic activities of Daphnia magna was investigated to quantify the bioavailability of pyrene sorbed on SPS with different grain sizes and compositions. The results showed that the contribution of AOC-, BC-, and mineral-associated pyrene to the total bioavailability of SPS-associated pyrene was approximately 50%-60%, 10%-29%, and 20%-30%, respectively. The bioavailable fraction of pyrene sorbed on the three components of SPS was ordered as AOC (22.4%-67.3%) > minerals (20.1%-46.0%) > BC (9.11%-16.8%), and the bioavailable fraction sorbed on SPS of 50-100 μm grain size was higher than those of 0-50 μm grain size. This is because the SPS grain size will affect the ingestion of SPS and the SPS composition will affect the desorption of SPS-associated pyrene in Daphnia magna. According to the results obtained in this study, a model has been developed to calculate the bioavailability of HOCs to aquatic organisms in natural waters considering both SPS grain size and composition.

  5. Feedback techniques and SPS Ecloud instabilities - design estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Fox,J.D.; Mastorides, T.; Ndabashimiye, G.; Rivetta, C.; Van Winkle, D.; Byrd, J.; Vay, J-L.; Hofle, W.; Rumolo, G.; de Maria, R.

    2009-05-04

    The SPS at high intensities exhibits transverse single-bunch instabilities with signatures consistent with an Ecloud driven instability. While the SPS has a coupled-bunch transverse feedback system, control of Ecloud driven motion requires a much wider control bandwidth capable of sensing and controlling motion within each bunched beam. This paper draws beam dynamics data from the measurements and simulations of this SPS instability, and estimates system requirements for a feedback system with 2-4 GS/sec. sampling rates to damp Ecloud-driven transverse motion in the SPS at intensities desired for high-current LHC operation.

  6. Satellite Power System (SPS) financial/management scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vajk, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The possible benefits of a Satellite Power System (SPS) program, both domestically and internationally, justify detailed and imaginative investigation of the issues involved in financing and managing such a large-scale program. In this study, ten possible methods of financing a SPS program are identified ranging from pure government agency to private corporations. The following were analyzed and evaluated: (1) capital requirements for SPS; (2) ownership and control; (3) management principles; (4) organizational forms for SPS; (5) criteria for evaluation; (6) detailed description and preliminary evaluation of alternatives; (7) phased approaches; and (8) comparative evaluation. Key issues and observations and recommendations for further study are also presented.

  7. Review of stripline beam impedance: application to the extraction kicker for the CLIC damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Barnes, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    The beam coupling impedance of the stripline kicker for beam extraction from the CLIC Damping Rings (DRs) has been studied analytically, numerically with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Particle Studio (PS) and measured in the laboratory, although not all the results were previously understood. In order to have a better knowledge about the beam coupling impedance of a stripline kicker, a simple model has now been studied, with flat electrodes and a cylindrical beam pipe. From this preliminary study, a new approach for the dipolar component of the horizontal impedance has been derived, when considering both odd and even operating modes of the striplines. This new approach has been used to understand the differences found between the predicted transverse impedance and the two wires measurements carried out in the laboratory for the prototype CLIC DR striplines. Future tests of beam coupling impedance with beam in the ALBA Synchrotron Light Source will complete this study.

  8. Design and Testing of a Fast, 50 kV Solid-State Kicker Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Gower, E J; Allen, F V; Walstrom, P L

    2002-06-24

    The ability to extract particle beam bunches from a ring accelerator in arbitrary order can greatly extend an accelerator's capabilities and applications. A prototype solid-state kicker pulser capable of generating asynchronous bursts of 50 kV pulses has been designed and tested into a 50{Omega} load. The pulser features fast rise and fall times and is capable of generating an arbitrary pattern of pulses with a maximum burst frequency exceeding 5 MHz If required, the pulse-width of each pulse in the burst is independently adjustable. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. Test data, capabilities, and limitations of the prototype pulser are described.

  9. Fibronectin Binding Proteins SpsD and SpsL Both Support Invasion of Canine Epithelial Cells by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Giampiero; Gianotti, Valentina; Richards, Amy; Nobile, Giulia; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Rindi, Simonetta; Monk, Ian R.; Bordt, Andrea S.; Foster, Timothy J.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cell wall-anchored fibronectin-binding proteins SpsD and SpsL from the canine commensal and pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for their role in promoting bacterial invasion of canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK). Invasion was examined by the gentamicin protection assay and fluorescence microscopy. An ΔspsD ΔspsL mutant of strain ED99 had a dramatically reduced capacity to invade CPEK monolayers, while no difference in the invasion level was observed with single mutants. Lactococcus lactis transformed with plasmids expressing SpsD and SpsL promoted invasion, showing that both proteins are important. Soluble fibronectin was required for invasion, and an RGD-containing peptide or antibodies recognizing the integrin α5β1 markedly reduced invasion, suggesting an important role for the integrin in this process. Src kinase inhibitors effectively blocked internalization, suggesting a functional role for the kinase in invasion. In order to identify the minimal fibronectin-binding region of SpsD and SpsL involved in the internalization process, recombinant fragments of both proteins were produced. The SpsD520–846 and SpsL538–823 regions harboring the major fibronectin-binding sites inhibited S. pseudintermedius internalization. Finally, the effects of staphylococcal invasion on the integrity of different cell lines were examined. Because SpsD and SpsL are critical factors for adhesion and invasion, blocking these processes could provide a strategy for future approaches to treating infections. PMID:26238710

  10. Fibronectin Binding Proteins SpsD and SpsL Both Support Invasion of Canine Epithelial Cells by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    PubMed

    Pietrocola, Giampiero; Gianotti, Valentina; Richards, Amy; Nobile, Giulia; Geoghegan, Joan A; Rindi, Simonetta; Monk, Ian R; Bordt, Andrea S; Foster, Timothy J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Speziale, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the cell wall-anchored fibronectin-binding proteins SpsD and SpsL from the canine commensal and pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for their role in promoting bacterial invasion of canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK). Invasion was examined by the gentamicin protection assay and fluorescence microscopy. An ΔspsD ΔspsL mutant of strain ED99 had a dramatically reduced capacity to invade CPEK monolayers, while no difference in the invasion level was observed with single mutants. Lactococcus lactis transformed with plasmids expressing SpsD and SpsL promoted invasion, showing that both proteins are important. Soluble fibronectin was required for invasion, and an RGD-containing peptide or antibodies recognizing the integrin α5β1 markedly reduced invasion, suggesting an important role for the integrin in this process. Src kinase inhibitors effectively blocked internalization, suggesting a functional role for the kinase in invasion. In order to identify the minimal fibronectin-binding region of SpsD and SpsL involved in the internalization process, recombinant fragments of both proteins were produced. The SpsD520-846 and SpsL538-823 regions harboring the major fibronectin-binding sites inhibited S. pseudintermedius internalization. Finally, the effects of staphylococcal invasion on the integrity of different cell lines were examined. Because SpsD and SpsL are critical factors for adhesion and invasion, blocking these processes could provide a strategy for future approaches to treating infections.

  11. Stripline design for the extraction kicker of Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Toral, F.; Barnes, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of the design study of future linear colliders, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims for electron-positron collisions with high luminosity at a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the luminosity requirements, predamping rings (PDRs) and damping rings (DRs) are required: they reduce the beam emittance before the beam is accelerated in the main linac. Several kicker systems are needed to inject and extract the beam from the PDRs and DRs. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. In this paper, we present the complete design of the striplines for the DR extraction kicker, since it is the most challenging from the field homogeneity point of view. The excellent field homogeneity required, as well as a good transmission of the high voltage pulse through the electrodes, has been achieved by choosing a novel electrode shape. With this new geometry, it has been possible to benefit from all the advantages that the most common shapes introduce separately. Furthermore, a detailed study of the different operating modes of a stripline kicker allowed the beam coupling impedance to be reduced at low frequencies: this cannot be achieved by tapering the electrodes. The optimum design of the striplines and their components has been based on studies of impedance matching, field homogeneity, power transmission, beam coupling impedance, and manufacturing tolerances. Finally, new ideas for further improvement of the performance of future striplines are reported.

  12. High-Temperature Kicker Electrodes for High-Beam-Current Operation of PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, U.

    2005-04-11

    The strip line electrodes of the kickers used in the transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback systems see significant power deposition by beam and HOM-induced currents. This leads to elevated temperatures of the aluminum electrodes and will ultimately become a limit for the beam current in the Low Energy Ring. Heat is transported to the environment primarily by radiation from the blackened surface of the electrodes. In order to extend the beam-current range of these kickers, new electrodes have been fabricated from molybdenum which are able to run at significantly higher temperature, thus greatly increasing the efficiency of the radiative cooling of the electrodes. Blackening of the electrodes is achieved by oxidation in air at 530 C (1000 F) using a recipe first applied in aviation research for supersonic aircraft. Emissivity was measured on coupons and a whole electrode to be about 0.6. In addition, the match at the terminations of the electrodes is improved following field calculations and measurements on a model of the kicker.

  13. Design and optimization of a longitudinal feedback kicker cavity for the HLS-II storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Z. Wu, W.; He, Duo-Hui; K. Wu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring, multibunch operation is used to obtain a high luminosity. Multibunch instabilities can severely limit light source performance with a variety of negative impacts, including beam loss, low injection efficiency, and overall degradation of the beam quality. Instabilities of a multibunch beam can be mitigated using certain techniques including increasing natural damping (operating at a higher energy), lowering the beam current, and increasing Landau damping. However, these methods are not adequate to stabilize a multibunch electron beam at a low energy and with a high current. In order to combat beam instabilities in the HLS storage ring, active feedback systems including a longitudinal feedback system (LFB) and a transverse feedback system (TFB) will be developed as part of the HLS upgrade project, the HLS- II storage ring project. As a key component of the longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system, an LFB kicker cavity with a wide bandwidth and high shunt impedance is required. In this paper we report our work on the design of the LFB kicker cavity for the HLS- II storage ring and present the new tuning and optimization techniques developed in designing this high performance LFB kicker.

  14. SPS Outreach with Amusement Park Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geise, Kathleen; Iona, Steven; Stencel, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The Department of Physics and Astronomy helps host an annual outreach event at a local amusement park for students in grades 6-12. The Physics Night Program is made up of several parts primarily focused on having students apply physics principles and estimate measurements at the park. That evening, DU sponsors undergraduate student volunteers in queue lines to discuss physics concepts with students, and the Society of Physics Student (SPS) chapter stages a more elaborate collection of physics demonstrations at a central gathering place. In 2006, we expanded our outreach efforts to include interactive data collection and on-site interpretation of data. A team of graduate and undergraduate DU SPS students outfitted high school volunteers with vests and hardware designed to return three-axis acceleration information. Students wore the sensors on the rides, returned the equipment to the staging area, and received immediate feedback about the accelerations their hardware recorded. We hope to expand the range of experiential sensing to include more physiological as well as physical data collection, and to provide greater accuracy utilizing the technology we are implementing at the park.

  15. Coupled Nitrification-Denitrification Caused by Suspended Sediment (SPS) in Rivers: Importance of SPS Size and Composition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Jia, Zhimei; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Sibo; Zhang, Liwei

    2017-01-03

    Suspended sediment (SPS) is ubiquitous in rivers, and SPS with different particle sizes and compositions may affect coupled nitrification-denitrification (CND) occurring on SPS significantly. However, there is no related research report. In this work, (15)N isotope tracer technique was adopted to explore the CND in systems containing SPS (8 g L(-1) and 1 g L(-1)) collected from the Yellow River with various particle sizes, including <2, 2-20, 20-50, 50-100, and 100-200 μm. The results showed that the CND occurred on SPS and the CND rate was negatively related to particle size; both nitrification and denitrification rate constants increased with decreasing SPS particle size. For instance, SPS (8 g L(-1)) with a particle size below 2 μm had the highest (15)N2 emission rate of 1.15 mg-N/(m(3)·d), which was 2.9 times that of 100-200 μm. This is because SPS with a smaller particle size had a larger specific surface area and a higher organic carbon content, which is beneficial for bacteria growth. Both the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria population were positively correlated with CND rate (p < 0.05). Different from the (15)N2 production, (15)N2O emission rate did not decrease with increasing SPS particle size. For the system containing 8 g L(-1) SPS, (15)N2O emission rate reached the highest of 1.05 μg-N/(m(3)·d) in the 50-100 μm SPS system, which was 17.5 times that of 100-200 μm. Similar results could be found from the system with 1 g L(-1) SPS. This is due to the fact that the oxygen concentration at the SPS-water interface increased with SPS particle size, and the oxygen conditions might be most suitable for the production of N2O in the 50-100 μm system. This study suggests that SPS size and composition play an important role in nitrogen cycle of river systems, especially for the production of N2O.

  16. The Solar Power Satellite (SPS): Progress so far

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1989-01-01

    Major developments in key Solar Power Satellite (SPS)-related technologies are outlined and the significance of these developments are evaluated considering the SPS, both as an alternate energy option for use on Earth and as a potential stimulus for space infrastructure developments and expansion of the use of extraterrestrial resources.

  17. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

    2013-06-01

    The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

  18. Candidate locations for SPS rectifying antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of placing 120 Satellite Power System (SPS) rectifying antenna (rectenna) sites across the U.S. was studied. An initial attempt is made to put two land sites in each state using several land site selection criteria. When only 69 land sites are located, it is decided to put the remaining sites in the sea and sea site selection criteria are identified. An estimated projection of electrical demand distribution for the year 2000 is then used to determine the distribution of these sites along the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts. A methodology for distributing rectenna sites across the country and for fine-tuning exact locations is developed, and recommendations on rectenna design and operations are made.

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program a joint effort to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept is discussed. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. This Program Summary not only covers FY 1979 but includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  20. Design requirements for orbit maintenance of SPS elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the design and operational requirements that will be imposed by the need to avoid unplanned reentry of SPS elements. The LEO Staging Base, Electric Orbit Transfer Vehicle, the LEO Construction Base, and SPS Self-Power Module are the SPS elements selected for this analysis. The orbit decay rates and attitude control/orbit maintenance propellant requirements for nominal and worst case conditions are defined. The sequence of events that could cause unplanned reentry are defined. The design and operational requirements that will be used to prevent the various elements from deorbiting are defined.

  1. Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality impacts of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes impacts are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other impacts such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.

  2. Development of an Adder-Topology ILC Damping Ring Kicker Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao; Burkhart, Craig; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC damping ring injection and extraction kickers will require high availability modulators that can deliver {+-}5 kV pulses into 50 {Omega} with a 2 ns flattop ({approx}1 ns rise and fall time) at up to 6 MHz. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to meet these requirements using a transmission line adder topology to combine the output of an array of {approx}1 kV modules. The modules employ an ultra-fast hybrid MOSFET/driver that can switch 33 A in 1.2 ns. Experimental results for a scale adder structure are presented.

  3. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  4. First results from the SPS collider

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    First results from experiment UA5 at the CERN SPS collider studying anti pp collisions at ..sqrt.. s = 540 GeV are presented. The central region pseudorapidity density is 3.0 +/- 0.1 for non-diffractive events. The FWHM of the observed pseudorapidity distribution is narrower than expected from a simple extrapolation of ISR data which can be interpreted as an increase in the mean P/sub t/ for hadron production. A value of 27.4 +/- 2.0 is obtained for the mean charged multiplicity (n/sub ch/) of produced hadrons. This is not in disagreement with an extrapolation using a quadratic fit in lns to previous lower energy data up to ISR energies, but excludes an s/sup 1/4/ or stronger dependence of (n/sub ch/) on s. Correlations between charged particles of positive and negative c.m.s. pseudorapidity have been analysed. In contrast to ISR energies, where long range correlations have been found to be small, they appear to be as important as short range correlations at collider energies. Preliminary results on correlations between charged particles and photons over a limited acceptance in the central region of pseudo-rapidity are given.

  5. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A concept for a solar power satellite antenna power combiner which utilizes solid state dc-rf converters is described. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it is proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure. A significant feature of the antenna configuration selected is that the radiated energy is summed to yield a single radiated output phase which represents the average insertion phase of the four power amplifiers. This energy may be sampled and, by comparison with the input signal, one can phase error correct to maintain the insertion phase of all solid state power combining modules at exactly the same value. This insures that the insertion phase of each SPS power combining antenna module is identical. An experiment verification program is described.

  6. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  7. Information and analysis for SPS projects: Prospects and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smakhtin, A. P.; Kurkin, I. I.; Rybakov, V. V.

    The paper discusses the systematic foundations and principles of elaboration of an international computer information and analysis system for Space Power System (SPS) problems. The creation of this system makes possible research on SPS projects at a rapid pace and the incorporation of more details by scientists of different professions. The computer system becomes all the more useful because information can be exchanged via Internet.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2: SPS system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS (satellite power systems) concepts. As the various concepts matured, these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point design(s). The study established several candidate concepts which were presented to provide a basis for the selection of one or two approaches that would be given a more comprehensive examination. The two selected concepts were expanded and constitute the selected system point designs. The identified system/subsystem requirements was emphasized and information on the selected point design was provided.

  9. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  10. LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

    2007-03-01

    A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

  11. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  12. SPS Intern Contributions to ComPADRE and SOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.

    2006-12-01

    This summer I interned with the Society of Physics Students (SPS), developing 1) on-line resources for undergraduate physics majors and 2) an outreach tool for local SPS chapters. ComPADRE, digital resources for physics and astronomy education, is sponsored by NSF. The Nucleus is a part of the ComPADRE collection specifically for undergraduate students. It provides scholarship and summer research clearinghouses, as well as a discussion forum, monthly contests, and more. This summer was spent developing the new student lounge, which is now a part of the Nucleus, expanding the clearinghouses, and developing new contests and polls. The SOCK, or SPS Outreach Catalyst Kit, is a catalyst that is available for SPS chapters who are interested in doing outreach but who may not know where to begin. The 2006 SOCK was developed this summer by the SPS Interns based on temperature, in conjunction with the Absolute Zero Campaign. The materials included in the kit were chosen based on their potential to engage students in the classroom. Sponsored by Jack Hehn of AIP.

  13. Preliminary materials assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Presently, there are two SPS reference design concepts (one using silicon solar cells; the other using gallium arsenide solar cells). A materials assessment of both systems was performed based on the materials lists set forth in the DOE/NASA SPS Reference System Report: Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This listing identified 22 materials (plus miscellaneous and organics) used in the SPS. Tracing the production processes for these 22 materials, a total demand for over 20 different bulk materials (copper, silicon, sulfuric acid, etc.) and nealy 30 raw materials (copper ore, sand, sulfur ore, etc.) was revealed. Assessment of these SPS material requirements produced a number of potential material supply problems. The more serious problems are those associated with the solar cell materials (gallium, gallium arsenide, sapphire, and solar grade silicon), and the graphite fiber required for the satellite structure and space construction facilities. In general, the gallium arsenide SPS option exhibits more serious problems than the silicon option, possibly because gallium arsenide technology is not as well developed as that for silicon. Results are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

  14. 'SPS 2000' - A commercial SPS test-bed for electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. Q.; Tomkins, R.; Nagatomo, M.

    There is very little firm information of the kind that utilities need to assess solar power stations (SPSs) as possible candidates for investment. The SPS 2000 project is designed to provide such information. It comprises a space segment in low earth equatorial orbit transmitting photovoltaic-generated microwave power to one or more rectifying antennas on the equator. These will receive 1-10 MW of power during each satellite pass, enabling utilities to perform several experiments each day on many different technical and economic aspects of the system's operation. The results will help utilities to calculate the prices that they could profitably offer to satellite operators for commercial supplies of microwave power delivered from space to given specifications.

  15. Final report of the SPS space transportation workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    After a brief description of space power system concepts and the current status of the SPS program, issues relevant to earth-surface-to-low-earth-orbit (ESLEO) and orbit-to-orbit transport are discussed. For ESLEO, vehicle concepts include shuttle transportation systems, heavy lift launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Orbit transfer vehicle missions include transport of cargo and the SPS module from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit as well as personnel transport. Vehicles discussed for such missions include chemical rocket orbital transfer vehicles, and electric orbital transfer vehicles. Further discussions include SPS station-keeping and attitude control, intra-orbit transport, and advanced propulsion and vehicle concepts. (LEW)

  16. Effects of providing advance cues during a soccer penalty kick on the kicker's rate of success.

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Javier; Oño, Antonio; Raya, Antonio; Bilbao, Alfonso

    2010-12-01

    The effect of explicitly providing goalkeeper's movement advanced cue to the kicker during a real penalty kick task was assessed. 32 expert soccer players (M age= 23.2 yr.), who were divided into four groups: an experimental group, a discovery group, a placebo group, and a control group, participated. Rate of success in the task was assessed, as well as goals, decision times, and ball flight times. Providing an advance cue significantly improved the players' rate of success relative to players without the advance cue; this difference was still present after 1 and 7 days without training. The experimental group adapted better to the time range within which the response could be effective, while the discovery group showed adaptations. Explicit instructions about the advance cues available from goalkeepers' actions before the dive during practice can improve penalty kick performance.

  17. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  18. Features of radio frequency surface plasma sources with a solenoidal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2017-08-01

    The operation of Radio Frequency Surface Plasma Sources (RF SPS) with a DC solenoidal magnetic field is described. RF SPS with solenoidal and saddle antennas are discussed. Dependences of beam current and extraction current on RF power, gas flow, solenoidal magnetic field and filter magnetic field are presented.

  19. SPS market analysis. [small solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    A market analysis task included personal interviews by GE personnel and supplemental mail surveys to acquire statistical data and to identify and measure attitudes, reactions and intentions of prospective small solar thermal power systems (SPS) users. Over 500 firms were contacted, including three ownership classes of electric utilities, industrial firms in the top SIC codes for energy consumption, and design engineering firms. A market demand model was developed which utilizes the data base developed by personal interviews and surveys, and projected energy price and consumption data to perform sensitivity analyses and estimate potential markets for SPS.

  20. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  1. Satellite Power System (SPS) magnetron tube assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The data base was extended with respect to the magnetron directional amplifier and its operating parameters that are pertinent to its application in the solar power satellite. On the basis of the resulting extended data base the design of a magnetron was outlined that would meet the requirements of the SPS application and a technology program was designed that would result in its development. The proposed magnetron design for the SPS is a close scale of the microwave oven magnetron, and resembles it closely physically and electrically.

  2. The ecological situation and C.I.S. scientists' work on the SPS problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V.

    A brief historical perspective of the former USSR and current Confederation of Independent States (CIS) research and development activities relating to the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is presented. Particular emphasis is on the ecological aspects of the SPS concept.

  3. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The health, safety, and environmental impacts of collecting solar energy in space, converting it to microwave energy, transmitting a microwave beam to earth, and then converting the microwave power to electricity are discussed in this article. The SPS microwave power transmission system would generally expose people and the environment to low levels of microwave radiation. There is evidence that microwave radiation can effect the immune and blood systems of animals if the rate of heat absorbed exceeds the animal's basal metabolic rate. It can also produce structural changes in the genes if the intensity is such that cells are substantially heated. Data regarding the cancer-producing potential of microwaves are inconclusive. Behavioral changes have been observed in laboratory animals exposed to microwave radiation. The non-microwave health and environmental considerations in the development of SPS are also considered. SPS effects on the atmosphere are discussed. Ionospheric disturbances on telecommunications are also considered. SPS microwave transmission represents a source of potential interference to many types of electronic and electrical instruments under a wide range of rectinnal siting situations. (RJC)

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Space Transportation Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Space transportation requirements are major elements in the technical and economic realization of the entire SPS concept. First, steps in enhancing the shuttle include the Titan based liquid boost module (LBM) and liquid propellant boosters (LPB) to replace the present solid rocket boosters (SRB). The next choice between new ballistic or winged boosters must still be made; as well as the choice between series (staged) and parallel operation. Entirely new vehicles of large size are required before the economic and environmental problems of the prototype, or even demonstration, SPS can be resolved. Social impacts such as noise, and atmospheric pollution, locally and in the ionosphere, must be fully addressed. Although rather advanced technology and well developed operational management is required to properly target the average cost of gross cargo payloads into LEO at 30 $ (1979)/kg for the construction of the initial SPS, the further goal for repetitive construction of 30 to 60 SPS at 15 $ (1979)/kg for all operational payloads require the use of very advanced, long lived vehicles with a sophisticated operational organization using off shore, equatorial launch sites.

  5. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Space Transportation Workshop Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-07-01

    Space transportation requirements are major elements in the technical and economic realization of the entire SPS concept. First, steps in enhancing the shuttle include the Titan based liquid boost module (LBM) and liquid propellant boosters (LPB) to replace the present solid rocket boosters (SRB). The next choice between new ballistic or winged boosters must still be made; as well as the choice between series (staged) and parallel operation. Entirely new vehicles of large size are required before the economic and environmental problems of the prototype, or even demonstration, SPS can be resolved. Social impacts such as noise, and atmospheric pollution, locally and in the ionosphere, must be fully addressed. Although rather advanced technology and well developed operational management is required to properly target the average cost of gross cargo payloads into LEO at 30 $ (1979)/kg for the construction of the initial SPS, the further goal for repetitive construction of 30 to 60 SPS at 15 $ (1979)/kg for all operational payloads require the use of very advanced, long lived vehicles with a sophisticated operational organization using off shore, equatorial launch sites.

  6. Energy crisis and SPS for third world future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayur, Rashmi

    The benefits that the third world may reap in various areas from the development of satellite technology, including Solar Power Satellites (SPS), are examined. The areas considered include disaster warning, environmental monitoring, agriculture, education, communications, resource surveying, medicine, new materials, and energy development.

  7. A new concept of solar power satellite: Tethered-SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Susumu; Tanaka, Koji; Higuchi, Ken; Okuizumi, Nobukatsu; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Shinohara, Naoki; Senda, Kei; Ishimura, Kousei

    2007-02-01

    Tethered solar power satellite (Tethered-SPS) consisting of a large panel with a capability of power generation/transmission and a bus system which are connected by multi-wires is proposed as an innovative solar power satellite (SPS). The power generation/transmission panel is composed of a huge number of perfectly equivalent power modules. The electric power generated by the solar cells at the surface of each module is converted to the microwave power in the same module. Since the modules are controlled by the bus system using wireless LAN, no wired signal/power interfaces are required between the modules. The attitude in which the microwave transmission antenna is directed to the ground is maintained by the gravity gradient force. The tethered panel is composed of individual tethered subpanels which are loosely connected to each other. This configuration enables an evolutional construction in which the function of the SPS grows as the construction proceeds. A scale model of the tethered subpanel can be used for the first step demonstration experiment of the SPS in the near future.

  8. Analysis of the SPS Long Term Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Velotti, Francesco; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Drøsdal, Lene; Fraser, Matthew; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika

    2016-06-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain, and has to deliver the two high-intensity 450 GeV proton beams to the LHC. The transport from SPS to LHC is done through the two Transfer Lines (TL), TI2 and TI8, for Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) respectively. During the first LHC operation period Run 1, a long term drift of the SPS orbit was observed, causing changes in the LHC injection due to the resulting changes in the TL trajectories. This translated into longer LHC turnaround because of the necessity to periodically correct the TL trajectories in order to preserve the beam quality at injection into the LHC. Different sources for the SPS orbit drifts have been investigated: each of them can account only partially for the total orbit drift observed. In this paper, the possible sources of such drift are described, together with the simulated and measured effect they cause. Possible solutions and countermeasures are also discussed.

  9. Results from NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Usai, G.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.

    2006-07-11

    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in Indium-Indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. In this paper the first results on low mass dimuons, intermediate mass dimuons and J/{psi} suppression are presented.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS): Concept development and evaluation program: Preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of a potential Satellite Power System (SPS) is provided. The assessment includes discussion of technical and economic feasibility; the effects of microwave power transmission beams on biological, ecological, and electromagnetic systems; the impact of SPS construction, deployment, and operations on the biosphere and on society; and the merits of SPS compared to other future energy alternatives.

  11. The CpFM, an in-vacuum Cherenkov beam monitor for UA9 at SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puill, V.; Addesa, F.; Burmistrov, L.; Breton, D.; Chaumat, V.; Cavoto, G.; Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Dubos, S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Iacoangeli, F.; Jeglot, J.; Maalmi, J.; Natochii, A.; Rossi, R.; Montesano, S.; Scandale, W.; Stocchi, A.; Vagnucci, J.-F.

    2017-04-01

    The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a well-assessed concept rapidly evolving into practical application. The experiments of the UA9 collaboration at the CERN-SPS have played a key role for a quantitative understanding of channeling and volume reflection mechanisms. Investigation of the channeling process close to a circulating beam ideally requires in vacuum detectors resolving the single particle, which should be located inside the vacuum pipe itself. Cherenkov radiators are potential candidates for such functionality due the reduced electro-magnetic interaction of the radiator material with the circulating charges and their compatibility with vacuum requirements in the beam pipe. For this purpose, we developed a device called Cherenkov detector for proton Flux Measurement (CpFM) that aims at counting the number of deflected protons of the beam halo surrounding the circulating beam with an accuracy of 15%. After a detailed description of the detection chain and its simulation, we present results of beam tests of different configurations, the calibration of the final device and the results of its first operation in the SPS.

  12. Structural Features and Anti-coagulant Activity of the Sulphated Polysaccharide SPS-CF from a Green Alga Capsosiphon fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Synytsya, Andriy; Choi, Doo Jin; Pohl, Radek; Na, Ye Seul; Capek, Peter; Lattová, Erika; Taubner, Tomáš; Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chang Won; Park, Jae Kweon; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Jisun; Park, Yong Il

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we reported that the sulphated polysaccharides (SPS)-CF, a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated and purified from Korean green alga Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens, Chlorophyta), is a glucuronogalactomannan based mainly on the monosaccharide composition determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelling of sugars in the acid (trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)) hydrolyzates of SPS-CF, which showed mannose (55.4 mol %), galactose (25.3 mol %) and glucuronic acid (16.3 mol %) as major sugars (Na et al., Int Immunopharmacol 10:364-370, 2010). However, the results of the present study re-performed for monosaccharide composition of this polysaccharide using, in addition to HPLC of PMP-labelled sugars, other separation methods, i.e. high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), gas chromatography with flame ionising detection (GC-FID) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), clearly demonstrated that the most prominent neutral monosaccharides of SPS-CF are xylose (38.6-49.4 mol %) and rhamnose (39.6-45 mol %), while mannose and galactose are present at a much lesser extent or in negligible amount. These extensive monosaccharide analyses, correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) measurements confirmed the sulphated glucuronorhamnoxylan (ulvan) type of SPS-CF polysaccharide, whose backbone is composed of alternating sequence of 4-linked L-rhamnose-3-sulphate and D-xylose residues (ulvobiose U3s) carrying monomeric D-glucuronic acid or D-glucuronic acid-3-sulphate on O-2 of some L-rhamnose-3-sulphate units as the side chains. The SPS-CF exhibited significant in vitro anti-coagulant activity by which the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were significantly prolonged. The results of this

  13. Survey and documentation of emerging technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P.; Chapman, P.

    1981-01-01

    The genesis of the solar power satellite (SPS) concept is reviewed historically and the original assumptions and guidelines which led to development of the SPS reference system design concept are discussed. Some guidelines are applicable to almost any SPS design, but others can be changed, leading to new and perhaps preferable systems. In order to stimulate new SPS concepts and to facilitate comparative assessment of emerging SPS technologies, one useful approach is to break the overall system into functional parts. The system functions which must be performed by any SPS concept and the interrelations between them are discussed and a systematic framework is presented for assessing the wide variety of system concepts and subsystem technologies which have been proposed. About 80 alternative SPS technologies are reviewed.

  14. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Appendixes for Volume 2 (Part 2) of a seven volume Satellite (SPS) report are presented. The document contains two appendixes. The first is a SPS work breakdown structure dictionary. The second gives SPS cost estimating relationships and contains the cost analyses and a description of cost elements that comprise the SPS program.

  15. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  16. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D. S.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Martinez, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H' beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  17. A fast "kicker" using a two-channel rectangular dielectric wakefield accelerator structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2017-03-01

    A method is proposed to select and eject bunches of electrons or positrons from a high energy train of charged bunches, based on proven dielectric wakefield accelerator technology. The kicker structure, consisting of a pair of adjacent rectangular dielectric-lined waveguides, permits the coupling of the wakefield that is generated from a train of low-energy (˜6 MeV) "drive bunches" moving in one waveguide to the adjacent waveguide where a portion of a train of high energy "witness bunches" needs to be diverted. A very fast response time (˜1 ns) for bunch deflection is estimated, and a structure as short as 10-30 cm would suffice to impart to the diverted bunches a transverse kick of an interest to high-energy accelerator application, e.g. 150 keV/c. The witness bunch width must be less than 0.2 - 0.3 mm to have an emittance dilution that makes the deflected bunch suitable for e.g. FEL applications.

  18. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) fiber optic link assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A feasibility demonstration of a 980 MHz fiber optic link for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) phase reference distribution system was accomplished. A dual fiber-optic link suitable for a phase distribution frequency of 980 MHz was built and tested. The major link components include single mode injection laser diodes, avalanche photodiodes, and multimode high bandwidth fibers. Signal throughput was demonstrated to be stable and of high quality in all cases. For a typical SPS link length of 200 meters, the transmitted phase at 980 MHz varies approximately 2.5 degrees for every deg C of fiber temperature change. This rate is acceptable because of the link length compensation feature of the phase control design.

  19. SPS-IdR case studies in Reunion Island

    SciTech Connect

    Pignolet, G.

    1996-12-31

    After the demand was made at SPS-91 for the implementation of operational WPT systems, Reunion Island, a piece of Europe located in the Indian Ocean, appeared to be one of the good possible sites for such demonstrations. Two point-to-point cases to bring power to isolated mountain villages and one HALE case have been selected for study. In December 1994, a major international workshop has allowed meetings between WPT technical experts and representatives from the potential user community, including government officials, and the ISAS functional model of SPS-2000 was shown to the public. As a result of the workshop, it was confirmed that good integration of WPT systems into the natural and social environment will be an issue of prime importance for the future of the projects. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Modified reference SPS with solid state transmitting antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Sperber, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    The motivations for considering solid state microwave power amplifiers for the solar power satellite transmitting antenna are the possibilities of greatly increased system reliability due to elimination of electron tube cathodes, a lower mass per unit power and transmitting array area due to the high power densities obtainable in semiconductors, and, probably, cost savings due to development of small hardware items that can be handled by individuals instead of organizations. In order to provide a fair assessment where we stand today with regard to solid state SPS technology, the design described here is close to that of the NASA/DOE reference and is implemented using today's solid state technology with only a small "push". The small push is raising the efficiency of DC-RF conversion from the .68 obtained by RCA in 1975 to somewhat over .8 of the solid state SPS. This is generally considered feasible by semiconductor industry representatives. Other solid state SPS configurations can yield somewhat better performance. However, these generally do not provide as fair a vehicle for comparison with the reference and usually also incorporate somewhat more advanced technologies.

  1. Laser prospects for SPS and restoration of the ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruzhilin, Yuri

    1992-01-01

    Large-scale applications of high-power lasers are considered (special experiments are described to confirm the feasibility of these applications) to achieve also large-scale environmental advantages. The possibility of producing electric energy by Laser-Solar Power Satellites in the near future is discussed. A full-scale experimental L-SPS satellite is suggested as a module of a global space energy network. Electric power of about 10 MW at the surface of the Earth is achievable as a result of energy conversion of laser radiation. L-SPS is based on the greatest advantages of present optics and laser techniques. Specialized-scale experiments are carried out and described. L-SPS project could provide real electricity for consumers not later than by highly developed fusion techniques, and the environmental aftereffects are quite favorable. A new method of power supply for satellites is suggested, based on the connection of an on-board electric circuit directly with the ground-based power grid by means of laser beams.

  2. Assessors for communication skills: SPs or healthcare professionals?

    PubMed

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Dutta, Susmita; Sidhu, Jagmohni Kaur; De-Alwis, Ranjit; Chen, Nicole; Sow, Chew-Fei; Barua, Ankur

    2014-07-01

    The complexity of modern medicine creates more challenges for teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical programme. This research was conducted to study the level of communication skills among undergraduate medical students and to determine the difference between simulated patients and clinical instructors' assessment of communication skills. This comparative study was conducted for three months at the Clinical Skills and Simulation Centre of the International Medical University in Malaysia. The modified Calgary-Cambridge checklist was used to assess the communication skills of 50 first year and 50 second year medical students (five-minutes pre-recorded interview videos on the scenario of sore throat). These videos were reviewed and scored by simulated patients (SPs), communication skills instructors (CSIs) and non-communication skills instructors (non-CSIs). Better performance was observed among the undergraduate medical students, who had formal training in communication skills with a significant difference in overall scores detected among the first and second year medical students (p = 0.0008). A non-significant difference existed between the scores of SPs and CSIs for Year 1 (p = 0.151). The SPs could be trained and involved in assessment of communication skills. Formal training in communication skills is necessary in the undergraduate medical programme.

  3. SPS energy conversion and power management workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    In 1977 a four year study, the concept Development and Evaluation Program, was initiated by the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As part of this program, a series of peer reviews were carried out within the technical community to allow available information on SPS to be sifted, examined and, if need be, challenged. The SPS Energy Conversion and Power Management Workshop, held in Huntsville, Alabama, February 5 to 7, 1980, was one of these reviews. The results of studies in this particular field were presented to an audience of carefully selected scientists and engineers. This first report summarizes the results of that peer review. It is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, it is designed to look at the SPS energy conversion and power management options in breadth, not depth, to try to foresee any troublesome and/or potentially unresolvable problems and to identify the most promising areas for future research and development. Topics include photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion, and electric power distribution processing and power management. (WHK)

  4. Characterization of resonant impedances of CERN-SPS gate valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Repond, Joel; Vollinger, Christine

    2017-07-01

    For the CERN High Luminosity LHC project, a doubling of bunch intensity is foreseen. However, this intensity increase is currently limited by the LHC injector chain, in part due to longitudinal multi-bunch instabilities in the SPS. Therefore, the implementation of an accurate SPS impedance model was started some time ago in order to obtain a better understanding of instability sources and develop mitigation measures. In this paper, we present the electromagnetic characterization of commonly used all-metal gate valves with respect to their contribution to the SPS longitudinal impedance. The valve impedance was evaluated with commercially available EM-field simulation programs and verified with RF-bench measurements. Using this input, it was possible to obtain in particle simulations the dependence of the multibunch stability threshold on the number of these valves. The threshold can be increased by using commercially available impedance shielded valves. Consequently, we present the associated reduction in beam coupling impedance and the expected gain in beam stability if all existing unshielded valves are replaced by shielded ones.

  5. Alternative future scenarios for the SPS comparative assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Ridker, R.G.; Watson, W.D. Jr.; Arnold, J.; Tayi, G.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of the comparative assessment is to develop an initial understanding of the SPS with respect to a limited set of energy alternatives. A comparative methodology report describes the multi-step process in the comparative assessment. The first step is the selection and characterization of alternative energy systems. Terrestrial alternatives are selected, and their cost, performance, and environmental and social attributes are specified for use in the comparison with the SPS in the post-2000 era. Data on alternative technologies were sought from previous research and from other comparisons. The object of this study is to provide a futures framework for evaluating SPS (i.e., factor prices, primary energy prices, and energy demands for the US from 1980 to 2030). The economic/energy interactions are discussed, and a number of specific modelling schemes that have been used for long-range forecasting purposes are described. This discussion provides the rationale for the choice of a specific model and methodology, which is described. Long-range cost assumptions used in the forecast are detailed, and the basis for the selection of specific scenarios follows. Results of the analysis are detailed. (WHK)

  6. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Shaoheng; ...

    2016-12-09

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes,more » four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Lastly, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.« less

  7. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of Nitride Reinforced Titanium Alloy Composites (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0177 REACTIVE SPARK PLASMA SINTERING (SPS) OF NITRIDE REINFORCED TITANIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES (POSTPRINT) Jaimie S...titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and...lcomReactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy compositeshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.08.049 0925-8388

  8. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lorna; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; Rapee, Ronald M; Mattick, Richard P

    2012-03-01

    Shortened forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were developed using nonparametric item response theory methods. Using data from socially phobic participants enrolled in 5 treatment trials (N = 456), 2 six-item scales (the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6) were developed. The validity of the scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 was then tested using traditional methods for their convergent validity in an independent clinical sample and a student sample, as well as for their sensitivity to change and diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical sample. The scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 correlated as well as the scores on the original SIAS and SPS, with scores on measures of related constructs, discriminated well between those with and without a diagnosis of social phobia, providing cutoffs for diagnosis and were as sensitive to measuring change associated with treatment as were the SIAS and SPS. Together, the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 appear to be an efficient method of measuring symptoms of social phobia and provide a brief screening tool.

  9. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study exhibit C. Volume 3: Experimental verification definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An environmentally oriented microwave technology exploratory research program aimed at reducing the uncertainty associated with microwave power system critical technical issues is described. Topics discussed include: (1) Solar Power Satellite System (SPS) development plan elements; (2) critical technology issues related to the SPS preliminary reference configuration; (3) pilot plant to demonstrate commercial viability of the SPS system; and (4) research areas required to demonstrate feasibility of the SPS system. Progress in the development of advanced GaAs solar cells is reported along with a power distribution subsystem.

  10. SpS5 - III. Matter ejection and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Che, Xiao; Cox, Nick L. J.; Groh, José H.; Guerrero, Martin; Kervella, Pierre; Lee, Chien-De; Matsuura, Mikako; Oey, M. Sally; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Wachter, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    The last part of SpS5 dealt with the circumstellar environment. Structures are indeed found around several types of massive stars, such as blue and red supergiants, as well as WRs and LBVs. As shown in the last years, the potential of IR for their study is twofold: first, IR can help discover many previously unknown nebulae, leading to the identification of new massive stars as their progenitors; second, IR can help characterize the nebular features. Current and new IR facilities thus pave the way to a better understanding of the feedback from massive stars.

  11. A Reanalysis of Single Photon Data at CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Charles; Chatterjee, Rupa; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Jeon, Sangyong

    2009-11-01

    We reanalyze the WA98 single photon data [M. M. Aggarwal et al. [WA98 Collaboration], Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3595 (2000)] at CERN SPS by incorporating several recent developments in the study of prompt and thermal photon production from relativistic heavy ion collisions [R. Chatterjee, D. K. Srivastava, and S. Jeon, Phys. Rev. C 79, 034906 (2009)]. Isospin and shadowing corrected NLO pQCD, along with an optimized scale for factorization, fragmentation and renormalization are considered for prompt photon production. Photons from thermal medium are estimated by considering a boost invariant azimuthally anisotropic hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma along with a well tested equation of state and initial conditions. A quantitative explanation of the data is obtained by combining κ× prompt with thermal photons, where κ is an overall scaling factor. We show that, elliptic flow of thermal photons can play a crucial role to distinguish between the ‘with’ and ‘without’ phase transition scenarios at SPS energy.

  12. SPS 'Fabric of the Cosmos' Science Cafés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-12-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked off by more than 30 'Cosmic Cafes' around the country, as part of a Society of Physics Students, NOVA outreach effort funded by an NSF grant. A Cosmic Café is a science café based on the topics discussed in The Fabric of the Cosmos. Science cafes are open events for non-scientists, where they can have an informal discussion with a scientist in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick off, by reviewing science café and The Fabric of the Cosmos resources and suggesting revisions to make them more relevant for an SPS audience. I also organized and moderated the first Cosmic Café. The café that I organized was discussion based, with the speaker, Dr. James Gates, starting with a short talk and then opening up the floor for questions. Organizing a Cosmic Café gave me first-hand experience with the challenges an SPS chapter might face while organizing a café themselves. I will discuss lessons learned and the effectiveness of the first ever themed science café blitz.

  13. SPS ionosphere/microwave beam interactions: Arecibo experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the environmental impacts associated with the operation of the proposed SPS microwave power transmission system. It is expected that thermal effects will provide the dominant force driving the nonlinear ionosphere/microwave beam interactions. Collisional damping of radio waves, producing ohmic heating of the ionospheric plasma, depends inversely on the square of the radio wave frequency. Therefore, equivalent heating and equivalent thermal forces can be generated at lower radiated power densities by using lower radio wave frequencies. This principle is fundamental to a large part of the experimental program. An understanding of the physics of the specific interactions excited by the SPS microwave beam is also an important part of the assessment program. This program is designed to determine instability thresholds, the growth rates and spatial extent of the resultant ionospheric disturbances, and the frequency and power dependences of the interactions. How these interactions are affected by variations in the natural ionospheric conditions, how different instabilities occurring simultaneously may affect each other, and how distinct microwave beams might mutually interact are studied. Status of the program is described. (WHK)

  14. The SHiP experiment at CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Crescenzo, A.; SHiP Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    SHiP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently submitted to the CERN SPS Committee. In its initial phase, the 400GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 pot in 5years. A dedicated detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c2. The beam dump is also an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. Another dedicated detector, based on the Emulsion Cloud Chamber technology already used in the OPERA experiment, will allow to perform for the first time measurements of the tau neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross section. Tau neutrinos will be distinguished from tau anti-neutrinos, thus providing the first observation of the tau anti-neutrino.

  15. Active retrodirective arrays for SPS beam pointing. [phase conjugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R.

    1980-01-01

    The basic requirement of the SPS beam pointing system is that it deliver a certain amount of S-band (lambda = 12.5 cm) power to a 9.6 km diameter receiving rectenna on the ground. The power is transmitted from a 1.0 km diameter antenna array on the SPS, which is, for a rectenna at about plus or minus 40 deg. latitude, some 37.5x10 to the 6th power km distant. At the present time ARA's appear to be the best bet to realize this very stringent beam pointing requirement. An active retrodirective array (ARA) transmits a beam towards the apparent source of an illuminating signal called the pilot. The array produces, not merely reflects, RF power. Retrodirectivity is achieved by retransmitting from each element of the array a signal whose phase is the "conjugate" of that received by the element. Phase conjugate circuits and pointing errors in ARA's are described. Results obtained using a 2-element X-band ARA and an 8-element S-band ARA are included.

  16. Survey and documentation of emerging technologies for the satellite power system (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.; Chapman, P.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey emerging technologies and new concepts which may offer advantages over those selected for the SPS Reference System. A brief historical overview of the genesis of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is presented leading to a discussion of the assumptions and guidelines which were originally established and which led to development of the SPS Reference System design concept. Some of these guidelines are applicable to almost any SPS design, but others could be changed, leading to new and perhaps preferable systems. Moreover, while some of the guidelines are based on solid data, some are little more than arbitrary assumptions which were adopted only to proceed with a concrete point design which then could be assessed in the DOE/NASA Concept Development and Evaluation Program. In order to stimulate new SPS concepts and to facilitate comparative assessment of emerging SPS technologies, one useful approach is to break the overall system into functional parts. The system functions which must be performed by any SPS concept and the interrelations between them are discussed and a systematic framework is presented for assessment of the wide variety of system concepts and subsystem technologies which have been proposed. About 80 alternative SPS technologies are reviewed.

  17. Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS) falsifies protein staining and quantification and how to solve this problem.

    PubMed

    Prax, Marcel; Vatani Shahmirzadi, Shideh; Götz, Friedrich

    2015-11-01

    Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS) is an anionic detergent with a broad range of activities and applications. While studying the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in Staphylococcus aureus SPS was used as cell lysis inhibitor. When investigating the protein pattern of culture supernatants from cells grown in the absence or presence of SPS by Coomassie blue stained polyacrylamide gel the amount of protein bands was significantly decreased in the presence of SPS, suggesting that this effect was due to inhibition of cell lysis. However, various control studies showed that the apparent decreased protein secretion was an artifact due to the interference of SPS with Coomassie blue- and silver-staining. The only alternative method that was uninfluenced by SPS was imidazole-SDS-zinc staining. This is the method of choice particularly when protein interfering compounds are present in the extracts. For protein quantification in liquid samples the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay appeared to be the method of choice in the presence of SPS. The assay is based on neutral peptide bonds and is therefore rather insensitive to interfering compounds. This study shows that SPS and most likely also related detergents might falsify conventional protein staining and quantification methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and six other energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Brown, C.; Cirillo, R.

    1980-04-01

    The comparative assessment portion of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation program established by the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to generate information from which a rational decision could be made regarding the viability of the SPS is presented. The objective of the comparative assessment is to develop an initial understanding of the SPS with respect to a limited set of energy alternatives. Six alternative technologies (conventional coal combustion; light water reactor; coal gasification/combined cycle; liquid-metal, fast-breeder reactor; terrestrial photovoltaic; and fusion) were compared to the SPS on the basis of available data on cost and performance, health and safety, environmental welfare, resource requirements, and economics. These comparisons are descriptive and do not culminate in any bottom line regarding the overall viability of the SPS.

  19. Conditions and requirements for a potential application of solar power satellites /SPS/ for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, W.; Ruth, J.; Kassing, D.

    1980-12-01

    The potential problems of a future introduction of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) as baseload power plants for Western European countries are considered, emphasizing the differences of SPS utilization in Europe compared with that in the USA as a result of geographical, orbital organizational, and industrial conditions. If estimated SPS safety zone areas are required, then the SPS system incorporating the 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission appears crucial for utilization in Western Europe in order to eliminate the large rectenna area requirements of an SPS 5 GW power system. A frequency variation of up to 5 or 10 GHz, and the application of either laser power transmission or solid state devices which could alleviate rectenna siting problems and restrictions on the use of the geosynchronous orbit are discussed.

  20. Analysis of the transverse SPS beam coupling impedance with short and long bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Salvant,B.; Calaga, R.; de Maria, R.; Arduini, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Damerau, H.; Hofle, W.; Metral, E.; Papotti, G.; Rumolo, G.; Tomas, R.; White, S.

    2009-05-04

    The upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would require a four- to five-fold increase of the single bunch intensity presently obtained in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Operating at such high single bunch intensities requires a detailed knowledge of the sources of SPS beam coupling impedance, so that longitudinal and transverse impedance reduction campaigns can be planned and performed effectively if needed. In this paper, the transverse impedance of the SPS is studied by injecting a single long bunch into the SPS, and observing its decay without RF. Longer bunches allow for higher frequency resolution of the longitudinal and transverse bunch spectra acquired with strip line couplers connected to a fast data acquisition. It also gives access to the frequency content of the transverse impedance. Results from measurements with short and long bunches in the SPS performed in 2008 are compared with simulations.

  1. Using tevatron magnets for HE-LHC or new ring in LHC tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Two injector accelerator options for HE-LHC of p{sup +} - p{sup +} collisions at 33 TeV cms energy are briefly outlined. One option is based on the Super-SPS (S-SPS) accelerator in the SPS tunnel, and the other one is based on the LER (Low-Energy-Ring) accelerator in the LHC tunnel. Expectations of performance of the main arc accelerator magnets considered for the construction of the S-SPS and of the LER accelerators are used to tentatively devise some selected properties of these accelerators as potential injectors to HE-LHC.

  2. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a clear picture of SPS space transportation costs at the present time with respect to their accuracy as stated, the reasonableness of the methods used, the assumptions made, and the uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives - to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  3. Cost and performance projections for SPS photovoltaic blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate, based on optimistic projections of current technology, is given for the specific power of photovoltaic blankets which might be achieved if the SPS concept was to be implemented. A simultaneous consideration of cost and technical requirements is used to identify key blanket technologies which must be developed for this reference system. The terrestrial photovoltaic experience coupled with new technology is used to develop cost estimates for the blanket, assuming an annual demand of 5 GW and a manufacturing industry dedicated to blanket production. The results indicate that blanket specific power goals may be exceeded, but there is little prospect that the cost goals can be met. This argues for a reconsideration of the photovoltaic option based on more expensive but higher performance blankets.

  4. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  5. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Putri, Zufira E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO{sub 2} are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO{sub 2} compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO{sub 2} blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  6. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Zufira; Arcana, I. Made

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO2 are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO2 compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO2 blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  7. LogAmp electronics and optical transmission for the new SPS beam position measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogey, T.; Deplano, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Savioz, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A new front-end board is under development for the CERN SPS Multi ORbit Position System (MOPOS). Based on logarithmic amplifiers, it measures the beam position over a large dynamic range of beam intensities and resolves the multi-batch structure of the SPS beams. Analogue data are digitized at 10 MS/s, packed in frames by an FPGA and on every turn sent to the readout board, via a 2.4 Gb/s optical transmission link. A first prototype has been successfully tested with several SPS beams. This paper presents an overall description of the system and its capabilities highlighted by the first beam measurements.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting an evaluation of approaches to provide energy to meet demands in the post-2000 time period. The Satellite Power System (SPS) is a candidate for producing significant quantities of base-load power using solar energy as the source. The SPS concept is illustrated for a solar photovoltaic concept. A satellite, located at geosynchronous orbit, converts solar energy to dc electrical energy using large solar arrays. This study is a continuing effort to provide system definition data to aid in the evaluation of the SPS concept.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS): an Overview of Prospective Organizational Structures in the Solar Satellite Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey, interviews with acknowledged experts in the fields of organizational entities, space, solar energy, and the SPS concept, and an analysis of these inputs to identify the organizational alternatives and make judgments as to their feasibility to serve as patterns for a future SPS entity are presented. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international) and cost-effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives are discussed which offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. These included three domestic alternatives and one international alternative.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Transportation system elements were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of their potential to satisfy overall satellite (SPS) transportation requirements and of their sensitivities, interfaces, and impact on the SPS. Additional analyses and investigations were conducted to further define transportation system concepts that will be needed for the developmental and operational phases of an SPS program. To accomplish these objectives, transportation systems such as shuttle and its derivatives have been identified; new heavy lift launch vehicle concepts, cargo and personnel orbital transfer vehicles and intra-orbit transfer vehicle concepts have been evaluated. To a limited degree, the program implications of their operations and costs were assessed. The results of these analyses have been integrated into other elements of the overall SPS concept definition studies.

  11. SPS susceptible-system cost factors investment summary and mitigation-cost-increment estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, E L

    1980-05-01

    The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) evaluation program supporting the SPS Concept Development Evaluation Phase has included examinations of the degradation in capability of all susceptible communications and electronic systems that could be exposed to SPS emissions, the development and testing of mitigation techniques to allow operation in the SPS environment, and the development of total investment and mitigation cost data. Mitigation costs relate only to the modification or reconfiguration of susceptible systems; redeployment being a possible consideration for rectenna siting exercises during the SPS Engineering Development Phase. An extensive survey is summarized regarding the current and planned facilities using the equipment categories listed: microwave communications; radar systems; sensors; computers; medical equipment; and research support. Current investment, future plans, and mitigation costs are presented, with geographic distribution in six CONUS areas.

  12. Grundzüge der SPS-Norm IEC 61131-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellenreuther, Günter; Zastrow, Dieter

    Auch wenn das Programmieren von Steuerungen und Regelungen noch immer ein sehr individueller Prozess ist, muss seit Jahren der Standard der SPS-Programmier-Norm IEC 61131-3 zu Grunde gelegt werden, der eine rationellere Programmerstellung und größere Herstellerunabhängigkeit zum Ziel hat. Den Anwendungsprogrammierern müssen wirksame Mittel an die Hand gegeben werden, um wiederverwendbare und damit kostensparende Programme entwickeln zu können. Die Norm IEC 61131-3 bzw. DIN EN 61131-3 richtet sich daher in erster Linie an SPS-Hersteller. Für Anwendungsprogrammierer ist die SPS-Norm eher ein Dokument im Hintergrund, denn sie sind für ihre Arbeit auf ein reales IEC 61131-3 kompatibles Programmier- und SPS-System angewiesen.

  13. Prospects for an experiment to measure at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of the branching ratios for the decays can provide unique constraints on CKM unitarity and, potentially, evidence for new physics. It is important to measure both decay modes, and , since different new physics models affect the rates for each channel differently. We are investigating the feasibility of performing a measurement of using a high-energy secondary neutral beam at the CERN SPS in a successor experiment to NA62. The planned experiment would reuse some of the NA62 infrastructure, including possibly the NA48 liquid-krypton calorimeter. The mean momentum of mesons decaying in the fiducial volume is 70 GeV; the decay products are boosted forward, so that less demanding performance is required from the large-angle photon veto detectors. On the other hand, the layout poses particular challenges for the design of the small-angle vetoes, which must reject photons from decays escaping through the beam pipe amidst an intense background from soft photons and neutrons in the beam. We present some preliminary conclusions from our feasibility studies, summarizing the design challenges faced and the sensitivity obtainable for the measurement of .

  14. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Solid State SPS Analysis, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A 2500 megawatt solid ground output Solar Power Satellite (SPS) of conventional configuration was designed and analyzed. Because the power per receiving antenna is halved, as compared with the klystron reference, twice the number of receiving antennas are needed to deliver the same total power. The solid state approach appears feasible with a slightly greater specific mass and slightly higher cost than the klystron SPS design.

  15. Design and prototyping of HL-LHC double quarter wave crab cavities for SPS test

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu-Andres, S.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Alberty, L.; Artoos, K.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Carra, F.; Leuxe, R.; Kuder, N.; Zanoni, C.; Li, Z.; Ratti, A.

    2015-05-03

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  16. Performance of exponential coupler in the SPS with LHC type beam for transverse broadband instability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Maria,R.; Fox, J. D.; Hofle, W.; Kotzian, G.; Rumolo, G.; Salvant, B.; Wehrle, U.

    2009-05-25

    We present the performance and limitations of the SPS exponential coupler [1] for transverse instability measurements with LHC type beam. Data were acquired in 2008 in the SPS in the time domain with a bandwidth of up to 2.5 GHz. The data were filtered to extract the time evolution of transverse oscillations within the less than 5 ns long LHC type bunches. We describe the data filtering techniques and show the limitations of the pick-up due to propagating modes.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and six other energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsko, T.; Brown, C.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J. R.; Habegger, L. J.; Hub, K.; Levine, E.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Tanzman, E.

    1980-04-01

    Six alternative technologies (conventional coal combustion; light water reactor; coal gasification/combined cycle; liquid metal, fast breeder reactor; terrestrial photovoltaic; and fusion) were compared to the SPS on the basis of available data on cost and performance, health and safety, environmental welfare, resource requirements, and economics. These comparisons are descriptive and do not culminate in any bottom line regarding the overall viability of the SPS.

  18. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  19. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  20. Satellite power system (SPS) brightness due to reflected sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The development and operation of a Satellite Power System would place very large structures in orbit around earth for several decades. Sunlight reflected off such structures, particularly specular components from large flat areas, is expected to create ground illumination that will attract observers. In order to assure that this illumination does not exceed the irradiance tolerances of the eye, reflections from these satellites must be carefully controlled by vehicle orientation and surface specifications. The solar power satellite (SPS) at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) has 55 km/sup 2/ of glass covered solar cells that are oriented normal to the sun, as well as a 1 km/sup 2/ microwave antenna. Transportation of construction materials from low earth orbit (LEO) to GEO requires 23 Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) that have 1.6 km/sup 2/ solar panels oriented normal to the sun during their 6 month transits. The Staging Base (SB) at LEO, that accommodates OTV fabrication and cargo transfer, consists of 0.5 km arms protruding from a .44 km/sup 2/ open grid aligned with its orbit plane. Diffuse reflections would make the SB/OTVs readily discernible in the daytime and the OTVs and SPSs observable all night (except during eclipse). Sporadic specular glints would appear on the ground from the OTVs and SPSs near the midnight meridian, from the solar panel surfaces of OTVs during LEO fabrication around midday, and from OTVs near LEO at dawn and dusk. The ground level irradiance has been evaluated for several unusually bright configurations using the present system design. Procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  2. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 5: Systems engineering/integration research and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-03-01

    Guidelines and ground rules followed in the development of requirements for the SPS are presented. Development planning objectives are specified in each of these areas, and evolutionary SPS program scenarios are described for the various concepts studied during the past one year contract. Program descriptions are presented as planning packages of technical tasks, and schedule phasing. Each package identifies the ground based technology effort that will facilitate SPS definitions, designs, development, and operations.

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 5: Systems engineering/integration research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and ground rules followed in the development of requirements for the SPS are presented. Development planning objectives are specified in each of these areas, and evolutionary SPS program scenarios are described for the various concepts studied during the past one year contract. Program descriptions are presented as planning packages of technical tasks, and schedule phasing. Each package identifies the ground based technology effort that will facilitate SPS definitions, designs, development, and operations.

  5. Vertebrobasilar ectasia in patients with lacunar stroke: The SPS3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Makoto; Pearce, Lesly A.; Ohara, Nobuyuki; Field, Thalia S.; Bazan, Carlos; Anderson, David C.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical implications of vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE) in patients with cerebral small artery disease are not well defined. We investigated whether VBE is associated with recurrent stroke, major hemorrhage, and death in a large cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke. Materials and methods Maximum diameters of the vertebral and basilar arteries were measured by magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomographic angiography in 2621 participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial. VBE was defined a priori as basilar artery >4.5 mm and/or vertebral artery >4.0 mm. Patient characteristics and risks of stroke recurrence and mortality during follow-up (median 3.5 years) were compared between patients with and without VBE. Results VBE affecting ≥1 artery was present in 200 (7.6%) patients. Patient features independently associated with VBE were increasing age, male sex, white race-ethnicity, hypertension, and higher baseline diastolic blood pressure. Baseline systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with VBE. After adjustment for other risk factors, VBE was not predictive of recurrent stroke (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.85-1.9) or major hemorrhage (HR 1.5, CI 0.94-2.6), but was of death (HR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.7). Conclusion In this large well-characterized cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke, VBE was predictive of death, but not recurrent stroke or major hemorrhage. In these exploratory analyses, the frequency of VBE was directly related to diastolic blood pressure but inversely related to systolic blood pressure. PMID:25817614

  6. A reduction of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity affects sucrose/starch ratio in leaves but does not inhibit normal plant growth in rice.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Yoichi; Hirose, Tatsuro; Okamura, Masaki; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Ohsugi, Ryu; Aoki, Naohiro

    2016-12-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) has been shown to mediate sucrose/starch ratio in plant leaves through studies of 'starch leaf' species that mainly accumulate starch in their leaves. However, the contribution of SPS to sucrose/starch ratio in rice leaves, which mainly accumulate sucrose (i.e., 'sugar leaf'), has not been confirmed due to inconsistencies in the results of previous studies. In this study, we analyzed mutant lines with reduced SPS activity, which were generated using Tos17 insertion, RNAi, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The knockdown and knockout mutants of OsSPS1 showed a 29-46% reduction in SPS activity in the leaves, but the carbohydrate content in the leaves and plant growth were not significantly different from those of wild-type plants. In a double knockout mutant of OsSPS1 and OsSPS11 (sps1/sps11), an 84% reduction in leaf SPS activity resulted in higher starch accumulation in the leaves than in the wild-type leaves. However, the sps1/sps11 plants grew normally, which is in contrast to the inhibited growth of SPS mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, a typical starch leaf plant. These results suggest that SPS has a smaller effect on the sucrose/starch ratio in leaves and growth of rice than on starch leaf species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Timely Closure of the Prospore Membrane Requires SPS1 and SPO77 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Paulissen, Scott M.; Slubowski, Christian J.; Roesner, Joseph M.; Huang, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    During sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a double lipid bilayer called the prospore membrane is formed de novo, growing around each meiotic nucleus and ultimately closing to create four new cells within the mother cell. Here we show that SPS1, which encodes a kinase belonging to the germinal center kinase III family, is involved in prospore membrane development and is required for prospore membrane closure. We find that SPS1 genetically interacts with SPO77 and see that loss of either gene disrupts prospore membrane closure in a similar fashion. Specifically, cells lacking SPS1 and SPO77 produce hyperelongated prospore membranes from which the leading edge protein complex is not removed from the prospore membrane in a timely fashion. The SPS1/SPO77 pathway is required for the proper phosphorylation and stability of Ssp1, a member of the leading edge protein complex that is removed and degraded when the prospore membrane closes. Genetic dissection of prospore membrane closure finds SPS1 and SPO77 act in parallel to a previously described pathway of prospore membrane closure that involves AMA1, an activator of the meiotic anaphase promoting complex. PMID:27182947

  8. The sps Gene Products Affect the Germination, Hydrophobicity, and Protein Adsorption of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Cangiano, Giuseppina; Sirec, Teja; Panarella, Cristina; Isticato, Rachele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; De Felice, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    The multilayered surface of the Bacillus subtilis spore is composed of proteins and glycans. While over 70 different proteins have been identified as surface components, carbohydrates associated with the spore surface have not been characterized in detail yet. Bioinformatic data suggest that the 11 products of the sps operon are involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides present on the spore surface, but an experimental validation is available only for the four distal genes of the operon. Here, we report a transcriptional analysis of the sps operon and a functional study performed by constructing and analyzing two null mutants lacking either all or only the promoter-proximal gene of the operon. Our results show that both sps mutant spores apparently have normal coat and crust but have a small germination defect and are more hydrophobic than wild-type spores. We also show that spores lacking all Sps proteins are highly adhesive and form extensive clumps. In addition, sps mutant spores have an increased efficiency in adsorbing a heterologous enzyme, suggesting that hydrophobic force is a major determinant of spore adsorption and indicating that a deep understanding of the surface properties of the spore is essential for its full development as a surface display platform. PMID:25239894

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotube monoliths prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and their mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Uo, Motohiro; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Isao; Munekane, Fuminori; Omori, Mamoru; Kimura, Hisamichi; Nakatomi, Reiko; Soga, Kohei; Kogo, Yasuo; Watari, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Three types of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) monoliths without any binders were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) treatment at 2000 degrees C under 80 MPa sintering pressure. Three MWCNTs with different diameters: thin (slashed circle20-30 nm, CNT Co., Ltd., Korea), thick (slashed circle100 nm, Nano Carbon Technologies Co., Ltd., Japan) and spherical thin (slashed circle20-30 nm, granulated diameter = 1-3 microm, Shimizu Corporation, Japan) were employed for SPS. SEM observation confirmed that these materials maintained the nanosized tube microstructure of raw CNT powder after SPS treatment. The densest monolith was prepared with the spherical MWCNTs. The mechanical properties of this material were estimated by the dynamic hardness test. The elastic modulus of the monolith did not depend on the difference of MWCNTs, but the hardness of spherical MWCNTs was higher than that of thick MWCNTs. The high density and hardness of the spherical MWCNTs were caused by the high packing density during the SPS process because of its spherical granulation. Thus, the spherical MWCNTs were most useful for the MWCNT monolith preparation with the SPS process and its application as a bone substitute material and a bone tissue engineering scaffold material was suggested.

  10. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Activation of SPS from darkened spinach leaves by an endogenous protein phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, S.C.; Huber, J.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Sucrose-phosphate synthase from darkened spinach leaves has a low activation state but can undergo a time-dependent activation in desalted leaf extracts that is inhibited by Pi, molybdate, okadaic acid and vanadate, but stimulated by fluoride. SPS labeled in vivo with ({sup 32}P)Pi in excised leaves in the dark loses incorporated {sup 32}P with time when extracts are incubated at 25{degree}C. This loss is largely prevented by vanadate, suggesting that an endogenous protein phosphatase can use SPS as substrate. Changes in phosphorylation state are closely paralleled by changes in SPS activation state. The spontaneous activation achieved in the extracts can be reversed by addition of 2 mM MgATP. Feeding okadaic acid to darkened leaves prevents light activation of SPS suggesting that the endogenous protein phosphatase is similar to the type-1 enzyme of animal tissues. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that light activation of SPS involves dephosphorylation of inhibitory phosphorylation site(s). Regulation of the protein phosphatase by Pi may be of physiological significance.

  12. A Low Power Density Rectenna for SPS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    present launch technology. Due to the satellites low power and small antenna, the power flux density reaching the earth's surface is only 1 W/m2. This is probably insufficient for practical applications, so we investigated the minimum density required for a rectenna to operate. because the input power of the rectifying circuits is lower. We thus developed a rectenna with a larger aperture area that can operate satisfactorily when the power flux density is low because the input power to the rectifying circuits is not reduced. antenna array. Although constructing an antenna array is relatively easy, the substrate material is costly. We thus took the second approach--using a rectenna with a parabolic antenna. power transmission frequency was 5.8 GHz. We designed a center-feed parabolic antenna with a 60-cm diameter using a circular patch antenna as the primary feed. The gain and aperture efficiency were 29 dBi and 62 %, respectively. The 3-dB beam width was 7 degrees. Rectifying circuits were constructed on the reverse side of the patch antenna, and its efficiency was about 75 % at an input power of 300 mW and a load resistance of 300 ohms. Microwave power transmission experiments in an anechoic chamber showed that the efficiency of a rectenna with a parabolic reflector was 50 %. increase the amount of time to receive data from the satellite. Therefore, we changed the length of the two orthogonal directions of the reflector.We propose rectangular reflector rectenna that can arrange without clearance on the whole ground rectenna site. We calculated the directivity of this antenna by using the physical optics method. The major and minor axis length of antenna was 85 x 43 cm, and its 3-dB beam width was 4 and 8 degrees, respectively, and the gain was 30 dBi.The degradation in the aperture efficiency compared to the circular parabolic antenna was about 12 %. power region of its normal site in the SPS. The transmission using microwave power was successful even in a region

  13. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80{degrees}C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors.

  14. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  15. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oil and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.

  16. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    DOE PAGES

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oilmore » and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.« less

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-09-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  18. Operation Program for the Spatially Phase-Shifted Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer - SPS-DSPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter N.; Jones, Joycelyn T.; Hostetter, Carl F.; Greenfield, Perry; Miller, Todd

    2010-01-01

    SPS-DSPI software has been revised so that Goddard optical engineers can operate the instrument, instead of data programmers. The user interface has been improved to view the data collected by the SPS-DSPI, with a real-time mode and a play-back mode. The SPS-DSPI has been developed by NASA/GSFC to measure the temperature distortions of the primary-mirror backplane structure for the James Webb Space Telescope. It requires a team of computer specialists to run successfully, because, at the time of this reporting, it just finished the prototype stage. This software improvement will transition the instrument to become available for use by many programs that measure distortion

  19. The Mechanical Design and Preliminary Testing Results of Beam Position Monitors for the LANSCE Isotope Production Facility and Switchyard Kicker Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. F.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Ledford, J. E.; Shurter, R. B.; Roybal, R. J.; Bentley, B. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE-1) Beam Diagnostic Team is providing Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to the LANSCE Facility for use in two on-going projects: The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and The Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK). The BPM designs for both projects are very similar. The BPMs are classic, four, micro-stripline units having one end terminated in a 50-ohm load. This paper will discuss the position measurement requirements, mechanical design, fabrication, and alignment issues encountered for both sets of BPMs, as well as report the results obtained from the initial taught wire testing of the IPF BPMs.

  20. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 3: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Additional analyses and investigations were conducted to further define transportation system concepts that will be needed for the developmental and operational phases of an SPS program. To accomplish these objectives, transportation systems such as the Shuttle and its derivatives were identified; new heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) concepts, cargo and personnel orbital transfer vehicles (EOTV and POTV), and intraorbit transfer vehicle (IOTV) concepts were evaluated; and, to a limited degree, the program implications of their operations and costs were assessed. The results of these analyses were integrated into other elements of the overall SPS concept definition studies.

  1. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  2. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  3. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  4. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, W.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  5. Search for the quark-gluon plasma (1989): The NA35 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1989-09-01

    Results from the NA35 experiment at the CERN SPS are described in the context of possible formation and identification of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Evidence is presented that the initial energy density and temperature are sufficient for the QGP to be produced, and that hydrodynamic flow occurs in the expansion stage. Evidence for an unexpectedly large pion source size and for enhanced strangeness production is presented, and discussed in terms of QGP formation. Plans for experiments in 1990--91 with an expanded set up are presented, and prospects for a program with Pb beams at the SPS are discussed. 39 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong; Song, Sang-Heon

    2016-03-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee.

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 6, part 1: Cost and Programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the cost data reviewed as well as conclusions and recommendations are presented. Cost and programmatic aspects of Rockwell's SPS CR-2 reference configuration were based on the results of several contracts with NASA and independent company-sponsored activities by the Space Operations and Satellite Systems Division of Rockwell International.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Concept Definition Study (Exhibit D). Solid-State Amplifier Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Data resulting from a continuing effort to provide system/subsystem definition data to aid in the evaluation of the SPS program concept is presented. The specific data described relate to the proposed use of solid state devices as microwave power amplifiers in the satellite microwave power transmission subsystem.

  9. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  10. Intermittency in {sup 32}S + S and {sup 32}S + Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, M.A.; Jacobs, P.; WA80 Collaboration

    1991-12-01

    Nonstatistical or ``intermittent`` fluctuations of charged particle multiplicities have been investigated at the CERN SPS with the WA80 multiplicity array for {sup 32}S+S and {sup 32}S+Au collisions of varying centrality. Within the phase space domain studied there is no evidence for intermittency in these collisions beyond that accounted for by FRITIOF filtered through a full detector simulation.

  11. Intermittency in sup 32 S + S and sup 32 S + Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, M.A.; Jacobs, P.

    1991-12-01

    Nonstatistical or intermittent'' fluctuations of charged particle multiplicities have been investigated at the CERN SPS with the WA80 multiplicity array for {sup 32}S+S and {sup 32}S+Au collisions of varying centrality. Within the phase space domain studied there is no evidence for intermittency in these collisions beyond that accounted for by FRITIOF filtered through a full detector simulation.

  12. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  13. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy, and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) were reviewed. Three classes of resource impacts were considered separately: critical materials, energy and land use. The analysis focused on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  14. Bibliography for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Abromavage, M.; Calzadilla, R.; Murray, M.

    1981-04-01

    This bibliography encompasses systems definition and engineering aspects; environmental assessment of microwave health and ecology, risks to space workers and atmospheric effects; a societal assessment covering resource requirements (land and materials) international and institutional issues; and a comparative assessment of the SPS Reference System relative to other advanced energy technologies, such as fusion. (MHR)

  15. The SPS interference problem-electronic system effects and mitigation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juroshek, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for interference between solar power satellites (SPS) and other Earth satellite operations was examined along with interference problems involving specific electronic devices. Conclusions indicate that interference is likely in the 2500 MHz to 2690 MHz direct broadcast satellite band adjacent to SPS. Estimates of the adjacent channel noise from SPS in this band are as high as -124 dBc/4 kHz and -100 dBc/MHz, where dBc represents decibels relative to the total power in the fundamental. A second potential problem is the 7350 MHz, 3d harmonic from SPS that falls within the 7300 MHz to 7450 MHz space to Earth, government, satellite assignment. Catastrophic failures can be produced in integrated circuits when the microwave power levels coupled into inputs and power leads reach 1 to 100 watts. The failures are typically due to bonding wire melting, metallization failures, and junction shorting. Nondestructive interaction or interference, however, generally occurs with coupled power levels of the order of 10 milliwatts. This integration is due to the rectification of microwave energy by the numerous pn junctions within these circuits.

  16. Satellite Power Systems /SPS/ - Overview of system studies and critical technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    Systems studies and critical technology issues for the development and evaluation of Satellite Power Systems (SPS) for the photovoltaic generation of electrical energy and its transmission to earth are reviewed. Initial concept studies completed in 1976 and system definition studies initiated in the same year have indicated the technical feasibility of SPS and identified challenging issues to be addressed as part of the SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Systems considered in the study include photovoltaic and solar thermal power conversion configurations employing klystron or solid state microwave generators or lasers for power transmission, and power transmission options, system constructability and in-orbit and ground operations. Technology investigations are being performed in the areas of microwave power transmission, structure/controls interactions and the behavior of key materials in the space/SPS environment. Favorable results have been obtained in the areas of microwave phase distribution and phase control, dc-RF conversion, antenna radiating element, and no insurmountable problems have been discovered in any of the investigations to date.

  17. The adapting of the crossed-field directional amplifier to the requirements of the SPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in adapting the crossed-field directional amplifier to the SPS is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to (1) recent developments in controlling the phase and amplitude of the microwave power output, (2) a received architecture for its placement in the subarray, and (3) recent developments in the critical pivotal areas of noise, potential cathode life, and efficiency.

  18. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) for Nanostructured Smart Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-05

    ferromagnetic SMA composites, piezo-composites with and without functionally graded microstructure( FGM ), a new active materials such as piezo-SMA composites...without functionally graded microstructure( FGM ), a new active materials such as piezo-SMA composites. These composites will be used for higher performance...ferromagnetic SMA, Fe-Pd, based on the hybrid mechanism, we performed a bending test of an Fe-Pd specimen and a NiMnGa specimen with a high magnetic

  19. MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  20. Effects of ionospheric turbulence on SPS pilot signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clynch, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial variation of the electron density was studied by monitoring the differential Doppler on radio beacons aboard the Navy navigation satellites. The radio frequency heater was used to deposit energy in the F-region ionosphere with the heating frequency above peak plasma frequency. The effects of the solar power satellite power beam on the pilot signal were simulated. It was found that a small depletion was formed in the beam and that there was turbulence in the elctron density up the magnetic field line from the beam. It is suggested that the depletion will not seriously affect the power or pilot beams of the solar power satellite.

  1. Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and anti-GAD-related CNS degenerations: protean additions to the autoimmune central neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatima; Rowley, Merrill; Jayakrishnan, Bindu; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric; Mackay, Ian R

    2011-09-01

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune neurological disease attributable to autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) more usually associated with the islet beta cell destruction of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). SPS is characterized by interference in neurons with the synthesis/activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) resulting in the prototypic progressive spasmodic muscular rigidity of SPS, or diverse neurological syndromes, cerebellar ataxia, intractable epilepsy, myoclonus and several others. Remarkably, a single autoantibody, anti-GAD, can be common to widely different disease expressions, i.e. T1D and SPS. One explanation for these data is the differences in epitope engagement between the anti-GAD reactivity in SPS and T1D: in both diseases, anti-GAD antibody reactivity is predominantly to a conformational epitope region in the PLP- and C-terminal domains of the 65 kDa isoform but, additionally in SPS, there is reactivity to conformational epitope(s) on GAD67, and short linear epitopes in the C-terminal region and at the N-terminus of GAD65. Another explanation for disease expressions in SPS includes ready access of anti-GAD to antigen sites due to immune responsiveness within the CNS itself according to intrathecal anti-GAD-specific B cells and autoantibody. Closer study of the mysterious stiff-person syndrome should enhance the understanding of this disease itself, and autoimmunity in general.

  2. Performance measurements and energy balance of an SPS V160 Stirling motor at the German Aerospace Research Establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Gerold

    1990-02-01

    Before conversion to solar operation to serve as a solar receiver test bed, a Stirling Power Systems (SPS) V160F natural gas-fired co-generation stirling motor was tested. A test stand was built and instrumented, and the motor performance was measured under various loads. An energy balance of the motor/generator unit was done including electric output and input, thermal input, waste heat in the cooling water, cooling air, exhaust, radiation and free convection from the motor housing. The influence of the internal cooling water temperature on motor performance was measured. Measurements, including an exhaust gas analysis and surface temperature distribution, were made to determine the combustion chamber efficiency. A magnetic eddy current brake was used to measure the shaft output of the stirling motor and measure the efficiency of the generator. The total natural gas to electric energy conversion efficiency was measured to be 23 percent above 2/3 of full power; 20 percent efficiency was achieved down to 1/3 power. Maximum power was measured at 8.9 kWc.

  3. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Oscar R.; White, Carole L.; Pearce, Lesly; Pergola, Pablo; Roldan, Ana; Benavente, Marie-France; Coffey, Christopher; McClure, Leslie A.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Conwit, Robin; Heberling, Patricia A.; Howard, George; Bazan, Carlos; Vidal-Pergola, Gabriela; Talbert, Robert; Hart, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Small subcortical strokes, also known as lacunar strokes, comprise more than 25% of brain infarcts, and the underlying vasculopathy is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. How to optimally prevent stroke recurrence and cognitive decline in S3 patients is unclear. The aim of the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study (Trial registration: NCT00059306) is to define strategies for reducing stroke recurrence, cognitive decline, and major vascular events. Methods Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes is a randomised, multicentre clinical trial (n = 3000) being conducted in seven countries, and sponsored by the US NINDS/NIH. Patients with symptomatic small subcortical strokes in the six-months before and an eligible lesion on magnetic resonance imaging are simultaneously randomised, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, to antiplatelet therapy – 325 mg aspirin daily plus 75 mg clopidogrel daily, vs. 325 mg aspirin daily plus placebo, double-blind – and to one of two levels of systolic blood pressure targets –‘intensive’ (<130 mmHg) vs. ‘usual’ (130–149 mmHg). Participants are followed for an average of four-years. Time to recurrent stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) is the primary outcome and will be analysed separately for each intervention. The secondary outcomes are the rate of cognitive decline and major vascular events. The primary and most secondary outcomes are adjudicated centrally by those unaware of treatment assignment. Conclusions Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes will address several important clinical and scientific questions by testing two interventions in patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, which are likely due to small vessel disease. The results will inform the management of millions of patients with this common vascular disorder. PMID:21371282

  4. CLaSPS: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX ASTRONOMICAL DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Laurino, O.; Djorgovski, G.; Donalek, C.; Longo, G.

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, we present the Clustering-Labels-Score Patterns Spotter (CLaSPS), a new methodology for the determination of correlations among astronomical observables in complex data sets, based on the application of distinct unsupervised clustering techniques. The novelty in CLaSPS is the criterion used for the selection of the optimal clusterings, based on a quantitative measure of the degree of correlation between the cluster memberships and the distribution of a set of observables, the labels, not employed for the clustering. CLaSPS has been primarily developed as a tool to tackle the challenging complexity of the multi-wavelength complex and massive astronomical data sets produced by the federation of the data from modern automated astronomical facilities. In this paper, we discuss the applications of CLaSPS to two simple astronomical data sets, both composed of extragalactic sources with photometric observations at different wavelengths from large area surveys. The first data set, CSC+, is composed of optical quasars spectroscopically selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, observed in the x-rays by Chandra and with multi-wavelength observations in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet spectral intervals. One of the results of the application of CLaSPS to the CSC+ is the re-identification of a well-known correlation between the {alpha}{sub OX} parameter and the near-ultraviolet color, in a subset of CSC+ sources with relatively small values of the near-ultraviolet colors. The other data set consists of a sample of blazars for which photometric observations in the optical, mid-, and near-infrared are available, complemented for a subset of the sources, by Fermi {gamma}-ray data. The main results of the application of CLaSPS to such data sets have been the discovery of a strong correlation between the multi-wavelength color distribution of blazars and their optical spectral classification in BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars, and a

  5. Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17/Fe composite magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tetsuji; Miyoshi, Hiroya

    2012-04-01

    Mixtures of powdered Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon and Fe powder were consolidated into bulk magnets by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Although these bulk magnets consisted of the hard magnetic Sm5Fe17 and soft magnetic α-Fe phases, they had a smooth hysteresis loop and exhibited coercivity. Among the magnets studied, the Sm5Fe17/Fe composite magnet with 30%Fe showed a remanence of 94 emu/g with a coercivity of 2.9 kOe.

  6. Examination of some hypothetical SPS rectenna sites within the contiguous United States of America. Part I. Precipitation effects on hypothetical SPS sites in the USA. Part II. Point-to-point microwave and service mode communications systems near four hypothetical SPS rectenna sites in the continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, E J; Warner, B D

    1981-05-01

    The report of Grant et al., (1980) describes the EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) problems for the candidate SPS rectenna site in the Mojave Desert of California. This study examines the precipitation effects at nine other hypothetical SPS rectenna sites and the licensed transmitter density at four proposed SPS rectenna sites. The results of the precipitation study indicate that the transmission loss will not vary by more than 3% from site-to-site for the nine sites considered. Results of the licensed transmitter study for four sites support the contention that a strong correlation exists between population density and operational communications systems within small area (150 Km x 150 Km).

  7. Solid state SPS microwave generation and transmission study. Volume 1: Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    The solid state sandwich concept for Solar Power Station (SPS) was investigated. The design effort concentrated on the spacetenna, but did include some system analysis for parametric comparison reasons. The study specifically included definition and math modeling of basic solid state microwave devices, an initial conceptual subsystems and system design, sidelobe control and system selection, an assessment of selected system concept and parametric solid state microwave power transmission system data relevant to the SPS concept. Although device efficiency was not a goal, the sensitivities to design of this efficiency were parametrically treated. Sidelobe control consisted of various single step tapers, multistep tapers, and Gaussian tapers. A preliminary assessment of a hybrid concept using tubes and solid state is also included. There is a considerable amount of thermal analysis provided with emphasis on sensitivities to waste heat radiator form factor, emissivity, absorptivity, amplifier efficiency, material and junction temperature.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 7: System/subsystems requirements databook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    This volume summarizes the basic requirements used as a guide to systems analysis, and is a basis for the selection of candidate Satellite Power Systems (SPS) point designs. Initially, these collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS concepts. As the various concepts matured, these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point designs. Included is an updated version of earlier Rockwell concepts using klystrons as the specific microwave power amplification approach, as well as a more in-depth definition, analysis and preliminary point design on two concepts based on the use of advanced solid state technology to accomplish the task of high power amplification of the 2.45 GHz transmitted power beam to the Earth receiver. Finally, a preliminary definition of a concept using magnetrons as the microwave power amplifiers is presented.

  9. Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a quark-gluon plasma signature.

    PubMed

    Teaney, D; Lauret, J; Shuryak, E V

    2001-05-21

    Radial and elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions can constrain the effective equation of state (EOS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code [Sorge, Phys. Rev. C 52, 3291 (1995)] is developed. For an EOS with a first-order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EOS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flows. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure.

  10. Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a Quark-Gluon Plasma Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, D.; Lauret, J.; Shuryak, E. V.

    2001-05-01

    Radial and elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions can constrain the effective equation of state (EOS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code [Sorge, Phys. Rev. C 52, 3291 (1995)] is developed. For an EOS with a first-order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EOS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flows. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure.

  11. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) from Halothermothrix orenii

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Frederick; Tan, Tien-Chye; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Patel, Bharat K. C.

    2005-01-01

    The first crystallographic study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from H. orenii, an organism that is both thermophilic and halophilic, is reported. The protein crystal diffracts X-rays to 3.01 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization of a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14). It also constitutes the first study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from a non-photosynthetic thermohalophilic anaerobic bacterium, Halothermothrix orenii. The purified recombinant spsA protein has been crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 154.2, b = 47.9, c = 72.3 Å, β = 103.16°, using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracts X-rays to a resolution limit of 3.01 Å. Heavy-metal and halide-soaking trials are currently in progress to solve the structure.

  12. Solid state SPS microwave generation and transmission study. Volume 2, phase 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    The solid state sandwich concept for SPS was further defined. The design effort concentrated on the spacetenna, but did include some system analysis for parametric comparison reasons. Basic solid state microwave devices were defined and modeled. An initial conceptual subsystems and system design was performed as well as sidelobe control and system selection. The selected system concept and parametric solid state microwave power transmission system data were assessed relevant to the SPS concept. Although device efficiency was not a goal, the sensitivities to design of this efficiency were parametrically treated. Sidelobe control consisted of various single step tapers, multistep tapers and Gaussian tapers. A hybrid concept using tubes and solid state was evaluated. Thermal analyses are included with emphasis on sensitivities to waste heat radiator form factor, emissivity, absorptivity, amplifier efficiency, material and junction temperature.

  13. Scaled, circular-emitter Penning SPS for intense H/sup -/ beams

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Sherman, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos versions of the Penning Surface-Plasma Source (SPS) routinely generate H/sup -/ ion beams with pulsed currents over 100 mA. However, these sources employ geometries that result in the extraction of slit beams (0.5 x 10 mm/sup 2/). Our modeling with the SNOW code indicates that the beam from a 5.4-mm-diam circular emitter will have lower emittance and divergence for transport to and injection into our radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. This paper describes a newly constructed Penning SPS that has most of its discharge chamber dimensions scaled up by a factor of 4 to accommodate this circular emitter.

  14. Solid state SPS microwave generation and transmission study. Volume 1: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-11-01

    The solid state sandwich concept for Solar Power Station (SPS) was investigated. The design effort concentrated on the spacetenna, but did include some system analysis for parametric comparison reasons. The study specifically included definition and math modeling of basic solid state microwave devices, an initial conceptual subsystems and system design, sidelobe control and system selection, an assessment of selected system concept and parametric solid state microwave power transmission system data relevant to the SPS concept. Although device efficiency was not a goal, the sensitivities to design of this efficiency were parametrically treated. Sidelobe control consisted of various single step tapers, multistep tapers, and Gaussian tapers. A preliminary assessment of a hybrid concept using tubes and solid state is also included. There is a considerable amount of thermal analysis provided with emphasis on sensitivities to waste heat radiator form factor, emissivity, absorptivity, amplifier efficiency, material and junction temperature.

  15. Impact of SPS heating on VLF, LF, and MF telecommunications systems ascertained by experimental means

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.; Espeland, R.H.; Carroll, J.C.; Allen, K.C.

    1980-07-01

    The results of experiments undertaken to assess the potential impact of the operation of the Satellite Power System on the D and E regions of the ionosphere, and on telecommunication systems that are dependent upon the structure of the lower ionosphere are summarized. Using the high-power high-frequency transmitter facility located at Platteville, Colorado, power densities comparable to the Satellite Power System can be delivered to the heights of 70 to 100 km above the surface of the earth. Observations of the performance of telecommunication systems that operate in the VLF, LF, and MF portions of the spectrum have been investigated during times when the ionosphere was modified with SPS comparable power density and when it was not. The results obtained indicte that the SPS, as currently configured with a peak power density of 23 mW/cm/sup 2/, will not adversely impact upon the performance of VLF, LF, and MF telecommunication systems.

  16. Angelo State SPS Marsh White Award: Physics After School Special (P.A.S.S.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Vikesh; Sauncy, Toni

    2012-03-01

    With a recent Marsh White Award from the SPS National Office, the Angelo State SPS has teamed up with a local YMCA after school program to provide fun lab experiences for the diverse group of K-3^rd graders. Several undergraduate presenters are involved, and the funding was used to purchase tshirts for all participants. The afterschool group of approximately 30 children has visited the campus for the first lab session and plans three additional hands on lab experiences over the course of the semester. For the final visit, the Peer Pressure Team will conduct a full demonstration show and P.A.S.S. Party. The goal of this public engagement is to motivate these young students to learn more about physics with hands on activities in a fun and safe environment and to establish meaningful mentoring relationships between undergraduate physics majors and younger students.

  17. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Claps, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Murtas, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2015-09-01

    In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator-absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator-absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator-absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  18. Comparison of SPS Processing Behavior between As Atomized and Cryomilled Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Frank; McWilliams, Brandon; Sietins, Jennifer; Giri, Anit; Cho, Kyu

    2017-08-01

    Aluminum 5083 powder, both as atomized and cryomilled, was consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). This study quantified and compared the effects of heating an aluminum alloy powder directly through Joule heating vs indirectly through thermal conduction from the die during SPS processing. When consolidated under the same processing conditions, the cryomilled powders showed faster heating rates and densification than the as atomized powder. It was also possible to process the cryomilled powder in a non-conductive die but not the as atomized powder. This could be ascribed to an improvement in electrical conductivity of the powder due to the break up and redistribution of surface oxides after cryomilling. The changes in behavior as a result of cryomilling and/or changing die material led to samples with different fracture morphologies and increased hardness values.

  19. Antibacterial and toxicity evaluation of C-phycocyanin and cell extract of filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium-Westiellopsis sps.

    PubMed

    Sabarinathan, K G; Ganesan, G

    2008-01-01

    In this study the culture filtrate and C-phycocyanin obtained from filamentous fresh water cyanobacterium Westiellopsis sps were tested for their antibacterial activity against three different bacterial cultures: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sps and Xanthomonas sps. The growth of all bacterial strains tested was inhibited by the culture filtrate and C-phycocyanin. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 1.3 to 13.2 mm and from 2.2 to 13.1 mm for the culture filtrate and C-phycocyanin, respectively. It is therefore suggested that extracts from the Westiellopsis sps could be used traditionally in the treatment of bacterial infections. Bioassay studies of silkworm showed that there was no symptom of ill health after feeding the phycocyanin treated leaves and the body weight and silk gland weight of the silkworm increased with range of 65.0-102.6 mg and 209-240 mg respectively compared to the control.

  20. Electron-cloud simulation results for the SPS and recent results for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.; Pivi, M.T.F.

    2002-06-19

    We present an update of computer simulation results for some features of the electron cloud at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and recent simulation results for the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We focus on the sensitivity of the power deposition on the LHC beam screen to the emitted electron spectrum, which we study by means of a refined secondary electron (SE) emission model recently included in our simulation code.

  1. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  2. A 15-base-pair element activates the SPS4 gene midway through sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, S R; Ebisuzaki, L K; Segall, J

    1995-01-01

    Sporulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents a simple developmental process in which the events of meiosis and spore wall formation are accompanied by the sequential activation of temporally distinct classes of genes. In this study, we have examined expression of the SPS4 gene, which belongs to a group of genes that is activated midway through sporulation. We mapped the upstream boundary of the regulatory region of SPS4 by monitoring the effect of sequential deletions of 5'-flanking sequence on expression of plasmid-borne versions of SPS4 introduced into a MATa/MAT alpha delta sps4/delta sps4 strain. This analysis indicated that the 5' boundary of the regulatory region was within 50 bp of the putative TATA box of the gene. By testing various oligonucleotides that spanned this boundary and the downstream sequence for their ability to activate expression of a heterologous promoter, we found that a 15-bp sequence sufficed to act as a sporulation-specific upstream activation sequence. This 15-bp fragment, designated UASSPS4, activated expression of a CYC1-lacZ reporter gene midway through sporulation and was equally active in both orientations. Extending the UAS fragment to include the adjacent 14-bp enhanced its activity 10-fold. We show that expression of SPS4 is regulated in a manner distinct from that of early meiotic genes: mutation of UME6 did not lead to vegetative expression of SPS4, and sporulation-specific expression was delayed by mutation of IME2. In vivo and in vitro assays suggested that a factor present in vegetative cells bind to the UASSPS4 element. We speculate that during sporulation this factor is modified to serve as an activator of the SPS4 gene or, alternatively, that it recruits an activator to the promoter. PMID:7791799

  3. Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Byrd, John; Furman, Miguel; Penn, Gregory; Secondo, Raffaello; Venturini, Marco Fox, John; Rivetta, Claudio; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the Warp-Posinst simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS.

  4. SIMULATION OF E-CLOUD DRIVEN INSTABILITY AND ITS ATTENUATION USING A FEEDBACK SYSTEM IN THE CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Byrd, J. M.; Furman, M. A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2010-05-03

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS [1], and a feedback system to control the instabilities is under active development [2]. We present the latest improvements to the Warp-Posinst simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS.

  5. Numerical study of the process parameters in spark plasma sintering (sps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Redwan Jahid

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the most widely used sintering techniques that utilizes pulsed direct current together with uniaxial pressure to consolidate a wide variety of materials. The unique mechanisms of SPS enable it to sinter powder compacts at a lower temperature and in a shorter time than the conventional hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and vacuum sintering process. One of the limitations of SPS is the presence of temperature gradients inside the sample, which could result in non-uniform physical and microstructural properties. Detailed study of the temperature and current distributions inside the sintered sample is necessary to minimize the temperature gradients and achieve desired properties. In the present study, a coupled thermal-electric model was developed using finite element codes in ABAQUS software to investigate the temperature and current distributions inside the conductive and non-conductive samples. An integrated experimental-numerical methodology was implemented to determine the system contact resistances accurately. The developed sintering model was validated by a series of experiments, which showed good agreements with simulation results. The temperature distribution inside the sample depends on some process parameters such as sample and tool geometry, punch and die position, applied current and thermal insulation around the die. The role of these parameters on sample temperature distribution was systematically analyzed. The findings of this research could prove very useful for the reliable production of large size sintered samples with controlled and tailored properties.

  6. Simulation of Thermal Fields in SPS Fabrication of Segmented Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, L. P.; Novotelnova, A. V.; Asach, A.; Tukmakova, A. S.; Osvenskii, V.; Parchomenko, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zongrui, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) enables preparation of bulk homogeneous nanothermoelectrics with improved figure of merit, offering a potential route to production of segmented legs from layerwise powder in one sintering cycle. However, it is rather difficult to create appropriate thermal, electric, and pressure conditions to obtain optimal sample parameters. The sintering process of an example segmented leg with Bi2Te3, PbTe, and Mg2(Si0.4Sn0.6)0.993Sb0.007 parts using an SPS-511S installation has been simulated. The temperature distribution in the volume of a segmented sample with the stated composition has been obtained as a function of its geometry, as parameterized by the diameter-to-height ratio. The optimal ratio values, correlating with greater temperature difference along the sample length, have been determined. The results can be used to formulate recommendations for achieving better SPS processing conditions for fabrication of segmented thermoelectric legs. These legs have good performance due to the significant temperature difference in the leg during sintering.

  7. Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

  8. Ionizing radiation risks to Satellite Power Systems (SPS) workers in space

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A reference Satellite Power System (SPS) has been designed by NASA and its contractors for the purposes of evaluating the concept and carrying out assessments of the various consequences of development, including those on the health of the space workers. The Department of Energy has responsibility for directing various assessments. Present planning calls for the SPS workers to move from Earth to a low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 500 kilometers; to travel by a transfer ellipse (TE) trajectory to a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers; and to remain in GEO orbit for about 90 percent of the total time aloft. The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment are studied. The charge to the committee was: (a) to evaluate the radiation environment estimated for the Reference System which could represent a hazard; (b) to assess the possible somatic and genetic radiation hazards; and (c) to estimate the risks to the health of SPS workers due to space radiation exposure, and to make recommendations based on these conclusions. Details are presented. (WHK)

  9. Application of Chebyshev Formalism to Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components in Beam Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spata, Michael

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the kickers with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. Chebyshev polynomials and their unique properties allow one to directly quantify the magnitude of the nonlinearity with the minimum error. A calibration standard was developed using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline. The technique was then applied to a pair of Arc 1 dipoles and then to the magnets in the Transport Recombiner beamline to measure their multipole content as a function of transverse position within the magnets.

  10. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  11. Enzymatic investigation of the Staphylococcus aureus type I signal peptidase SpsB - implications for the search for novel antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Smitha; Bockstael, Katrijn; Nath, Sangeeta; Engelborghs, Yves; Anné, Jozef; Geukens, Nick

    2009-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has one essential type I signal peptidase (SPase), SpsB, which has emerged as a potential target in the search for antibiotics with a new mode of action. In this framework, the biochemical properties of SpsB are described and compared with other previously characterized SPases. Two different substrates have been used to assess the in vitro processing activity of SpsB: (a) a native preprotein substrate immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A and (b) an intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic synthetic peptide based on the sequence of the SceD preprotein of Staphylococcus epidermidis for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based analysis. Activity testing at different pH showed that the enzyme has an optimum pH of approximately 8. The pH-rate profile revealed apparent pK(a) values of 6.6 and 8.7. Similar to the other SPases, SpsB undergoes self-cleavage and, although the catalytic serine is retained in the self-cleavage product, a very low residual enzymatic activity remained. In contrast, a truncated derivative of SpsB, which was nine amino acids longer at the N-terminus compared to the self-cleavage product, retained activity. The specificity constants (k(cat)/K(m)) of the full-length and the truncated derivative were 1.85 +/- 0.13 x 10(3) m(-1).s(-1) and 59.4 +/- 6.4 m(-1).s(-1), respectively, as determined using the fluorogenic synthetic peptide substrate. These observations highlight the importance of the amino acids in the transmembrane segment and also those preceding the catalytic serine in the sequence of SpsB. Interestingly, we also found that the activity of the truncated SpsB increased in the presence of a non-ionic detergent.

  12. Bound magnetic polaron in a semimagnetic double quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of different combinations of the concentration of Mn2+ ion in the Quantum well Cd1-xinMnxin Te and the barrier Cd1-xoutMnxout Te on the Bound Magnetic Polaron (BMP) in a Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) Double Quantum Well (DQW) has been investigated. The Schrodinger equation is solved variationally in the effective mass approximation through which the Spin Polaronic Shift (SPS) due to the formation of BMP has been estimated for various locations of the donor impurity in the DQW. The results show that the effect of the increase of Mn2+ ion composition with different combinations on SPS is predominant for On Centre Well (OCW) impurity when compared to all other impurity locations when there is no application of magnetic field (γ = 0), γ being a dimensionless parameter for the magnetic field, and the same is predominant for On Centre Barrier (OCB) impurity with the application of external magnetic field (γ = 0.15).

  13. Social acceptability of Satellite Power Systems (SPS): the near-term outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Klineberg, S L

    1980-05-01

    It is important, at this early stage in the concept development and evaluation of Satellite Power Systems, to explore aspects of contemporary social change that may be expected to complicate the process of achieving the necessary support of the American public for this new technological venture. Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality-of-life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high-technology energy system such as the SPS. Opposition to satellite power will focus on the high front-end development costs, on environmental and technical uncertainties, and on a generalized distrust of large bureaucracies and esoteric technologies. The SPS concept is also likely to be viewed with skepticism by those with vested interests in the long-run uses of coal, shale, fission, fusion, or on-site solar technologies. The growing commitment to energy conservation and the spreading deployment of dispersed renewable-energy systems strongly suggest that the unmet US demand for centrally generated electricity is unlikely to grow sufficiently over the next twenty years to convince a reluctant public of the need for so large an investment of scarce resources in the SPS program. Satellite Power Systems will have a problem in the area of public acceptability.

  14. SHiP: a new multipurpose beam-dump experiment at the SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    SHiP is an experiment to look for very weakly interacting particles at a new to be constructed beam-dump facility at the CERN SPS. The SHiP Technical Proposal has been submitted to the CERN SPS Committee in April 2015. The 400 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2 × 1020 proton on target in five years. A detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c2. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL). The sensitivity to HNL will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Integrated in SHiP is an Emulsion Cloud Chamber, already used in the OPERA experiment, which will allow to study active neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. In particular SHiP can distinguish between vτ and v¯τ, and their deep inelastic scattering cross sections will be measured with statistics three orders of magnitude larger than currently available.

  15. Surface and mechanical properties of transparent polycrystalline YAG fabricated by SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Palmero, P.; Bonelli, B.; Fantozzi, G.; Spina, G.; Bonnefont, G.; Montanaro, L.; Chevalier, J.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ultrasonication as effective, un-polluting dispersion route for YAG powders. • Annealing in the 700–900 °C range to increase the transparency. • Oxygen vacancies more crucial on the transmittance than C contamination. • SPS reliable method for transparent and ultra-fine polycrystalline YAG. • Very high hardness (16.5–17 GPa) for the fully dense, fine materials. - Abstract: YAG powder was synthesised by reverse-strike co-precipitation, calcined at 1000 °C and dispersed by either ball-milling with α-alumina (BM{sub A}) or zirconia (BMz) spheres or by ultrasonication (US). All the dispersed powders were consolidated by SPS to nearly theoretical density, but only the US powder gave rise to a transparent material (transmittance of about 60% at 600 nm, 1 mm thickness), characterised by an ultra-fine microstructure (average size of 330 nm). In the BM materials, Raman spectroscopy allowed to evidence some phonon vibrational shifts due to secondary phases deriving from pollution by the milling media, not detectable by XRD because present in small amounts. The transmittance of the as-sintered US sample was further increased by annealing in air at 900 °C; this was assigned to the restoration of some oxygen vacancies created in the reducing environment of the SPS chamber, as evidenced by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Finally, US samples sintered in the 1250–1400 °C were submitted to a basic mechanical characterisation, showing a very good hardness, in spite of a moderate fracture toughness, especially for the fully dense and fine-grained materials sintered at 1300–1350 °C.

  16. Machine Studies During Beam Commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Meddahi, M.; Agapov, I.; Fuchsberger, K.; Goddard, B.; Herr, W.; Kain, V.; Mertens, V.; Missiaen, D.; Risselada, T.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Through May to September 2008, further beam commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC transfer lines was performed. For the first time, optics and dispersion measurements were also taken in the last part of the lines, and into the LHC. Extensive trajectory and optics studies were conducted, in parallel with hardware checks. In particular dispersion measurements and their comparison with the beam line model were analysed in detail and led to propose the addition of a dispersion-free steering algorithm in the existing trajectory correction program. Its effectiveness was simulated and is briefly discussed.

  17. Environmental impacts of the satellite power system (SPS) on the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in constructing satellite power systems (SPS) would deposit various contaminants in the middle atmosphere, contaminants that would conceivable have adverse effects on climate and upper air structure. These contaminants consist of the major constitutents of water vapor, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, and the minor constituents of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the rocket effluent, as well as nitric oxide formed during reentry. To assess the magnitudes of the effects, new models or modified existing models were constructed.

  18. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations. (GHT)

  19. Nuclear Modification of Excited Quarkonia States from SPS to LHC Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, C. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study of quarkonia spectroscopy in the presence of hadronic or deconfined medium is a powerful procedure to study density and temperature of different kinds of nuclear matter. Most of the efforts are made with the ground states J/ψ and Υ (1S), but excited state quarkonia offers a rich spectrum of binding energies and particle sizes for nuclear medium studies. This report summarizes measurements of several quarkonium excited states in the last three decades by Fermilab, SPS, HERA, RHIC and LHC experiments along with the current understanding on how nuclear medium affects their yields.

  20. ACTION AND PHASE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE SEXTUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC AND THE SPS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.PEGGS,S.SATOGATA,T.TOMAS,R.

    2003-05-12

    Success in the application of the action and phase analysis to find linear errors at RHIC Interaction Regions [1] has encouraged the creation of a technique based on the action and phase analysis to find non linear errors. In this paper we show the first attempt to measure the sextupole components at RHIC interaction regions using the action and phase method. Experiments done by intentionally activating sextupoles in RHIC and in SPS [2] will also be analyzed with this method. First results have given values for the sextupole errors that at least have the same order of magnitude as the values found by an alternate technique during the RHIC 2001 run [3].

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 4 of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) is presented. This volume is divided into the following sections: (1) transportation systems elements; (2) transportation systems requirements; (3) heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV); (4) LEO-GEO transportation; (5) on-orbit mobility systems; (6) personnel transfer systems; and (7) cost and programmatics. Three appendixes are also provided and they include: horizontal takeoff (single stage to orbit technical summary); HLLV reference vehicle trajectory and trade study data; and electric orbital transfer vehicle sizing.

  2. Social acceptability of Satellite Power Systems(SPS). The near term outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klineberg, S. L.

    1980-05-01

    Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality of life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high technology energy system such as the SPS.

  3. Enhanced thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide-silicon carbide composite fuel pellets prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, S.; Mckenna, E.; Baney, R.; Subhash, G.; Tulenko, J.

    2013-02-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2)-10 vol% silicon carbide (SiC) composite fuel pellets were produced by oxidative sintering and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at a range of temperatures from 1400 to 1600 °C. Both SiC whiskers and SiC powder particles were utilized. Oxidative sintering was employed over 4 h and the SPS sintering was employed only for 5 min at the highest hold temperature. It was noted that composite pellets sintered by SPS process revealed smaller grain size, reduced formation of chemical products, higher density, and enhanced interfacial contact compared to the pellets made by oxidative sintering. For given volume of SiC, the pellets with powder particles yielded a smaller grain size than pellets with SiC whiskers. Finally thermal conductivity measurements at 100 °C, 500 °C, and 900 °C revealed that SPS sintered UO2-SiC composites exhibited an increase of up to 62% in thermal conductivity compared to UO2 pellets, while the oxidative sintered composite pellets revealed significantly inferior thermal conductivity values. The current study points to the improved processing capabilities of SPS compared to oxidative sintering of UO2-SiC composites.

  4. Solitary perturbations in the steep boundary of magnetized toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. E.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Kim, M. H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, H. K.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Park, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Solitary perturbations (SPs) localized both poloidally and radially are detected within ~100 μs before the partial collapse of the high pressure gradient boundary region (called pedestal) of magnetized toroidal plasma in the KSTAR tokamak device. The SP develops with a low toroidal mode number (typically unity) in the pedestal ingrained with quasi-stable edge-localized mode (QSM) which commonly appears during the inter-collapse period. The SPs have smaller mode pitch and different (often opposite) rotation velocity compared to the QSMs. Similar solitary perturbations are also frequently observed before the onset of complete pedestal collapse, suggesting a strong connection between the SP generation and the pedestal collapse.

  5. High Current and High Power Fast Kicker System Conceptual Design and Technology Overview for DeeMe Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    window frame core of the magnet will use CMD 5005 Ni-Zn type ferrite blocks. This type of ferrite has high frequency response, very low eddy...purpose of the strips is to damper beam induced pulsed fields in the ferrite core . High voltage current will be fed from top of each magnet. Due to...conductor from upper sheet to lower sheet will sit in the inner edge of the two core ends. This arrangement will reduce coupling effect between the

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 7: System/subsystem requirements data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 7 of the Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Concept Definition Study final report summarizes the basic requirements used as a guide to systems analysis and is a basis for the selection of candidate SPS point design(s). Initially, these collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS concepts. As the various concepts matured these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point design(s). The identified subsystem/systems requirements are defined, and where appropriate, recommendations for alternate approaches which may represent improved design features are presented. A more detailed discussion of the selected point design(s) will be found in Volume 2 of this report.

  7. Indiana Wesleyan University SPS Physics Outreach to Rural Middle School and High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrander, Joshua; Rose, Heath; Burchell, Robert; Ramos, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Physics Students chapter at Indiana Wesleyan University is unusual in that it has no physics major, only physics minors. Yet while just over a year old, IWU-SPS has been active in performing physics outreach to middle school and high school students, and the rural community of Grant County. Our year-old SPS chapter consists of majors from Chemistry, Nursing, Biology, Exercise Science, Computer Science, Psychology, Pastoral Studies, and Science Education, who share a common interest in physics and service to the community. IWU currently has a physics minor and is currently working to build a physics major program. Despite the intrinsic challenges, our multi-disciplinary group has been successful at using physics demonstration equipment and hands-on activities and their universal appeal to raise the interest in physics in Grant County. We report our experience, challenges, and successes with physics outreach. We describe in detail our two-pronged approach: raising the level of physics appreciation among the IWU student community and among pre-college students in a rural community of Indiana. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of the Society of Physics Students through a Marsh White Outreach Award and a Blake Lilly Prize.

  8. Switchable polarity solvent (SPS) systems: probing solvatoswitching with a spiropyran (SP)-merocyanine (MC) photoswitch.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alaina R; Jessop, Philip G; Dust, Julian M; Buncel, Erwin

    2013-09-28

    The switchable polarity solvent (SPS) of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and an alcohol (e.g. 1-propanol) reversibly switches to a higher polarity ionic liquid, [DBUH(+)][RCO3(-)], when treated with CO2. A long-lived species with unique properties was detected in an investigation into the use of SPS to control the lifetime of the merocyanine (MC) form in a spiropyran (SP)-MC molecular photoswitch. Irradiation of SP in 1-propanol (PrOH) in the presence of DBU generates a new species (λmax = 420 nm). This species converts to MC upon bubbling with CO2, which produces [DBUH(+)][PrOCOO(-)]. It is proposed that a mixture of 1,2 and 1,4 alkoxide addition products form as a result of nucleophilic attack on the conjugated diene system of MC, where alkoxide formation arises from equilibration of highly basic DBU and the alcohol. These adducts revert to MC upon application of CO2 or addition of acid. Determination of the overall equilibrium constant for alkoxide adduct formation involving DBU was afforded through Benesi-Hildebrand analysis.

  9. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  10. SPS ECLOUD INSTABILITIES - ANALYSIS OF MACHINE STUDIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ECLOUD FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Bullitt, A.; Mastorides, T.; Ndabashimiye, G.; Rivetta, C.; Turgut, O.; Van Winkle, D.; Byrd, J.; Vay, J-L.; Hofle, W.; Rumolo, G.; De Maria, R.; Furman, M.

    2010-05-03

    The SPS at high intensities exhibits transverse single-bunch instabilities with signatures consistent with an Ecloud driven instability. They present recent MD data from the SPS, details of the instrument technique and spectral analysis methods which help reveal complex vertical motion that develops within a subset of the injected bunch trains. The beam motion is detected via wideband exponential taper striplines and delta-sigma hybrids. The raw sum and difference data is sampled at 50 GHz with 1.8 GHz bandwidth. sliding window FFT techniques and RMS motion techniques show the development of large vertical tune shifts on portions of the bunch of nearly 0.025 from the base tune of 0.185. Results are presented via spectrograms and bunch slice trajectories to illustrate development of the unstable beam and time scale of development along the injected bunch train. The study shows that the growing unstable motion occupies a very broad frequency band of 1.2 GHz. These measurements are compared to numerical simulation results, and the system parameter implications for an Ecloud feedback system are outlined.

  11. SPS Ecloud Instabilities - Analysis of Machine Studies and Implications for Ecloud Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Bullitt, A.; Mastorides, T.; Ndabashimiye, G.; Rivetta, C. H.; Turgut, O.; Winkle, D. Van; Maria, R. De; Hoefle, W.; Rumolo, G.; Byrd, J.; Furman, M.; Vay, J.-L.

    2011-05-25

    The SPS at high intensities exhibits transverse single bunch instabilities with signatures consistent with an Ecloud driven instability. We present recent MD data from the SPS, details of the instrument technique and spectral analysis methods which help reveal complex vertical motion that develops within a subset of the injected bunch trains. The beam motion is detected via wideband exponential taper striplines and delta-sigma hybrids. The raw sum and difference data is sampled at 50 GHz with 1.8 GHz bandwidth. Sliding window FFT techniques and RMS motion techniques show the development of large vertical tune shifts on portions of the bunch of nearly 0.025 from the base tune of 0.185. Results are presented via spectrograms and bunch slice trajectories to illustrate development of the unstable beam and time scale of development along the injected bunch train. The study shows that the growing unstable motion occupies a very broad frequency band of 1.2 GHz. These measurements are compared to numerical simulation results, and the system parameter implications for an Ecloud feedback system are outlined.

  12. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  13. Biomimetic apatite-based composite materials obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS): physicochemical and mechanical characterizations.

    PubMed

    Brouillet, Fabien; Laurencin, Danielle; Grossin, David; Drouet, Christophe; Estournes, Claude; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Rey, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate apatites are biomimetic compounds analogous to bone mineral and are at the origin of the bioactivity of most biomaterials used as bone substitutes. Their unique surface reactivity originates from the presence of a hydrated layer containing labile ions (mostly divalent ones). So the setup of 3D biocompatible apatite-based bioceramics exhibiting a high reactivity requests the development of «low» temperature consolidation processes such as spark plasma sintering (SPS), in order to preserve the characteristics of the hydrated nanocrystals. However, mechanical performances may still need to be improved for such nanocrystalline apatite bioceramics, especially in view of load-bearing applications. The reinforcement by association with biopolymers represents an appealing approach, while preserving the advantageous biological properties of biomimetic apatites. Herein, we report the preparation of composites based on biomimetic apatite associated with various quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, 1-20 wt%), a natural fibrous polymer. The SPS-consolidated composites were analyzed from both physicochemical (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, solid state NMR) and mechanical (Brazilian test) viewpoints. The preservation of the physicochemical characteristics of apatite and cellulose in the final material was observed. Mechanical properties of the composite materials were found to be directly related to the polymer/apatite ratios and a maximum crushing strength was reached for 10 wt% of MCC.

  14. Satellite Power System (SPS). State and local regulations as applied to satellite power system microwave receiving antenna facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    State and local regulation of power plant construction and operation of solar power satellite (SPS) receiving stations is presented. Each receiving antenna station occupies a land area 100-200 km square, receives microwave transmissions from the solar power satellite, and converts them into electricity for transmission to the power grid. The long lead time associated with the SPS and the changing status of state and local regulation dictated emphasis on: generic classification of the types of regulation, and identification of regulatory vectors which affect rectenna facilities.

  15. The ``Roman pot'' spectrometer and the vertex detector of experiment UA4 at the CERN SPS collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, R.; Bechini, A.; Bosi, F.; Bozzo, M.; Braccini, P. L.; Buskens, J.; Carbonara, F.; Carrara, R.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Cervelli, F.; Chiefari, G.; Drago, E.; Gorini, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Koene, B.; Maleyran, R.; Manna, F.; Matthiae, G.; Merola, L.; Morelli, A.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Rewiersma, P.; Robert, M.; Roiron, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Schuijlenburg, H.; Sciacca, G.; Sette, G.; Van Swol, R.; Timmermans, J.; Traspedini, L.; Vannini, C.; Velasco, J.; Visco, F.

    1985-07-01

    We describe the apparatus used in experiment UA4 to study proton-antiproton elastic and inelastic interactions at the CERN SPS Collider. Elastically scattered particles, travelling at very small angles, are observed by detectors placed inside movable sections ("Roman pots") of the SPS vacuum chamber. The deflection in the field of the machine quadrupoles allow the measurement of the particle momentum. Inelastic interactions are observed by a left-right symmetric system of trigger counter hodoscopes and drift-chamber telescopes. The apparatus reconstructs the interaction vertex and measures the pseudorapidity η of charged particles in the range 2.5 < ‖ η‖ < 5.6.

  16. Automated System Calibration and Verification of the Position Measurements for the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility and the Switchyard Kicker Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Martinez, D.; Shurter, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed both an Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and a Switchyard Kicker (XDK) as additions to the H+ and H- accelerator. These additions contain eleven Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) that measure the beam's position throughout the transport. The analog electronics within each processing module determines the beam position using the log-ratio technique. For system reliability, calibrations compensate for various temperature drifts and other imperfections in the processing electronics components. Additionally, verifications are periodically implemented by a PC running a National Instruments LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) to verify continued system and cable integrity. The VI communicates with the processor cards via a PCI/MXI-3 VXI-crate communication module. Previously, accelerator operators performed BPM system calibrations typically once per day while beam was explicitly turned off. One of this new measurement system's unique achievements is its automated calibration and verification capability. Taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the LANSCE-facility beams, the integrated electronics hardware and VI perform calibration and verification operations between beam pulses without interrupting production beam delivery. The design, construction, and performance results of the automated calibration and verification portion of this position measurement system will be the topic of this paper.

  17. Pulsed magnetic field measurement using a ferrite waveguide in a phase bridge circuit

    SciTech Connect

    William A Pellico and Patrick Colestock

    2002-07-01

    There are several standard methods used for measuring pulsed magnetic fields. However the induction or Hall probe methods have limited bandwidth and experience reflection problems. The integrated magnetic field can only be found by measuring along the entire length of the magnet. Problems with reflections, noise and bandwidth will limit the accuracy of measurement. Presented in the following paper is a method for measuring pulsed fields without the typical noise errors and bandwidth limitations. This paper will describe a phase bridge network that relies upon the permeability of a ferrite waveguide to accurately measure the integrated field of a Main Injector kicker magnet. The authors present some data taken with the system, a first pass at the analysis of this data, and discuss some possible design variations.

  18. Automated recognition of spikes in 1 Hz data recorded at the Easter Island magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Anatoly; Chulliat, Arnaud; Bogoutdinov, Shamil; Gvishiani, Alexei; Agayan, Sergey; Peltier, Aline; Heumez, Benoit

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper we apply a recently developed pattern recognition algorithm SPs to the problem of automated detection of artificial disturbances in one-second magnetic observatory data. The SPs algorithm relies on the theory of discrete mathematical analysis, which has been developed by some of the authors for more than 10 years. It continues the authors' research in the morphological analysis of time series using fuzzy logic techniques. We show that, after a learning phase, this algorithm is able to recognize artificial spikes uniformly with low probabilities of target miss and false alarm. In particular, a 94% spike recognition rate and a 6% false alarm rate were achieved as a result of the algorithm application to raw one-second data acquired at the Easter Island magnetic observatory. This capability is critical and opens the possibility to use the SPs algorithm in an operational environment.

  19. Fabrication and Spark Plasma Sintering of Magnetic alpha-Fe/MgO Nanocomposite by Mechanical Alloying.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state reduction has occurred during mechanical alloying of a mixture of Fe2O3 and Mg powders at room temperature. It is found that magnetic nanocomposite in which MgO is dispersed in alpha-Fe matrix with nano-sized grains is obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe2O3 with Mg for 30 min. Consolidation of the ball-milled powders was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine up to 800-1000 degrees C. X-ray diffraction result shows that the average grain size of alpha-Fe in a-Fe/MgO nanocomposite sintered at 800 degrees C is in the range of 110 nm. It can be also seen that the coercivity of SPS sample sintered at 800 degrees C is still high value of 88 Oe, suggesting that the grain growth of magnetic alpha-Fe phase during SPS process tends to be suppressed.

  20. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  1. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 2: Analytical simulation of SPS system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pilot signal parameter optimization and power transponder analyses are presented. The SPS antenna phase control system is modeled and the hardware simulation study described. Ionospheric and system phase error effects and the effects of high power amplifier phase and amplitude jitters are considered. Parameter optimization of the spread spectrum receiver, consisting of the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop, is described.

  2. Water extracts of tree Hypericum sps. protect DNA from oxidative and alkylating damage and enhance DNA repair in colon cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alice A; Marques, Filipe; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Diet may induce colon carcinogenesis through oxidative or alkylating DNA damage. However, diet may also contain anticarcinogenic compounds that contribute to cancer prevention. DNA damage prevention and/or induction of repair are two important mechanisms involved in cancer chemoprevention by dietary compounds. Hypericum sps. are widely used in traditional medicine to prepare infusions due to their beneficial digestive and neurologic effects. In this study, we investigated the potential of water extracts from three Hypericum sps. and some of their main phenolic compounds to prevent and repair oxidative and alkylating DNA damage in colon cells. The results showed that water extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum androsaemum, Hypericum undulatum, quercetin and rutin have protective effect against oxidative DNA damage in HT29 cells. Protective effect was also observed against alkylating DNA damage induced by methyl-methanesulfonate, except for H. androsaemum. With regard to alkylating damage repair H. perforatum, H. androsaemum and chlorogenic acid increased repair of alkylating DNA damage by base excision repair pathway. No effect was observed on nucleotide excision repair pathway. Antigenotoxic effects of Hypericum sps. may contribute to colon cancer prevention and the high amount of phenolic compounds present in Hypericum sps. play an important role in DNA protective effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shielding design of an underground experimental area at point 5 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    PubMed

    Mueller, Mario J; Stevenson, Graham R

    2005-01-01

    Increasing projected values of the circulating beam intensity in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and decreasing limits to radiation exposure, taken with the increasing non-acceptance of unjustified and unoptimised radiation exposures, have led to the need to re-assess the shielding between the ECX and ECA5 underground experimental areas of the SPS. Twenty years ago, these experimental areas at SPS-Point 5 housed the UA1 experiment, where Carlo Rubbia and his team verified the existence of W and Z bosons. The study reported here describes such a re-assessment based on simulations using the multi-purpose FLUKA radiation transport code. This study concludes that while the main shield which is made of concrete blocks and is 4.8 m thick satisfactorily meets the current design limits even at the highest intensities presently planned for the SPS, dose rates calculated for liaison areas on both sides of the main shield significantly exceed the design limits. Possible ways of improving the shielding situation are discussed.

  4. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  5. Considerations for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The relatively large apertures to be used in SPS, small half-power beamwidths, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance dictate the requirement for specialized measurements techniques. Objectives include the following: (1) For 10-meter square subarray panels, quantify considerations for measuring power in the transmit beam and radiation efficiency to + or - 1 percent (+ or - 0.04 dB) accuracy. (2) Evaluate measurement performance potential of far-field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near-field techniques. (3) Identify the state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required. (4) Perform relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. the precision required by the techniques discussed below are not obtained by current methods which are capable of + or - 10 percent (+ or - dB) performance. In virtually every area associated with these planned measurements, advances in state-of-the-art are required.

  6. Consideration for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The transmit beam and radiation efficiency for 10 metersquare subarray panels were quantified. Measurement performance potential of far field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near field technique were evaluated. The state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required was identified. Relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs were performed for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. It is considered that because of the large electrical size of the SPS subarray panels and the requirement for high accuracy measurements, specialized measurement facilities are required. Most critical measurement error sources have been identified for both conventional far field and near field techniques. Although the adopted error budget requires advances in state-of-the-art of microwave instrumentation, the requirements appear feasible based on extrapolation from today's technology. Additional performance and cost tradeoffs need to be completed before the choice of the preferred measurement technique is finalized.

  7. Summer 2007: My SPS intern experience and working with ComPADRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    For the summer of 2007 I was enrolled in the Society of Physics Students Internship program hosted by the American Institute of Physics in College Park, Maryland. My time at was spend working for the American Physical Society outreach department. My primary task was to expand and maintain Physicstogo.com which is part of the ComPADRE group of outreach websites funded by the National Science Foundation. More specifically, I searched for materials to add to the website, cataloged citation information, and updated the biweekly magazine portion of the website. Work experience was not the only thing gained from this internship. As a group of 8 interns we attended an event on Capitol Hill, met with members of congress, and toured nearly every monument and museum in the area. The 2007 SPS internship was an amazing opportunity and a summer memory that will remain with me for the rest of my life.

  8. Creep of Polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Studied by an SPS Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Ratzker, Barak; Sokol, Maxim; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-01-01

    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was used for the first time as an analytical testing tool for studying creep in ceramics at elevated temperatures. Compression creep experiments on a fine-grained (250 nm) polycrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel were successfully performed in the 1100–1200 °C temperature range, under an applied stress of 120–200 MPa. It was found that the stress exponent and activation energy depended on temperature and applied stress, respectively. The deformed samples were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results indicate that the creep mechanism was related to grain boundary sliding, accommodated by dislocation slip and climb. The experimental results, extrapolated to higher temperatures and lower stresses, were in good agreement with data reported in the literature. PMID:28773615

  9. Creep of Polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Studied by an SPS Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Ratzker, Barak; Sokol, Maxim; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-06-20

    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was used for the first time as an analytical testing tool for studying creep in ceramics at elevated temperatures. Compression creep experiments on a fine-grained (250 nm) polycrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel were successfully performed in the 1100-1200 °C temperature range, under an applied stress of 120-200 MPa. It was found that the stress exponent and activation energy depended on temperature and applied stress, respectively. The deformed samples were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results indicate that the creep mechanism was related to grain boundary sliding, accommodated by dislocation slip and climb. The experimental results, extrapolated to higher temperatures and lower stresses, were in good agreement with data reported in the literature.

  10. Revealing Partons in Hadrons: From the ISR to the SPS Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darriulat, Pierre; di Lella, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the structure of hadrons has developed during the seventies and early eighties from a few vague ideas to a precise theory, Quantum Chromodynamics, that describes hadrons as made of elementary partons (quarks and gluons). Deep inelastic scattering of electrons and neutrinos on nucleons and electron-positron collisions have played a major role in this development. Less well known is the role played by hadron collisions in revealing the parton structure, studying the dynamic of interactions between partons and offering an exclusive laboratory for the direct study of gluon interactions. The present article recalls the decisive contributions made by the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings and, later, the proton-antiproton SPS Collider to this chapter of physics.

  11. Environmental impacts of the satellite power system (SPS) on the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    none, none

    1980-10-01

    The heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in constructing satellite power systems (SPS) would deposit various contaminants in the middle atmosphere, contaminants that could conceivably have adverse effects on climate and upper air structure. These contaminants consist of the major constituents of water vapor, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, and the minor constituents of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the rocket effluent, as well as nitric oxide formed during reentry. To assess the magnitudes of the effects, we have constructed new models or modified existing models. They are: one- and two-dimensional photochemical models, a plume model, a noctilucent cloud and contrail model, a reentry model, and a model of the lower ionosphere, all of which are described in detail in the report. Using a scenario of 400 launches per year for 10 years, we have performed assessments and arrived at the following conclusions which are given.

  12. Densification of uranium dioxide fuel pellets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lihao; Subhash, Ghatu; Baney, Ronald H.; Tulenko, James S.; McKenna, Edward

    2013-04-01

    An investigation into the influence of processing parameters on densification of UO2 powder during spark plasma sintering (SPS) is presented. A broad range of sintering temperatures, hold time and heating rates have been systematically varied to investigate their influence on the sintered pellet densification process, grain growth, hardness, and Young's modulus. The results revealed that up to 96% theoretical density (TD) pellets can be obtained at a sintering temperature of 1050 °C for 30 s hold time and a total run time of only 10 min. The resulting UO2 pellets had an average Vickers hardness of 6.4 ± 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus of 204 ± 18 GPa, which are in excellent agreement with values reported in literature for UO2 processed by other methods.

  13. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Zanoni, C.

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, a cryomodule is designed to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between the cold mass and the external environment. An overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations, is presented. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.

  14. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule 1

    DOE PAGES

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; ...

    2017-07-20

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, we designed a cryomodule to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between themore » cold mass and the external environment. We present an overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.« less

  15. Testing sterile neutrinos with new fixed target experiment at CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. S.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the recently proposed new fixed target experiment at CERN with SPS beam of 400 GeV protons aimed at searches for sterile neutrinos produced in charmed hadron decays. The three sterile neutrino introduced to the Standard Model can explain the active neutrino masses and mixings by means of seesaw type I mechanism, baryon asymmetry of the Universe by making use of leptogenesis via sterile-active neutrino oscillations in the primordial plasma, and dark matter phenomenon due to a relic component of the lightest sterile neutrino. The new beam-dump with detector placed as close to the target as possible will allow to test many other extensions of the Standard Model with new unstable yet long-lived particles at GeV mass scale.

  16. Measurement of meson resonance production in $$\\pi ^-+$$ C interactions at SPS energies

    DOE PAGES

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; et al.

    2017-09-20

    We present measurements ofmore » $$\\rho^0$$, $$\\omega$$ and K$$^{*0}$$ spectra in $$\\pi^{-} + $$C production interactions at 158 GeV/c and $$\\rho^0$$ spectra at 350 GeV/c using the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. Spectra are presented as a function of the Feynman's variable $$x_\\text{F}$$ in the range $$0 < x_\\text{F} < 1$$ and $$0 < x_\\text{F} < 0.5$$ for 158 GeV/c and 350 GeV/c respectively. Furthermore, we show comparisons with previous measurements and predictions of several hadronic interaction models. These measurements are essential for a better understanding of hadronic shower development and for improving the modeling of cosmic ray air showers.« less

  17. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Volume 2: Detailed assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Volume 2 provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment in a technically detailed format more suitable for peer review than the executive summary of Vol. 1. It serves to integrate and assimilate information that has appeared in documents referenced herein and to focus on issues that are purely environmental. It discloses the state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies and defines prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed.

  18. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. L.; Wang, Y.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S. C.; Liu, Z. W.; Zeng, D. C.; Tian, Y.; Xia, W. X.; Zhong, Z. C.

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m3 are obtained for an isotropic magnet.

  19. Identification and cloning of a selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription in relation to molt stages and following pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Guo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Cheng, Winton

    2012-01-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, designated PmSPS, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 1582-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1248 bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 231-bp 3'-UTR, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, a conventional polyadenylation signal, and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (416 aa) was 45.5 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.85. It contained a putative selenocysteine residue which was encoded by the unusual stop codon, (275)TGA(277), which formed at the active site with residues Sec(58) and Lys(61). A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that PmSPS was more closely related to invertebrate SPS1, such as those of Heliothis virescens and Drosophila melanogaster a and b. PmSPS cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas. PmSPS in the hepatopancreas of shrimp significantly increased after an injection with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in order to protect cells against damage from oxidation, and enhance the recycling of selenocysteine or selenium metabolism, indicating that PmSPS is involved in the disease-resistance response. The PmSPS expression by hemocytes significantly increased in stage C, and then gradually decreased until stage A, suggesting that the cloned PmSPS in hemocytes might play a role in viability by renewing hemocytes and antioxidative stress response for new exoskeleton synthesis during the molt cycle of shrimp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program (CDEP). [Microwave and non-microwave health and ecological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, A.R.

    1980-08-01

    In the satellite power system (SPS), satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted to electricity. This SPS environmental assessment considers the microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and effects on electromagnetic systems. No environmental problem has been identified that would preclude the continued study of SPS technology. To increase the certainty of the assessment, some research has been initiated and long-term research is being planned.

  1. Cognitive performance following lacunar stroke in Spanish-speaking patients: Results from the SPS3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Jacova, Claudia; Pearce, Lesly A.; Roldan, Ana M.; Arauz, Antonio; Tapia, Jorge; Costello, Raymond; McClure, Leslie A.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in lacunar stroke patients. The prevalence and pattern of among Spanish-speaking patients (SSP) are unknown and have not been compared across regions or to English-speaking patients (ESP). Aims To characterize cognitive impairment in SSP and compare to ESP. Methods The baseline neuropsychological test (NPT) performance and the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), defined as a z score ≤ −1.5 on memory and/or non-memory tests, were evaluated in SSP in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial. Results Out of 3020 participants, 1,177 were SSP residing in Latin America (n=693), the US (n=121) and Spain (n=363). Low education (0-8 years) was frequent in SSP (49-57%). Latin American SSP had frequent post-stroke upper extremity motor impairment (83%). Compared to ESP, all SSP groups had smaller memory deficits and larger non-memory/motor deficits, with Latin American SSP showing the largest deficits (median z-score 0.6 to −1.3 for non-memory tests; ≥ −5.0 grooved pegboard; −0.4 to −0.7 memory tests). The prevalence of MCI was high and comparable to ESP in the US and Latin American SSP but not Spanish group: ESP=47%, Latin American SSP=51%, US SSP=40%, Spanish SSP=29%, with >50% characterized as non-amnestic in SSP groups. Older age (OR per 10-y =1.52, CI=1.35-1.71), lower education (OR 0-4-y=1.23, CI=0.90-1.67), being a Latin American resident (OR=1.31, CI=0.87-1.98), and post-stroke disability (OR Barthel Index<95=1.89, CI-1.43-2.50) were independently associated with MCI. Conclusions Mild cognitive impairment in SPS3 Spanish-speaking patients with recent lacunar stroke is highly prevalent but has a different pattern to that observed in English-speaking patients. A combination of socio-demographics, stroke biology, and stroke care may account for these differences. PMID:25973704

  2. High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS): A Promising and Reliable Method for Preparing Ti–Al–Si Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Knaislová, Anna; Novák, Pavel; Cygan, Sławomir; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark plasma sintering. One of the novel SPS techniques is high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HP SPS), which was tested in this work and applied to a Ti–10Al–20Si intermetallic alloy using a pressure of 6 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1318 K (1045 °C) to 1597 K (1324 °C). The low-porosity consolidated samples consist of Ti5Si3 silicides in an aluminide (TiAl) matrix. The hardness varied between 720 and 892 HV 5. PMID:28772824

  3. Excitation of Intra-bunch Vertical Motion in the SPS - Implications for Feedback Control of Ecloud and TMCI Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cesaratto, J.M.; Fox, J.D.; Pivi, M.T.; Rivetta, C.H.; Turgut, O.; Uemura, S.; Hofle, W.; Wehrle, U.; /CERN

    2012-06-01

    Electron cloud (ecloud) and transverse mode coupled-bunch instabilities (TMCI) limit the bunch intensity in the CERN SPS. This paper presents experimental measurements in the SPS of single-bunch motion driven by a GHz bandwidth vertical excitation system. The final goal is to quantify the change in internal bunch dynamics as instability thresholds are approached, and quantify the frequencies of internal modes as ecloud effects become significant. Initially, we have been able to drive the beam and view its motion. We show the excitation of barycentric, head-tail and higher vertical modes at different bunch intensities. The beam motion is analyzed in the time domain, via animated presentations of the sampled vertical signals, and in the frequency domain, via spectrograms showing the modal frequencies vs. time. The demonstration of the excitation of selected internal modes is a significant step in the development of the feedback control techniques.

  4. Simulation of e-cloud driven instability and its attenuation using a simulated feedback system in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-13

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the single-bunch instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the WARP-POSINST simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS. Simulations using an idealized feedback system exhibit adequate mitigation of the instability providing that the cutoff of the feedback bandwidth is at or above 450 MHz. Artifacts from numerical noise of the injected distribution of electrons in the modeling of portions of bunch trains are discussed, and benchmarking of WARP against POSINST and HEADTAIL are presented.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonate polystyrene-lignosulfonate-alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) polyblends as electrolyte membranes for fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gonggo, Siang Tandi

    2015-09-30

    The new type of electrolyte membrane materials has been prepared by blend sulfonated polystyrene (SPS), lignosulfonate (LS), and alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by casting polymer solution. The resulting polymer electrolyte membranes were then characterized by functional groups analysis, mechanical properties, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and proton conductivity. SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes with alumina composition various have been proven qualitatively by analysis of functional groups. Increasing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio resulted in higher ion exchange capacity (IEC), mechanical strength and proton conductivity, but water uptake decreased. The SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blend showed higher proton conductivity than Nafion 117.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on the modification of the upper atmosphere by Satellite Power System (SPS) propulsion effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.

    1980-06-01

    Results of a workshop held in June 1979, to identify research needs for evaluating environmental impacts on the upper atmosphere (here defined as greater than 70 km) due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transport, i.e., propulsion and reentry are presented. The substantial injections of water and hydrogen therefrom may lead to global-scale regions of reduced ionization in the ionospheric F-Region that may have a serious impact on worldwide HF radio communications; and the resulting possibly significant increases in mesospheric humidity and probable cloudiness could afffect climate and remote sensing from satellites. The large injections of argon ions of kilovolt energy between low earth orbit and geostationary orbit may alter substantially the trapped radiation environment of the magnetosphere and thus the hazard for personnel and electronic equipment. During the workshop it became clear that the highest priority for SPS environmental assessment goes to theoretical studies needed before acceptable atmospheric experiments can be designed. Problems to be addressed include: the extent, magnitude, and variability of the predicted depletion in F-region ionization together with descriptions of water and hydrogen injections into the atmosphere characteristic of SPS vehicles and flight profiles; the long-term variations in mesospheric humidity and cloudiness with and without SPS operations; and the description of condensation and evaporation processes of water exhausted from high-altitude rockets in order to predict mesospheric contrail formation and dissipation. Furthermore, in considering argon ion rocket transport to geosynchronous orbit, the stopping and lifetime of the argon ion beams and consequent changes in the radiation belts, especially as they affect spacecraft, should also be addressed.

  7. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  8. Self-Consistant Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J-L.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H,

    2010-09-01

    The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven transverse instability for a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Comparisons to selected experimental data are also given. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons. Comparisons to experimental data are also given.

  9. Direct Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J-L.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the buildup and interaction of electron clouds with a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons.

  10. SPS Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys in Support of NTR Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan A. Webb; Indrajit Charit; Cory Sparks; Darryl P. Butt; Megan Frary; Mark Carroll

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. Tungsten metal slugs were fabricated via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of powdered metals at temperatures ranging from 1575 K to 1975 K and hold times of 5 minutes to 30 minutes, using powders with an average diameter of 7.8 ?m. Sintered tungsten specimens were found to have relative densities ranging from 83 % to 94 % of the theoretical density for tungsten. Consolidated specimens were also tested for their Vickers Hardness Number (VHN), which was fitted as a function of relative density; the fully consolidated VHN was extrapolated to be 381.45 kg/mm2. Concurrently, tungsten and rhenium powders with average respective diameters of 0.5 ?m and 13.3 ?m were pre-processed either by High-Energy-Ball-Milling (HEBM) or by homogeneous mixing to yield W-25at.%Re mixtures. The powder batches were sintered at temperatures of 1975 K and 2175 K for hold times ranging from 0 minutes to 60 minutes yielding relative densities ranging from 94% to 97%. The combination of HEBM and sintering showed a significant decrease in the inter-metallic phases compared to that of the homogenous mixing and sintering.

  11. Beam tests of CALET with BBM electronics and STM at CERN-SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Tadahisa

    We have been developing flight hardware of CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) to observe electrons, gamma rays, and nuclei at the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo” Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The main calorimeter of CALET consists of a charge detector (CHD) to identify particles by charge, an imaging calorimeter (IMC) to determine incident angles and shower starting points, and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC) to measure energies and to discriminate electromagnetic particles from nuclei. We carried out beam experiments at CERN-SPS to confirm consistency between our simulation and beam test data. It is important for performance check and flight data analyses. We assembled a Beam Test Model detector by using BBM (Bread Board Model) of front end electronics and STM (Structure and Thermal Model) of CHD, IMC, and TASC for electron/proton runs in 2012. We made ion runs mainly to test CHD readout with BBM front end electronics in 2013. Basic results of the beam tests will be reported here.

  12. The northeast regional SPS meeting update: Safety pharmacology innovations and applications.

    PubMed

    Pannirselvam, Malar; Brabham, Tiffini; Botchway, Alfred W; Hodges, Donald B; Traebert, Martin; Pugsley, Michael K

    The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) held a Northeast (NE) regional meeting in Boston, MA on May 13, 2016 at the Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated site. There were 103 attendees from the pharmaceutical industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia, and global regulatory agencies. An assortment of scientific topics were presented by 7 speakers that included broad topics in the cardiovascular (organ on chip, statistical power and translation of rat cardiovascular telemetry data and dual inhibition of IKr and IKs on QT interval prolongation) and central nervous system (in vitro platform for neurotoxicity, an integrated risk assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior, and EEG advances in safety pharmacology) and a novel topic discussing preclinical challenges faced in the development of a novel gene therapy. A highlight of the meeting was an in-depth discussion on the fatty acid acyl hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor BIA 10-2474 which involved a comprehensive overview of the biology and pharmacology of FAAH followed by a presentation from the Biotrial (Rennes, France) team that conducted the clinical trial. An additional poster session was held that included 13 fascinating posters on cutting edge safety pharmacology topics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A scintillating fibre beam profile monitor for the experimental areas of the SPS at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Bay, A.; Haefeli, G.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2016-10-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) delivers a wide spectrum of particle beams (hadrons, leptons and heavy ions) that can vary greatly in momentum and intensity. The profile and position of these beams are measured using particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of such monitoring. We have researched a new monitor made of scintillating fibres read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM), which has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured and available detector size. In addition, it also has particle counting capabilities, extending its use to spectrometry or Time-Of-Flight measurements. Its radiation hardness is good to guarantee years of functioning. We have successfully tested a first prototype of this detector with different particle beams at CERN, giving accurate profile measurements over a wide range of energies and intensities. It only showed problems during operation with lead ion beams, believed to come from crosstalk between the fibres. Investigations are ongoing on alternative photodetectors, the electronics readout and solutions to the fibre crosstalk.

  14. Development of the method for the preparation of Mg{sub 2}Si by SPS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nieroda, Pawel; Zybala, Rafal; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2012-06-26

    The aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple method for preparation of polycrystalline Mg{sub 2}Si. For this purpose a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method was used and synthesis conditions were adjusted in such a manner that no excess Mg was required. Materials were synthesized by the direct reaction of Mg and Si raw powders. To determine the phase and chemical composition, the fabricated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy coupled with EDX chemical analysis. Thermoelectric properties of samples (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient) were measured all over temperature range of 300-650 K. The analysis by the scanning thermoelectric microprobe (STM) shows that samples have uniform distribution of Seebeck coefficient with mean value of about -405 {mu}VK{sup -1} and standard deviation of 94 {mu}VK{sup -1}. Prepared materials have intrinsic band gap of 0.45 eV and thermal conductivity {lambda}= 7.5 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} at room temperature.

  15. The Old New Frontier: Studying the CERN-SPS Energy Range with NA61/SHINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuba, Marek

    2014-04-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider entering its third year of granting us insight into the highest collision energies to date, one should nevertheless keep in mind the unexplored physics potential of lower energies. A prime example here is the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Using its large-acceptance hadronic spectrometer, SHINE aims to accomplish a number of physics goals: measuring spectra of identified hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions to provide reference for accelerator neutrino experiments and cosmic-ray observatories, investigating particle properties in the large transverse-momentum range for hadron+hadron and hadron+nucleus collisions for studying the nuclear modification factor at SPS energies, and measuring hadronic observables in a particularly interesting region of the phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter to study the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of stronglyinteracting matter with nucleus-nucleus collisions. This contribution shall summarise results obtained so far by NA61/SHINE, as well as present the current status and plans of its experimental programme.

  16. Comparative Results on Collimation of the SPS Beam of Protons and Pb Ions with Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Naples /Serpukhov, IHEP /Serpukhov, IHEP /Serpukhov, IHEP /Serpukhov, IHEP /Serpukhov, IHEP /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /St. Petersburg, INP /St. Petersburg, INP /St. Petersburg, INP /St. Petersburg, INP /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Imperial Coll., London /Brookhaven /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC

    2012-04-30

    New experiments on crystal assisted collimation have been carried out at the CERN SPS with stored beams of 120 GeV/c protons and Pb ions. Bent silicon crystals of 2 mm long with about 170 {mu}rad bend angle and a small residual torsion were used as primary collimators. In channeling conditions, the beam loss rate induced by inelastic interactions of particles with the crystal nuclei is minimal. The loss reduction was about 6 for protons and about 3 for Pb ions. Lower reduction value for Pb ions can be explained by their considerably larger ionization losses in the crystal. In one of the crystals, the measured fraction of the Pb ion beam halo deflected in channeling conditions was 74%, a value very close to that for protons. The intensity of the off-momentum halo leaking out from the collimation station was measured in the first high dispersion area downstream. The particle population in the shadow of the secondary collimator-absorber was considerably smaller in channeling conditions than for amorphous orientations of the crystal. The corresponding reduction was in the range of 2-5 for both protons and Pb ions.

  17. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  18. Status and Planned Experiments of the Hiradmat Pulsed Beam Material Test Facility at CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Meddahi, Malika; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2015-06-01

    HiRadMat (High Irradiation to Materials) is a facility at CERN designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, shock tests on high power targets, collimators) can be tested. The beam parameters (SPS 440 GeV protons with a pulse energy of up to 3.4 MJ, or alternatively lead/argon ions at the proton equivalent energy) can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. It is a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed beams on materials in a dedicated environment, excluding long-time irradiation studies. The facility is designed for a maximum number of 1016 protons per year, in order to limit the activation of the irradiated samples to acceptable levels for human intervention. This paper will demonstrate the possibilities for research using this facility and go through examples of upcoming experiments scheduled in the beam period 2015/2016.

  19. A 2006 SPS Summer Intern’s Experiences, Reflections, and Future Ambitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deml, Ann

    2006-12-01

    As a SPS Summer Intern from the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, I spent nine weeks in the Washington, D.C. area working with the American Physical Society. My work dealt primarily with the development of a ComPADRE outreach website, Physics To Go, which offers the public opportunities to engage in informal physics learning. Specific tasks that I performed included locating content to feature on the homepage, obtaining photographer permissions, and cataloging quality websites into the digital library. At the conclusion of the summer, I accepted an offer to continue working on Physics To Go and have further contributed to its expansion. Participating in this internship has influenced my life in several respects, and as a result, I will be enrolling in a graduate program this coming year. Additionally, I am making plans to participate in a National Student Exchange program and am considering a career with a greater emphasis on research. The internship has served as an invaluable and irreplaceable experience.

  20. NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Andreeva, O.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bogusz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirkovic, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ereditato, A.; Fabich, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Fulop, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Jokovic, D.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kielczewska, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Koversarski, P.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Maletic, D.; Manglunki, D.; Manic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadala, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, R.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Sosin, Z.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarz, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2014-06-01

    NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is a multi-purpose experimental facility to study hadron production in hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. It recorded the first physics data with hadron beams in 2009 and with ion beams (secondary 7Be beams) in 2011. NA61/SHINE has greatly profited from the long development of the CERN proton and ion sources and the accelerator chain as well as the H2 beamline of the CERN North Area. The latter has recently been modified to also serve as a fragment separator as needed to produce the Be beams for NA61/SHINE. Numerous components of the NA61/SHINE set-up were inherited from its predecessors, in particular, the last one, the NA49 experiment. Important new detectors and upgrades of the legacy equipment were introduced by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. This paper describes the state of the NA61/SHINE facility — the beams and the detector system — before the CERN Long Shutdown I, which started in March 2013.

  1. A Concept GEO-SPS & Airship Multi-Megawatt Power Relay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R.

    An SPS power relay system for delivering multi-megawatts of grid electric power from GEO via a stratospheric airship platform is presented. A solar powered laser is proposed to beam power to InGaN band-gap matched PV located in a station- kept platform, where the received DC power is converted to 2.45 GHz microwave beams for relay to the surface using a phased array. To complete the power transmission link, spatially diverse, 260-m diameter rectennas provide the interfaces to the electric utility power grid. Unique requirements include that it is to be an all-weather electric delivery system, to be purposely designed to preclude its use as a power beam weapon at the Earth's surface, and to be delivered to orbit in a single launch vehicle. Estimates are presented for the airship design assumptions, expected performance parameters and the various power conversion and power transfer efficiencies and the cost of the parts of the system, along with the suggested alternate revenue sources for making the high altitude platform more cost effective. Unfortunately, the cost to orbit dominates. The sunlight-to-grid power collection, conversion and transfer efficiency of order 8.2% is double that of ground based PV systems given their day-night, atmosphere and weather handicaps.

  2. Impact of concurrent overexpression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) on growth and development in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Seger, Mark; Gebril, Sayed; Tabilona, Jules; Peel, Amanda; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of simultaneously increasing SPS and GS activities in transgenic tobacco, suggests that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development, and is not affected by changes in N assimilation. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are the major components required for plant growth and the metabolic pathways for C and N assimilation are very closely interlinked. Maintaining an appropriate balance or ratio of sugar to nitrogen metabolites in the cell, is important for the regulation of plant growth and development. To understand how C and N metabolism interact, we manipulated the expression of key genes in C and N metabolism individually and concurrently and checked for the repercussions. Transgenic tobacco plants with a cytosolic soybean glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene and a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene from maize, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were produced. Co-transformants, with both the transgenes were produced by sexual crosses. While GS is the key enzyme in N assimilation, involved in the synthesis of glutamine, SPS plays a key role in C metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of sucrose. Moreover, to check if nitrate has any role in this interaction, the plants were grown under both low and high nitrogen. The SPS enzyme activity in the SPS and SPS/GS1 co-transformants were the same under both nitrogen regimens. However, the GS activity was lower in the co-transformants compared to the GS1 transformants, specifically under low nitrogen conditions. The GS1/SPS transformants showed a phenotype similar to the SPS transformants, suggesting that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development in tobacco, and its effect is only marginally affected by increased N assimilation. Sucrose may be functioning in a metabolic capacity or as a signaling molecule.

  3. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  4. The shadow position sensors (SPS) formation flying metrology subsystem for the ESA PROBA-3 mission: present status and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Noce, V.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Bemporad, A.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Casti, M.; Romoli, M.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Accatino, L.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Mechmech, I.; Renotte, E.

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 [1] [2] is a Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) composed of two formation-flying satellites, planned for their joint launch by the end of 2018. Its main purposes have a dual nature: scientific and technological. In particular, it is designed to observe and study the inner part of the visible solar corona, thanks to a dedicated coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun), and to demonstrate the in-orbit formation flying (FF) and attitude control capability of its two satellites. The Coronagraph payload on-board PROBA-3 consists of the following parts: the Coronagraph Instrument (CI) with the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) on the Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC), the Occulter Position Sensor (OPSE) [3] [4] and the External Occulting (EO) disk on the Occulter Spacecraft (OSC). The SPS subsystem [5] is one of the main metrological devices of the Mission, adopted to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) [6] that shall be able to measure, with the required sensitivity and dynamic range as asked by ESA, the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. With the present paper we describe the testing activities on the SPS breadboard (BB) and Development Model (DM) as well as the present status and future developments of this PROBA-3 metrological subsystem.

  5. Solid to solid beta to alpha form transition in crystalline structures of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Tetsu; Nagasaka, Suguru; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    The new solid to solid crystalline transition from beta to alpha forms in syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) was discovered and analyzed. sPS has five crystalline structures: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon forms. Among these crystalline structures, alpha and beta forms are two major crystalline structures due to their high mechanical properties. In this research, it was found that the transition was induced by mechanical strain well below the melting temperature of sPS (273 deg C) unlike the reverse transition from alpha to beta form observed at 260 deg C. The transition became more pronounced as testing temperature increased from 130 to 220 deg C. The transition should occur under the interaction of annealing process and mechanical strain, as the transition would not occur just by raising temperature. It was concluded from our experimental results that the destruction of the β form first took place under mechanical strain, causing beta form to transform into not only alpha form but also mesomorphic alpha form. The hot environment had a great impact on the perfection and the promptness of the transition: testing temperature could accelerate the transition ending up with more perfect alpha form transformed from beta form through mesomorphic alpha form.

  6. Utilization of rice husk waste for Cd(II) adsorbent and its analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Arini, S.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to know the use of rice husk waste for metal ion adsorbent of Cd(II), the optimum mass which are needed, the sensitivity of SPS as a method to determine the reduction level of Cd(II) metal ions in the level of μg/L. This research was conducted by using an experimental method in the laboratory. The used adsorbent in this research is rice husk charcoal which activated using ZnCl2 10% solution. Determination of the optimum adsorbent mass was done with reacted 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5 g of adsorbent and 20 mL Cd(II) which have concentration 75.27 μg/L during 30 minutes. Analysis the levels of Cd(II) used SPS method and characterization of adsorbent used FTIR. The result showed that activated rice husk charcoal can be used as adsorbent for Cd(II) metal ions in the simulated liquid waste with the adsorption capacity of 0.58 μg/g, the optimum mass was 2.0 gram with percentage of the adsorbed Cd(II) of 77.87%, SPS is a sensitive method to determine the reduction levels of Cd(II) metal ions in the level of μg/L with the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 μg/L.

  7. Peri-implant conditions around sintered porous-surfaced (SPS) implants. A 36-month prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malchiodi, Luciano; Ghensi, Paolo; Cucchi, Alessandro; Pieroni, Stefano; Bertossi, Dario

    2015-02-01

    The specific aim of this study was to assess sintered porous-surfaced (SPS) implant system from a biological point of view, through a prospective study of the health status and the evolution of the peri-implant tissues over time and analysis of the changes observed in the various peri-implant parameters. Hundred and fifty-one patients were treated consecutively from 2005 to 2007 using 280 SPS implants, which were restored with a single crown or a partial fixed denture. To accurately monitor the health and biological evolution of peri-implant soft and hard tissues, a number of clinical parameters were adopted, such as the modified Plaque Index (mPI), the modified sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI), Peri-implant Probing Depth (PPD), and Crestal Bone Level (CBL). Clinical and radiographic examinations were scheduled over a 36-month follow-up of functional loading according to a well-established protocol generally applied to determine implant success rates and Peri-implant Bone Loss (PBL). Statistical analysis was used to determine any significant differences or correlations (P = 0.05). A total of 259 SPS implants in 136 patients were followed up for 36 months. According to Buser's success criteria, the overall implant-based success rate was 98.1% and the mean PBL was 0.48 ± 0.29 mm. MBI and mPI mean values showed statistically significant differences between baseline and follow-up analyses (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in mean PPD values were found between baseline and control analyses (P = 0.060). This prospective cohort study revealed that the biological behavior of SPS implant system was characterized by high tissue stability during the observation period, both as regards soft and hard tissues. In particular, the crestal bone remodeling pattern was very similar to that reported in other studies, confirming that the bone loss around SPS implants, at least at 36 months, seems to be predictable. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  8. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  9. INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.

  10. Photoelectrochemical performance of DSSC with monodisperse and polydisperse ZnO SPs

    SciTech Connect

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung Risanti, Doty D.; Shirosaki, Tomohiro; Nagaoka, Shoji; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2014-02-24

    Zinc oxide, ZnO, is one of oxide semiconductors being used in DSSC. ZnO is promising material for having fairly higher energy band gap and much higher bulk electron mobility than that of anatase TiO{sub 2}, the most widely used semiconductor for DSSC photoelectrode. This study introduces the synthesis of ZnO by precipitation method. The synthesis involves ZnAc dihydrate and diethylene glycol (DEG) for the chemicals. Various size of ZnO spherical particles (SPs) are obtained in polydisperse and monodisperse particles. Monolayer and bilayer DSSCs are fabricated in sandwich structure and sensitized with N719 dye for 3 and 5 hours. Monolayer DSSC using monodisperse particles (422 nm) is able to generate highest conversion efficiency of 0.569% (V{sub oc} = 541.3 mV, J{sub sc} = 1.92 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 54.78%). Bilayer DSSC, i.e. combined 422 - 185 nm ZnO layer, can optimize the photocurrent action spectra in UV regime leading to high conversion efficiency of 0.568 (V{sub oc} = 568.2 mV, J{sub sc} = 2.22 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 47.25%). The longer sensitizing time does not always produce better conversion efficiency since it can induce the dissolution of Zn atoms and formation of Zn{sup 2+} - dye resisting the electron transport from dye to ZnO photoelectrode.

  11. Satellite power system (SPS). Rectenna siting: availability and distribution of nominally eligible sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Siting of 60 ground receiving stations (rectennas) for the SPS may pose a problem due to the large area per rectenna (15,000 hectares, 38,000 acres) and numerous siting constraints. This study analyzes areas potentially eligible for rectenna sites by mapping, at a national scale, those conditions which would preclude rectenna construction. These exclusion variables which reflect restricted lands, topography, safety, national policy and electromagnetic (microwave) effects, have been computer encoded and tabulated. Subsequent analysis of the nine electric power planning regions that make up the contiguous states indicate an apparently adequate number of nominally eligible sites in all regions in comparison to projected electrical generation. Eligibility in this context means only that areas were not excluded in this national level analysis; more detailed investigation may reveal purely local constraints or smaller scale exclusions. A second major qualification relates to small isolated eligible areas. Eliminating individual eligible clusters with less than nine times the area of one rectenna eliminates much of the Eastern US; a four-to-one adjacent eligible area test poses no such problem. An independant study of the placement of 60 nominal sites in relation to projected load centers reveals that, even with modest transmission distances, the supply of eligible areas is not a key constraint, except perhaps in the Mid-Atlantic (Electric Reliability) Council Region. Even when several less critical (potential) exclusions are considered, more than 19% of the US is eligible; every region except Mid-Atlantic has at least 50 times an many eligible sites as are required.

  12. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH)max of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  13. Reduced Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) signaling extends replicative life span by enhancing NAD+ homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Felicia; James, Christol; Kato, Michiko; Myers, Victoria; Ilyas, Irtqa; Tsang, Matthew; Lin, Su-Ju

    2015-05-15

    Attenuated nutrient signaling extends the life span in yeast and higher eukaryotes; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we identify the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) amino acid sensing pathway as a novel longevity factor. A null mutation of SSY5 (ssy5Δ) increases replicative life span (RLS) by ∼50%. Our results demonstrate that several NAD(+) homeostasis factors play key roles in this life span extension. First, expression of the putative malate-pyruvate NADH shuttle increases in ssy5Δ cells, and deleting components of this shuttle, MAE1 and OAC1, largely abolishes RLS extension. Next, we show that Stp1, a transcription factor of the SPS pathway, directly binds to the promoter of MAE1 and OAC1 to regulate their expression. Additionally, deletion of SSY5 increases nicotinamide riboside (NR) levels and phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling activity, suggesting that ssy5Δ increases NR salvaging. This increase contributes to NAD(+) homeostasis, partially ameliorating the NAD(+) deficiency and rescuing the short life span of the npt1Δ mutant. Moreover, we observed that vacuolar phosphatase, Pho8, is partially required for ssy5Δ-mediated NR increase and RLS extension. Together, our studies present evidence that supports SPS signaling is a novel NAD(+) homeostasis factor and ssy5Δ-mediated life span extension is likely due to concomitantly increased mitochondrial and vacuolar function. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis of NAD(+) metabolism, cellular life span, and diseases associated with NAD(+) deficiency and aging.

  14. Simulation Results of a Feedback Control System to Damp Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities In The Cern SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    Transverse Single-Bunch Instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect are limiting the operation at high current of the SPS at CERN. Recently a high-bandwidth Feedback System has been proposed as a possible solution to stabilize the beam and is currently under study. We analyze the dynamics of the bunch actively damped with a simple model of the Feedback in the macro-particle code WARP, in order to investigate the limitations of the System such as the minimum amount of power required to maintain stability. We discuss the feedback model, report on simulation results and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  15. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  16. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  17. Correlations of secondary phases (SPs) with mobility lifetime (μτe) of the electrons in CZT crystals using IR microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaladhare, Sachin; Munge, W. Gitau, II; Swain, Santosh; Datta, Amlan; Havrilak, Cody James; Soundararajan, Raji; Jones, Kelly; Duff, Martine C.; Lynn, K. G.

    2011-09-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe/CZT) crystals were grown using a modified vertical Bridgman growth technique with 10 % Zn concentration at Washington State University (WSU). Analyses of the effects of volume (vol.) %, number density (cm-3), mean diameter (μm) of secondary phases (SPs) and thickness (mm) of the CZT crystals on single crystal properties such as carrier mobility lifetime (μτe) and resistivity (ρ) were performed. Some correlations were observed between μτe values of different CZT crystals and vol. %, number density, mean diameter of SPs and thickness of the crystals. High μτe and lower SP vol. % values were obtained for the ingots grown with rapid cool down times and with no intentional amounts of excess Te/Cd. For the selected samples, the effects of the SPs on the μτe values were established for the SPs whose mean diameters were <=4 μm and >4 μm. These studies indicate vol. % and mean diameter of SPs are the important parameters for CZT crystal performance as a radiation detector.

  18. An evaluation of UO2-CNT composites made by SPS as an accident tolerant nuclear fuel pellet and the feasibility of SPS as an economical fabrication process for the nuclear fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas, Andrew R.

    The innovative and advanced purpose of this study is to understand and establish proper sintering procedures for Spark Plasma Sintering process in order to fabricate high density, high thermal conductivity UO2 -CNT pellets. Mixing quality and chemical reactions have been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of various types of CNTs on the mixing and sintering quality of UO2-CNT pellets with SPS processing have been examined. The Archimedes Immersion Method, laser flash method, and FE-SEM will be used to investigate the density, thermal conductivity, grain size, pinning effects, and CNT dispersion of fabricated UO2-CNT pellets. Pre-fabricated CNT's were added to UO 2 powder and dispersed via sonication and/or ball milling and then made into composite nuclear pellets. An investigation of the economic impact of SPS on the nuclear fuel cycle for producing pure and composite UO2 fuels was conducted.

  19. Schrödinger plasmon-solitons in Kerr nonlinear heterostructures with magnetic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Davydova, M D; Dodonov, D V; Kalish, A N; Belotelov, V; Zvezdin, A K

    2015-12-01

    We investigate surface plasmon-soliton (SPS) propagation in transverse magnetic field in heterostructures with Kerr nonlinearity. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the framework of perturbation theory has been derived for three cases: a single-interface metal/nonlinear-dielectric structure and double-interface structures of nonlinear-dielectric/metal/dielectric with either ferromagnetic or nonmagnetic dielectric. The effect of the magneto-optical nonreciprocity in the Schrödinger equation is found. The estimations show that the effect is the strongest for the double-interface structure with a magnetic substrate in the vicinity of the resonant plasmonic frequency. We have also shown that the external magnetic field modifies SPS amplitude and width.

  20. The Effects of Spark-Plasma Sintering (SPS) on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of BaTiO3/3Y-TZP Composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cui, Bencang; Wang, Huining; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Composite ceramics BaTiO3/3Y-TZP containing 0 mol %, 3 mol %, 5 mol %, 7 mol %, and 10 mol % BaTiO3 have been prepared by conventional sintering and spark-plasma sintering (SPS), respectively. Analysis of the XRD patterns and Raman spectra reveal that the phase composition of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and BaTiO3 has been obtained. Our results indicate that SPS can be effective for the decrease in grain size and porosity compared with conventional sintering, which results in a lower concentration of m-ZrO2 and residual stress. Therefore, the fracture toughness is enhanced by the BaTiO3 phase through the SPS technique, while the behavior was impaired by the piezoelectric second phase through conventional sintering. PMID:28773445

  1. SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1985-04-15

    The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.

  2. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed.

  3. Processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets by spark plasma sintering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Vinod, V. T. P.; Černík, Miroslav; Selvapriya, A.; Chakravarty, Dibyendu; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of spark plasma sintering (SPS) in combination with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets is explored in this study. Ferromagnetic α-Mn alloy powders were processed by high-energy ball milling using Mn (56 at%) and Al (44 at%) as constituent metal elements. The alloying action between Mn and Al due to intensive milling was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscope; while the phase transformation kinetics was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The evolution of ferromagnetic properties in the as-milled powders was studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Among the Mn-Al alloy powders collected at various milling intervals, the 25 h milled Mn-Al powders showed a good combination of coercivity, Hc (11.3 kA/m) and saturation magnetization, Ms (5.0 A/m2/kg); accordingly, these powders were chosen for SPS. The SPS experiments were conducted at different temperatures: 773, 873 and 973 K and its effect on the density, phase composition and magnetic properties of the Mn-Al bulk samples were investigated. Upon increasing the SPS temperature from 773 to 973 K, the bulk density was found to increase from 3.6 to 4.0 g/cm3. The occurrence of equilibrium β-phase with significant amount of γ2-phase was obvious at all the SPS temperatures; however, crystallization of some amount of τ-phase was evident at 973 K. Irrespective of the SPS temperatures, all the samples demonstrated soft magnetic behavior with Hc and Ms values similar to those obtained for the 25 h milled powders. The magnetic properties of the SPSed samples were significantly improved upon subjecting them to RTA at 1100 K. Through the RTA process, Hc values of 75, 174 and 194 kA/m and Ms values of 19, 21 and 28 A/m2/kg were achieved for the samples SPSed at 773, 873 and 973 K, respectively. The possible reasons for the observed improvement in the magnetic properties of the SPSed

  4. Solitary perturbations in the steep boundary of magnetized toroidal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. E.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Kim, M. H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, H. K.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Park, Y. S.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary perturbations (SPs) localized both poloidally and radially are detected within ~100 μs before the partial collapse of the high pressure gradient boundary region (called pedestal) of magnetized toroidal plasma in the KSTAR tokamak device. The SP develops with a low toroidal mode number (typically unity) in the pedestal ingrained with quasi-stable edge-localized mode (QSM) which commonly appears during the inter-collapse period. The SPs have smaller mode pitch and different (often opposite) rotation velocity compared to the QSMs. Similar solitary perturbations are also frequently observed before the onset of complete pedestal collapse, suggesting a strong connection between the SP generation and the pedestal collapse. PMID:28338046

  5. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD.

  6. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  7. Search for Invisible Decays of Sub-GeV Dark Photons in Missing-Energy Events at the CERN SPS.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Burtsev, V; Cooke, D; Crivelli, P; Depero, E; Dermenev, A V; Donskov, S V; Dubinin, F; Dusaev, R R; Emmenegger, S; Fabich, A; Frolov, V N; Gardikiotis, A; Gninenko, S N; Hösgen, M; Kachanov, V A; Karneyeu, A E; Ketzer, B; Kirpichnikov, D V; Kirsanov, M M; Kovalenko, S G; Kramarenko, V A; Kravchuk, L V; Krasnikov, N V; Kuleshov, S V; Lyubovitskij, V E; Lysan, V; Matveev, V A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Myalkovskiy, V V; Peshekhonov, V D; Peshekhonov, D V; Petuhov, O; Polyakov, V A; Radics, B; Rubbia, A; Samoylenko, V D; Tikhomirov, V O; Tlisov, D A; Toropin, A N; Trifonov, A Yu; Vasilishin, B; Vasquez Arenas, G; Ulloa, P; Zhukov, K; Zioutas, K

    2017-01-06

    We report on a direct search for sub-GeV dark photons (A^{'}), which might be produced in the reaction e^{-}Z→e^{-}ZA^{'} via kinetic mixing with photons by 100 GeV electrons incident on an active target in the NA64 experiment at the CERN SPS. The dark photons would decay invisibly into dark matter particles resulting in events with large missing energy. No evidence for such decays was found with 2.75×10^{9} electrons on target. We set new limits on the γ-A^{'} mixing strength and exclude the invisible A^{'} with a mass ≲100  MeV as an explanation of the muon g_{μ}-2 anomaly.

  8. The influence of sintering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni-Al intermetallics fabricated by SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Thömmes, A. Shevtsova, L. I. Laptev, I. S. Mul, D. O.; Mali, V. I. Anisimov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    In the present study PN85Yu15 was used as elemental powder to produce a sintered compound with Ni3Al as main phase. The Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique is used to compact the powders. The powder was sintered in a temperature range between 1000°C and 1150°C to observe the influence of the sintering temperature on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure was observed with optical microscope (OM), the phase composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Density and microhardness were observed and compared the values with the results of other researchers. The compressive-, density- and microhardness tests show as clear result that with increasing the sintering temperature nearly all properties become better and also the microstructure studies show that porous places become less.

  9. Measurement of meson resonance production in $$\\pi ^- + C$$ interactions at SPS energies: The NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    DOE PAGES

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E. V.; ...

    2017-09-20

    Here, we present measurements ofmore » $$\\rho^0$$, $$\\omega$$ and K$$^{*0}$$ spectra in $$\\pi^{-} + $$C production interactions at 158 GeV/c and $$\\rho^0$$ spectra at 350 GeV/c using the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. Spectra are presented as a function of the Feynman's variable $$x_\\text{F}$$ in the range $$0 < x_\\text{F} < 1$$ and $$0 < x_\\text{F} < 0.5$$ for 158 GeV/c and 350 GeV/c respectively. Furthermore, we show comparisons with previous measurements and predictions of several hadronic interaction models. Our measurements are essential for a better understanding of hadronic shower development and for improving the modeling of cosmic ray air showers.« less

  10. Trace metals in oysters, Crassotrea sps., from UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai: space-time observations and source identification.

    PubMed

    Raposo, J C; Bartolomé, L; Cortazar, E; Arana, G; Zabaljauregui, M; de Diego, A; Zuloaga, O; Madariaga, J M; Etxebarria, N

    2009-08-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations of oyster tissues (Crassostea sps.) was studied. The samples were collected between 2002 and 2004 along the Urdaibai estuary (Murueta, Kanala and Arteaga). The seasonal influence on some metal concentrations (higher values in spring-summer season than in autumn-winter season) is more pronounced than the local site-specific influence. Furthermore, within each location a significant time-specific dependence on the trace metal concentration variations can be detected. Substantially higher concentrations of Zn (445.5-2,403.3 mg kg(-1)) and Mn (29.4-169.6 mg kg(-1)) were recorded in oysters inhabiting estuarine locations, possibly indicating a markedly higher natural bioavailability at these locations. Principal component analysis demonstrated that oysters could be separated depending on the inhabiting areas: Sn for Murueta, essential metals for Kanala, and Co and Cd for Arteaga sampling points, respectively.

  11. Strangeness production in heavy ion collisions: What have we learned with the energy increase from SPS to RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, Grazyna

    2002-08-23

    A review of strange particle production in heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. The particle yields and ratios from SPS and RHIC are discussed in view of the newest developments in understanding collision dynamics, and in view of their role in the search for a quark gluon plasma. A strangeness enhancement, most notably observed in CERN Pb-beam results, shows a remarkable two fold global enhancement with a much larger effect seen in the case of multistrange baryons. Hadronic models did fail to explain this pattern. At RHIC energy strangeness assumes a different role, since temperatures are higher and the central rapidity region almost baryon-free. An intriguing question: ''Did RHIC change the way we understand strangeness production in heavy ion collisions ?'' is discussed.

  12. Search for Invisible Decays of Sub-GeV Dark Photons in Missing-Energy Events at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Burtsev, V.; Cooke, D.; Crivelli, P.; Depero, E.; Dermenev, A. V.; Donskov, S. V.; Dubinin, F.; Dusaev, R. R.; Emmenegger, S.; Fabich, A.; Frolov, V. N.; Gardikiotis, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Hösgen, M.; Kachanov, V. A.; Karneyeu, A. E.; Ketzer, B.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.; Kirsanov, M. M.; Kovalenko, S. G.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kravchuk, L. V.; Krasnikov, N. V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Lysan, V.; Matveev, V. A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Petuhov, O.; Polyakov, V. A.; Radics, B.; Rubbia, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tlisov, D. A.; Toropin, A. N.; Trifonov, A. Yu.; Vasilishin, B.; Vasquez Arenas, G.; Ulloa, P.; Zhukov, K.; Zioutas, K.; NA64 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report on a direct search for sub-GeV dark photons (A' ), which might be produced in the reaction e-Z →e-Z A' via kinetic mixing with photons by 100 GeV electrons incident on an active target in the NA64 experiment at the CERN SPS. The dark photons would decay invisibly into dark matter particles resulting in events with large missing energy. No evidence for such decays was found with 2.75 ×1 09 electrons on target. We set new limits on the γ -A' mixing strength and exclude the invisible A' with a mass ≲100 MeV as an explanation of the muon gμ-2 anomaly.

  13. Spark plasma sintering of Mn-Al-C hard magnets.

    PubMed

    Pasko, A; LoBue, M; Fazakas, E; Varga, L K; Mazaleyrat, F

    2014-02-12

    Structural and magnetic characterization of isotropic Mn-Al-C bulk samples obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) is reported. This technique, to the best of our knowledge, has not been used for preparation of Mn-Al-based permanent magnets previously. Transformation from the parent -phase to the ferromagnetic τ-phase occurred on heating in the process of sintering. The phase constitution of the melt-spun precursors and consolidated samples was determined by x-ray diffraction. Magnetic hysteresis loops were recorded using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compositional dependence of the coercivity, magnetization and density of the sintered materials is analysed. To combine good magnetic properties with proper densification, further optimization of the production parameters is necessary.

  14. Ideal hydrodynamics and elliptic flow at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies: Importance of the initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus

    2009-05-15

    The elliptic flow excitation function calculated in a full (3+1) dimensional hybrid Boltzmann approach with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage for heavy ion reactions from GSI Schwerionen Synchrotron to the highest CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is discussed in the context of the experimental data. In this study, we employ a hadron gas equation of state to investigate the differences in the dynamics and viscosity effects. The specific event-by-event setup with initial conditions and freeze-out from a nonequilibrium transport model allows for a direct comparison between ideal fluid dynamics and transport simulations. At higher SPS energies, where the pure transport calculation cannot account for the high elliptic flow values, the smaller mean free path in the hydrodynamic evolution leads to higher elliptic flow values. In contrast to previous studies within pure hydrodynamics, the more realistic initial conditions employed here and the inclusion of a sequential final state hadronic decoupling provides results that are in line with the experimental data almost over the whole energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160A GeV. Thus, this new approach leads to a substantially different shape of the v{sub 2}/{epsilon} scaling curve as a function of (1/SdN{sub ch}/dy) in line with the experimental data compared to previous ideal hydrodynamic calculations. This hints at a strong influence of the initial conditions for the hydrodynamic evolution on the finally observed v{sub 2} values, thus questioning the standard interpretation that the hydrodynamic limit is only reached at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies.

  15. Clinical Features and Racial/Ethnic Differences among the 3020 Participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Carole L.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Roldan, Ana; Benavente, Marie-France; Pretell, Edwin J.; Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Kase, Carlos S.; Arauz, Antonio; Meyer, Brett C.; Meissner, Irene; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; McClure, Leslie A.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Pearce, Lesly A.; Conwit, Robin; Irby, Lisa H.; Peri, Kalyani; Pergola, Pablo E.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2012-01-01

    AIM To describe the baseline characteristics, racial/ethnic differences, and geographic differences among participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study. METHODS The SPS3 trial enrolled patients with a symptomatic small subcortical stroke (lacunar stroke) within the prior 6 months and an eligible lesion on MRI, who were randomized, in a factorial design, to antiplatelet therapy (aspirin 325 mg daily plus clopidogrel 75 mg daily vs. aspirin 325 mg daily plus placebo) and to one of two levels of systolic blood pressure targets (“intensive” (<130 mmHg) vs. “usual” (130–149 mmHg)). RESULTS Among the 3020 participants recruited from 81 clinical sites in 8 countries, the mean age was 63 years, 63% were men, 75% had a history of hypertension, and 37% were diabetic. Fifty-one percent were White, 30% Hispanic, and 16% Black. Black participants were younger (mean age 58 years vs. 64 years, p<0.001) and more often had hypertension (95% vs. 89%, p<0.001) than White participants. Hispanic and Black participants more often had diabetes than White participants (42%, 40% vs. 32% respectively, both p<0.001). Tobacco smoking at the time of qualifying stroke was much more frequent among Spanish participants (32%) than those from North America (22%) or Latin America (8%) (p<0.001); systolic blood pressure at study entry was 5 mmHg lower among Spanish vs. North American participants (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The SPS3 cohort is the largest MRI-defined series of patients with S3. Among the racially/ethnically diverse SPS3 participants, there are important differences in patient features and vascular risk factors could influence prognosis for recurrent stroke and response to interventions. Clinical Trial Registration Information The SPS3 study is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00059306). PMID:22516427

  16. Improved performance of SrFe12O19 bulk magnets through bottom-up nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia; Stingaciu, Marian; Bøjesen, Espen Drath; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Eikeland, Espen; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The influence of synthesis and compaction parameters is investigated with regards to formation of high performance SrFe12O19 bulk magnets. The produced magnets consist of highly aligned, single-magnetic domain nanoplatelets of SrFe12O19. The relationship between the magnetic performance of the samples and their structural features is established through systematic characterization by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data (PXRD). The analysis is supported by complementary techniques including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray pole figure measurements. SrFe12O19 hexagonal nanoplatelets with various sizes are synthesized by a supercritical hydrothermal flow method. The crystallite sizes are tuned by varying the Fe/Sr ratio in the precursor solution. Compaction of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets into bulk magnets is performed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Rietveld refinement of the pressed pellets and texture analysis of pole figure measurements reveal that SPS pressing produces a high degree of alignment of the nanoplatelets, achieved without applying any magnetic field prior or during compaction. The highly aligned nanocrystallites combined with crystal growth during SPS give rise to an enormous enhancement of the magnetic properties compared to the as-synthesized powders, leading to high performance bulk magnets with energy products of 26 kJ m-3.The influence of synthesis and compaction parameters is investigated with regards to formation of high performance SrFe12O19 bulk magnets. The produced magnets consist of highly aligned, single-magnetic domain nanoplatelets of SrFe12O19. The relationship between the magnetic performance of the samples and their structural features is established through systematic characterization by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data (PXRD). The analysis is supported by complementary

  17. Comparative health and safety assessment of the SPS and alternative electrical generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative analysis of health and safety risks is presented for the Satellite Power System and five alternative baseload electrical generation systems: a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle; a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing; a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system; a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system; and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with battery storage is also evaluated. Quantified estimates of public and occupational risks within ranges of uncertainty were developed for each phase of the energy system. The potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain unquantitied are also discussed.

  18. Comparative health and safety assessment of the SPS and alternative electrical generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C. D.

    1980-07-01

    A comparative analysis of health and safety risks is presented for the Satellite Power System and five alternative baseload electrical generation systems: a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle; a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing; a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system; a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system; and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with battery storage is also evaluated. Quantified estimates of public and occupational risks within ranges of uncertainty were developed for each phase of the energy system. The potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain unquantitied are also discussed.

  19. A facility to search for hidden particles at the CERN SPS: the SHiP physics case.

    PubMed

    Alekhin, Sergey; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Asaka, Takehiko; Batell, Brian; Bezrukov, Fedor; Bondarenko, Kyrylo; Boyarsky, Alexey; Choi, Ki-Young; Corral, Cristóbal; Craig, Nathaniel; Curtin, David; Davidson, Sacha; de Gouvêa, André; Dell'Oro, Stefano; deNiverville, Patrick; Bhupal Dev, P S; Dreiner, Herbi; Drewes, Marco; Eijima, Shintaro; Essig, Rouven; Fradette, Anthony; Garbrecht, Björn; Gavela, Belen; Giudice, Gian F; Goodsell, Mark D; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Gori, Stefania; Grojean, Christophe; Guffanti, Alberto; Hambye, Thomas; Hansen, Steen H; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hernandez, Pilar; Ibarra, Alejandro; Ivashko, Artem; Izaguirre, Eder; Jaeckel, Joerg; Jeong, Yu Seon; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Kahn, Yonatan; Katz, Andrey; Kim, Choong Sun; Kovalenko, Sergey; Krnjaic, Gordan; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Marcocci, Simone; Mccullough, Matthew; McKeen, David; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Morrissey, David E; Ovchynnikov, Maksym; Paschos, Emmanuel; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Pospelov, Maxim; Reno, Mary Hall; Ringwald, Andreas; Ritz, Adam; Roszkowski, Leszek; Rubakov, Valery; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Schienbein, Ingo; Schmeier, Daniel; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwaller, Pedro; Senjanovic, Goran; Seto, Osamu; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Shchutska, Lesya; Shelton, Jessie; Shrock, Robert; Shuve, Brian; Spannowsky, Michael; Spray, Andy; Staub, Florian; Stolarski, Daniel; Strassler, Matt; Tello, Vladimir; Tramontano, Francesco; Tripathi, Anurag; Tulin, Sean; Vissani, Francesco; Winkler, Martin W; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (search for hidden particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, [Formula: see text] and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. We discuss the evidence for physics beyond the standard model and describe interactions between new particles and four different portals-scalars, vectors, fermions or axion-like particles. We discuss motivations for different models, manifesting themselves via these interactions, and how they can be probed with the SHiP experiment and present several case studies. The prospects to search for relatively light SUSY and composite particles at SHiP are also discussed. We demonstrate that the SHiP experiment has a unique potential to discover new physics and can directly probe a number of solutions of beyond the standard model puzzles, such as neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the Universe, dark matter, and inflation.

  20. Pure & crystallized 2D Boron Nitride sheets synthesized via a novel process coupling both PDCs and SPS methods

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Linas, Sébastien; Journet, Catherine; Steyer, Philippe; Garnier, Vincent; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Bérangère

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of emergent researches linked to graphene, it is well known that h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs), also referred as 2D BN, are considered as the best candidate for replacing SiO2 as dielectric support or capping layers for graphene. As a consequence, the development of a novel alternative source for highly crystallized h-BN crystals, suitable for a further exfoliation, is a prime scientific issue. This paper proposes a promising approach to synthesize pure and well-crystallized h-BN flakes, which can be easily exfoliated into BNNSs. This new accessible production process represents a relevant alternative source of supply in response to the increasing need of high quality BNNSs. The synthesis strategy to prepare pure h-BN is based on a unique combination of the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. Through a multi-scale chemical and structural investigation, it is clearly shown that obtained flakes are large (up to 30 μm), defect-free and well crystallized, which are key-characteristics for a subsequent exfoliation into relevant BNNSs. PMID:26843122

  1. Pure & crystallized 2D Boron Nitride sheets synthesized via a novel process coupling both PDCs and SPS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Linas, Sébastien; Journet, Catherine; Steyer, Philippe; Garnier, Vincent; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Bérangère

    2016-02-01

    Within the context of emergent researches linked to graphene, it is well known that h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs), also referred as 2D BN, are considered as the best candidate for replacing SiO2 as dielectric support or capping layers for graphene. As a consequence, the development of a novel alternative source for highly crystallized h-BN crystals, suitable for a further exfoliation, is a prime scientific issue. This paper proposes a promising approach to synthesize pure and well-crystallized h-BN flakes, which can be easily exfoliated into BNNSs. This new accessible production process represents a relevant alternative source of supply in response to the increasing need of high quality BNNSs. The synthesis strategy to prepare pure h-BN is based on a unique combination of the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. Through a multi-scale chemical and structural investigation, it is clearly shown that obtained flakes are large (up to 30 μm), defect-free and well crystallized, which are key-characteristics for a subsequent exfoliation into relevant BNNSs.

  2. A facility to search for hidden particles at the CERN SPS: the SHiP physics case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhin, Sergey; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Asaka, Takehiko; Batell, Brian; Bezrukov, Fedor; Bondarenko, Kyrylo; Boyarsky, Alexey; Choi, Ki-Young; Corral, Cristóbal; Craig, Nathaniel; Curtin, David; Davidson, Sacha; de Gouvêa, André; Dell'Oro, Stefano; deNiverville, Patrick; Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Dreiner, Herbi; Drewes, Marco; Eijima, Shintaro; Essig, Rouven; Fradette, Anthony; Garbrecht, Björn; Gavela, Belen; Giudice, Gian F.; Goodsell, Mark D.; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Gori, Stefania; Grojean, Christophe; Guffanti, Alberto; Hambye, Thomas; Hansen, Steen H.; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hernandez, Pilar; Ibarra, Alejandro; Ivashko, Artem; Izaguirre, Eder; Jaeckel, Joerg; Jeong, Yu Seon; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Kahn, Yonatan; Katz, Andrey; Kim, Choong Sun; Kovalenko, Sergey; Krnjaic, Gordan; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Marcocci, Simone; Mccullough, Matthew; McKeen, David; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Morrissey, David E.; Ovchynnikov, Maksym; Paschos, Emmanuel; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Pospelov, Maxim; Hall Reno, Mary; Ringwald, Andreas; Ritz, Adam; Roszkowski, Leszek; Rubakov, Valery; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Schienbein, Ingo; Schmeier, Daniel; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwaller, Pedro; Senjanovic, Goran; Seto, Osamu; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Shchutska, Lesya; Shelton, Jessie; Shrock, Robert; Shuve, Brian; Spannowsky, Michael; Spray, Andy; Staub, Florian; Stolarski, Daniel; Strassler, Matt; Tello, Vladimir; Tramontano, Francesco; Tripathi, Anurag; Tulin, Sean; Vissani, Francesco; Winkler, Martin W.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (search for hidden particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, τ \\to 3μ and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. We discuss the evidence for physics beyond the standard model and describe interactions between new particles and four different portals—scalars, vectors, fermions or axion-like particles. We discuss motivations for different models, manifesting themselves via these interactions, and how they can be probed with the SHiP experiment and present several case studies. The prospects to search for relatively light SUSY and composite particles at SHiP are also discussed. We demonstrate that the SHiP experiment has a unique potential to discover new physics and can directly probe a number of solutions of beyond the standard model puzzles, such as neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the Universe, dark matter, and inflation.

  3. HiRadMat at CERN SPS - A test facility with high intensity beam pulses to material samples

    SciTech Connect

    Charitonidis, N.; Fabich, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.

    2015-07-01

    HiRadMat (High Irradiation to Materials) is a facility at CERN designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, shock tests on high power targets, collimators) can be tested. The beam parameters (SPS 440 GeV protons with a pulse energy of up to 3.4 MJ, or alternatively lead/argon ions at the proton equivalent energy) can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. It is a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed beams on materials in a dedicated environment, excluding long-time irradiation studies. The facility is designed for a 10{sup 16} maximum number of protons per year, in order to limit the activation to acceptable levels for human intervention. This paper will demonstrate the possibilities for research using this facility and showing examples of upcoming experiments scheduled in the beam period 2014/2015. (authors)

  4. Perspective of future drugs targeting sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase for blood pressure control

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gen-Min; Liu, Pang-Yen; Wu, Ching-Fen; Wang, Wen-Been; Han, Chih-Lu

    2015-01-01

    According to a genome-wide association study, intronic SNPs within the human sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) gene was linked to 20% of the general population and may be associated with elevated blood pressure. As cell volume changes, mammalian SPAK kinases respond to phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled chloride co-transporter activity. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of upstream with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases would activate SPAK kinases. The activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK cascade on the kidneys and aortic tissue is related to the development of hypertension. Several regulators of the WNK pathway such as the Kelch kinase protein 3 - Cullin 3 E3 ligase, hyperinsulinemia, and low potassium intake to mediate hypertension have been identified. In addition, the SPAK kinases may affect the action of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on blood pressure as well. In 2010, two SPAK knock-in and knock-out mouse models have clarified the pathogenesis of lowering blood pressure by influencing the receptors on the kidneys and aortic smooth muscle. More recently, two novel SPAK inhibitors for mice, Stock 1S-14279 and Closantel were discovered in 2014. Targeting of SPAK seems to be promising for future antihypertensive therapy. Therefore we raised some viewpoints for the issue for the antihypertensive therapy on the SPAK (gene or kinase). PMID:26131334

  5. Proposal of a Viable Commercial Space Infrastructure Scenario Introducing Robotic Vehicles in an Earth Orbit Environment and its Interfaces to the SPS-Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, R.; Sommer, B.

    2004-12-01

    The German Space Programme with respect to automation and robotics (A&R) is focussing on the development of on-orbit-servicing (OOS) technologies and the demonstration of their capabilities. The utilization of OOS-technologies could gradually lead to a complete restructuring of the way how we usually do space today. The proposed future infrastructure scenario VERSICA (VERsatile Space Infrastructure Concept for Applications in space) encloses many elements which are inevitable if it comes to the mounting and the operation of huge solar power plants in space. As a consequence the realization of the vision will come along with the qualification and verification of key technologies needed for any SPS infrastructure concept. Vice versa a profound SPS scenario will be a major driver for the requirements which future OOS elements will have to meet. On that score it is recommended to start a dialog between the supporters of SPS and OOS technologies. Thus the inherent synergies can be utilized to better meet the respective objectives.

  6. Formation flying metrology for the ESA-PROBA3 mission: the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Fineschi, S.; Noce, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Romoli, M.; Loreggia, D.; Nicolini, G.; Massone, G.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning to launch in 2018 the PROBA3 Mission, designed to demonstrate the inorbit formation flying (FF) attitude capability of its two satellites and to observe the inner part of the visible solar corona as the main scientific objective. The solar corona will be observed thanks to the presence on the first satellite, facing the Sun, of an external occulter producing an artificial eclipse of the Sun disk. The second satellite will carry on the coronagraph telescope and the digital camera system in order to perform imaging of the inner part of the corona in visible polarized light, from 1.08 R⦿ up to about 3 R⦿. One of the main metrological subsystems used to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude is the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) assembly. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) able to measure with the required sensitivity and dynamic range the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. In the following of the present paper we describe the overall SPS subsystem and its readout electronics with respect to the capability to satisfy the mission requirements, from the light conversion process on board the silicon-based SPS devices up to the digital signal readout and sampling.

  7. The Effect of Lithium Doping on the Sintering and Grain Growth of SPS-Processed, Non-Stoichiometric Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    PubMed Central

    Mordekovitz, Yuval; Shelly, Lee; Halabi, Mahdi; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Hayun, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lithium doping on the sintering and grain growth of non-stoichiometric nano-sized magnesium aluminate spinel were studied using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. Li-doped nano-MgO·nAl2O3 spinel (n = 1.06 and 1.21) powders containing 0, 0.20, 0.50 or 1.00 at. % Li were synthesized by the solution combustion method and dense specimens were processed using a SPS apparatus at 1200 °C and under an applied pressure of 150 MPa. The SPS-processed samples showed mutual dependency on the lithium concentration and the alumina-to-magnesia ratio. For example, the density and hardness values of near-stoichiometry samples (n = 1.06) showed an incline up to 0.51 at. % Li, while in the alumina rich samples (n = 1.21), these values remained constant up to 0.53 at. % Li. Studying grain growth revealed that in the Li-MgO·nAl2O3 system, grain growth is limited by Zener pining. The activation energies of undoped, 0.2 and 0.53 at. % Li-MgO·1.21Al2O3 samples were 288 ± 40, 670 ± 45 and 543 ± 40 kJ·mol−1, respectively. PMID:28773604

  8. Origin of Magnetic High at Basalt-Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Vent Field in the Central Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration processes can change crustal magnetization by destruction and creation of magnetic minerals. In the Yokoniwa hydrothermal vent field (YHVF), located at the NTO-massif in the Central Indian Ridge, a high magnetization zone (with ~12 A/m in ~200 m-scale) was discovered by previous deepsea AUV survey. Basalts and ultramafic rocks were found around the YHVF, however the origin of magnetic high and its relationship with hydrothermal activity are remains to be investigated. Therefore, we conducted additional magnetic field measurement, rock sampling, and geological observation using submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK09-13 and YK13-03 cruises. Vector geomagnetic field were obtained along the dive tracks at an altitude of ~ 10 m. The crustal absolute magnetization is estimated using the 2D and 3D forward modeling technique. The values of magnetization show ~10 A/m just around the YHVF. This value is consistent with that of equivalent magnetization deduced from AUV data. Rock magnetic characters were measured for 8 basalts, 4 dolerites, 5 sulfides, and 30 serpentinized peridotites (SPs). The measurements of NRM, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis, low (6-300K) and high (50-700°C) temperature magnetization curves were performed. The estimated magnetization values are 0.1-6 A/m in basalts, 0.2-0.6 A/m in dolerites, and <0.1 A/m in sulfides. The SPs show strong magnetization of 0.4-11 A/m. The magnetic grain sizes ranges over single domain to pseudo-single domain. The temperature-magnetization curves clearly show the Verway transition and Currie temperature of 580 °C, therefore magnetic carrier of SPs is supposed as pure magnetite, which is created during serpentinization process. Serpentinization degree (Sd) was also estimated by grain density measurement based on empirical formula from Oufi et al., 2002. Amount of magnetite was also estimated from saturation magnetization. The results show that the values of Sd vary in a range from 17

  9. Development of a Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in situ search of organic compounds on Mars : application to the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Garnier, C.; Fressinet, C.; Szopa, C.; El Bekri, J.; Coll, P.; Rodier, C.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

    2008-09-01

    The search for past or present life signs is one of the primary goals of the future Mars exploratory missions. With this aim the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) module of the ExoMars 2013 next coming European space mission is designed to the in situ analysis, in the Martian soil, of organic molecules of exobiological interest such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the frame of the MOMA experiment we have been developing a Sample Processing System (SPS) compatible with gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The main goal of SPS is to allow the extraction and the gas chromatography separation of the refractory organic compounds from a solid matrix at trace level within space compatible operating conditions. The SPS is a mini-reactor, containing the solid sample (~500mg), able to increase (or decrease) the internal temperature from 20 to 500 °C within 13 sec. The extraction step is therefore performed by using thermodesorption, the best yield of extraction being obtained at 300°C for 10 to 20 min. It has to be noticed that the temperature could be increased up to 500°C without a significant lost of efficiency if the heating run time is kept below 3 min. After the thermodesorption the chemical derivatization of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA and DMF [buch et al.]. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the targeted volatile molecules are transferred through a heated transfer line in the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer for the detection. The SPS is a "one step/one pot" sample preparation system which should allow the MOMA experiment to detect the refractory molecules absorbed in the Martian soil at a detection limit below the ppb level. A. Buch, R. Sternberg, C. Szopa, C. Freissinet, C. Garnier, J. El Bekri

  10. Achieved blood pressures in the secondary prevention of small subcortical strokes (SPS3) study: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pergola, Pablo E; White, Carole L; Szychowski, Jeff M; Talbert, Robert; Brutto, Oscar Del; Castellanos, Mar; Graves, John W; Matamala, Gonzalo; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Yee, Jerry; Rebello, Rosario; Zhang, Yu; Benavente, Oscar R

    2014-08-01

    Lowering blood pressure (BP) after stroke remains a challenge, even in the context of clinical trials. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) BP protocol, BP management during the study, and achieved BPs are described here. Patients with recent symptomatic lacunar stroke were randomized to 1 of 2 levels of systolic BP (SBP) targets: lower: <130mm Hg, or higher: 130-149mm Hg. SBP management over the course of the trial was examined by race/ethnicity and other baseline conditions. Mean SBP decreased for both groups from baseline to the last follow-up, from 142.4 to 126.7mm Hg for the lower SBP target group and from 143.6 to 137.4mm Hg for the higher SBP target group. At baseline, participants in both groups used an average of 1.7±1.2 antihypertensive medications, which increased to a mean of 2.4±1.4 (lower group) and 1.8±1.4 (higher group) by the end-study visit. It took an average of 6 months for patients to reach their SBP target, sustained to the last follow-up. Black participants had the highest proportion of SBP ≥150mm Hg at both study entry (40%) and end-study visit (17%), as compared with whites (9%) and Hispanics (11%). These results show that it is possible to safely lower BP even to a SBP goal <130mm Hg in a variety of patients and settings, including private and academic centers in multiple countries. This provides further support for protocol-driven care in lowering BP and consequently reducing the burden of stroke. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Achieved Blood Pressures in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Study: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Pergola, Pablo E.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Talbert, Robert; del Brutto, Oscar; Castellanos, Mar; Graves, John W.; Matamala, Gonzalo; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Yee, Jerry; Rebello, Rosario; Zhang, Yu; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lowering blood pressure (BP) after stroke remains a challenge, even in the context of clinical trials. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) BP protocol, BP management during the study, and achieved BPs are described here. METHODS Patients with recent symptomatic lacunar stroke were randomized to 1 of 2 levels of systolic BP (SBP) targets: lower: <130mm Hg, or higher: 130–149mm Hg. SBP management over the course of the trial was examined by race/ethnicity and other baseline conditions. RESULTS Mean SBP decreased for both groups from baseline to the last follow-up, from 142.4 to 126.7mm Hg for the lower SBP target group and from 143.6 to 137.4mm Hg for the higher SBP target group. At baseline, participants in both groups used an average of 1.7±1.2 antihypertensive medications, which increased to a mean of 2.4±1.4 (lower group) and 1.8±1.4 (higher group) by the end-study visit. It took an average of 6 months for patients to reach their SBP target, sustained to the last follow-up. Black participants had the highest proportion of SBP ≥150mm Hg at both study entry (40%) and end-study visit (17%), as compared with whites (9%) and Hispanics (11%). CONCLUSIONS These results show that it is possible to safely lower BP even to a SBP goal <130mm Hg in a variety of patients and settings, including private and academic centers in multiple countries. This provides further support for protocol-driven care in lowering BP and consequently reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24610884

  12. Simulated Performance of an FIR-Based Feedback System to Control the Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    The operation at high current of high-energy proton machines like the SPS at CERN is affected by transverse single-bunch instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect [1]. As a first step toward modeling a realistic feedback control system to stabilize the bunch dynamics, we investigate the use of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter to represent the processing channel. The effect of the processing channel on the bunch dynamics is analyzed using the macro-particle simulation package Wart-Posinst. We discuss the basic features of the feedback model, report on simulation results, and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  13. Emerging SPS Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four technologies were evaluated to determine their effect on Satellite Power System concepts. Two of these technologies, solid-state power amplifiers and magnetrons, are replacements for the Klystrons used for dc to RF conversion on the satellite. A third technology, laser power transmission, transmits the energy at laser frequencies rather than microwave frequencies. The fourth technology, multibandgap solar cells, has the promise of significantly increased solar to dc conversion efficienty as compared to the reference-concept silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells. The design characteristics of concepts resulting from application of these technologies are summarized.

  14. SPS technical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The technical issues which would either seriously impact or potentially negate the integrity of a solar power satellite program are enumerated. Issues are identified not only relating to the question of engineering feasibility, but also to the equally important areas of environmental and social acceptability and, especially, economic viability. Specific information required for resolution of the issues was developed and a planned overall approach for resolution was identified. Results of these analyses show that 60% of the technical issues can be resolved with analysis only; 10% require only ground testing for resolution; and the remaining 30% require space experiments or demonstrations for resolution. The results also show that 85% resolution of the issues may be accomplished prior to development of a protoype.

  15. Specialty magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1986-07-01

    A number of basic conceptual designs are explained for magnet systems that use permanent magnet materials. Included are iron free multipoles and hybrid magnets. Also appended is a discussion of the manufacturing process and magnetic properties of some permanent magnet materials. (LEW)

  16. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural, Dielectric, and Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic YFeO3 Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Ting; Song, Shenhua; Ma, Qing; Liu, Renchen

    2017-01-01

    Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid reaction method, phase-pure YFeO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity YFeO3 ceramics can be prepared using SPS, while the results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies resulting from transformation from Fe3+ to Fe2+ is low. The relative density of the 1000 °C-sintered sample is as high as 97.7%, which is much higher than those of the samples sintered at other temperatures. The present dielectric and magnetic properties are much better than those of the samples fabricated by conventional methods. These findings indicate that the YFeO3 ceramics prepared by the low temperature solid reaction and SPS methods possess excellent dielectric and magnetic properties, making them suitable for potential applications involving magnetic storage. PMID:28772626

  17. Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al2O3-(3Y)-TZP Composites and (3Y)-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Miriyev, Aslan; Grützner, Steffen; Krüger, Lutz; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully applied a two-step approach involving separate SPS consolidation of pure (3Y)-TZP and composites containing 20 vol % TRIP-steel, 40 vol % Al2O3 and 40 vol % (3Y)-TZP ceramic phase, and subsequent diffusion joining of both sintered components in an SPS apparatus. The microstructure and properties of the sintered and bonded specimens were characterized. No defects at the interface between the TZP and the composite after joining in the 1050–1150 °C temperature range were observed. Only limited grain growth occurred during joining, while crystallite size, hardness, shear strength and the fraction of the monoclinic phase in the TZP ceramic virtually did not change. The slight increase of the TZP layer’s fracture toughness with the joining temperature was attributed to the effect of grain size on transformation toughening. PMID:28773680

  18. Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al₂O₃-(3Y)-TZP Composites and (3Y)-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Miriyev, Aslan; Grützner, Steffen; Krüger, Lutz; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-07-09

    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully applied a two-step approach involving separate SPS consolidation of pure (3Y)-TZP and composites containing 20 vol % TRIP-steel, 40 vol % Al₂O₃ and 40 vol % (3Y)-TZP ceramic phase, and subsequent diffusion joining of both sintered components in an SPS apparatus. The microstructure and properties of the sintered and bonded specimens were characterized. No defects at the interface between the TZP and the composite after joining in the 1050-1150 °C temperature range were observed. Only limited grain growth occurred during joining, while crystallite size, hardness, shear strength and the fraction of the monoclinic phase in the TZP ceramic virtually did not change. The slight increase of the TZP layer's fracture toughness with the joining temperature was attributed to the effect of grain size on transformation toughening.

  19. Discriminant validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS).

    PubMed

    Peters, L

    2000-09-01

    Three measures commonly used in assessment of social phobia, the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI [Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C. & Dancu, C. V. (1996). Social phobia and anxiety inventory: manual. Toronto, Ont.: Multi-Health Systems Inc.), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS [Mattick, R. P. & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455-470] and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS [Mattick, R. P. & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455-470], were compared for their ability to discriminate between social phobia and other anxiety disorders (panic disorder with or without agoraphobia). Participants were 117 patients attending a specialized anxiety disorders unit for treatment. While all three measures were able to detect differences between social phobic patients and patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, a logistic regression analysis showed that the SPAI, but not the SPS and SIAS, was a significant predictor of membership of the social phobia group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis also showed that the SPAI was the better measure for discriminating between social phobia and panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Analysis of the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive power of the measures at the optimum cutoff scores produced by the ROC analysis are presented.

  20. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) pilot beam and communication link subsystem investigation study, phase 1. [ionospheric propagation, radio frequency interference, and microwave transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary engineering model of ionospheric interactions with the pilot beam was established and used to demonstrate that the dual frequency baseline pilot beam system might not be viable in the presence of an unstable transmission path. Alternate approaches to remove this difficulty are described. Although ionospheric fluctuations will not significantly degrade beam pointing or raise the sidelobe levels, they will reduce transmission efficiency by upwards of 25%. Mitigating strategies to substantially reduce this effect are proposed. Based on the Klystron noise spectrum, the pilot beam transmitter power was determined as a function of frequency offset from the power beam carrier frequency. The RFI from the pilot beam, on the ground and at geosynchronous orbit is shown. Noise levels on the earth's surface due to the SPS are presented as a function of frequency and the number of SPS systems. Analysis of the communication subsystem indicates that a standard telemetry line of 1.544 MB/s would satisfy both voice and data link requirements. Additional links would be required for TV and radio transmissions.

  1. Magnetic solid-phase extraction using carbon nanotubes as sorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Latorre, C; Barciela-García, J; García-Martín, S; Peña-Crecente, R M; Otárola-Jiménez, J

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE) is a procedure based on the use of magnetic sorbents for the separation and preconcentration of different organic and inorganic analytes from large sample volumes. The magnetic sorbent is added to the sample solution and the target analyte is adsorbed onto the surface of the magnetic sorbent particles (M-SPs). Analyte-M-SPs are separated from the sample solution by applying an external magnetic field and, after elution with the appropriate solvent, the recovered analyte is analyzed. This approach has several advantages over traditional solid phase extraction as it avoids time-consuming and tedious on-column SPE procedures and it provides a rapid and simple analyte separation that avoids the need for centrifugation or filtration steps. As a consequence, in the past few years a great deal of research has been focused on M-SPE, including the development of new sorbents and novel automation strategies. In recent years, the use of magnetic carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs) as a sorption substrate in M-SPE has become an active area of research. These materials have exceptional mechanical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties and they also have an extremely large surface area and varied possibilities for functionalization. This review covers the synthesis of M-CNTs and the different approaches for the use of these compounds in M-SPE. The performance, general characteristics and applications of M-SPE based on magnetic carbon nanotubes for organic and inorganic analysis have been evaluated on the basis of more than 110 references. Finally, some important challenges with respect the use of magnetic carbon nanotubes in M-SPE are discussed.

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of spark plasma sintered nanocrystalline NdFeB-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, H.; Bommer, L.; Weissgaerber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2015-10-01

    Near-stoichiometric NdFeB melt-spun ribbons have been subjected to spark plasma sintering varying the process temperature TSPS and pressure pSPS between 600 and 800 °C and 50-300 MPa, respectively. Produced bulk magnets were analyzed regarding microstructure and magnetic properties. For all samples the intrinsic coercivity Hc,J gradually decreases with increasing sintering temperature and pressure, while residual induction Br increases simultaneously with sample density. Densities close to the theoretical limit were achieved for pSPS≥90 MPa and TSPS≥650 °C. With increasing TSPS precipitations of Nd-rich and Fe-rich phases have been observed as a result of a decomposition of the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B phase. Under optimum sintering conditions of pSPS=300 MPa and TSPS=650 °C high-density bulk magnets with Hc,J=652 kA/m, Br=0.86 T and (BH)max=106 kJ/m3 have been produced.

  3. Magnetic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasley, R. L.; Barton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic techniques are described for the nondestructive evaluation of defects in materials. The physical principles, and the magnetic-particle method are discussed along with magnetic-hysteresis measurements and electric current perturbations.

  4. Magnetic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasley, R. L.; Barton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic techniques are described for the nondestructive evaluation of defects in materials. The physical principles, and the magnetic-particle method are discussed along with magnetic-hysteresis measurements and electric current perturbations.

  5. Magnetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    recommends more research in the areas of rare-earth permanent magnets, amorphous mag t~ic materials and recording alleges -P/~ media and lists a number of...magnets ) Soft magnetic materialsI Storage media ) Magnetic bubbles, -’.- Transducers (magnetostriction and magnetoresistance). Electrophotography...magnets, amorphous magnetic materials, and recording media , and it lists a number of specific scientific challenges. .5, 5%; vi"e ,,S CONTENTS 1

  6. Neodymium Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wida, Sam

    1992-01-01

    Uses extremely strong neodymium magnets to demonstrate several principles of physics including electromagnetic induction, Lenz's Law, domain theory, demagnetization, the Curie point, and magnetic flux lines. (MDH)

  7. Neodymium Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wida, Sam

    1992-01-01

    Uses extremely strong neodymium magnets to demonstrate several principles of physics including electromagnetic induction, Lenz's Law, domain theory, demagnetization, the Curie point, and magnetic flux lines. (MDH)

  8. Iterative approach of dual regression with a sparse prior enhances the performance of independent component analysis for group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Junghoe; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    This study proposes an iterative dual-regression (DR) approach with sparse prior regularization to better estimate an individual's neuronal activation using the results of an independent component analysis (ICA) method applied to a temporally concatenated group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (i.e., Tc-GICA method). An ordinary DR approach estimates the spatial patterns (SPs) of neuronal activation and corresponding time courses (TCs) specific to each individual's fMRI data with two steps involving least-squares (LS) solutions. Our proposed approach employs iterative LS solutions to refine both the individual SPs and TCs with an additional a priori assumption of sparseness in the SPs (i.e., minimally overlapping SPs) based on L(1)-norm minimization. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of this approach, semi-artificial fMRI data were created from resting-state fMRI data with the following considerations: (1) an artificially designed spatial layout of neuronal activation patterns with varying overlap sizes across subjects and (2) a BOLD time series (TS) with variable parameters such as onset time, duration, and maximum BOLD levels. To systematically control the spatial layout variability of neuronal activation patterns across the "subjects" (n=12), the degree of spatial overlap across all subjects was varied from a minimum of 1 voxel (i.e., 0.5-voxel cubic radius) to a maximum of 81 voxels (i.e., 2.5-voxel radius) across the task-related SPs with a size of 100 voxels for both the block-based and event-related task paradigms. In addition, several levels of maximum percentage BOLD intensity (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%) were used for each degree of spatial overlap size. From the results, the estimated individual SPs of neuronal activation obtained from the proposed iterative DR approach with a sparse prior showed an enhanced true positive rate and reduced false positive rate compared to the ordinary DR approach. The estimated TCs of the

  9. Mechanistic study of photo-oxidation of Bisphenol-A (BPA) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-15

    The removal of Bisphenol-A (BPA) from contaminated water using advanced oxidation methods such as UV-C assisted oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS) has been reported by the authors earlier (Sharma et al., 2015a). In the present study, the authors report the removal of BPA from aqueous solution by the above two methods and its degradation mechanism. UV-C light (254 nm wavelength, 40 W power) was applied to BPA contaminated water at natural pH (pHN) under room temperature conditions. Experiments were carried out with the initial BPA concentration in the range of 0.04 mM-0.31 mM and the oxidant/BPA molar ratio in the range of 294:1-38:1 for UV-C/H2O2 and 31.5-4.06:1 for UV-C/SPS systems. The removal of BPA enhanced with decreasing BPA concentration. The total organic carbon also decreased with the UV-C irradiation time under optimum conditions ([H2O2]0 = 11.76 mM; [SPS]0 = 1.26 mM; temperature (29 ± 3 °C). Competition of BPA for reaction with HO or [Formula: see text] radicals at its higher concentrations results in a decrease in the removal of BPA. The intermediates with smaller and higher molecular weights than that of BPA were found in the treated water. Based on GC-MS and FTIR spectra of the reaction mixture, the formation of hydroxylated by-products testified the HO mediated oxidation pathway in the BPA degradation, while the formation of quinones and phenoxy phenols pointed to the [Formula: see text] dominating pathway through the formation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl (HCHD) and BPA phenoxyl radicals. The main route of BPA degradation is the hydroxylation followed by dehydration, coupling and ring opening reactions.

  10. Pharmacogenetic Associations of β1-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms With Cardiovascular Outcomes in the SPS3 Trial (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes).

    PubMed

    Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; McDonough, Caitrin W; Gong, Yan; McClure, Leslie A; Talbert, Robert L; Horenstein, Richard B; Shuldiner, Alan R; Benavente, Oscar R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Johnson, Julie A

    2017-05-01

    Functional polymorphisms (Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly) in ADRB1 have been associated with cardiovascular and β-blocker response outcomes. Herein we examined associations of these polymorphisms with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with and without stratification by β-blocker treatment in patients with a history of stroke. Nine hundred and twenty-six participants of the SPS3 trial's (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes) genetic substudy with hypertension were included. MACE included stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used. Because the primary component of MACE was ischemic stroke, we tested the association of Ser49Gly with ischemic stroke among 41 475 individuals of European and African ancestry in the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network). MACE was higher in carriers of the Gly49 allele than in those with the Ser49Ser genotype (10.5% versus 5.4%, log-rank P=0.005). Gly49 carrier status was associated with MACE (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.68) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.23) in SPS3 and with small artery ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.26) in SiGN. In SPS3, β-blocker-treated Gly49 carriers had increased MACE versus non-β-blocker-treated individuals and noncarriers (hazard ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.45). No associations were observed with the Arg389Gly polymorphism. Among individuals with previous small artery ischemic stroke, the ADRB1 Gly49 polymorphism was associated with MACE, particularly small artery ischemic stroke, a risk that may be increased among β-blocker-treated individuals. Further research is needed to define β-blocker benefit among ischemic stroke patients by ADRB1 genotype. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306. © 2017 American Heart

  11. Magnetic Spinner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  12. Magnetic Levitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  13. Magnetic Levitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  14. Magnetic Spinner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  15. Production and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposites Made of Ferrites and Ceramic Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    and 1000 h and sintered at 1073 and 1173 K. Lower saturation magnetization values are achieved in these samples with respect to the as-milled powders...function of the milling time. 3 lXX)h1, nd 1073K-50MP; Thus for example the sample milled for 1000 h and sintered I(XXOhandI173K-50MPi at 1073 K contains a...similar to the microstructures of as-milled sintered Fe30 4 samples. powders. SPS at 1073 K gives rise to equilibrium phases in most cases. In addition

  16. Characterization of multiple SPS knockout mutants reveals redundant functions of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms in plant viability, and strongly indicates that enhanced respiration and accelerated starch turnover can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bahaji, Abdellatif; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Ricarte-Bermejo, Adriana; Sánchez-López, Ángela María; Muñoz, Francisco José; Romero, Jose M; Ruiz, María Teresa; Baslam, Marouane; Almagro, Goizeder; Sesma, María Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2015-09-01

    We characterized multiple knock-out mutants of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase (SPSA1, SPSA2, SPSB and SPSC) isoforms. Despite their reduced SPS activity, spsa1/spsa2, spsa1/spsb, spsa2/spsb, spsa2/spsc, spsb/spsc, spsa1/spsa2/spsb and spsa2/spsb/spsc mutants displayed wild type (WT) vegetative and reproductive morphology, and showed WT photosynthetic capacity and respiration. In contrast, growth of rosettes, flowers and siliques of the spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc mutants was reduced compared with WT plants. Furthermore, these plants displayed a high dark respiration phenotype. spsa1/spsb/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsb/spsc seeds poorly germinated and produced aberrant and sterile plants. Leaves of all viable sps mutants, except spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc, accumulated WT levels of nonstructural carbohydrates. spsa1/spsc leaves possessed high levels of metabolic intermediates and activities of enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, and accumulated high levels of metabolic intermediates of the nocturnal starch-to-sucrose conversion process, even under continuous light conditions. Results presented in this work show that SPS is essential for plant viability, reveal redundant functions of the four SPS isoforms in processes that are important for plant growth and nonstructural carbohydrate metabolism, and strongly indicate that accelerated starch turnover and enhanced respiration can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis in spsa1/spsc leaves.

  17. Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS.

    PubMed

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-07-25

    We report on first measurements of low-mass electron-positron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The observed pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2e(+)e(-) annihilation with a modified rho propagator. They may be linked to chiral symmetry restoration and support the notion that the in-medium modifications of the rho are more driven by baryon density than by temperature.

  18. Si1-xGex crystal growth by the floating zone method starting from SPS sintered feed rods - A segregation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. C.; Cröll, A.; Hillebrecht, H.

    2016-08-01

    The availability of suitable feed rods for Si-Ge bulk crystal growth is known to be a limiting factor in floating zone growth and other growth techniques. In this work, three Si-rich SiGe single crystals were crystallized by an optical floating zone technique in a double ellipsoid mirror furnace. The feed rods were prepared by pre-synthesis in the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process starting with powders of different compositions. In a detailed section the preparation method of consolidation by mechanical alloyed powders to feed rods will be given. Results from two growth experiments starting with uniform compositions with 11 at% and 20 at% germanium as well as a zone leveling experiment with a segmented feed rod consisting of a starting zone with 32 at% Ge will be discussed. The latter experiment resulted in a crystal with nearly no axial segregation.

  19. Establishment of minimum operational parameters for a high-volume static chamber steam pasteurization system (SPS 400-SC) for beef carcasses to support HACCP programs.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, Deanna; Phebus, Randall; Kastner, Curtis; Marsden, James

    2005-01-01

    A static chamber steam pasteurization unit (SPS 400-SC()) was installed in a high-volume commercial beef slaughter facility. The SPS 400-SC consists of a three-phase carcass treatment cycle of water removal, steam pasteurization, and water chilling. Seven chamber temperatures (71.1, 73.9, 76.7, 79.4, 82.2, 85.0, and 87.8 degrees C) were evaluated at the midline area of pre-rigor beef carcasses. For each temperature evaluated, 20 carcass sides were randomly selected and aseptically sampled by tissue excision immediately before and after steam pasteurization to determine total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, generic E. coli, and total coliform populations. The 87.8 and 85.0 degrees C treatment temperatures were highly effective at reducing total aerobic bacterial populations, with log(10) reductions of 1.4 and 1.5 CFU/cm(2), respectively, from pretreatment mean population levels of 1.7 and 1.9 log10 CFU/cm(2). These temperatures also reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and generic E. coli to undetectable levels (<0.4 CFU/cm(2)) on all carcasses sampled. Treatment at 82.2 was marginally effective at reducing bacterial populations, while 71.1, 73.9, 76.7, and 79.4 degrees C treatments were ineffective at reducing microbial populations. In a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)-based system employing steam pasteurization of carcasses as a critical control point, a critical limit of 85.0 degrees C as a minimum chamber temperature should be established, with a targeted operating temperature of 87.8 degrees C providing optimum antimicrobial activity.

  20. Electric and magnetic surface polariton mediated near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials made of silicon carbide particles.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, Mathieu; Basu, Soumyadipta; Petersen, Spencer J

    2011-09-26

    Near-field radiative heat transfer between isotropic, dielectric-based metamaterials is analyzed. A potassium bromide host medium comprised of silicon carbide (SiC) spheres with a volume filling fraction of 0.4 is considered for the metamaterial. The relative electric permittivity and relative magnetic permeability of the metamaterial are modeled via the Clausius-Mossotti relations linking the macroscopic response of the medium with the polarizabilities of the spheres. We show for the first time that electric and magnetic surface polariton (SP) mediated near-field radiative heat transfer occurs between dielectric-based structures. Magnetic SPs, existing in TE polarization, are physically due to strong magnetic dipole resonances of the spheres. We find that spherical inclusions with radii of 1 μm (or greater) are needed in order to induce SPs in TE polarization. On the other hand, electric SPs existing in TM polarization are generated by surface modes of the spheres, and are thus almost insensitive to the size of the inclusions. We estimate that the total heat flux around SP resonance for the metamaterial comprised of SiC spheres with radii of 1 μm is about 35% greater than the flux predicted between two bulks of SiC, where only surface phonon-polaritons in TM polarization are excited. The results presented in this work show that the near-field thermal spectrum can be engineered via dielectric-based metamaterials, which is crucial in many emerging technologies, such as in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generation.

  1. Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites: The correlation between processing parameters and magnetic properties for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheiratmand, T.; Madaah Hosseini, H. R.; Seyed Reihani, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites are suitable magnetic materials for high temperature and high frequency applications. In this research two different techniques have been applied to fabricate these composites: uniaxial pressing following by sintering and spark plasma sintering. Different processing parameters including the content of borosilicate, the amount of compaction pressure and the size of iron particles have been evaluated through the study of microstructure and magnetic properties. The microstructural observations showed that the borosilicate is distributed on the iron grain boundaries enhancing the resistivity and causing the loss of eddy currents. Increasing the compaction pressure was led to the decrease of electrical resistivity. By increasing the frequency both real and imaginary parts of permeability decreased. The use of higher content of borosilicate resulted in the lower decreasing slop of permeability. Best combination of density, permeability and electrical resistivity was obtained in the sample with 2 wt% of borosilicate. In addition, the densification of powders with fine particles was more difficult than coarse particles due to the inter particles friction and bridging effects. Furthermore, as the particles size increases the size of open porosities before sintering where the borosilicate could aggregate enhances. This could yields to the increase in the electrical resistivity. The high ratio of surface to the volume in the powders with fine particles results in the developing the demagnetizing fields and subsequently, decreasing the permeability. The highest relative density (99.99% of theoretical density) with best distribution of borosilicate was achieved in the composites produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The relaxation frequency, obtained from imaginary part of permeability, was found as 340 Hz in the composites made by SPS.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity affects exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation.

    PubMed

    Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Gruet, M; Yokoyama, K; Rupp, T; Millet, G Y; Verges, Samuel

    2016-02-09

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex during voluntary contractions elicits electrophysiological and mechanical responses in the target muscle. The effect of different TMS intensities on exercise-induced changes in TMS-elicited variables is unknown, impairing data interpretation. This study aimed to investigate TMS intensity effects on maximal voluntary activation (VATMS), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and silent periods (SPs) in the quadriceps muscles before, during, and after exhaustive isometric exercise. Eleven subjects performed sets of ten 5-s submaximal isometric quadriceps contractions at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength until task failure. Three different TMS intensities (I100, I75, I50) eliciting MEPs of 53 ± 6%, 38 ± 5% and 25 ± 3% of maximal compound action potential (Mmax) at 20% MVC were used. MEPs and SPs were assessed at both absolute (40% baseline MVC) and relative (50%, 75%, and 100% MVC) force levels. VATMS was assessed with I100 and I75. When measured at absolute force level, MEP/Mmax increased during exercise at I50, decreased at I100 and remained unchanged at I75. No TMS intensity effect was observed at relative force levels. At both absolute and relative force levels, SPs increased at I100 and remained stable at I75 and I50. VATMS assessed at I75 tended to be lower than at I100. TMS intensity affects exercise-induced changes in MEP/Mmax (only when measured at absolute force level), SPs, and VATMS. These results indicate a single TMS intensity assessing maximal voluntary activation and exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability/inhibition may be inappropriate.

  3. Mesoscale magnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffmann, Axel; Schultheiß, Helmut

    2014-12-17

    Magnetic interactions give rise to a surprising amount of complexity due to the fact that both static and dynamic magnetic properties are governed by competing short-range exchange interactions and long-range dipolar coupling. Even though the underlying dynamical equations are well established, the connection of magnetization dynamics to other degrees of freedom, such as optical excitations, charge and heat flow, or mechanical motion, make magnetism a mesoscale research problem that is still wide open for exploration. Synthesizing magnetic materials and heterostructures with tailored properties will allow to take advantage of magnetic interactions spanning many length-scales, which can be probed with advancedmore » spectroscopy and microscopy and modeled with multi-scale simulations. Finally, this paper highlights some of the current basic research topics in mesoscale magnetism, which beyond their fundamental science impact are also expected to influence applications ranging from information technologies to magnetism based energy conversion.« less

  4. Mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Axel; Schultheiß, Helmut

    2014-12-17

    Magnetic interactions give rise to a surprising amount of complexity due to the fact that both static and dynamic magnetic properties are governed by competing short-range exchange interactions and long-range dipolar coupling. Even though the underlying dynamical equations are well established, the connection of magnetization dynamics to other degrees of freedom, such as optical excitations, charge and heat flow, or mechanical motion, make magnetism a mesoscale research problem that is still wide open for exploration. Synthesizing magnetic materials and heterostructures with tailored properties will allow to take advantage of magnetic interactions spanning many length-scales, which can be probed with advanced spectroscopy and microscopy and modeled with multi-scale simulations. Finally, this paper highlights some of the current basic research topics in mesoscale magnetism, which beyond their fundamental science impact are also expected to influence applications ranging from information technologies to magnetism based energy conversion.

  5. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  6. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  7. Superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-{Tc} superconductor at low temperature.

  8. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  9. Magnetic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bath, G.D.; Jahren, C.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Baldwin, M.J.

    1983-12-31

    Air and ground magnetic anomalies in the Climax stock area of the NTS help define the gross configuration of the stock and detailed configuration of magnetized rocks at the Boundary and Tippinip faults that border the stock. Magnetizations of geologic units were evaluated by measurements of magnetic properties of drill core, minimum estimates of magnetizations from ground magnetic anomalies for near surface rocks, and comparisons of measured anomalies with anomalies computed by a three-dimensional forward program. Alluvial deposits and most sedimentary rocks are nonmagnetic, but drill core measurements reveal large and irregular changes in magnetization for some quartzites and marbles. The magnetizations of quartz monzonite and granodiorite near the stock surface are weak, about 0.15 A/m, and increase at a rate of 0.00196 A/m/m to 1.55 A/m, at depths greater than 700 m (2300 ft). The volcanic rocks of the area are weakly magnetized. Aeromagnetic anomalies 850 m (2800 ft) above the stock are explained by a model consisting of five vertical prisms. Prisms 1, 2, and 3 represent the near surface outline of the stock, prism 4 is one of the models developed by Whitehill (1973), and prism 5 is modified from the model developed by Allingham and Zietz (1962). Most of the anomaly comes from unsampled and strongly-magnetized deep sources that could be either granite or metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. 48 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Magnetic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbie, H. C.

    1989-04-01

    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented.

  11. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  12. Magnetic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Silke; Appel, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites are multi-component materials, typically containing nanosized magnetic materials to trigger the response to an external stimulus (i.e., an external static or alternating magnetic field). Up to now, the search for novel nanocomposites has lead to the combination of a plethora of different materials (e.g., gels, liquid crystals, renewable polymers, silica, carbon or metal organic frameworks) with various types of magnetic particles, offering exciting perspectives not only for fundamental investigations but also for application in various fields, including medical therapy and diagnosis, separations, actuation, or catalysis. In this review, we have selected a few of the most recent examples to highlight general concepts and advances in the preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Analysis of the Tandem-Duplicated P450 Genes SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Plant Development by Ds Transposition-Generated Double Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Tantikanjana, Titima; Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Hussain, Mumtaz; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2004-01-01

    A significant fraction (approximately 17%) of Arabidopsis genes are members of tandemly repeated families and pose a particular challenge for functional studies. We have used the Ac-Ds transposition system to generate single- and double-knockout mutants of two tandemly duplicated cytochrome P450 genes, SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2. We have previously described the Arabidopsis supershoot mutants in CYP79F1 that exhibit massive overproliferation of shoots. Here we use a cytokinin-responsive reporter ARR5::uidA and an auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA in the sps/cyp79F1 mutant to show that increased levels of cytokinin, but not auxin, correlate well with the expression pattern of the SPS/CYP79F1 gene, supporting the involvement of this gene in cytokinin homeostasis. Further, we isolated Ds gene trap insertions in the CYP79F2 gene, and find these mutants to be defective mainly in the root system, consistent with a root-specific expression pattern. Finally, we generated double mutants in CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 using secondary transpositions, and demonstrate that the phenotypes are additive. Previous biochemical studies have suggested partially redundant functions for SPS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis. Our analysis shows that aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis is completely abolished in the double-knockout plants, providing genetic proof for the proposed biochemical functions of these genes. This study also provides further demonstration of how gluconisolate biosynthesis, regarded as secondary metabolism, is intricately linked with hormone homeostatis and hence with plant growth and development. PMID:15194821

  14. Magnetic Coiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-18

    One broad active region sported a wonderful example of coiled magnetic field lines over almost a four-day period (July 15-18, 2016). The magnetic lines are easily visible in this 171 Angstrom wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light be cause charged particles are spiraling along the lines. The active region is a hotbed of struggling magnetic forces that were pushing out above the sun's surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17911

  15. Some remarks about simulation of cosmic ray phenomena with use of nuclear interaction models based on the current SPS proton-antiproton data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    The x-y controversy is studied by introducing models with as many features (except for x and y distributions) in common, as possible, to avoid an extrapolation problem, only primary energies of 500 TeV are considered. To prove the point, Monte Carlo simulations are performed of EAS generated by 500 TeV vertical primary protons. Four different nuclear interaction models were used. Two of them are described elsewhere. Two are: (1) Model M-Y00 - with inclusive x and y distributions behaving in a scaling way; and (2) Model M-F00 - at and below ISR energies (1 TeV in Lab) exactly equivalent to the above, then gradually changing to provide the distributions in rapidity at 155 TeV as given by SPS proton-antiproton. This was achieved by gradual decrease in the scale unit in x distributions of produced secondaries, as interaction energy increases. Other modifications to the M-Y00 model were made.

  16. Preparation of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) Using Coal Fly Ash and NiCr-Based Alloy Powder by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Gen-yo; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Hasezaki, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuji; Kakuda, Hideaki

    2008-02-15

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder. The coal fly ash was produced by the Misumi Coal Thermal Power Station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), with 80 wt% nickel and 20 wt% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co., Ltd.) used as source materials. The sintering temperature in the graphite die was 1000 deg. C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2}) and silica (SiO{sub 2}) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes fracture at the interface. This is due to the mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients (CTE). A crack in the FGM was observed between the two layers with a CTE difference of over 4.86x10{sup -6} K{sup -1}, while a crack in the FGM was difficult to detect when the CTE difference was less than 2.77x10{sup -6} K{sup -1}.

  17. Search for the QCD critical point in nuclear collisions at 158A GeV at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Bunčić, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gaździcki, M.; Genchev, V.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Kreps, M.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lungwitz, B.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A. I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Nicolic, V.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Petridis, A.; Peryt, W.; Pikna, M.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczyński, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Włodarczyk; Z.; Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; NA49 Collaboration

    2010-06-01

    Pion production in nuclear collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is investigated with the aim to search, in a restricted domain of the phase diagram, for power laws in the behavior of correlations that are compatible with critical QCD. We analyzed interactions of nuclei of different sizes (p+p, C+C, Si+Si, Pb+Pb) at 158A GeV adopting, as appropriate observables, scaled factorial moments in a search for intermittent fluctuations in transverse dimensions. The analysis is performed for π+π- pairs with an invariant mass very close to the two-pion threshold. In this sector one may capture critical fluctuations of the sigma component in a hadronic medium, even if the σ meson has no well-defined vacuum state. It turns out that for the Pb+Pb system the proposed analysis technique cannot be applied without entering the invariant mass region with strong Coulomb correlations. As a result the treatment becomes inconclusive in this case. Our results for the other systems indicate the presence of power-law fluctuations in the freeze-out state of Si+Si approaching in size the prediction of critical QCD.

  18. Preparation of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) Using Coal Fly Ash and NiCr-Based Alloy Powder by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Gen-yo; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Hasezaki, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuji; Kakuda, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder. The coal fly ash was produced by the Misumi Coal Thermal Power Station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), with 80 wt% nickel and 20 wt% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil & Powder Co., Ltd.) used as source materials. The sintering temperature in the graphite die was 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that mullite (3Al2O3ṡ2SiO2) and silica (SiO2) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes fracture at the interface. This is due to the mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients (CTE). A crack in the FGM was observed between the two layers with a CTE difference of over 4.86×10-6 K-1, while a crack in the FGM was difficult to detect when the CTE difference was less than 2.77×10-6 K-1.

  19. Search for the QCD critical point in nuclear collisions at 158A GeV at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Nicolic, V.; Susa, T.; Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Malakhov, A. I.; Melkumov, G. L.; Barna, D.; Fodor, Z.; Laszlo, A.; Palla, G.; Sikler, F.; Varga, D.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Bartke, J.; Kowalski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Betev, L.

    2010-06-15

    Pion production in nuclear collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is investigated with the aim to search, in a restricted domain of the phase diagram, for power laws in the behavior of correlations that are compatible with critical QCD. We analyzed interactions of nuclei of different sizes (p+p, C+C, Si+Si, Pb+Pb) at 158A GeV adopting, as appropriate observables, scaled factorial moments in a search for intermittent fluctuations in transverse dimensions. The analysis is performed for pi{sup +}pi{sup -} pairs with an invariant mass very close to the two-pion threshold. In this sector one may capture critical fluctuations of the sigma component in a hadronic medium, even if the sigma meson has no well-defined vacuum state. It turns out that for the Pb+Pb system the proposed analysis technique cannot be applied without entering the invariant mass region with strong Coulomb correlations. As a result the treatment becomes inconclusive in this case. Our results for the other systems indicate the presence of power-law fluctuations in the freeze-out state of Si+Si approaching in size the prediction of critical QCD.

  20. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  1. Magnetic shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1987-10-06

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines. 3 figs.

  2. Magnetic shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, John A.; Stone, Roger R.; Fabyan, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  3. Planetary Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  4. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  5. Magnetic shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1985-02-12

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  6. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  7. Magnetic Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses common as well as uncommon minerals that are attracted to a hand magnet. Included in the discussion are answers to the following questions: (1) What causes this attraction? and (2) How many different minerals respond to a hand magnet? (ZWH)

  8. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  9. Thermodynamic profiles and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing single diastereomeric spiroiminodihydantoin lesions.

    PubMed

    Khutsishvili, Irine; Zhang, Na; Marky, Luis A; Crean, Conor; Patel, Dinshaw J; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2013-02-26

    The spiroiminodihydantoins (Sp) are highly mutagenic oxidation products of guanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in DNA. The Sp lesions have recently been detected in the liver and colon of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus that induces inflammation and the development of liver and colon cancers in murine model systems [Mangerich, A., et al. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, E1820-E1829]. The impact of Sp lesions on the thermodynamic characteristics and the effects of the diastereomeric Sp-R and Sp-S lesions on the conformational features of double-stranded 11-mer oligonucleotide duplexes have been studied by a combination of microcalorimetric methods, analysis of DNA melting curves, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The nonplanar, propeller-like shapes of the Sp residues strongly diminish the extent of local base stacking interactions that destabilize the DNA duplexes characterized by unfavorable enthalpy contributions. Relative to that of an unmodified duplex, the thermally induced unfolding of the duplexes with centrally positioned Sp-R and Sp-S lesions into single strands is accompanied by a smaller release of cationic counterions (Δn(Na⁺) = 0.6 mol of Na⁺/mol of duplex) and water molecules (Δn(w) = 17 mol of H₂O/mol of duplex). The unfolding parameters are similar for the Sp-R and Sp-S lesions, although their orientations in the duplexes are different. The structural disturbances radiate one base pair beyond the flanking C:G pair, although Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding is maintained at all flanking base pairs. The observed relatively strong destabilization of B-form DNA by the physically small Sp lesions is expected to have a significant impact on the processing of these lesions in biological environments.

  10. Magnetic features of Fe-Cr-Co alloys with tailoring chromium content fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastabi, Reza Amini; Ghasemi, Ali; Tavoosi, Majid; Ramazani, Mazaher

    2017-03-01

    Structural and magnetic characterization of Fe-Cr-Co alloys during milling, annealing and consolidation processes was the goal of this study. In this regards, different powder mixtures of Fe80-xCrxCo20 (15≤x≤35) were mechanically milled in a planetary ball mill and then were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to achieved results, the structure of as-milled samples in different compositions consists of single α phase solid solution with coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 110-200 Oe and 150-220 emu/g, respectively. The magnetic properties of consolidated samples depend on the kinds of formed precipitates in microstructure and the maximum values of coercive force and saturation of magnetization obtained in Fe55Cr25Co20 magnetic (with single α phase) alloy were 107 Oe and Ms 172 emu/g, respectively. In fact, the formation of non-magnetic σ and γ phases has a destructive effect on magnetic properties of consolidated samples with higher Cr content. Since such magnet requires less cobalt, and contains similar magnetic feature with superior ductility compare to the AlNiCo 5, it could be considered as a promising candidate for employing instead of AlNiCo 5.

  11. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  12. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  13. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  14. Magnetic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic disk recording was invented in 1953 and has undergone intensive development ever since. As a result of this 38 years of development, the cost per byte and the areal density have halved and doubled respectively every 2-2 1/2 years. Today, the cost per byte is lower than 10(exp -6) dollars per byte and area densities exceed 100 10(exp 6) bits per square inch. In this talk, the recent achievements in magnetic disk recording are first surveyed briefly. Then, the principal areas of current technical development are outlined. Finally, some comments are made about the future of magnetic disk recording.

  15. Anisotropy analysis of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} prepared by SPS method

    SciTech Connect

    Zybala, Rafal; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2012-06-26

    The n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} materials were synthesized by the direct fusion technique. The polycrystalline samples were fabricated by the uniaxial pressing of powders in spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. The materials were subjected to the heat treatment in H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere at 470 K for 24 h. The influence of preparation conditions on the anisotropy of electrical and thermal properties was thoroughly studied for the direction perpendicular and parallel to the pressing force. The microstructure and the chemical composition of both types of samples were examined using a scanning microscope (SEM) equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion detector (EDX). The XRD method was applied for the phase analysis of materials, as well as, for determination of preferred orientation of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} grains. The Seebeck coefficient distribution was studied by the scanning thermoelectric microprobe (STM). Temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties (thermal and electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficient) were measured in the temperature from 300 K to 550 K. The statistical analysis of results has shown strong influence of pressing force direction both on structural and transport properties. The applied heat treatment of materials significantly improves their thermoelectric figure of merit. Particularly, it was found that annealing in H2-Ar atmosphere leads to enhancement of the ZT three times up to {approx}0.7 at 370 K in perpendicular direction to the pressing force.

  16. Design considerations for fast-cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 T B-field generated by a transmission line conductor of up to 100 kA current

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vadim; de Rijk, Gijsbert; Rossi, Lucio; /CERN

    2007-08-01

    Recently proposed synchrotrons, SF-SPS at CERN and DSF-MR at Fermilab, would operate with a 0.5 Hz cycle (or 2 second time period) while accelerating protons to 480 GeV. We examine possibilities of superconducting magnet technology that would allow for an accelerator quality magnetic field sweep of 2 T/s. For superconducting magnets the cryogenic cooling power demand due to AC losses in the superconductor leads to a high operational cost. We outline a novel magnet technology based on HTS superconductors that may allow to reduce AC losses in the magnet coil possibly up to an order of magnitude as compared to similar applications based on LTS type superconductors.

  17. Magnetic monopoles

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references.

  18. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  19. Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This science visualization shows a magnetospheric substorm, during which, magnetic reconnection causes energy to be rapidly released along the field lines in the magnetotail, that part of the magne...

  20. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)