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Sample records for sputter heavy negative

  1. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  2. Sputtering Threshold Energies of Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter erosion in ion thrusters has been measured in lifetests at discharge voltages as low as 25 V. Thruster operation at this discharge voltage results in component erosion rates sufficiently low to satisfy most mission requirements. It has been recognized that most of the internal sputtering in ion thrusters is done by doubly charged ions. Knowledge of the sputtering threshold voltage of a xenon molybdenum system would be beneficial in understanding the sputtering process as well as making more accurate calculations of the sputtering rates of ion thruster components. Sputtering threshold energies calculated from various formulations found in the literature results in values ranging from 28 to 200 eV. It is evident that some of these formulations cannot be relied upon to provide sputtering thresholds with any degree of accuracy. This paper re-examines the threshold energies measurements made in the early sixties by Askerov and Sena, and Stuart and Wehner. The threshold voltages as derived by Askerov and au have been reevaluated by using a different extrapolation method of sputter yields at low ion energies. The resulting threshold energies are in general similar to those measured by Stuart and Wehner. An empirical relationship is derived,for mercury and xenon ions for the ratio of the sputtering threshold energy to the sublimation energy as a function of the ratio of target to ion atomic mass.

  3. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith by Solar Wind Protons and Heavy Ions, and General Aspects of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Meyer, F.

    2014-01-01

    New simulation results for the sputtering of lunar soil surface by solar-wind protons and heavy ions will be presented. Previous simulation results showed that the sputtering process has significant effects and plays an important role in changing the surface chemical composition, setting the erosion rate and the sputtering process timescale. In this new work and in light of recent data, we briefly present some theoretical models which have been developed to describe the sputtering process and compare their results with recent calculation to investigate and differentiate the roles and the contributions of potential (or electrodynamic) sputtering from the standard (or kinetic) sputtering.

  4. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-19

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  5. Threshold energies of light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering as a function of angle of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.

    1984-03-01

    The angular dependence of threshold energies has been investigated for light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering, and simple expressions for the angular dependences of threshold energies are derived for these two cases. For not-too-large angles of incidence, the threshold energy of heavy-ion sputtering is a decreasing function of the angle of incidence because of the anisotropy of the velocity distribution of recoil atoms, while the threshold energy of light-ion sputtering shows a weak angular dependence. For grazing angles of incidence, the threshold energies of these two cases are increasing functions of the angle of incidence because of surface scattering. In order to examine these theoretical angular dependences of threshold energies, the computer simulations have been performed using the ACAT code. It is found that in the near-threshold regime the angular dependences of sputtering yield by heavy ions are much different from those by light ions.

  6. Estimates of Sputter Yields of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions of Lunar Regolith Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulmasser F.; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    At energies of approximately 1 keV/amu, solar-wind protons and heavy ions interact with the lunar surface materials via a number of microscopic interactions that include sputtering. Solar-wind induced sputtering is a main mechanism by which the composition of the topmost layers of the lunar surface can change, dynamically and preferentially. This work concentrates on sputtering induced by solar-wind heavy ions. Sputtering associated with slow (speeds the electrons speed in its first Bohr orbit) and highly charged ions are known to include both kinetic and potential sputtering. Potential sputtering enjoys some unique characteristics that makes it of special interest to lunar science and exploration. Unlike the yield from kinetic sputtering where simulation and approximation schemes exist, the yield from potential sputtering is not as easy to estimate. This work will present a preliminary numerical scheme designed to estimate potential sputtering yields from reactions relevant to this aspect of solar-wind lunar-surface coupling.

  7. Angular distributions of sputtered atoms for low-energy heavy ions, medium ions and light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hidetoshi

    1986-03-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered atoms for the near-threshold sputtering of heavy ions, medium ions, and light ions have been investigated by a few-collision model and the ACAT computer simulation code. For heavy-ion sputtering the preferential angle of sputtered atoms is about 50° which is measured from the surface normal, while in the case of the near-threshold light-ion sputtering the preferential angles are nearly equal to the surface normal and do not depend on angle of incidence. It is found that the agreement between the ACAT preferential angles and theoretical values due to a few-collision model is very good.

  8. Solar-Wind Protons and Heavy Ions Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barghouty, N.; Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Lunar surface materials are exposed to {approx}1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost continuous basis. As the lunar surface consists of mostly oxides, these materials suffer, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering due to the actions of the solar-wind ions. Sputtering is an important mechanism affecting the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere. While the contribution of kinetic sputtering to the changes in the composition of the surface layer of these oxides is well understood and modeled, the role and implications of potential sputtering remain unclear. As new potential-sputtering data from multi-charged ions impacting lunar regolith simulants are becoming available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MIRF, we examine the role and possible implications of potential sputtering of Lunar KREEP soil. Using a non-equilibrium model we demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  9. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: Contribution of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Harris, P. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Hijiazi, H.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by protons as well as solar-wind heavy ions is considered. From preliminary measurements of H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, and TRIM simulations of kinetic sputtering yields, the relative contributions of kinetic and potential sputtering contributions are estimated. An 80-fold enhancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same-velocity H+, and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same-velocity Ar+ was measured. This enhancement persisted to the maximum fluences investigated is approximately 1016/cm (exp2). Modeling studies including the enhanced oxygen ejection by potential sputtering due to the minority heavy ion multicharged ion solar wind component, and the kinetic sputtering contribution of all solar wind constituents, as determined from TRIM sputtering simulations, indicate an overall 35% reduction of near-surface oxygen abundance. XPS analyses of simulant samples exposed to singly and multicharged Ar ions show the characteristic signature of reduced (metallic) Fe, consistent with the preferential ejection of oxygen atoms that can occur in potential sputtering of some metal oxides.

  10. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith Simulant by Protons and Multicharged Heavy Ions at Solar Wind Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R; Taylor, C. N.; Meyer III, Harry M; Barghouty, N.; Adams Jr., J.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  11. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  12. Effect of space charge on the negative oxygen flux during reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, F.; Kalvas, T.; Van Steenberge, S.; Depla, D.

    2017-03-01

    Negative ions often play a distinctive role in the phase formation during reactive sputter deposition. The path of these high energetic ions is often assumed to be straight. In this paper, it is shown that in the context of reactive magnetron sputtering space charge effects are decisive for the energetic negative ion trajectories. To investigate the effect of space charge spreading, reactive magnetron sputter experiments were performed in compound mode with target materials that are expected to have a high secondary ion emission yield (MgO and CeO2). By the combination of energy flux measurements, and simulations, a quantitative value for the negative oxygen ion yield can be derived.

  13. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, W.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Bender, M.; Boduch, P.; Grande, P. L.; Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D.; Marmitt, G. G.; Rothard, H.; Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O.; Toulemonde, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  14. Electronic sputtering of thin SiO 2 films by MeV heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldbik, W. M.; Tomozeiu, N.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2003-04-01

    The rate of removal of material from SiO 2 as a result of heavy ion irradiation, with energies in which energy loss via excitation and ionization of the solid predominates, depends strongly on the stopping power and angle of incidence of the incoming ions. There appears to be a threshold stopping power for SiO 2 of 500 eV/(10 15 at/cm 2) (or 3.5 keV/nm). This electronic sputter yield has been found to reach values as large as 10 4 atoms/incoming ion for 66 MeV Ag ions at an angle of incidence of 7° with the plane of the surface. Strikingly, the electronic sputter yield is very small for thin SiO 2 layers of a thickness ⩽1 nm when grown on c-Si, but it is appreciable for such layers deposited on the insulator silicon nitride. The data are discussed in the light of existing models for electronic sputtering invoking also models for potential sputtering of SiO 2 by low-energy, highly charged ions.

  15. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis set up for electronic sputtering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Sugathan, P.; Chaudhary, G. K.; Barua, P.

    2006-04-01

    Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) set up with a large solid angle (greater than or similar to 4.8 msr) Delta E - E position-sensitive telescope detector is developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre as a dedicated facility for the study of electronic sputtering of thin films under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The detector consists of a gas ionization chamber (Delta E ) and a solid-state surface barrier detector ( E ) housed in a same assembly. The electronic sputtering yield (atoms/ion) is determined by analyzing on-line fluence-dependent ERDA data obtained from a variety of thin films. Large erosion (> 10 5 atoms/ion) of carbon from a-C:H by 150 MeV Ag 13+ ions, evolution of nitrogen (greater than or similar to 880 atoms/ion) from copper nitride and depletion of oxygen (greater than or similar to 1000 atoms/ion) from copper oxide film under 200 MeV Au 15+ ion impact are studied and reported in this work. The electronic sputtering of these materials is discussed on the basis of the thermal spike model of SHI and solid interaction.

  16. Effects of adsorption and roughness upon the collision processes at the convertor surface of a plasma sputter negative ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atomic collision processes associated with surface production of negative hydrogen ions (H-) by particle reflection at molybdenum surface immersed in hydrogen plasma have been investigated. To calculate sputtering yields of Cs, as well as energy spectra and angular distributions of reflected hydrogen atoms from molybdenum surface by H+ ion and Cs+ ion bombardments, a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) was run with the corresponding surface conditions. A fractal surface model has been developed and adopted to ACAT for evaluating the effect due to roughness of target material. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the retention of hydrogen atoms leads to the reduction in sputtering yields of Cs, and the surface roughness does largely affect the sputtering yields of Cs.

  17. Effects of adsorption and roughness upon the collision processes at the convertor surface of a plasma sputter negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    Atomic collision processes associated with surface production of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup -}) by particle reflection at molybdenum surface immersed in hydrogen plasma have been investigated. To calculate sputtering yields of Cs, as well as energy spectra and angular distributions of reflected hydrogen atoms from molybdenum surface by H{sup +} ion and Cs{sup +} ion bombardments, a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) was run with the corresponding surface conditions. A fractal surface model has been developed and adopted to ACAT for evaluating the effect due to roughness of target material. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the retention of hydrogen atoms leads to the reduction in sputtering yields of Cs, and the surface roughness does largely affect the sputtering yields of Cs.

  18. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-03-02

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, <1 mTorr for Xe). The source is equipped with a 19-mm diameter spherical-sector cathode machined from the desired material. To date, the source has been utilized to generate dc negative-ion beams from a variety of species, including: C{sup {minus}}(610 {micro}A); F{sup {minus}}(100 {micro}A); Si{sup {minus}}(500 {micro}A); S{sup {minus}}(500 {micro}A); P{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); Cl{sup {minus}}(200 {micro}A); Ni{sup {minus}}(150 {micro}A); Cu{sup {minus}}(230 {micro}A); Ge{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); As{sup {minus}}(100 {micro}A); Se{sup {minus}}(200 {micro}A); Ag{sup {minus}}(70 {micro}A); Pt{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); Au{sup {minus}}(250 {micro}A). The normalized emittance {var_epsilon}{sub n} of the source at the 80% contour is: {var_epsilon}{sub n} = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV){sup 1/2}. The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report.

  19. Evidence of Negative Capacitance in Piezoelectric ZnO Thin Films Sputtered on Interdigital Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, Marco; Verna, Alessio; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-11

    The scaling paradigm known as Moore's Law, with the shrinking of transistors and their doubling on a chip every two years, is going to reach a painful end. Another less-known paradigm, the so-called Koomey's Law, stating that the computing efficiency doubles every 1.57 years, poses other important challenges, since the efficiency of rechargeable energy sources is substantially constant, and any other evolution is based on device architecture only. How can we still increase the computational power/reduce the power consumption of our electronic environments? A first answer to this question comes from the quest for new functionalities. Within this aim, negative capacitance (NC) is becoming one of the most intriguing and studied phenomena since it can be exploited for reducing the aforementioned limiting effects in the downscaling of electronic devices. Here we report the evidence of negative capacitance in 80 nm thick ZnO thin films sputtered on Au interdigital electrodes (IDEs). Highly (002)-oriented ZnO thin films, with a fine-grained surface nanostructure and the desired chemical composition, are deposited at room temperature on different IDEs structures. Direct-current electrical measurements highlighted the semiconducting nature of ZnO (current density in the order of 1 × 10(-3) A/cm(2)). When turned into the alternating current regime (from 20 Hz to 2 MHz) the presence of NC values is observed in the low-frequency range (20-120 Hz). The loss of metal/semiconductor interface charge states under forward bias conditions, together with the presence of oxygen vacancies and piezoelectric/electrostriction effects, is believed to be at the basis of the observed negative behavior, suggesting that ZnO thin-film-based field-effect transistors can be a powerful instrument to go beyond the Boltzmann limit and the downscaling of integrated circuit elements required for the fabrication of portable and miniaturized electronic devices, especially for electric household

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  1. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  2. Negative cluster emission in sputtering of Si 1- xGe x alloys: A full spectrum approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, M.; Ferrari, S.; Fanciulli, M.

    2005-12-01

    The emission of negative cluster ions in sputtering of silicon, germanium and silicon-germanium alloys was investigated by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry using Cs + ions at 1 keV for sputtering and Ga + ions at 25 keV for analysis. Various homonuclear (Sin-; Gen-) and heteronuclear ( SiGen-; Si nGe -) anionic cluster species were studied and their abundance distributions as a function of cluster size n were determined in steady state conditions. Surprisingly Sin- with n > 2 are less sensitive to Ge concentration than Si -. This implies that the variation of the secondary ion signals as a function of Ge concentration cannot be explained in terms of simple statistical considerations. Also Gen- clusters show a peculiar behavior. Very strong matrix effects were observed for Ge - with decreasing intensity at high germanium concentrations. An opposite behavior is followed by the other clusters whose intensities are proportional to the Ge content. Moreover at high germanium concentrations, the Ge2- and Ge3- anions exhibit signals higher than Ge -. Finally, we observed that the fractions of silicon and germanium atoms in the ionized fraction of the sputtered flux are equivalent to their elemental fractions in the alloy. This behavior suggests the possibility to establish a protocol for the quantification of germanium concentration that can be applied to any Si 1- xGe x alloy avoiding matrix effects.

  3. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  4. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  5. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution of the Heavy Highly Charged (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface helps determine the composition of the lunar exosphere and contributes to surface weathering. To date, only the effects of the two dominant solar wind constituents, H+ and He+, have been considered. The heavier, less abundant solar wind constituents have much larger sputtering yields because they have greater mass (kinetic sputtering) and they are highly charged (potential sputtering) Their contribution to total sputtering can therefore be orders of magnitude larger than their relative abundances would suggest

  6. Negative ionization of the secondary ions of silver and gold sputtered from their elemental surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindona, A.; Riccardi, P.; Maletta, S.; Rudi, S. A.; Falcone, G.

    2007-03-01

    Calculations of the ionization probabilities of Ag- and Au- particles, ejected during sputtering of clean Ag(1 0 0) and Au(1 0 0) surfaces, respectively, are reported. An effective one-electron theory is used to describe: the plane metal surface, with a projected band gap, the secondary emitted atom, whose charge state is investigated, and its nearest-neighbor substrate atom, put in motion by the collision cascade generated by the primary ion beam. Suitable rectilinear trajectories are selected to describe the motion of these two atoms outside the solid. A good agreement is found with van Der Heide's experiments (P.A.W. van Der Heide, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 157 (1999) 126).

  7. Heavy oil fractions induce negative influences on mouse immune system.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Sogo; Kanda, Kota; Yamawaki, Manami; Okabe, Masaaki; Akiyama, Koichi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that heavy oil such as pollutant caused serious influences on the marine ecosystem. We may suffer from various disorders in our body via intake of marine foods polluted with heavy oil. However the influences of heavy oil on our immune system have not yet been clarified. Here we show the effects of heavy oil extracts, water-soluble fraction (WSF), methanol-soluble fraction (MSF) and ethanol-soluble fraction (ESF), on immunoglobulin production of mouse splenocytes. All extracts increased IgA productivity of splenocytes. In oral administration, shrinkage of the immune organs such as spleen or thymus was observed in only WSF-administrated mice at least during 7 days. The amount of IgG production level in splenocytes cultured medium and sera were reduced by each extract administration. A flowcytometry method, to monitor splenocytes of WSF-administrated mice, has been set up using double staining with B and T cell-specific surface antibody. The results from cell population analysis indicated that B cells, including plasma cells producing antibody were reduced. The decrease in IgG level in sera was caused by reduction of plasma cells in spleen. Hence, it is suggested that reduction of Ig production was affected by the chemical compounds contained in WSF possibly such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the estrogen receptor expressed in lymphocytes.

  8. Swift heavy ion induced optical and structural modifications in RF sputtered nanocrystalline ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.; Vishnoi, R.; Kumar, V. V. S.; Kulariya, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, 100 MeV Ag7+ ion beam-induced structural and optical modifications of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are investigated. The nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and irradiated at fluences of 3 × 1012, 1 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. The incident swift heavy ions induced change in the crystallinity together with the preferential growth of crystallite size along the c axis (002) orientation. The average crystallite size is found to be increased from 10.8 ± 0.7 to 20.5 ± 0.3 nm with increasing the ion fluence. The Atomic force microscopy analysis confirms the variation in the surface roughness by varying the incident ion fluences. The UV-visible spectroscopy shows the decrement in transmittance of the film with ion irradiation. The micro-Raman spectra of ZnO thin films are investigated to observe ion-induced modifications which support the increased lattice defects with higher fluence. The variation in crystallinity indicates that ZnO-based devices can be used in piezoelectric transduction mechanism.

  9. In situ analyses on negative ions in the sputtering process to deposit Al-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Saito, Motoaki; Sato, Yasushi; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    The origin of high energy negative ions during deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films by dc magnetron sputtering of an AZO (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: 2.0 wt %) target was investigated by in situ analyses using the quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with the electrostatic energy analyzer. High energy negative oxygen (O{sup -}) ions which possessed the kinetic energy corresponding to the cathode sheath voltage were detected. The maximum flux of the O{sup -} ions was clearly observed at the location opposite to the erosion track area on the target. The flux of the O{sup -} ions changed hardly with increasing O{sub 2} flow ratio [O{sub 2}/(Ar+O{sub 2})] from 0% to 5%. The kinetic energy of the O{sup -} ions decreased with decreasing cathode sheath voltage from 403 to 337 V due to the enhancement of the vertical maximum magnetic field strength at the cathode surface from 0.025 to 0.100 T. The AZO films deposited with the lower O{sup -} bombardment energy showed the higher crystallinity and improved the electrical conductivity.

  10. Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Crary, F. J.; Lewis, G. R.; Young, D. T.; Waite, J. H.; Sittler, E. C.

    2007-11-01

    Titan's ionosphere contains a rich positive ion population including organic molecules. Here, using CAPS electron spectrometer data from sixteen Titan encounters, we reveal the existence of negative ions. These ions, with densities up to ~100 cm-3, are in mass groups of 10-30, 30-50, 50-80, 80-110, 110-200 and 200+ amu/charge. During one low encounter, negative ions with mass per charge as high as 10,000 amu/q are seen. Due to their unexpectedly high densities at ~950 km altitude, these negative ions must play a key role in the ion chemistry and they may be important in the formation of organic-rich aerosols (tholins) eventually falling to the surface.

  11. Mass and magnetic dipole moment of negative-parity heavy baryons with spin-3/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the mass and residue of the heavy spin-3/2 negative-parity baryons with single heavy bottom or charm quark by use of a two-point correlation function. We use the obtained results to investigate the diagonal radiative transitions among the baryons under consideration. In particular, we compute corresponding transition form factors via light cone QCD sum rules, which are then used to obtain the magnetic dipole moments of the heavy spin-3/2 negative-parity baryons. We remove the pollutions coming from the positive-parity spin-3/2 and positive/negative-parity spin-1/2 baryons by constructing sum rules for different Lorentz structures. We compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions.

  12. Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A.; Cotrino, J.

    2012-03-01

    Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

  13. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers.

  14. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering Enhancements of Lunar Regolith Erosion: The Contribution of the Heavy Multicharged (Minority) Solar Wind Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    We report preliminary results for H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, obtain ed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility using quadrupole ma ss spectrometry. The multi-charged Ar ions were used as proxies for i ntermediate mass solar wind multicharged ions. Prior to the Ar beam e xposures, the sample was exposed to high fluence H+ irradiation to si mulate H-loading due to the dominant solar wind constituent. A x80 en hancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same velocity H+ was measu red and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same velocity Ar+ was demonstrated, giving clear evidence of the importance of potential s puttering by multicharged ions. This enhancement was observed to pers ist to the maximum fluences investigated (approx 10(exp 16)/sq cm). As discussed in a companion abstract by N. Barghouty, such persistent s puttering enhancement has significant implications on weathering and aging of lunar regolith. In addition, XPS measurements showed strong evidence of Fe reduction for those target areas that had been exposed to high fluence Ar+ and Ar+8 beams. Preferential oxidation of the Fe -reduced beam-exposed regions during transfer to the XPS system led t o enhanced O concentrations in those regions as well. On the basis of these very promising preliminary results, a NASA-LASER project on mo re extensive measurements was recently selected for funding. The prop osal expands the collaboration with NASA-MSFC for the simulation effort, and adds a new collaboration with NASA-GSFC for lunar mission-rele vant measurements.

  15. Effect of direct current sputtering power on the behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under negative bias illumination stress: A combination of experimental analyses and device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jun Tae; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Park, Jozeph; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Hyun-Suk E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr

    2015-03-23

    The effect of direct current sputtering power of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) on the performance and stability of the corresponding thin-film transistor devices was studied. The field effect mobility increases as the IGZO sputter power increases, at the expense of device reliability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). Device simulation based on the extracted sub-gap density of states indicates that the field effect mobility is improved as a result of the number of acceptor-like states decreasing. The degradation by NBIS is suggested to be induced by the formation of peroxides in IGZO rather than charge trapping.

  16. Heavy-metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from Kongsfjord, Arctic.

    PubMed

    Neethu, C S; Mujeeb Rahiman, K M; Saramma, A V; Mohamed Hatha, A A

    2015-06-01

    Isolation and characterization of heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria was carried out from the sediment and water samples collected from Kongsfjord, Arctic. In this study, the potential of Arctic bacteria to tolerate heavy metals that are of ecological significance to the Arctic (selenium (Se), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) was investigated. Quantitative assay of 130 isolates by means of plate diffusion and tube dilution methods was carried out by incorporation of different concentrations of metals. Growth in Se and Pb at a concentration of 3000 μg/L was significantly lower (P≤0.0001) than at 2000 μg/L. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Cd and Hg was 50 μg/L (P≤0.0001, F=264.23 and P≤0.0001, F=291.08, respectively) even though in the tube dilution test, Hg-containing tubes showed much less growth, revealing its superior toxicity to Cd. Thus, the level of toxicity of heavy metals was found to be in the order of Hg>Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb>Se. Multiple-metal-resistant isolates were investigated for their resistance against antibiotics, and a positive correlation was observed between antibiotic and metal resistance for all the isolates tested. The resistant organisms thus observed might influence the organic and inorganic cycles in the Arctic and affect the ecosystem.

  17. Low-energy sputterings with the Monte Carlo Program ACAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Mizuno, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The Monte Carlo program ACAT was developed to determine the total sputtering yields and angular distributions of sputtered atoms in physical processes. From computer results of the incident-energy dependent sputterings for various ion-target combinations the mass-ratio dependence and the bombarding-angle dependence of sputtering thresholds was obtained with the help of the Matsunami empirical formula for sputtering yields. The mass-ratio dependence of sputtering thresholds is in good agreement with recent theoretical results. The threshold energy of light-ion sputtering is a slightly increasing function of angle of incidence, while that of heavy-ion sputtering has a minimum value near theta = 60 deg. The angular distributions of sputtered atoms are also calculated for heavy ions, medium ions, and light ions, and reasonable agreements between calculated angular distributions and experimental results are obtained.

  18. Low-Energy Sputtering Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study is described to measure low-energy (less than 600 eV) sputtering yields of molybdenum with xenon ions using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS). An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 (micro)A/sq cm. For RBS measurements, the sputtered material was collected on a thin aluminum strip which was mounted on a semi-circular collector plate. The target was bombarded with 200 and 500 eV xenon ions at normal incidence. The differential sputtering yields were measured using the RBS method with 1 MeV helium ions. The differential yields were fitted with a cosine fitting function and integrated with respect to the solid angle to provide the total sputtering yields. The sputtering yields obtained using the RBS method are in reasonable agreement with those measured by other researchers using different techniques. For the SNMS measurements, 150 to 600 eV xenon ions were used at 50deg angle of incidence. The SNMS spectra were converted to sputtering yields for perpendicular incidence by normalizing SNMS spectral data at 500 eV with the yield measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Sputtering yields as well as the shape of the yield-energy curve obtained in this manner are in reasonable agreement with those measured by other researchers using different techniques. Sputtering yields calculated by using two semi-spherical formulations agree reasonably well with measured data. The isotopic composition of secondary ions were measured by bombarding copper with xenon ions at energies ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV. The secondary ion flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at low incident ion energies. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing impact energy. Beyond 700 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment remaining nearly constant.

  19. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  20. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Thomas E.; Green, C. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. ‘media multitasking’) is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today’s society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population. PMID:27086504

  1. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Thomas E; Green, C Shawn

    2016-04-18

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. 'media multitasking') is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today's society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population.

  2. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  3. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, D.J.

    1986-03-25

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  4. Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Ursula; Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias; Chamarro, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement.

  5. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  6. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  7. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  8. Simultaneous description of low-lying positive and negative parity bands in heavy even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2014-05-01

    The low-lying spectra including the first few excited positive and negative parity bands of some heavy even-even nuclei from the rare earth and actinide mass regions are investigated within the framework of the symplectic interacting vector boson model with the Sp(12,R) dynamical symmetry group. Symplectic dynamical symmetries allow the change of the number of excitation quanta or phonons building the collective states, providing for larger representation spaces and richer subalgebraic structures to incorporate more complex nuclear spectra. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels and the electromagnetic transitions between the collective states of the ground-state band and Kπ=0- band are compared with experiment and some other collective models incorporating octupole and/or dipole degrees of freedom. The energy staggering, which is a sensitive indicator of the octupole correlations in even-even nuclei, is also calculated and compared with experiment. The results obtained for the energy levels, energy staggering, and transition strengths reveal the relevance of the dynamical symmetry used in the model to simultaneously describe both positive and negative parity low-lying collective bands.

  9. Multitarget sequential sputtering apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shima, R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a sputtering apparatus are discussed. A potential difference is applied between the cathode and anode to produce a plasma for each target which is sputtered by accelerated ions within the plasma. The process of sputtering for various materials is described. Diagrams of the unit are provided.

  10. Low-Energy Sputtering Studies of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of boron nitride with xenon ions was investigated using secondary ion (SIMS) and secondary neutral (SNMS) mass spectrometry. The ions generated from the ion gun were incident on the target at an angle of 50' with respect to the surface'normal. The energy of ions ranged from 100 eV to 3 keV. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge build-up on the target surface. The intensities of sputtered neutral and charged particles, including single atoms, molecules, and clusters, were measured as a function of ion energy. Positive SIMS spectra were dominated by the two boron isotopes whereas BN- and B- were the two major constituents of the negative SIMS spectra. Nitrogen could be detected only in the SNMS spectra. The intensity-energy curves of the sputtered particles were similar in shape. The knees in P-SIMS and SNMS intensity-energy curves appear at around I keV which is significantly higher that 100 to 200 eV energy range at which knees appear in the sputtering of medium and heavy elements by ions of argon and xenon. This difference in the position of the sputter yield knee between boron nitride and heavier targets is due to the reduced ion energy differences. The isotopic composition of secondary ions of boron were measured by bombarding boron nitride with xenon ions at energies ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The secondary ion flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident ion energies. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary ion energy. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. The trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy

  11. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  12. Ion beam sputter etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1986-01-01

    An ion beam etching process which forms extremely high aspect ratio surface microstructures using thin sputter masks is utilized in the fabrication of integrated circuits. A carbon rich sputter mask together with unmasked portions of a substrate is bombarded with inert gas ions while simultaneous carbon deposition occurs. The arrival of the carbon deposit is adjusted to enable the sputter mask to have a near zero or even slightly positive increase in thickness with time while the unmasked portions have a high net sputter etch rate.

  13. Possible isotopic fractionation effects in sputtered minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haff, P. K.; Watson, C. C.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A model which makes definite predictions for the fractionation of isotopes in sputtered material is discussed. The fractionation patterns are nonlinear, and the pattern for a particular set of isotopes depends on the chemical matrix within which those isotopes are contained. Calculations are presented for all nonmonoisotopic elements contained in the minerals perovskite, anorthite, ackermanite, enstatite, and troilite. All isotopes are fractionated at the level of approximately 4-6 deg/o per atomic mass unit. Oxygen is always positively fractionated (heavier isotopes sputtered preferentially), and heavier elements are generally negatively fractioned (light isotopes sputtered preferentially). The value of Delta (O-18:O-16) is always less by about 1.8 deg/o than a linear extrapolation based upon the calculated delta (O-17:O-16) value would suggest. The phenomenon of both negative and positive fractionation patterns from a single target mineral are used to make an experimental test of the proposed model.

  14. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the mass-fractionation effects produced in connection with the bombardment of the moon by the solar wind. Most of the material ejected by sputtering escapes the moon's gravity, but some returning matter settles back onto the lunar surface. This material, which is somewhat richer in heavier atoms than the starting surface, is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains. The investigation indicates that sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind will give rise to significant surface heavy atom enrichments if the grain surfaces are allowed to come into sputtering equilibrium.

  15. Sputtering by the Solar Wind: Effects of Variable Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Arrell, W. M.; Sarantos, M.; Delory, G. T.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that there is no increase in the sputtering yield caused by highly charged heavy ions for metallic and for semiconducting surfaces, but the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. Recently measurements of the solar wind composition have become available. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. Whereas many previous calculations of sputtering were limited to the effects of proton bombardment. we show that the heavy ion component. especially the He++ component. can greatly enhance the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced. We will discuss sputtering of both neutrals and ions.

  16. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  17. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  18. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  19. Moderating Effects of a Craving Intervention on the Relation between Negative Mood and Heavy Drinking Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Negative affect is a significant predictor of alcohol relapse, and the relation between negative affect and drinking has been shown to be strongly mediated by alcohol craving. Thus, targeting craving during treatment could potentially attenuate the relation between negative affect and drinking. Method: The current study is a secondary…

  20. Sputtering of uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, R.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the sputtering of U-235 atoms from foil targets by hydrogen, helium, and argon ions, which was performed by observing tracks produced in mica by fission fragments following thermal-neutron-induced fission. The technique used allowed measurements of uranium sputtering yields of less than 0.0001 atom/ion as well as yields involving the removal of less than 0.01 monolayer of the uranium target surface. The results reported include measurements of the sputtering yields for 40-120-keV protons, 40-120-keV He-4(+) ions, and 40- and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the mass distribution of chunks emitted during sputtering by the protons and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the total chunk yield during He-4(+) sputtering, and some limited data on molecular sputtering by H2(+) and H3(+). The angular distribution of the sputtered uranium is discussed, and the yields obtained are compared with the predictions of collision cascade theory.

  1. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  2. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly.

  3. Carboxyl and negative charge-functionalized superparamagnetic nanochains with amorphous carbon shell and magnetic core: synthesis and their application in removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Qian-Wang; Chen, Jian; Yu, Bin-Xing; Hu, Xian-Yi

    2011-11-01

    This communication describes carboxyl-functionalized nanochains with amorphous carbon shell (18 nm) and magnetic core using ferrocene as a single reactant under the induction of an external magnetic field (0.40 T), which shows a superparamagnetic behavior and magnetization saturation of 38.6 emu g(-1). Because of mesoporous structure (3.8 nm) and surface negative charge (-35.18 mV), the nanochains can be used as adsorbent for removing the heavy metal ions (90%) from aqueous solution.

  4. Fundamental sputtering studies: Nonresonant ionization of sputtered neutrals

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, J.W.; Pellin, M.J.; Calaway, W.F.; Gruen, D.M. ); Yates, J.T. Jr. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-04

    Because of the practical importance of sputtering, numerous theories and computer simulations are used for predicting many aspects of the sputtering process. Unfortunately, many of the calculated sputtering results are untested by experiment. Until recently, most sputtering experiments required either very high ion fluences or the detection of only minor constituents of the sputtered flux, i.e., ions. These techniques may miss the subtleties involved in the sputtering process. High-detection-efficiency mass spectrometry, coupled with the laser ionization of neutral atoms, allows the detection of the major sputtered species with very low incident ion fluences. The depth-of-origin of sputtered atoms is one example of an important but poorly understood aspect of the sputtering process. By following the sputtering yield of a substrate atom with various coverages of an adsorbed overlayer, the depth of origin of sputtered atoms has been determined. Our results indicate that two-thirds of the sputtered flux originates in the topmost atomic layer. The ion-dose dependence of sputtering yields has long been assumed to be quite minor for low- to-moderate primary ion fluences. We have observed a two-fold decrease in the sputtering yield of the Ru(0001) surface for very low primary ion fluences. Data analysis results in a cross section for damage of 2.7 {plus minus} 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}cm{sup 2}. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Detection of heavy-metal ions using liquid crystal droplet patterns modulated by interaction between negatively charged carboxylate and heavy-metal cations.

    PubMed

    Han, Gyeo-Re; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a simple, sensitive, and rapid label-free detection method for heavy-metal (HM) ions using liquid crystal (LC) droplet patterns on a solid surface. Stearic-acid-doped LC droplet patterns were spontaneously generated on an n-octyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated glass substrate by evaporating a solution of the nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), dissolved in heptane. The optical appearance of the droplet patterns was a dark crossed texture when in contact with air, which represents the homeotropic orientation of the LC. This was caused by the steric interaction between the LC molecules and the alkyl chains of the OTS-treated surface. The dark crossed appearance of the acid-doped LC patterns was maintained after the addition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 8.1 at 25°C). The deprotonated stearic-acid molecules self-assembled through the LC/aqueous interface, thereby supporting the homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. However, the optical image of the acid-doped LC droplet patterns incubated with PBS containing HM ions appeared bright, indicating a planar orientation of 5CB at the aqueous/LC droplet interface. This dark to bright transition of the LC patterns was caused by HM ions attached to the deprotonated carboxylate moiety, followed by the sequential interruption of the self-assembly of the stearic acid at the LC/aqueous interface. The results showed that the acid-doped LC pattern system not only enabled the highly sensitive detection of HM ions at a sub-nanomolar concentration but it also facilitated rapid detection (<10 min) with simple procedures.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  7. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  8. Formation of dielectric silicon compounds by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, D. S.; Voronov, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of reactive magnetron sputtering of the silicon target in the ambient of inert argon gas with reactive gas, nitrogen or oxygen. The magnetron was powered by two mid-frequency generators of a rectangular pulse of opposite polarity. The negative polarity pulse provides the sputtering of the target. The positive polarity pulse provides removal of accumulated charge from the surface of the target. This method does not require any special devices of resistances matching and provides continuous sputtering of the target.

  9. Physics of ion sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The ejection of atoms by the ion bombardment of solids is discussed in terms of linear collision cascade theory. A simple argument describes the energies of the ejecta, but elaborate models are required to obtain accurate sputtering yields and related quantities. These include transport theoretical models based on linearized Boltzmann equations, computer simulation models based on the binary collision approximation, and classical many-body dynamical models. The role of each kind of model is discussed. Several aspects of sputtering are illustrated by results from the simulation code MARLOWE. 20 references, 6 figures.

  10. Radiative decays of negative parity heavy baryons in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agamaliev, A. K.; Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.

    2017-02-01

    The transition form factors responsible for the radiative ΣQ →ΛQ γ and ΞQ‧ →ΞQ γ decays of the negative parity baryons are examined within light cone QCD sum rules. The decay widths of the radiative transitions are calculated using the obtained results of the form factors. A comparison of our predictions on decay widths with the corresponding widths of positive parity baryons is given.

  11. Ferritin heavy chain is a negative regulator of ovarian cancer stem cell expansion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Pisanu, Maria Elena; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Jakopin, Žiga; Chiarella, Emanuela; Giovannone, Emilia Dora; Mancini, Rita; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein essential for maintaining the cellular redox status. In recent years ferritin heavy chain (FHC) has been shown to be involved also in the control of cancer cell growth. Analysis of public microarray databases in ovarian cancer revealed a correlation between low FHC expression levels and shorter survival. To better understand the role of FHC in cancer, we have silenced the FHC gene in SKOV3 cells. Results FHC-KO significantly enhanced cell viability and induced a more aggressive behaviour. FHC-silenced cells showed increased ability to form 3D spheroids and enhanced expression of NANOG, OCT4, ALDH and Vimentin. These features were accompanied by augmented expression of SCD1, a major lipid metabolism enzyme. FHC apparently orchestrates part of these changes by regulating a network of miRNAs. Methods FHC-silenced and control shScr SKOV3 cells were monitored for changes in proliferation, migration, ability to propagate as 3D spheroids and for the expression of stem cell and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) markers. The expression of three miRNAs relevant to spheroid formation or EMT was assessed by q-PCR. Conclusions In this paper we uncover a new function of FHC in the control of cancer stem cells. PMID:27566559

  12. A semiparametric negative binomial generalized linear model for modeling over-dispersed count data with a heavy tail: Characteristics and applications to crash data.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Lord, Dominique; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Crash data can often be characterized by over-dispersion, heavy (long) tail and many observations with the value zero. Over the last few years, a small number of researchers have started developing and applying novel and innovative multi-parameter models to analyze such data. These multi-parameter models have been proposed for overcoming the limitations of the traditional negative binomial (NB) model, which cannot handle this kind of data efficiently. The research documented in this paper continues the work related to multi-parameter models. The objective of this paper is to document the development and application of a flexible NB generalized linear model with randomly distributed mixed effects characterized by the Dirichlet process (NB-DP) to model crash data. The objective of the study was accomplished using two datasets. The new model was compared to the NB and the recently introduced model based on the mixture of the NB and Lindley (NB-L) distributions. Overall, the research study shows that the NB-DP model offers a better performance than the NB model once data are over-dispersed and have a heavy tail. The NB-DP performed better than the NB-L when the dataset has a heavy tail, but a smaller percentage of zeros. However, both models performed similarly when the dataset contained a large amount of zeros. In addition to a greater flexibility, the NB-DP provides a clustering by-product that allows the safety analyst to better understand the characteristics of the data, such as the identification of outliers and sources of dispersion.

  13. Modified Ion-Acoustic Shock Waves and Double Layers in a Degenerate Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma in Presence of Heavy Negative Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    A general theory for nonlinear propagation of one dimensional modified ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) degenerate plasma is investigated. This plasma system is assumed to contain relativistic electron and positron fluids, non-degenerate viscous positive ions, and negatively charged static heavy ions. The modified Burgers and Gardner equations have been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method and analyzed in order to identify the basic features (polarity, width, speed, etc.) of shock and double layer (DL) structures. It is observed that the basic features of these shock and DL structures obtained from this analysis are significantly different from those obtained from the analysis of standard Gardner or Burgers equations. The implications of these results in space and interstellar compact objects (viz. non-rotating white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.) are also briefly mentioned.

  14. Sputtered Thin Film Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    percent HF, and boiling aqua - regia , did not result in any significant etching of the HfOg. Aqueous solutions of K0H and NaOH had no appreciable effect...horn Report) IB. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS rContfnue on reverse elde II neceeemy and Identity by block number) Reactive sputtering

  15. Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Nemanich, J.; Thomas, G.E.; Schiel, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production.

  16. Dynamics of the sputtering of water from ice films by collisions with energetic xenon atoms.

    PubMed

    Killelea, Daniel R; Gibson, K D; Yuan, Hanqiu; Becker, James S; Sibener, S J

    2012-04-14

    The flow of energy from the impact site of a heavy, translationally energetic xenon atom on an ice surface leads to several non-equilibrium events. The central focus of this paper is on the collision-induced desorption (sputtering) of water molecules into the gas-phase from the ice surface. Sputtering is strongly activated with respect to xenon translational energy, and a threshold for desorption was observed. To best understand these results, we discuss our findings in the context of other sputtering studies of molecular solids. The sputtering yield is quite small; differential measurements of the energy of xenon scattered from ice surfaces show that the ice efficiently accommodates the collisional energy. These results are important as they quantitatively elucidate the dynamics of such sputtering events, with implications for energetic non-equilibrium processes at interfaces.

  17. Sputtering and secondary ion emission properties of alkali metal films and adsorbed monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A R; Gruen, D M

    1980-01-01

    The secondary ion emission of alkali metal adsorbed monlayer and multilayer films has been studied. Profiling with sub-monolayer resolution has been performed by Auger, x-ray photoemission and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Characteristic differences in the sputtering yields, and ion fraction have been observed which are associated with both the surface bonding properties and the mechanism leading to the formation of secondary ions. By sputtering with a negative bias applied to the sample, positive secondary ions are returned to the surface, resulting in a reduced sputter-induced erosion rate. Comparison with the results obtained with K and Li overlayers sputtered without sample bias provides an experimental value of both the total and secondary ion sputtering yields. The first and second monolayers can be readily identified and the first monolayer exhibits a lower sputtering yield and higher secondary ion fraction. This result is related to adsorption theory and measured values are compared with those obtained by thermal desorption measurements.

  18. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  19. Sputtering of lunar regolith simulant by protons and singly and multicharged Ar ions at solar wind energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Harris, P. R.; Taylor, C. N.; Meyer, H. M., III; Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H.

    2011-06-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  20. Multiple positive and negative 5' regulatory elements control the cell-type-specific expression of the embryonic skeletal myosin heavy-chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvagnet, P F; Strehler, E E; White, G E; Strehler-Page, M A; Nadal-Ginard, B; Mahdavi, V

    1987-01-01

    To identify the DNA sequences that regulate the expression of the sarcomeric myosin heavy-chain (MHC) genes in muscle cells, a series of deletion constructs of the rat embryonic MHC gene was assayed for transient expression after introduction into myogenic and nonmyogenic cells. The sequences in 1.4 kilobases of 5'-flanking DNA were found to be sufficient to direct expression of the MHC gene constructs in a tissue-specific manner (i.e., in differentiated muscle cells but not in undifferentiated muscle and nonmuscle cells). Three main distinct regulatory domains have been identified: (i) the upstream sequences from positions -1413 to -174, which determine the level of expression of the MHC gene and are constituted of three positive regulatory elements and two negative ones; (ii) a muscle-specific regulatory element from positions -173 to -142, which restricts the expression of the MHC gene to muscle cells; and (iii) the promoter region, downstream from position -102, which directs transcription initiation. Introduction of the simian virus 40 enhancer into constructs where subportions of or all of the upstream sequences are deleted (up to position -173) strongly increases the level of expression of such truncated constructs but without changing their muscle specificity. These upstream sequences, which can be substituted for by the simian virus 40 enhancer, function in an orientation-, position-, and promoter-dependent fashion. The muscle-specific element is also promoter specific but does not support efficient expression of the MHC gene. The MHC promoter in itself is not muscle specific. These results underline the importance of the concerted action of multiple regulatory elements that are likely to represent targets for DNA-binding-regulatory proteins. Images PMID:2830491

  1. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  2. Sputtering of fast meteoroids' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, O. P.; Strelkov, A. S.; Sidneva, S. N.

    Entering meteoroids are subjected by direct impacts of molecules of the individual constituents of the air, when the body approaching the Earth at heights of about 300-100 km. At meteor velocities about 72 km/s the energy of air molecules is about 800 eV and oxygen atoms have energy about 400 eV. Particles with such energies don't penetrate into deep layers of entering body and are concentrated in narrow surface layer of about hundreds angstroms. Action of air particles on meteoroid leads to both heating of meteoroid and sputtering of meteoroid surface. Sputtering effect was supposed as explanation of this high altitude ionization and luminosity (Brosch et al, 2001), which aren't explained by classical ablation theory. Sputtering results in appearance of fast particles, which also may be exited and/or ionized. Flux of these particles causes formation of ionized meteor trails recording by radars. For bigger bodies fast particles may create luminous area at the altitudes above altitude of intensive evaporation. We demonstrate physical model, which allows us to describe sputtering of meteoroid surface under impacts of incoming air particles. We consider sputtering of meteoroid with composition close to hondritic one at the altitude 150 km. Fast particles are really sputtered from meteoroid surface. They carry out about 10% of incoming flux energy. There are also reflected particles, but the most part of total particle outcome is formed by particles of meteor substance. Presence of fast particles possibly explains a large size of meteors in diffuse stage at high altitudes (above 130 km). The sputtering is neglectable in the case of meteor velocities below 30 km/s. Sputtered and reflected particles have enough high ionization degree (˜ (1-5) 10-2, that is larger than ionization degree of surrounding atmosphere (˜ 10-5div 10-6)).

  3. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  4. Correlation of chemical composition and electrical properties of rf sputtered alumina films

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, M.; Bergmaier, A.; Dollinger, G.; Sokolowski, M.

    2009-03-15

    Alumina films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from an aluminum oxide target on an indium tin oxide covered glass. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of the sputter parameters on the elemental composition, surface morphology, and electrical insulation properties (breakdown fields and leakage currents). Tested parameters were the sputter gas (Ar) pressure, the sputter rate, the sputter power, the sputter gas composition (Ar:O{sub 2}), the conditioning of the target, the residual base pressure, and the substrate temperature. The surface morphology of the films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Depth profiles of the elemental compositions were measured by elastic recoil detection using energetic heavy ions, and the insulation properties were investigated by current voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The main finding is that the leakage currents increase by about five orders of magnitude, if the atomic ratio of O:Al increases from 1.35 to 2.0. In parallel the breakdown fields decrease by a factor of 100, and the character of the breakdowns changes from soft to hard. The highest breakdown fields (2.4 MV/cm) and smallest leakage currents (6.5x10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} at 2.0 MV/cm) are obtained for slightly Al rich films with small atomic concentrations of H (<0.5 at. %). These films were sputtered in pure Ar and under the lowest possible pressure of the residual gas.

  5. Electronic sputtering of carbon allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, S.; Misra, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    Electronic sputtering of different allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, fullerene, a-C and a-C:H) are studied under 200 MeV Au 15+ ion irradiation. On-line elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and catcher technique is employed to measure the sputtering yield of carbon from these allotropes. Erosion behavior is distinctly different in different allotropes as observed by ERDA. Hardest known material diamond does not show any sputtering within the detection limit of the experimental set up, whereas the soft polymerlike a-C:H shows highest sputtering yield (5.8 × 10 5 atoms/ion). Yields in case of other allotropes are 1 × 10 3 atoms/ion (graphite), 3 × 10 4 atoms/ion (fullerene), 1.8 × 10 4 atoms/ion (a-C), respectively. This significant variation of electronic sputtering yield of carbon in different allotropes is discussed from the viewpoint of influence of structure on ion-solid interaction. Structures of the samples are examined by Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Sputtered silicon nitride coatings for wear protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.; Aron, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were deposited by RF sputtering on 304 stainless steel substrates in a planar RF sputtering apparatus. The sputtering was performed from a Si3N4 target in a sputtering atmosphere of argon and nitrogen. The rate of deposition, the composition of the coatings, the surface microhardness and the adhesion of the coatings to the substrates were investigated as a function of the process parameters, such as: substrate target distance, fraction nitrogen in the sputtering atmosphere and sputtering pressure. Silicon rich coating was obtained for fraction nitrogen below 0.2. The rate of deposition decreases continuously with increasing fraction nitrogen and decreasing sputtering pressure. It was found that the adherence of the coatings improves with decreasing sputtering pressure, almost independently of their composition.

  7. Ion beam sputtering of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Etching and deposition of fluoropolymers are of considerable industrial interest for applications dealing with adhesion, chemical inertness, hydrophobicity, and dielectric properties. This paper describes ion beam sputter processing rates as well as pertinent characteristics of etched targets and films. An argon ion beam source was used to sputter etch and deposit the fluoropolymers PTFE, FEP, and CTFE. Ion beam energy, current density, and target temperature were varied to examine effects on etch and deposition rates. The ion etched fluoropolymers yield cone or spire-like surface structures which vary depending upon the type of polymer, ion beam power density, etch time, and target temperature. Also presented are sputter target and film characteristics which were documented by spectral transmittance measurements, X-ray diffraction, ESCA, and SEM photomicrographs.

  8. Mass dependence of nitride sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovikov, S. S.; Khrustachev, I. K.; Mosunov, A. S.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2003-08-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the sputtering yield Y for BN, AlN and GaN polycrystals of wurtzite structure as a function of the masses m 1 of bombarding ions with energies from 200 to 2000 eV. A nonmonotonic behavior of the Y ( m 1 ) curve was obtained for the irradiation by low-energy ions, the curve having a maximum with a position being dependent on m 2 / m 1 ( m 2 is the average mass of atoms in a compound). For AlN and GaN the maximum was observed at m 2 / m 1 = 2, and for BN at m 2 / m 1 = 1. The effect of the mass of bombarding ions on the mean energies and energy spectra of sputtered particles, the depth of sputtering origin, and the generation of emitted atoms for nitrides was also investigated and discussed.

  9. Disorder-free sputtering method on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Xue Peng; Shin Young Jun; Niu Jing; Kulothungasagaran, Narayanapillai; Kalon, Gopinadhan; Yang, Hyunsoo; Qiu Caiyu; Yu Ting

    2012-09-15

    Deposition of various materials onto graphene without causing any disorder is highly desirable for graphene applications. Especially, sputtering is a versatile technique to deposit various metals and insulators for spintronics, and indium tin oxide to make transparent devices. However, the sputtering process causes damage to graphene because of high energy sputtered atoms. By flipping the substrate and using a high Ar pressure, we demonstrate that the level of damage to graphene can be reduced or eliminated in dc, rf, and reactive sputtering processes.

  10. Modeling target erosion during reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strijckmans, K.; Depla, D.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the reactive sputter conditions on the racetrack and the sputter profile for an Al/O2 DC reactive sputter system is studied by modeling. The role of redeposition, i.e. the deposition of sputtered material back on the target, is therefore taken into account. The used model RSD2013 is capable of simulating the effect of redeposition on the target condition in a spatial resolved way. Comparison between including and excluding redeposition in the RSD2013 model shows that the in-depth oxidation profile of the target differs. Modeling shows that it is important to distinguish between the formed racetrack, i.e. the erosion depth profile, and the sputter profile. The latter defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms in the vacuum chamber. As the target condition defines the sputter yield, it does determine the racetrack and the sputter profile of the planar circular target. Both the shape of the racetrack and the sputter profile change as function of the redeposition fraction as well as function of the oxygen flow change. Clear asymmetries and narrowing are observed for the racetrack shape. Similar effects are noticed for the sputter profile but to a different extent. Based on this study, the often heard misconception that the racetrack shape defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms during reactive sputtering is proven to be wrong.

  11. Isotopic Enrichment of Boron in the Sputtering of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study is described to measure the isotopic enrichment of boron. Xenon ions from 100 eV to 1.5 keV were used to sputter a boron nitride target. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 microA/sq cm. Xenon ions impinged on the target surface at 50 deg angle to the surface normal. Since boron nitride is an insulator, a flood electron gun was used in our experiments to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The sputtered secondary ions of boron were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectrometer entrance aperture was located perpendicular to the ion beam direction and 10 mm away from the target surface. The secondary ion flux was observed to be enriched in the heavy isotopes at lower ion energies. The proportion of heavy isotopes in the sputtered secondary ion flux was found to decrease with increasing primary ion energy from 100 to 350 eV. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially. The light isotope enrichment factor was observed to reach an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. This trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy range.

  12. Anorthite sputtering by H+ and Arq+ (q = 1-9) at solar wind velocities

    DOE PAGES

    Hijazi, Hussein Dib; Bannister, Mark E.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; ...

    2014-10-16

    Here, we report sputtering measurements of anorthite-like material, taken to be representative of soils found in the lunar highlands, impacted by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the nonreactive heavy solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, at fixed solar wind-relevant impact velocities of 165 and 310 km/s (0.25 keV/amu and 0.5 keV/amu). A quartz microbalance approach (QCM) for determination of total sputtering yields was used. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contributionmore » of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction. The QCM results show a yield increase of a factor of about 80 for Ar+ versus H+ sputtering and an enhancement by a factor of 1.67 between Ar9+ and Ar+, which is a clear indication of a potential sputtering effect.« less

  13. Sputtering technology in solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Potential and present sputtering technology is discussed as it applies to the deposition of solid film lubricants particularly MoS2, WS2, and PTFE. Since the sputtered films are very thin, the selection of the sputtering parameters and substrate condition is very critical as reflected by the lubricating properties. It was shown with sputtered MoS2 films that the lubricating characteristics are directly affected by the selected sputtering parameters (power density, pressure, sputter etching, dc-biasing, etc.) and the substrate temperature, chemistry, topography and the environmental conditions during the friction tests. Electron microscopy and other surface sensitive analytical techniques illustrate the resulting changes in sputtered MoS2 film morphology and chemistry which directly influence the film adherence and frictional properties.

  14. A novel sputtering technique: Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, D. A. L.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2012-09-01

    Sputtering magnetic materials with magnetron based systems has the disadvantage of field quenching and variation of alloy composition with target erosion. The advantage of eliminating magnetic fields in the chamber is that this enables sputtered particles to move along the electric field more uniformly. Inductively coupled impulse sputtering (ICIS) is a form of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) without a magnetic field where a high density plasma is produced by a high power radio frequency (RF) coil in order to sputter the target and ionise the metal vapour. In this emerging technology, the effects of power and pressure on the ionisation and deposition process are not known. The setup comprises of a 13.56 MHz pulsed RF coil pulsed with a duty cycle of 25 %. A pulsed DC voltage of 1900 V was applied to the cathode to attract Argon ions and initiate sputtering. Optical emission spectra (OES) for Cu and Ti neutrals and ions at constant pressure show a linear intensity increase for peak RF powers of 500 W - 3400 W and a steep drop of intensity for a power of 4500 W. Argon neutrals show a linear increase for powers of 500 W - 2300 W and a saturation of intensity between 2300 W - 4500 W. The influence of pressure on the process was studied at a constant peak RF power of 2300 W. With increasing pressure the ionisation degree increased. The microstructure of the coatings shows globular growth at 2.95×10-2 mbar and large-grain columnar growth at 1.2×10-1 mbar. Bottom coverage of unbiased vias with a width of 0.360 μm and aspect ratio of 2.5:1 increased from 15 % to 20 % for this pressure range. The current work has shown that the concept of combining a RF powered coil with a magnet-free high voltage pulsed DC powered cathode is feasible and produces very stable plasma. The experiments have shown a significant influence of power and pressure on the plasma and coating microstructure.

  15. Transport of sputtered particles in capacitive sputter sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The transport of sputtered aluminum inside a multi frequency capacitively coupled plasma chamber is simulated by means of a kinetic test multi-particle approach. A novel consistent set of scattering parameters obtained for a modified variable hard sphere collision model is presented for both argon and aluminum. An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution is fitted to results from Monte Carlo simulations and used for the kinetic simulation of the transport of sputtered aluminum. For the proposed configuration, the transport of sputtered particles is characterized under typical process conditions at a gas pressure of p = 0.5 Pa. It is found that—due to the peculiar geometric conditions—the transport can be understood in a one dimensional picture, governed by the interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. It is shown that the precise geometric features play an important role only in proximity to the electrode edges, where the effect of backscattering from the outside chamber volume becomes the governing mechanism.

  16. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Soil Analogs: The Effect of Ionic Charge and Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Rouleau, C. M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Hijazi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we report sput-tering measurements of anorthite, an analog material representative of the lunar highlands, by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the heavier solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, and had a fixed solar-wind-relevant impact velocity of approximately 310 km/s or 500 eV/ amu. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction.

  17. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  18. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting uranium 235 was used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E to the -1.77 power for E is approximately greater than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the ramdom collision cascade model of sputtering.

  19. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  20. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  1. Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

  2. Sputtering Holes with Ion Beamlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.; Banks, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Ion beamlets of predetermined configurations are formed by shaped apertures in the screen grid of an ion thruster having a double grid accelerator system. A plate is placed downstream from the screen grid holes and attached to the accelerator grid. When the ion thruster is operated holes having the configuration of the beamlets formed by the screen grid are sputtered through the plate at the accelerator grid.

  3. Mercury Cadmium Telluride Sputtering Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-28

    Material Research Corporation 8800 sputtering system used to deposit the (Hhl.x,Cdx)Te thin films by the triode-ode is shown in Fig. 1-1.()* rotating...by Dr. Comely with Dr. Esther Krikorian of the Aerospace Corporation , El Segundo, California. 28) Ferrar, R.H., Gillham, C.J., Bartlett, B., Oualch, M...Chen. 14, 44 (1975). 44) Belov, V., Personal Commnication of Dr. Cornely with Dr. Valery Belov, Vice President of Engineering, Infrared Associates, Now

  4. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remaindermore » is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.« less

  5. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  6. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  7. Surface biasing influence on the physical sputtering in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodkina, I.; Borodin, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Tsvetkov, I. V.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Klepper, C. C.; Lasa, A.; Kreter, A.; Contributors, JET

    2016-09-01

    A new simplified analytical expression for the electromagnetic field in the Debye sheath in the presence of an oblique magnetic field including surface biasing effect is suggested. It is in good agreement with the numerical solution of the integral equation for the potential distribution in the Debye sheath. The energy and angular impact distributions and corresponding surface sputtering yields were analyzed in the presence of an oblique magnetic field and surface biasing. The analytical expression was used to estimate a) the effective sputtering yield of the W target with a varying negative voltage against plasma in PSI-2 linear device and b) erosion of the JET outer wall Be limiter near the ICRH antenna enhanced during RF emission.

  8. Sputtered iridium oxide for stimulation electrode coatings.

    PubMed

    Mokwa, Wilfried; Wessling, Boerge; Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the reactive RF-powered sputter deposition of iridium oxide for use as the active stimulation layer in functional medical implants. The oxygen gettered by the growing films is determined by an approach based on generic curves. Films deposited at different stages of oxygen integration show strong differences in electrochemical behaviour, caused by different morphologies. The dependence of electrochemical activity on morphology is further illustrated by RF sputtering onto heated substrates, as well as DC sputtering onto cold substrates.

  9. Reactively sputtered thin film photovoltaic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a reactively sputtered thin film CdS - Cu2S solar cell is proven. Identification of the reactively sputtered Cu2S film is made by X-ray diffractometer and spectro-transmission measurements. Because of its simplicity, economical use of material, and high yield, the reactive sputtering process promises to be a low cost method for producing CdS - Cu2S solar cells.

  10. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers. [coolant passage closing by triode sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Broch, J. W.; Allard, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for closing out coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by triode sputtering, using post and hollow Cu-0.15 percent Zr cathodes are described. The effects of aluminum composite filler materials, substrate preparation, sputter cleaning, substrate bias current density and system geometry on closeout layer bond strength and structure are evaluated. High strength closeout layers were sputtered over aluminum fillers. The tensile strength and microstructure of continuously sputtered Cu-0.15 percent Zr deposits were determined. These continuous sputtered deposits were as thick as 0.75 cm. Tensile strengths were consistently twice as great as the strength of the material in wrought form.

  11. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  12. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  13. Destruction of dirty ice mantles by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Dirty ice mantles are destroyed efficiently by sputtering of He atoms when clouds encounter shock velocities greater than 13-15 km/sec. Destruction due to grain-grain collisions is found to be about .001 times less efficient. Sputtering in the hot intercloud medium should make intercloud grains smaller than cloud grains.

  14. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  15. Sputter metalization of Wolter type optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledger, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical task showed that the coating thickness distribution for both internal and external optical elements coated using either electron beam or sputter sources can be made uniform and will not affect the surface figure of coated elements. Also, sputtered samples of nickel, molybdenum, iridium and ruthenium deposited onto both hot and cold substrates showed excellent adhesion.

  16. Sputter Deposition of Metallic Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-01-18

    Metallic films are grown with a sponge-like morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous porosity on the sub-micron scale. The stabilization of the metallic sponge is directly correlated with a limited range for the sputter deposition parameters of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This sponge-like morphology augments the features as generally understood in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross-section with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) for the deposition processing under which the metallic sponges are produced appear universal for many metals, as for example, including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  17. Sputtering erosion in ion and plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental set-up to measure low-energy (below 1 keV) sputtering of materials is described. The materials to be bombarded represent ion thruster components as well as insulators used in the stationary plasma thruster. The sputtering takes place in a 9 inch diameter spherical vacuum chamber. Ions of argon, krypton and xenon are used to bombard the target materials. The sputtered neutral atoms are detected by a secondary neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS). Samples of copper, nickel, aluminum, silver and molybdenum are being sputtered initially to calibrate the spectrometer. The base pressure of the chamber is approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) Torr. the primary ion beam is generated by an ion gun which is capable of delivering ion currents in the range of 20 to 500 nA. The ion beam can be focused to a size approximately 1 mm in diameter. The mass spectrometer is positioned 10 mm from the target and at 90 deg angle to the primary ion beam direction. The ion beam impinges on the target at 45 deg. For sputtering of insulators, charge neutralization is performed by flooding the sample with electrons generated from an electron gun. Preliminary sputtering results, methods of calculating the instrument response function of the spectrometer and the relative sensitivity factors of the sputtered elements will be discussed.

  18. Particle contamination formation in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1997-07-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique which provides real-time, {ital in situ} imaging of particles {gt}0.3 {mu}m on the target, substrate, or in the plasma. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport, and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes, due to the inherent spatial nonuniformity of magnetically enhanced plasmas. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. There, film redeposition induces filament or nodule growth. Sputter removal of these features is inhibited by the dependence of sputter yield on angle of incidence. These features enhance trapping of plasma particles, which then increases filament growth. Eventually the growths effectively {open_quotes}short-circuit{close_quotes} the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes mechanical failure of the growth resulting in fracture and ejection of the target contaminants into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests it may be universal to many sputter processes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  19. Thermal spike model interpretation of sputtering yield data for Bi thin films irradiated by MeV 84Kr15+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammeri, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Ammi, H.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Dib, A.; Msimanga, M.

    2015-07-01

    A modified thermal spike model initially proposed to account for defect formation in metals within the high heavy ion energy regime is adapted for describing the sputtering of Bi thin films under MeV Kr ions. Surface temperature profiles for both the electronic and atomic subsystems have been carefully evaluated versus the radial distance and time with introducing appropriate values of the Bi target electronic stopping power for multi-charged Kr15+ heavy ions as well as different target physical proprieties like specific heats and thermal conductivities. Then, the total sputtering yields of the irradiated Bi thin films have been determined from a spatiotemporal integration of the local atomic evaporation rate. Besides, an expected non negligible contribution of elastic nuclear collisions to the Bi target sputtering yields and ion-induced surface effects has also been considered in our calculation. Finally, the latter thermal spike model allowed us to derive numerical sputtering yields in satisfactorily agreement with existing experimental data both over the low and high heavy ion energy regions, respectively, dominated by elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic collisions, in particular with our data taken recently for Bi thin films irradiated by 27.5 MeV Kr15+ heavy ions. An overall consistency of our model calculation with the predictions of sputtering yield theoretical models within the target nuclear stopping power regime was also pointed out.

  20. Adherence of sputtered titanium carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The study searches for interface treatment that would increase the adhesion of TiC coating to nickel- and titanium-base alloys. Rene 41 (19 wt percent Cr, 11 wt percent Mo, 3 wt percent Ti, balance Ni) and Ti-6Al-4V (6 wt percent Al, 4 wt percent V, balance Ti) are considered. Adhesion of the coatings is evaluated in pin-and disk friction tests. The coatings and interface regions are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results suggest that sputtered refractory compound coatings adhere best when a mixed compound of coating and substrate metals is formed in the interfacial region. The most effective type of refractory compound interface appears to depend on both substrate and coating material. A combination of metallic interlayer deposition and mixed compound interface formation may be more effective for some substrate coating combinations than either alone.

  1. Detection of sputtered metastable atoms by autoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Wucher, A.; Berthold, W.; Oechsner, H.; Franzreb, K.

    1994-03-01

    We report on a scheme for the detection of sputter-generated metastable atoms that is based on the resonant excitation of an autoionizing state by single-photon absorption from a tunable laser. Using this technique, sputtered silver atoms ejected in the metastable 4{ital d}{sup 9}5{ital s}{sup 2}{ital D}{sub 5/2} state with an excitation energy of 3.75 eV have been detected. This represents the highest excitation energy of sputtered metastable atoms observed so far.

  2. Formation of cubic boron-nitride by the reactive sputter deposition of boron

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Makowiecki, D.W.; McKeman, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    Boron-nitride films are synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering boron targets where the deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. These techniques provide characterization of film composition, crystalline structure, hardness and chemical bonding, respectively. Reactive, rf-sputtering process parameters are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. The deposition of stable and adherent boron nitride coatings consisting of the cubic phase requires 400 `C substrate heating and the application of a 300 V negative bias.

  3. Effect of substrate temperature on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered hafnium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K. C.; Ghosh, S. P.; Tripathy, N.; Kar, J. P.; Bose, G.; Lee, T.; Myoung, J. M.

    2015-06-24

    In this work hafnium oxide thin films were deposited on p-type silicon substrate by Radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 300 °C. The structural and electrical properties of the sputtered films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The XRD results show the formation monoclinic structure of the hafnium oxide thin films. The shifting of C-V curves towards negative voltage side depicts the increase in positive oxide charges with the rise of substrate temperature. Leakage current was found increased, when temperature enhanced from room temperature to 300 °C.

  4. Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

  5. Anisotropy of sapphire single crystal sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Minnebaev, K. F.; Tolpin, K. A.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2015-08-15

    We have studied the spatial distribution of particles sputtered from the base (0001) plane of a sapphire single crystal with trigonal crystalline lattice (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that can be considered a superposition of two hexagonal close packed (hcp) structures–the ideal sublattice of oxygen and a somewhat deformed sublattice of aluminum. It is established that the particles sputtered from the base plane of sapphire are predominantly deposited along the sides of an irregular hexagon with spots at its vertices. The patterns of spots have been also studied for sputtering of particles from the (0001) face of a zinc single crystal with the hcp lattice. The spots of sputtered Zn atoms are arranged at the vertices of concentric equilateral hexagons. In both cases, the observed anisotropy of sputtering is related to focused collisions (direct and assisted focusing) and the channeling process. The chemical composition of spots has been determined in various regions of sputtered sapphire deposition. The results are discussed in comparison to analogous earlier data for secondary ion emission from an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal.

  6. MD simulation of cluster formation during sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramoto, T.; Okai, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Yorizane, K.; Yamamura, Y.

    2001-06-01

    The cluster ejection due to cluster impact on a solid surface is studied through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations are performed for Cu cluster impacts on the Cu(1 1 1) surface for cluster energy 100 eV/atom, and for clusters of 6, 13, 28 and 55 atoms. Interatomic interactions are described by the AMLJ-EAM potential. The vibration energy spectrum is independent of the incident cluster size and energy. This comes from the fact that sputtered clusters become stable through the successive fragmentation of nascent large sputtered clusters. The vibration energy spectra for large sputtered clusters have a peak, whose energy corresponds to the melting temperature of Cu. The exponent of the power-law fit of the abundance distribution and the total sputtering yield for the cluster impacts are higher than that for the monatomic ion impacts with the same total energy, where the exponent δ is given by Yn∝ nδ and Yn is the yield of sputtered n-atom cluster. The exponent δ follows a unified function of the total sputtering yield, which is a monotonic increase function, and it is nearly equal to δ ˜ -3 for larger yield.

  7. High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2012-05-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

  8. The lunar exosphere: The sputtering contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, P.; Rohner, U.; Whitby, J. A.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Dobnikar, P.; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2007-11-01

    We have extended our Monte Carlo model of exospheres [Wurz, P., Lammer, H., 2003. Icarus 164 (1), 1-13] by treating the ion-induced sputtering process from a known surface in a self-consistent way. The comparison of the calculated exospheric densities with experimental data, which are mostly upper limits, shows that all of our calculated densities are within the measurement limits. The total calculated exospheric density at the lunar surface of about 1×10 m as result of solar wind sputtering we find is much less than the experimental total exospheric density of about 10 m. We conclude that sputtering contributes only a small fraction of the total exosphere, at least close to the surface. Because of the considerably larger scale height of atoms released via sputtering into the exosphere, sputtered atoms start to dominate the exosphere at altitudes exceeding a few 1000 km, with the exception of some light and abundant species released thermally, e.g. H 2, He, CH 4, and OH. Furthermore, for more refractory species such as calcium, our model indicates that sputtering may well be the dominant mechanism responsible for the lunar atmospheric inventory, but observational data does not yet allow firm conclusions to be drawn.

  9. Orientation Effects in ZnO Films Using Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S.; George, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    ZnO is a wide-band-gap oxide material and has been used in numerous applications. It is also a good substrate for fabricating GaN-based (a blue laser candidate) devices. Off-axis sputtering technique is one of the best techniques in synthesizing oxide materials because negative ion bombardment and particle kinetic energy is greatly reduced when adatoms condense on substrates. Since the sputtered material from the target arrive on the substrate surface at a 90 deg. configuration, which differs from the normal sputtering geometry, it is expected that the film uniformity and composition distributions will be affected. However, the details of these properties and mechanisms have not been well studied. ZnO films are synthesized on (0001) sapphire and quartz substrates by off-axis sputtering deposition in various oxygen/argon mixture ratios and pressures at different temperatures. Substrates and sputtering sources are placed at three different orientations that are orthogonal to each other. The normal direction of a substrate is parallel to the gravity vector and the other is perpendicular to it. Film thickness profiles at different growth orientations are determined using a profimeter. All films grown at high temperatures have highly textured structures on quartz substrates and epitaxially grow on sapphire substrates. Because of this process, the film surface is very smooth. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy, and electrical measurements will be used to characterize these films. Detailed results will be discussed in the presentation.

  10. Morphology and Structure of ZnO Films Synthesized by Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    ZnO is a wide-band-gap oxide material that has many applications. A new potential application of ZnO material is for light emitting devices since its structure and electrical properties are similar to that of the GaN material (a blue laser candidate). It also is a good substrate for fabricating GaN-based devices. Off-axis sputtering technique has revealed great potential in synthesizing excellent oxide materials because the negative ion bombardment is greatly reduced when adatoms condense on substrates. The surface of films grown by off-axis sputtering will be much smoother than that produced in a regular sputtering configuration. A growth mechanism is studied by investigating the morphology and structure of ZnO films under different growth conditions and orientations. ZnO films are deposited on (0001) sapphire and quartz substrates by off- axis sputtering deposition at various oxygen/argon mixture ratios and pressures and at different temperatures. All films reveal highly textured structures on quartz substrates and epitaxial growth on sapphire substrates. Two off-axis configurations, vertical and horizontal orientations are conducted to study the process of film growth, surface morphology, and film structure. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and electrical measurements are used to characterize these films. Detailed results will be discussed in the presentation. Keywords: ZnO, Photonic material, Off-axis sputtering, Growth mechanism

  11. Effects of electron irradiation during the growth of ITO films by an using RF sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Joon; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Bongho

    2016-10-01

    We perform electron irradiation during the radio-frequency (RF) sputtering process to realize the growth of a transparent oxide thin film, indium tin oxide (ITO), to achieve a high transparency and a low resistivity. Using an electron gun attached to the sputtering system, we simultaneously accelerate a large number of electrons onto the substrate along with the sputtered ITO atoms by using a negative bias of up to 1.5 kV. As the electron-beam voltage increased, the preferred orientation of the ITO film changed from the (222) plane to the (400) plane, and the film showed a flake-type surface morphology. Sputtered ITO atoms in the electron-assisted sputtering (EAS) process showed sufficient mobility because of the kinetic effect of continuous electron irradiation without the need for an additional substrate heating process. The ITO films grown using the EAS process had a minimum resistivity value of 1.46×10-4 Ωcm under an electron irradiation condition of 1.5 kV and showed a transmittance of 95% at 550 nm.

  12. Analysis of surface sputtering on a quantum statistical basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Surface sputtering is explained theoretically by means of a 3-body sputtering mechanism involving the ion and two surface atoms of the solid. By means of quantum-statistical mechanics, a formula for the sputtering ratio S(E) is derived from first principles. The theoretical sputtering rate S(E) was found experimentally to be proportional to the square of the difference between incident ion energy and the threshold energy for sputtering of surface atoms at low ion energies. Extrapolation of the theoretical sputtering formula to larger ion energies indicates that S(E) reaches a saturation value and finally decreases at high ion energies. The theoretical sputtering ratios S(E) for wolfram, tantalum, and molybdenum are compared with the corresponding experimental sputtering curves in the low energy region from threshold sputtering energy to 120 eV above the respective threshold energy. Theory and experiment are shown to be in good agreement.

  13. Sputtering - A vacuum deposition method for coating material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1972-01-01

    The sputtering method is discussed in terms of the unique features which sputter offers in depositing coatings. These features include versatility, momentum transfer, configuration of target, precise controls, and a relatively slow deposition rate. Sputtered films are evaluated in terms of adherence, coherence, and the internal stresses. The observed strong adherence is attributed to the high kinetic energies of the sputtered material, sputter etched surface, and the submicroscopic particle size. Film thickness can be controlled to a millionth of a centimeter. Very adherent films of sputtered PTFE (teflon) can be deposited in a single operation on any type of material and on any geometrical configuration.

  14. Molecular dynamics investigation of hexagonal boron nitride sputtering and sputtered particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2016-08-01

    The sputtering of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by impacts of energetic xenon ions is investigated using a molecular dynamics (MD) model. The model is implemented within an open-source MD framework that utilizes graphics processing units to accelerate its calculations, allowing the sputtering process to be studied in much greater detail than has been feasible in the past. Integrated sputter yields are computed over a range of ion energies from 20 eV to 300 eV, and incidence angles from 0° to 75°. Sputtering of boron is shown to occur at energies as low as 40 eV at normal incidence, and sputtering of nitrogen at as low as 30 eV at normal incidence, suggesting a threshold energy between 20 eV and 40 eV. The sputter yields at 0° incidence are compared to existing experimental data and are shown to agree well over the range of ion energies investigated. The semi-empirical Bohdansky curve and an empirical exponential function are fit to the data at normal incidence, and the threshold energy for sputtering is calculated from the Bohdansky curve fit as 35 ± 2 eV. These results are shown to compare well with experimental observations that the threshold energy lies between 20 eV and 40 eV. It is demonstrated that h-BN sputters predominantly as atomic boron and diatomic nitrogen, and the velocity distribution function (VDF) of sputtered boron atoms is investigated. The calculated VDFs are found to reproduce the Sigmund-Thompson distribution predicted by Sigmund's linear cascade theory of sputtering. The average surface binding energy computed from Sigmund-Thompson curve fits is found to be 4.5 eV for ion energies of 100 eV and greater. This compares well to the value of 4.8 eV determined from independent experiments.

  15. Reactive pulsed magnetron-sputtered tantalum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Matthew Christian

    Current high speed, advanced packaging applications require the use of integrated capacitors. Tantalum oxide is one material currently being considered for use in the capacitors; however, the deposition technique used to make the thin film dielectric can alter its performance. Pulsed magnetron reactive sputtering was investigated in this thesis as it offers a robust, clean, and low temperature deposition alternative. This is a new deposition technique created to control the negative effects of target poisoning; however, to understand the relationships between the deposition variables and the resultant film properties a thorough investigation is needed. The instantaneous voltage at the target was captured using a high speed digital oscilloscope. Three target oxidation states were imaged and identified to be that of the metallic and oxidized states with an abrupt transition region separating the two. Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the bonding present in the deposited films was correlated to the oxidation state of the target. While operating the target in the metallic mode, a mix of oxidized, sub-oxide and metallic states were discovered. Alternatively, the bonding present in the films deposited when the target was in the oxidized state were that of fully oxidized tantalum pentoxide. The films deposited above the critical partial pressure demonstrated excellent leakage current densities. The exact magnitude of the leakage current density inversely scaled to the relative amount of oxygen included into the sputtering atmosphere. Detailed plot analysis showed that there were two different conduction mechanisms controlling the current flow in the capacitors. High frequency test vehicles were measured up to 10 GHz in order to determine the frequency response of the dielectric material. A circuit equivalent model describing the testing system and samples was created and utilized to fit the collected data. Overall, the technique of pulsed magnetron

  16. Surface sticking probabilities for sputtered atoms of Nb-93 and Rh-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, M. R.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    The capture coefficient probabilities for sputtered atoms of Nb-93 and Rh-103 incident on Al2O3 surfaces were measured using the backscattering of MeV heavy ions. In the circumstance where the collecting surface is thickly covered, the sticking probabilities integrated over the energy distribution of sputtered atoms are 0.97 plus or minus 0.01 for Nb-93 and 0.95 plus or minus 0.01 for Rh-103 respectively. In the limit of negligible areal coverage of the collector, the accuracy is less; in this case the sticking probabilities are 0.97 + 0.03 or -0.08 and 0.95 + 0.05 or -0.08.

  17. Sputtering of amorphous silicon nitride irradiated with energetic C60 ions: Preferential sputtering and synergy effect between electronic and collisional sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, T.; Morita, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Narumi, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Sataka, M.; Toulemonde, M.; Kimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicon nitride films (thickness 30 nm) deposited on Si(0 0 1) were irradiated with 30-1080 keV C60 and 100 MeV Xe ions to fluences ranging from 2 × 1011 to 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The composition depth profiles of the irradiated samples were measured using high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yields were estimated from the derived composition profiles. Pronounced preferential sputtering of nitrogen was observed in the electronic energy loss regime. In addition, a large synergy effect between the electronic and collisional sputtering was also observed. The sputtering yields were calculated using the unified thermal spike model to understand the observed results. Although the calculated results reproduced the observed total sputtering yields with a lowered sublimation energy, the observed preferential sputtering of nitrogen could not be explained. The present results suggest an additional sputtering mechanism related to the electronic energy loss.

  18. Status of the heavy ion beam probe system in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Kato, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Shevelko, V. P.; Janev, R. K.; Wada, M.

    2008-02-15

    A heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) system has been installed into the Large Helical Device (LHD) to measure the spatial profile of the plasma potential and density fluctuations. The optimization of the HIBP system, especially the beam injector, is described. The negative ion beam is required for the MeV beam production in a tandem accelerator. A sputter-type heavy negative ion source has been developed as an intense Au{sup -} beam source to produce Au{sup +} beams with energy in the MeV range. The extraction electrodes and the Einzel lens system of the ion source have been designed taking into account the beam optics, and installed into the real machine. Throughout the plasma diagnostics on LHD experiments, the consumptions of vaporized caesium and gold target are being characterized for practical operations. In addition, the experimental charge fractions are compared with the theoretical fractions for understanding the charge-changing behavior of Au{sup -} ions and optimizing the fraction of Au{sup +} ions at the exit of the tandem accelerator of the HIBP system.

  19. A Fast Method of Fully Characterizing Sputtering Angular Dependence (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-17

    A new method has been demonstrated in which a single experiment is used to fully define the sputtering angular dependence of a given material. The...profilometry; the full sputtering angular dependence curve is then extracted using a numerical approach.

  20. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

  1. In-situ sputtering of YBCO films for microwave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballentine, P. H.; Kadin, A. M.; Mallory, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    RF magnetron sputtering from a single YBCO target onto a heated substrate (700 C) was used to obtain c-axis-oriented 1-2-3 films that are superconducting without a subsequent annealing or oxygenation step, with Tc(R = 0) as high as 88 K on MgO and LaAlO3 substrates. This process uses an 8-in-diameter target in the sputter-up configuration, with a central grounded shield to eliminate negative ion bombardment. It can reproducibly and uniformly cover substrates as large as 3-in across at rates exceeding 1 A/s. Maintaining film composition very close to stoichiometry is essential for obtaining films with good superconducting properties and surface morphology. Optimum films have critical currents of 1 MA/sq cm at 77 K. Measurements of microwave surface resistance based on a stripline resonator indicate low surface resistance for unpatterned YBCO ground planes, but excess loss and a strong power dependence in a patterned center strip.

  2. Carbonate as sputter target material for rapid 14C AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longworth, Brett E.; Robinson, Laura F.; Roberts, Mark L.; Beaupre, Steven R.; Burke, Andrea; Jenkins, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for measuring the 14C content of carbonate samples by producing C- ions directly in the negative ion sputter source of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) system. This direct analysis of carbonate material eliminates the time and expense of graphite preparation. Powdered carbonate is mixed with titanium powder, loaded into a target cartridge, and compressed. Beam currents for optimally-sized carbonate targets (0.09-0.15 mg C) are typically 10-20% of those produced by optimally-sized graphite targets (0.5-1 mg C). Modern (>0.8 Fm) samples run by this method have standard deviations of 0.009 Fm or less, and near-modern samples run as unknowns agree with values from traditional hydrolysis/graphite to better than 2%. Targets with as little as 0.06 mg carbonate produce useable ion currents and results, albeit with increased error and larger blank. In its current state, direct sputtering is best applied to problems where a large number of analyses with lower precision are required. These applications could include age surveys of deep-sea corals for determination of historic population dynamics, to identify samples that would benefit from high precision analysis, and for growth rate studies of organisms forming carbonate skeletons.

  3. Intergalactic medium metal enrichment through dust sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Simone; Ferrara, Andrea

    2005-04-01

    We study the motion of dust grains into the intergalactic medium (IGM) around redshift z= 3, to test the hypothesis that grains can efficiently pollute the gas with metals through sputtering. We use the results available in the literature for radiation-driven dust ejection from galaxies as initial conditions and follow the motion onwards. Via this mechanism, grains are ejected into the IGM with velocities >100 km s-1 as they move supersonically, grains can be efficiently eroded by non-thermal sputtering. However, Coulomb and collisional drag forces effectively reduce the charged grain velocity. Up-to-date sputtering yields for graphite and silicate (olivine) grains have been derived using the code TRANSPORT OF IONS IN MATTER (TRIM), for which we provide analytic fits. After training our method on a homogeneous density case, we analyse the grain motion and sputtering in the IGM density field as derived from a Λ cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological simulation at z= 3.27. We found that only large (a>~ 0.1μm) grains can travel up to considerable distances (few ×100 kpc physical) before being stopped. Resulting metallicities show a well-defined trend with overdensity δ. The maximum metallicities are reached for 10 < δ < 100[corresponding to systems, in quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra, with 14.5 < log N(HI) < 16]. However the distribution of sputtered metals is very inhomogeneous, with only a small fraction of the IGM volume polluted by dust sputtering (filling factors of 18 per cent for Si and 6 per cent for C). For the adopted size distribution, grains are never completely destroyed; nevertheless, the extinction and gas photoelectric heating effects resulting from this population of intergalactic grains are well below current detection limits.

  4. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanism and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  5. Sputtering Erosion in the Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.; Mantenieks, Maris A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the first phase of this research, the sputtering yields of molybdenum by low energy (100 eV and higher) xenon ions were measured by using the methods of secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). However, the measured sputtering yields were found to be far too low to explain the sputtering erosions observed in the long-duration tests of ion thrusters. The only difference between the sputtering yield measurement experiments and the ion thruster tests was that the later are conducted at high ion fluences. Hence, a study was initiated to investigate if any linkage exists between high ion fluence and an enhanced sputtering yield. The objective of this research is to gain an understanding of the causes of the discrepancies between the sputtering rates of molybdenum grids in an ion thruster and those measured from our experiments. We are developing a molecular dynamics simulation technique for studying low-energy xenon ion interactions with molybdenum. It is difficult to determine collision sequences analytically for primary ions below the 200 eV energy range where the ion energy is too low to be able to employ a random cascade model with confidence and it is too high to have to consider only single collision at or near the surface. At these low energies, the range of primary ions is about 1 to 2 nm from the surface and it takes less than 4 collisions on the average to get an ion to degrade to such an energy that it can no longer migrate. The fine details of atomic motion during the sputtering process are revealed through computer simulation schemes. By using an appropriate interatomic potential, the positions and velocities of the incident ion together with a sufficient number of target atoms are determined in small time steps. Hence, it allows one to study the evolution of damages in the target and its effect on the sputtering yield. We are at the preliminary stages of setting up the simulation program.

  6. Carbonaceous Particles Production in a Sputtering Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Dominique, Claire; Sant, Marco; Arnas, Cecile

    2005-10-31

    Spherical dust particles have been produced in argon glow discharge by sputtering of a graphite cathode. Their size varies from 40 to 200 nm depending on the distance between the two electrodes and the largest ones have a cauliflower shape. Simulations giving the evolution of the energy distribution of sputtered carbon atoms suggest a mechanism of growth by carbon vapour condensation. The chemical composition and structure of particles have been investigated by infrared spectroscopy and appear to be a complex arrangement of the carbon atoms and hetero-atoms.

  7. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  8. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOEpatents

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  9. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oupický, P.; Jareš, D.; Václavík, J.; Vápenka, D.

    2013-04-01

    The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process) for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR) for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  10. On the target surface cleanness during magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelfhout, R.; Strijckmans, K.; Boydens, F.; Depla, D.

    2015-11-01

    The thickness of the chemisorbed oxide layer on a tantalum target surface was determined from sputter cleaning experiments. These measurements show a clear logarithmic growth behaviour as a function of the oxygen exposure. By extrapolating this result towards other sputter conditions, the target cleanness during magnetron sputter deposition can be estimated.

  11. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOEpatents

    McKernan, M.A.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Chen, C.W.

    1994-02-08

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface. 2 figures.

  12. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOEpatents

    McKernan, Mark A.; Alford, Craig S.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Chen, Chih-Wen

    1994-01-01

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface.

  13. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    SciTech Connect

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2013-09-09

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased.

  14. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2013-09-01

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased.

  15. Effect of sputtering power on the growth of Ru films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhanwar, Prachi; Kumar, Arvind; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    Ruthenium is deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at different powers and is characterized. The effect of sputtering power on the electrical and structural properties of the film is investigated experimentally. High resolution X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the microstructure of Ru films deposited on SiO2 surface. The peak (002) is more sharp and intense with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.37° at 250W. The grain size increases with increase in sputtering power improving the crystallinity of the film. The film deposited at high sputtering power also showed lower resistivity (12.40 µΩ-cm) and higher mobility (4.82 cm2/V.s) as compared to the film deposited at low power. The surface morphology of the film is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  17. Method and apparatus for sputtering with a plasma lens

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2016-09-27

    A plasma lens for enhancing the quality and rate of sputter deposition onto a substrate is described herein. The plasma lens serves to focus positively charged ions onto the substrate while deflecting negatively charged ions, while at the same time due to the line of sight positioning of the lens, allowing for free passage of neutrals from the target to the substrate. The lens itself is formed of a wound coil of multiple turns, inside of which are deposed spaced lens electrodes which are electrically paired to impress an E field overtop the B field generated by the coil, the potential applied to the electrodes increasing from end to end towards the center of the lens, where the applied voltage is set to a high potential at the center electrodes as to produce a potential minimum on the axis of the lens.

  18. The friction and wear properties of sputtered hard refractory compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Several refractory silicide, boride, and carbide coatings were examined. The coatings were applied to type 440C steel surfaces by radio-frequency sputtering. The friction and wear properties of the coatings were found to be related to stoichiometry and impurity content of the bulk coating as well as the degree of interfacial adherence between coating and substrate. Bulk coating stoichiometry could to a large extent be controlled by the application of a negative bias voltage during deposition. Adherence was promoted by the formation of an oxidized layer at the interface. Deliberate preoxidizing of the 440C produced enhanced adherence for many compounds which are related to the formation of a mixed oxide transition region.

  19. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  20. Continuous Sputter Deposition Coating of Long Monofilaments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    terminal. A length of fishing line, microtubing, or polylactic acid (PLA) coated with copper could be left to cure within an epoxy, and upon removal...inductance, capacitance, resistance min minute MSD magnetron sputter deposition PLA polylactic acid RPM revolutions per minute R resistance (units

  1. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T. K.; Sveinsson, O. B.; Olafsson, S.

    2012-10-01

    Here we discuss reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering sputtering (HiPIMS) [1] of Ti target in an Ar/N2 and Ar/O2 atmosphere. The discharge current waveform is highly dependent on both the pulse repetition frequency and discharge voltage. The discharge current increases with decreasing frequency or voltage. This we attribute to an increase in the secondary electron emission yield during the self-sputtering phase of the pulse, as nitride [2] or oxide [3] forms on the target. We also discuss the growth of TiN films on SiO2 at temperatures of 22-600 ^oC. The HiPIMS process produces denser films at lower growth temperature and the surface is much smoother and have a significantly lower resistivity than dc magnetron sputtered films on SiO2 at all growth temperatures due to reduced grain boundary scattering [4].[4pt] [1] J. T. Gudmundsson, N. Brenning, D. Lundin and U. Helmersson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 30 030801 (2012)[0pt] [2] F. Magnus, O. B. Sveinsson, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, J. Appl. Phys., 110 083306 (2011)[0pt] [3] F. Magnus, T. K. Tryggvason, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., submitted 2012[0pt] [4] F. Magnus, A. S. Ingason, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., accepted 2012

  2. Research on Sputtering of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    and d1,5 coefficients as a function of composition in the PbNb 2 06-BaNb2O6 system. Fig. 4 Schematic representation of the sputter coating process. Fig...and photochromic 2 activities, and promises excellent optoelectronic properties. There have been numerous concepts for its application in elec- tronic

  3. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-09-15

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of {approx}0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of {approx}560 W/cm{sup 2}. The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range

  4. Anorthite sputtering by H+ and Arq+ (q = 1-9) at solar wind velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Hijazi, Hussein Dib; Bannister, Mark E.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Meyer, Fred W.

    2014-10-16

    Here, we report sputtering measurements of anorthite-like material, taken to be representative of soils found in the lunar highlands, impacted by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the nonreactive heavy solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, at fixed solar wind-relevant impact velocities of 165 and 310 km/s (0.25 keV/amu and 0.5 keV/amu). A quartz microbalance approach (QCM) for determination of total sputtering yields was used. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction. The QCM results show a yield increase of a factor of about 80 for Ar+ versus H+ sputtering and an enhancement by a factor of 1.67 between Ar9+ and Ar+, which is a clear indication of a potential sputtering effect.

  5. Cs + sputtered clusters from multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphite and the structural transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shoaib; Javeed, Sumera; Zeeshan, Sumaira; Naeem, Athar; Saadat, Shahzad; Yousuf, Muhammad; Khaleel, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Ahsan; Shahnawaz, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite as targets in a source of negative ions with cesium sputtering show that MWCNTs with nanometer radii and micrometer length can be compared with micrometer-size graphite grains. The comparative study helps to better understand the irradiation effects, including the formation, sputtering of carbon clusters and the resulting structural changes. The simultaneous adsorption of Cs 0 on the surface and bombardment by energetic Cs + ions is shown to play a role in cluster formation and sputtering of carbon atoms and clusters (C x; x ⩾ 1) and the cesium-substituted carbon clusters (CsC x) as anions. Qualitative and quantitative outputs of sputtered species are related to their respective structures. Structural changes are shown to occur in MWCNTs and seen in scanning electron micrographs. The individual identity of the heavily bombarded MWCNTs may have given way to the merged structures while effects on the structure of heavily irradiated graphite grains size needs to be further investigated.

  6. On the phase formation of sputtered hafnium oxide and oxynitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Sarakinos, K.; Music, D.; Mraz, S.; Baben, M. to; Jiang, K.; Nahif, F.; Braun, A.; Zilkens, C.; Schneider, J. M.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Cossement, D.; Munnik, F.

    2010-07-15

    Hafnium oxynitride films are deposited from a Hf target employing direct current magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. It is shown that the presence of N{sub 2} allows for the stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and the compound sputtering mode enabling deposition of films at well defined conditions of target coverage by varying the O{sub 2} partial pressure. Plasma analysis reveals that this experimental strategy facilitates control over the flux of the O{sup -} ions which are generated on the oxidized target surface and accelerated by the negative target potential toward the growing film. An arrangement that enables film growth without O{sup -} ion bombardment is also implemented. Moreover, stabilization of the transition sputtering zone and control of the O{sup -} ion flux without N{sub 2} addition is achieved employing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Structural characterization of the deposited films unambiguously proves that the phase formation of hafnium oxide and hafnium oxynitride films with the crystal structure of HfO{sub 2} is independent from the O{sup -} bombardment conditions. Experimental and theoretical data indicate that the presence of vacancies and/or the substitution of O by N atoms in the nonmetal sublattice favor the formation of the cubic and/or the tetragonal HfO{sub 2} crystal structure at the expense of the monoclinic HfO{sub 2} one.

  7. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a…

  8. Annealing of gold nanostructures sputtered on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Siegel, J.; Šutta, P.; Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Worsch, P.; Kolská, Z.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of annealing at 300 °C on gold nanostructures sputtered onto glass substrate were studied using XRD, SAXSees, the Van der Pauw method and ellipsometry. As-sputtered and annealed samples exhibit a different dependence of the gold lattice parameter on the sputtering time. With increasing sputtering time the average thickness of the layer and the size of gold crystallites increased. Another rapid enlargement of the crystallites is observed after annealing. The volume resistivity decreases rapidly with the increasing sputtering time for both, as-deposited and annealed structures. With increasing sputtering time initially discontinuous gold coverage changes gradually in a continuous one. Electrically continuous gold coverage on the as-sputtered and annealed samples exhibits the same concentration of free charge carriers and Hall mobility. Optical constants of as-deposited and annealed gold films determined by ellipsometry support resistivity measurements and clearly manifest the presence of plasmons in discontinuous films.

  9. Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Identify by block number) -ii -"Measurements of sputtering of adsorbed hydrogen by cesium ion bombardment -m r -J have been completed. The temperature...of the desorbed negative hydrogen ions - Ad is about 0.5 percent of the bombarding energy. An experiment for studying bombardment with cesium and...hydrogen ions has been constructed. Formation of cesium coverage due to cesium bombardment of a molybdenum target has been studied. Cesium coverage is

  10. Simulation of the electric potential and plasma generation coupling in magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Krueger, Dennis; Schmidt, Frederik; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering typically operated at low pressures below 1 Pa is a widely applied deposition technique. For both, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as well as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) the phenomenon of rotating ionization zones (also referred to as spokes) has been observed. A distinct spatial profile of the electric potential has been associated with the latter, giving rise to low, mid, and high energy groups of ions observed at the substrate. The adherent question of which mechanism drives this process is still not fully understood. This query is approached using Monte Carlo simulations of the heavy particle (i.e., ions and neutrals) transport consistently coupled to a pre-specified electron density profile via the intrinsic electric field. The coupling between the plasma generation and the electric potential, which establishes correspondingly, is investigated. While the system is observed to strive towards quasi-neutrality, distinct mechanisms governing the shape of the electric potential profile are identified. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the transregional collaborative research centre TRR 87.

  11. Sodium ions circulation in the magnetosphere of Mercury and its contribution to ion sputtering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Alessandro; Wurz, Peter; Lammer, Helmut; Orsini, Stefano; Milillo, Anna; Massetti, Stefano; Mangano, Valeria; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Khodachenko, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Here we present the result of our model for the circulation of Sodium ions in the magnetosphere of Mercury. Magnetospheric Na+ ions are the results of the photon ionization of the neutral Na exosphere. We first use a Na exospheric model as a source; then we simulate the Na+ circulation using a single particle Montecarlo model, which takes into account the latest findings from the MESSENGER mission. The Na+ densities and fluxes are computed inside the whole magnetosphere. A subset of the simulated data, corresponding to the MESSENGER orbit, is compared against the data from MESSENGER FIPS instrument, showing a good agreement. Then, the validated Na+ circulation model is used to estimate the Na+ flux onto the surface of Mercury. The precipitation of heavy planetary ions, in fact, is believed to give a substantial contribution to the sputtering process on the surface of Mercury (Delcourt et al., 2003), comparable with that from the precipitation of solar wind plasma. In fact, Na+ ions have a larger sputtering yield compared with that of protons. The results, in terms of sputtered fluxes and generated neutral exosphere, are presented.

  12. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS AND NEGATIVE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gopinath, P.S.; Mathai, P. John; Michael, Albert

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY This study determines the frequency distribution of prominent negative symptoms in a group of chronic, hospitalised schizophrenics. Thirty chronic Schizophrenic (D.S.M. III) patients were rated on the scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the prominent negative symptoms were correlated with age, sex and certain illness variables. Majority (80%) of patients had some or the other negative symptom, except thought blocking which was found in none. The subjective awareness of the symptoms was poor. Most negative symptoms were present to a severe degree in about 40% of cases. However, no significant correlation was found between severe negative symptoms and age or sex. Similarly, duration of illness, duration of hospitalisation or current medications did not influence negative symptoms to any appreciable degree. The implications are discussed. PMID:21965985

  13. Simulation studies on sputtering in rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.; Muramoto, T.; Hirotani, N.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a surface roughness on sputtering is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. In order to estimate this influence in ACAT calculation, the ACAT code is modified. The two-dimensional fractal surface model is applied to the ACAT code and a surface binding energy of a target material is estimated by a many-body tight-binding potential. Simulation results calculated with the modified ACAT are compared with experimental data and the standard planar ACAT on sputtering yields of a Mo surface irradiated with 2 keV D+ ions. The modified ACAT code predicts well experimental data from rough surfaces compared with the standard planar ACAT code.

  14. Critical currents in sputtered copper molybdenum sulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Kammerdiner, L.; Luo, H.-L.

    1977-01-01

    Critical currents in a sputtered Chevrel-phase copper molybdenum sulfide have been measured at 4.2 K as a function of applied magnetic field. Self-field critical-current values up to 10 to the 9th A/sq m were found, decreasing to 10 to the 8th A/sq m at 3 T. Graphs of pinning forces versus field were found to be independent of field direction, and the pinning mechanism is sample independent. Critical-current densities for sputtered lead molybdenum sulphide are estimated to be about 10 to the 8th A/sq m at 26 T based on a scaling law for pinning.

  15. Textured carbon surfaces on copper by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N. (Inventor); Jensen, K. A. (Inventor); Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A very thin layer of highly textured carbon is applied to a copper surface by a triode sputtering process. A carbon target and a copper substrate are simultaneously exposed to an argon plasma in a vacuum chamber. The resulting carbon surface is characterized by a dense, random array of needle like spires or peaks which extend perpendicularly from the copper surface. The coated copper is especially useful for electrode plates in multistage depressed collectors.

  16. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  17. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Arthur T.; Hosford, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simultaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure 12 comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets 16 is machined out to form a dimple 11. Glass microballoons, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  18. Sputtering Erosion in Ion and Plasma Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1996-01-01

    Low energy sputtering of molybdenum, tantalum and boron nitride with xenon ions are being studied using secondary neutral and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SNMS/SIMS). An ultrahigh vacuum chamber was used to conduct the experiment at a base pressure of 1x10(exp -9) torr. The primary ion beam is generated by an ion gun which is capable of delivering ion currents in the range of 20 to 500 nA. The ion beam can be focused to a spot size of approximately 1 mm in diameter. The mass spectrometer is positioned 10 mm from the target and 90 deg to the primary ion beam direction. SNMS and SIMS spectra were collected at various incident angles and different ion energies. For boron nitride sputtering, the target was flooded with an electron beam to neutralize the charge buildup on the surface. In the SNMS mode, sputtering of Mo and Ta can be detected at an ion energy as low as 100 eV whereas in boron nitride the same was observed up to an energy of 300 eV. However, in the positive-SIMS mode, the sputtering of Mo was observed at 10 eV incident ion energy. The SIMS spectra obtained for boron nitride clearly identifies the two isotopes of boron as well as cluster ions such as B2(sup +) and molecular ions such as BN(sup +). From the angle versus yields measurements, it was found that the maximum SNMS yield shifts towards lower incident angles at low ion energies for all three samples.

  19. Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The ``propeller blades'' of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André; Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to E ×B, where E and B are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.

  20. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

  1. Comparison of laser ablation and sputter desorption of clusters from Au7Cu5Al4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, B. V.; Moore, J. F.; Cui, Y.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ionized and neutral clusters were desorbed from spangold, a polycrystalline ternary alloy with composition Au7Cu5Al4, using both a femtosecond laser beam and an energetic ion beam and the resulting time of flight mass spectra compared. Neutral clusters containing up to 7 atoms were ejected by the 15 keV Ar+ beam whereas only smaller positively and negatively charged clusters were observed from the laser ablated spangold surface. Laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS) positive ion spectra were dominated by Al containing cluster ions whereas Au containing ions dominated the negative LIMS spectrum. An odd-even variation in LIMS cluster yield was observed, consistent with previous results and due to fragmentation of photoionized clusters. The laser sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (laser SNMS) spectrum showed that larger desorbed clusters were gold rich. The cluster signals also followed a power law dependence with cluster size with the exponent value of 6-7.6 for sputtered mixed clusters being greater than that found from sputtering of pure elements, similar to the result found previously in the Cu-Au system.

  2. An exploratory study of recycled sputtering and CsF2- current enhancement for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-L.; Charles, C. R. J.; Cornett, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.; MacDonald, C.; Kazi, Z.; St-Jean, N.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 135Cs/Cs ratios at levels below 10-12 by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) would preferably use commonly available negative ion injection systems. The sputter ion sources in these injectors should ideally produce currents of Cs- or Cs-containing molecular anions approaching μA levels from targets containing mg quantities of Cs. However, since Cs is the most electro-positive stable element in nature with a low electron affinity, the generation of large negative atomic, or molecular beams containing Cs, has been very challenging. In addition, the reduction of the interferences from the 135Ba isobar and the primary 133Cs+ beam used for sputtering are also necessary. The measurement of a wide range of the isotope ratios also requires the ion source memory of previous samples be minimized. This paper describes some progresses towards a potential solution of all these problems by recycled sputtering using fluorinating targets of PbF2 with mg CsF mixed in. The problems encountered indicate that considerable further studies and some redesign of the present ion sources will be desirable.

  3. SPUTTERING FROM A POROUS MATERIAL BY PENETRATING IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F.; Bringa, E. M.; Cassidy, T. A.; Caro, A.; Loeffler, M. J.; Farkas, D.

    2011-12-10

    Porous materials are ubiquitous in the universe and weathering of porous surfaces plays an important role in the evolution of planetary and interstellar materials. Sputtering of porous solids in particular can influence atmosphere formation, surface reflectivity, and the production of the ambient gas around materials in space. Several previous studies and models have shown a large reduction in the sputtering of a porous solid compared to the sputtering of the non-porous solid. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the sputtering of a nanoporous solid with 55% of the solid density. We calculate the electronic sputtering induced by a fast, penetrating ion, using a thermal spike representation of the deposited energy. We find that sputtering for this porous solid is, surprisingly, the same as that for a full-density solid, even though the sticking coefficient is high.

  4. Dynamical simulation for sputtering of B 4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Kawamura, T.; Ono, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1998-10-01

    Using ACAT-DIFFUSE code, we have simulated the fluence dependence of B 4C sputtering and the associated surface composition change under D + ion bombardment. The ACAT-DIFFUSE is a simulation code, which is based on a Monte Carlo method with a binary collision approximation and solves diffusion equations. In the case of near-threshold sputtering, the preferential sputtering of B atoms is enhanced by the threshold effect. As a result, the total sputtering yield at the steady state is reduced by about 20% compared with low-fluence sputtering. The surface concentration at steady state is determined by the competitive processes between diffusion and surface-atom removal due to sputtering. At normal incidence the interstitial diffusion contributes appreciably to the steady-state surface concentration, but at grazing incidence this effect is small. Therefore, the steady-state surface concentration ratio at grazing incidence is less than that of normal incidence.

  5. Sputtering: A vacuum deposition method for coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1972-01-01

    The sputtering process is described in terms of its features: versatility, momentum transfer, configuration of target, precise controls and the relatively slow deposition rate. Sputtered films are evaluated in terms of adherence, coherence, and internal stresses. The strong adherence is attributed to the high kinetic energies of the sputtered material, sputter etched (cleaned) surface, and the submicroscopic particle size. An illustration is a sputtered solid film lubricant such as MoS2. Friction tests were conducted on a thin, 2000 A deg thick MoS2 film. These films are very dense and without observable pinholes, and the particle to particle cohesion is strong. Tolerances (film thickness) can be controlled to a millionth of a centimeter. Very adherent films of sputtered Teflon can be deposited in a single operation on any type of material (metal, glass, paper) and on any geometrical configuration with a dense adherent film.

  6. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  7. Sputtering from a Porous Material by Penetrating Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F.; Bringa, E. M.; Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Caro, A.; Fama, M.; Loeffler, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Farkas, D.

    2012-01-01

    Porous materials are ubiquitous in the universe and weathering of porous surfaces plays an important role in the evolution of planetary and interstellar materials. Sputtering of porous solids in particular can influence atmosphere formation, surface reflectivity, and the production of the ambient gas around materials in space, Several previous studies and models have shown a large reduction in the sputtering of a porous solid compared to the sputtering of the non-porous solid. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the sputtering of a nanoporous solid with 55% of the solid density. We calculate the electronic sputtering induced by a fast, penetrating ion, using a thermal spike representation of the deposited energy. We find that sputtering for this porous solid is, surprisingly, the same as that for a full-density solid, even though the sticking coefficient is high.

  8. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind is examined as a possible mechanism of mass fractionation. Simple arguments based on current theories of sputtering and the ballistics of the sputtered atoms suggest that most ejected atoms will have sufficiently high energy to escape lunar gravity. However, the fraction of atoms which falls back to the surface is enriched in the heavier atomic components relative to the lighter ones. This material is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains where it is subject to resputtering. Over the course of several hundred years an equilibrium surface layer, enriched in heavier atoms, is found to form. The dependence of the calculated results upon the sputtering rate and on the details of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles is investigated. It is concluded that mass fractionation by solar wind sputtering is likely to be an important phenomenon on the lunar surface.

  9. Mechanisms of Excitation and Ionization Processes in Sputtering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    PROCESSES IN SPUTTERING cFINAL REPORT In IGNATIUS S.T. TSONG AUGUST 7, 1985 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT NO. N00014-81-K-0844 CARIZONA STATE...interactions. To this end, we direct our investigation on the particles sputtered when a solid surface is subjected to energetic ion bombardment. An...understanding of the basic mechanisms will allow better interpretation of experimental data obtained by surface analytical techniques which make use of sputtering

  10. Energy and mass dependence of isotopic enrichment in sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Zhang, J.; Ray, Pradosh

    2003-05-01

    When a solid surface containing more than one component is bombarded by energetic particles, the sputtered flux is found to deviated from the stoichiometric composition of the target. This is known as preferential sputtering. Usually the sputtered flux is enriched with the lighter-mass particles, particularly at small emission angles. As the bombardment of the target is continued, the target surface becomes depleted in the particles that are preferentially emitted and a steady state is eventually established, where the ratio of the sputtered particles becomes equal to the natural abundance ratio of the particles in the target.

  11. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. ); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Low energy sputtering of cobalt by cesium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handoo, A.; Ray, Pradosh K.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental facility to investigate low energy (less than 500 eV) sputtering of metal surfaces with ions produced by an ion gun is described. Results are reported on the sputtering yield of cobalt by cesium ions in the 100 to 500 eV energy range at a pressure of 1 times 10(exp -6) Torr. The target was electroplated on a copper substrate. The sputtered atoms were collected on a cobalt foil surrounding the target. Co-57 was used as a tracer to determine the sputtering yield.

  13. Controlling ion fluxes during reactive sputter-deposition of SnO{sub 2}:F

    SciTech Connect

    Jäger, Timo Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Anders, André

    2014-07-21

    Magnetron sputtering of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is a scalable deposition method for large-area transparent conducting films used in fenestration, photovoltaics, and other applications. The electrical conductivity of sputtered FTO is, however, lower than that of spray-pyrolized FTO because of the ion damage induced by high energy ions leading to a reduction of the crystal quality in sputtered FTO films. In this study, various ion species present during the reactive sputtering of a metallic tin target in a mixed Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} atmosphere are systematically characterized by energy and mass spectrometry, and possible ways of controlling the ion fluxes are explored. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of the negative ions F{sup −} and O{sup −} exhibit large peaks at an energy corresponding to the full target voltage. Although the applied partial pressure of CF{sub 4} is about 1/30 than that of O{sub 2}, the obtained IEDFs of F{sup −} and O{sup −} have comparable peak height, which can be attributed to a higher electronegativity of F. The IEDFs of positively charged O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and Sn{sup +} species have their peaks around 2–8 eV. To control ion fluxes a solenoid or permanent magnets were placed between the target and the mass spectrometer. The flux of positive ions could be varied by several orders of magnitude as a function of the applied current through the solenoid, whereas the high-energy (>100 eV) negative F{sup −} and O{sup −} ions were not notably deflected. By using permanent magnets with the B-field orthogonal to the ion trajectory, the flux of O{sup −} ions could be decreased by two orders and the exposure to the high-energy F{sup −} ions was completely suppressed.

  14. Asymmetric particle fluxes from drifting ionization zones in sputtering magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Anders, André

    2014-04-01

    Electron and ion fluxes from direct current and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (dcMS and HiPIMS) plasmas were measured in the plane of the target surface. Biased collector probes and a particle energy and mass analyzer showed asymmetric emission of electrons and of singly and doubly charged ions. For both HiPIMS and dcMS discharges, higher fluxes of all types of particles were observed in the direction of the electrons' E × B drift. These results are put in the context with ionization zones that drift over the magnetron's racetrack. The measured currents of time-resolving collector probes suggest that a large fraction of the ion flux originates from drifting ionization zones, while energy-resolving mass spectrometry indicates that a large fraction of the ion energy is due to acceleration by an electric field. This supports the recently proposed hypothesis that each ionization zone is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge structure, thereby producing an electric field that accelerates ions from the location where they were formed.

  15. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  16. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2014-02-15

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  17. Comparison of the Sputter Rates of Oxide Films Relative to the Sputter Rate of SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kim, J.; Lee, B.; Mathews, C.; Opila, R. L.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Stickle, William F.; Wallace, Robert; Wright, B. S.

    2010-09-02

    Because of the increasing technological importance of oxide films for a variety of applications, there is a growing interest in knowing the sputter rates for a wide variety of oxides. To support needs of users of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) User facility as well as our research programs, we have made a series of measurements of the sputter rates for oxide films that have been grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), electrochemical oxidation, or sputter deposition. The sputter rates for these oxide films were determined in comparison to the sputter rates for thermally grown SiO2, a common sputter rate reference material. The film thicknesses and densities of these films were usually measured using x-ray reflectivity (XRR). These samples were mounted in an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) system or an Auger electron spectrometer for sputtering measurements using argon ion sputtering. Although the primary objective was to determine relative sputter rates at a fixed angle, the measurements were also used to determine: i) the angle dependence of the relative sputter rates; ii) the energy dependence of the relative sputter rates; and iii) the extent of ion beam reduction for the various oxides. Materials examined include: SiO2 (reference films), Al2O3, CeO2, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, HfO2, ITO (In-Sn-oxide) Ta2O5, TiO2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. We find that the sputter rates for the oxides can vary up to a factor of two (usually slower) from that observed for SiO2. The ratios of sputter rates to SiO2 appear to be relatively independent of ion beam energy for the range of 1kV to 4 kV and for incident angles of less than 50º. As expected, the ion beam reduction of the oxides varies with the sputter angle. These studies demonstrate that we can usually obtain sputter rate reproducibility better than 5% for similar oxide films.

  18. A new technique for measuring sputtering yields at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Griffith, J. E.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of thin, self-supporting carbon catcher foils allows one to measure sputtering yields in a broad range of materials with high sensitivity. Analyzing the foils with Rutherford forward scattering, sputtered Al, Si and P surface densities down to 5 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm with uncertainties of about 20 percent have been measured.

  19. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  20. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  2. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; He Jiaqing; Han, Mi-Kyung; Sootsman, Joseph R.; Girard, Steven; Arachchige, Indika U.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-08-15

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 deg. C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  3. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; He, J.; Han, M-K.; Sootsman, J. R.; Girard, S.; Arachchige, I. U.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Dravid, V. P.

    2011-08-01

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  4. Mixed composition materials suitable for vacuum web sputter coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Walters, Patricia; Hambourger, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition techniques were used to investigate simultaneous sputter etching of two component targets so as to produce mixed composition films. Although sputter deposition has been largely confined to metals and metal oxides, at least one polymeric material, poly-tetra-fluorethylene, has been demonstrated to produce sputtered fragments which repolymerize upon deposition to produce a highly cross-linked fluoropolymer resembling that of the parent target Fluoropolymer-filled silicon dioxide and fluoropolymer-filled aluminum oxide coatings have been deposited by means of ion beam sputter coat deposition resulting in films having material properties suitable for aerospace and commercial applications. The addition of fluoropolymer to silicon dioxide films was found to increase the hydrophobicity of the resulting mixed films; however, adding fluoropolymer to aluminum oxide films resulted in a reduction in hydrophobicity, thought to be caused by aluminum fluoride formation.

  5. Sputter-deposited fuel cell membranes and electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Ruiz, Ron P. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing a membrane for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of providing an electrolyte membrane, and sputter-depositing a catalyst onto the electrolyte membrane. The sputter-deposited catalyst may be applied to multiple sides of the electrolyte membrane. A method for forming an electrode for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of obtaining a catalyst, obtaining a backing, and sputter-depositing the catalyst onto the backing. The membranes and electrodes are useful for assembling fuel cells that include an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, a fuel supply, and an electrolyte membrane, wherein the electrolyte membrane includes a sputter-deposited catalyst, and the sputter-deposited catalyst is effective for sustaining a voltage across a membrane electrode assembly in the fuel cell.

  6. Sputtering at grazing ion incidence: Influence of adatom islands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosandi, Yudi; Redinger, Alex; Michely, Thomas; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2010-09-15

    When energetic ions impinge at grazing incidence onto an atomically flat terrace, they will not sputter. However, when adatom islands (containing N atoms) are deposited on the surface, they induce sputtering. We investigate this effect for the specific case of 83 deg. -incident 5 keV Ar ions on a Pt (111) surface by means of molecular-dynamics simulation and experiment. We find that - for constant coverage {Theta} - the sputter yield has a maximum at island sizes of N congruent with 10-20. A detailed picture explaining the decline of the sputter yield toward larger and smaller island sizes is worked out. Our simulation results are compared with dedicated sputtering experiments, in which a coverage of {Theta}=0.09 of Pt adatoms are deposited onto the Pt (111) surface and form islands with a broad distribution around a most probable size of N congruent with 20.

  7. Plasma debris sputter resistant x-ray mirror.

    PubMed

    Amano, Sho; Inoue, Tomoaki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    A diamond-like carbon (DLC) mirror, used as a grazing incident mirror in a plasma x-ray source, exhibits a high resistance to plasma debris sputtering. Good mirror reflectivity at a wavelength of 13.5 nm was confirmed using synchrotron radiation at the NewSUBARU facility. The erosion rate due to plasma debris sputtered at the incident debris angle of 20° was measured using a laser-produced Xe plasma source developed by the authors. The results indicate that the DLC film has a 5- and 15-fold higher sputtering resistance compared to films made of the traditional mirror materials Ru and Au, respectively. Because the DLC mirror retains a high sputtering resistance to Sn ions, it may be effective in Sn plasma source applications. We conclude that a grazing incident x-ray mirror coated with DLC can be of use as a plasma debris sputtering resistant mirror.

  8. Revibrational Spectra of Molecules Sputtered of Carbon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Predrag

    2008-10-01

    Irradiation of the carbon surfaces by hydrogen isotopes results in processes of crucial importance for the carbon based divertor tiles of a fusion reactor. Thus the sputtering and implantation, result in erosion, plasma pollution, and tritium retention, as well as carbon deposition all over the reactor first wall. The molecules chemically sputtered upon impact of deuterium of deuterated carbon surface are various hydrocarbons as well as We study the translational and rovibrational energy and angular spectra of sputtered molecules. The energy distributions of ejected molecules confirm the partial thermalization of the impact cascade. Sputtered hydrocarbon molecules have rovibrational energies in the range 1.5-2 eV, with relatively cold translational and rotational motion, close to 0.5 eV. In contrast, translational and rovibrational energies of sputtered deuterium molecules are close to 1 eV, with approximate equipartition between rotational and vibrational modes.

  9. Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Daniel; Fritz, Benjamin; Vergöhl, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Particles generated during reactive magnetron sputtering cause defects in optical thin films, which may lead to losses in optical performance, pinholes, loss of adhesion, decreased laser-induced damage thresholds and many more negative effects. Therefore, it is important to reduce the particle contamination during the manufacturing process. In the present paper, the origin of particles during the deposition of various oxide films by midfrequency pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated. Several steps have been undertaken to decrease the particle contamination during the complete substrate handling procedure. It was found that conditioning of the vacuum chamber can help to decrease the defect level significantly. This level remains low for several hours of sputtering and increases after 100 hours of process time. Particle densities of SiO(2) films deposited with cylindrical and planar dual magnetrons at different process parameters as well as different positions underneath the target were compared. It was observed that the process power influences the particle density significantly in case of planar targets while cylindrical targets have no such strong dependence. In addition, the particle contamination caused by different cylindrical target materials was analyzed. No major differences in particle contamination of different cylindrical target types and materials were found.

  10. Search for new heavy resonances decaying to positive tau-lepton negative tau lepton pairs at the LHC with square root s = 7 TeV (L = 5.0 fb-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Indara Mayeli

    The Standard Model (SM) describes the known fundamental particles and their interactions due to the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces through vector boson exchange. Although the SM has had major success in predicting a wealth of experimental measurements, astrophysical evidence for dark matter the observation of neutrino oscillations, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe indicate that the SM is not a complete theory. In addition to these experimental observations, problems stemming from the failure to incorporate the gravitational force and the quantum instability of the mass of the Higgs Boson have also contributed to the motivation to search for physics beyond the SM. Multiple theoretical scenarios, including those inspired by Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), models with extra spatial dimensions, and Supersymmetry (SUSY), have been proposed to address the shortcomings of the SM. In many of these models, the new symmetries that extend the SM gauge structure require the existence of new heavy neutral gauge bosons. Regardless of the exact nature or production mechanism of the hypothesized heavy bosons, they may be observed by studying dilepton final states at high energy colliders. As many models of physics beyond the SM predict enhanced couplings to third generation particles, searches for the new heavy bosons decaying into two tau-leptons are particularly well motivated. We present a direct search for high mass neutral resonances decaying into two opposite sign tau-leptons using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC with center-of-mass energy √s = 7 TeV. The search has been conducted using data recorded by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.94 fb-1 and includes final states with leptonic and hadronic decays of the tau-lepton. The data has been found to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis within the sensitivity of the measurement. Using the Sequential Standard Model

  11. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}){sup n} and Al(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AIN){sup n}. Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented.

  12. Heavy injection drug use is associated with lower percent body fat in a multi-ethnic cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users from three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice M.; Forrester, Janet E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Flanigan, Timothy; Dobs, Adrian; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical implications of lower body weight in drug using populations are uncertain given that lower mean weights may still fall within the healthy range. Objectives To determine the effect of type, mode and frequency of drug use on underlying body composition after accounting for differences in body shape and size. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 511 participants from the Tufts Nutrition Collaborative (TNC) Study. Data included measures of body composition, a 24-hour dietary recall, and a detailed health history and lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of drug use on percent body fat (BF) after adjusting for BMI and waist circumference. Results Heavy injection drug users (IDUs) had a 2.6% lower percent BF than non-users after adjusting for BMI, waist circumference, and other confounders. (p=0.0006). Differences in percent BF were predominantly due to higher lean mass, rather than lower fat mass. Cocaine and heroin had similar effects on body composition. Conclusions In the U.S., where the general population is prone to over-nutrition, the average percent BF for heavy injectors does not fall into a range low enough to suggest harmful effects. However, in populations with substantial levels of under-nutrition, small differences in percent BF among drug users will have a greater impact on health status. Scientific Significance Differences in BMI, weight and body composition are not always straightforward. Accounting for underlying nutritional status and relative differences in fat and FFM is critical when interpreting results. PMID:20141402

  13. High-pressure reactively sputtered HfO2: Composition, morphology, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano-Luque, M.; San Andrés, E.; del Prado, A.; Mártil, I.; Lucía, M. L.; González-Díaz, G.; Martínez, F. L.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.

    2007-08-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited by high pressure reactive sputtering using different deposition pressures and times. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of the films, together with the sputtering process growth kinetics were investigated using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The films showed a monoclinic polycrystalline structure, with a grain size depending on the deposition pressure. All films were slightly oxygen rich with respect to stoichiometric HfO2 and presented a significant amount of hydrogen (up to 6at.%), which is attributed to the high affinity for moisture of the HfO2 films. The absorption coefficient was fitted to the Tauc law, obtaining a band gap value of 5.54eV. It was found that the growth rate of the HfO2 films depends on the deposition pressure (P ) as P-1.75. This dependence is explained by a diffusion model of the thermalized atoms in high-pressure sputtering. Additionally, the formation of an interfacial silicon oxide layer when the films were grown on silicon was observed, with a minimum thickness for deposition pressures around 1.2mbars. This interfacial layer was formed mainly during the initial stages of the deposition process, with only a slight increase in thickness afterwards. These results are explained by the oxidizing action of the oxygen plasma and the diffusion of oxygen radicals and hydroxyl groups through the polycrystalline HfO2 film. Finally, the dielectric properties of the HfO2/SiO2 stacks were studied by means of conductance and capacitance measurements on Al /HfO2/SiO2/Si devices as a function of gate voltage and ac frequency signal.

  14. Transport Phenomena of Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Various high quality epitaxial films, especially oxides, have been synthesized using off-axis sputtering deposition. In this presentation, we report the experiment results of ZnO films grown by the off-axis sputtering deposition. Films were synthesized in temperatures ranged from room temperature to 600 C, and pressures from 5 mTorr to 150 mTorr. Film growth rate was measured by surface profilometer, ellipsometer, and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Due to the collisions between the sputtered species and the residue gases, the kinetic energy of species was reduced and the transport of depositing species changed from a ballistic movement for low pressure to a diffusive drift for high pressure in which the transport species were almost thermalized. The measurements show an increase of growth rates along the gravity vector when the Knudsen number of transport species is less than 0.05, which suggests that gravity affected the transport characterization in off-axis sputtering deposition. Because the product of pressure (p) and travel distance (d) of sputtered species, pd, exceeds several mTorr-cm during film deposition, the classical simulations for sputtering process in high vacuum system may not be applied. Based on these experimental measurements, a transport process of the off-axis sputtering deposition is proposed. Several models including the Monte Carlo method and gravity-driven flow dynamics simulation will be discussed.

  15. Transport Phenomena of Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C. H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Zhang, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Various high quality epitaxial films, especially oxides, have been synthesized using off-axis sputtering deposition. In this presentation, we report the experiment results of ZnO films grown by the off-axis sputtering deposition. Films were synthesized in temperatures ranged from room temperature to 600 C, and pressures from 5 mTorr to 150 mTorr. Film growth rate was measured by surface profilometer, ellipsometer, and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Due to the collisions between the sputtered species and the residue gases, the kinetic energy of species was reduced and the transport of depositing species changed from a ballistic movement for low pressure to a diffuse drift for high pressure in which the transport species were almost thermalized. The measurements show an increase of growth rates along the gravity vector when the Knodson (Knudsen??) number of transport species is less than 0.05, which suggests that gravity affected the transport characterization in off-axis sputtering deposition. Because the product of pressure (p) and travel distance (d) of sputtered species, p exceeds several mTorr-cm during film deposition, the classical simulations for sputtering process in high vacuum system may not be applied. Based on these experimental measurements, a transport process of the off-axis sputtering deposition is proposed. Several methods including the Monte Carlo method and gravity-driven flow dynamics simulation will be discussed.

  16. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  17. Ion Beam Sputtered Coatings of Bioglass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Wilson, J.; Ruzakowski, Patricia Henrietta Anne

    1982-01-01

    The ion beam sputtering technique available at the NASA-Lewis was used to apply coatings of bioglass to ceramic, metallic, and polymeric substrates. Experiments in vivo and in vitro described investigate these coatings. Some degree of substrate masking was obtained in all samples although stability and reactivity equivalent to bulk bioglass was not observed in all coated samples. Some degree of stability was seen in all coated samples that were reacted in vitro. Both metallic and ceramic substrates coated in this manner failed to show significantly improved coatings over those obtained with existing techniques. Implantation of the coated ceramic substrate samples in bone gave no definite bonding as seen with bulk glass; however, partial and patchy bonding was seen. Polymeric substrates in these studies showed promise of success. The coatings applied were sufficient to mask the underlying reactive test surface and tissue adhesion of collagen to bioglass was seen. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, charged, and uncharged polymeric surfaces were successfully coated.

  18. Plasma Induced Sputtered Exosphere of Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleger, Martin; Lammer, Helmut; Lindkvist, Jesper; Holmström, Mats; Vorburger, Audrey; Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Barabash, Stas

    2014-05-01

    A better understanding of particle release processes from the Gallilean satellites such as Callisto's surface is needed for planned exospheric and remote surface geochemical studies by the particle and plasma instruments of the PEP experiment on board of ESA's JUICE mission. We study the interaction between the Jovian magnetosphere plasma and Callisto's surface with a hybrid model and applied a geochemical surface composition model for the input of the surface sputter release. Then we apply a 3-D exospheric model for studying the feasibility of exospheric measurements. We model energy and ejection angle distributions of the released particles from the surface, with the emission process determining the actual distribution functions. Our model follows the trajectory of each particle by numerical integration until the particle hits Callisto's surface again or escapes from the calculation domain. Using a large set of these trajectories, bulk parameters of the exospheric gas are derived, e.g., particle densities for various species.

  19. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  20. Potential energy sputtering of EUVL materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, J M; Ratliff, L P; Gillaspy, J D; Bajt, S

    2004-07-02

    Of the many candidates employed for understanding the erosion of critical Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) components, potential energy damage remains relatively uninvestigated. Unlike the familiar kinetic energy sputtering, which is a consequence of the momentum transferred by an ion to atoms in the target, potential energy sputtering occurs when an ion rapidly collects charge from the target as it neutralizes. Since the neutralization energy of a singly charged ion is typically on the order of 10 eV, potential energy effects are generally neglected for low charge state ions, and hence the bulk of the sputtering literature. As an ion's charge state is increased, the potential energy (PE) increases rapidly, e.g. PE(Xe{sup 1+})= 11 eV, PE(Xe{sup 10+}) = 810 eV, PE(Xe{sup 20+}) = 4.6 keV, etc. By comparison, the binding energy of a single atom on a surface is typically about 5 eV, so even relatively inefficient energy transfer mechanisms can lead to large quantities of material being removed, e.g. 25% efficiency for Xe{sup 10+} corresponds to {approx} 40 atoms/ion. By comparison, singly charged xenon ions with {approx} 20 keV of kinetic energy sputter only about 5 atoms/ion at normal incidence, and less than 1 atom/ion at typical EUV source energies. EUV light sources are optimized for producing approximately 10{sup 16} xenon ions per shot with an average charge state of q=10 in the core plasma. At operational rates of {approx}10 kHz, the number of ions produced per second becomes a whopping 10{sup 20}. Even if only one in a billion ions reaches the collector, erosion rates could reach {approx}10{sup 12} atoms per second, severely reducing the collector lifetime (for an average yield of 10 atoms/ion). In addition, efforts to reduce contamination effects may contribute to reduced neutralization and even larger potential energy damages rates (discussed further below). In order to provide accurate estimates for collector lifetimes and to develop mitigation schemes

  1. Evolution of film temperature during magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shaginyan, L.R.; Han, J.G.; Shaginyan, V.R.; Musil, J.

    2006-07-15

    We report on the results of measurements of the temperature T{sup F}{sub surf} which developed on the surface of films deposited by magnetron sputtering of chromium and copper targets on cooling and non-cooling silicon substrates. The T{sup F}{sub surf} and substrate temperature (T{sub s}) were simultaneously measured using high-resolution IR camera and thermocouple, respectively. We revealed that the T{sup F}{sub surf} steeply grows, keeps constant when it achieves saturation level, and rapidly drops to the value of the T{sub s} after stopping the deposition. At the same time, the T{sub s} either does not change for the case of cooling substrate or increases to a certain level for noncooling substrate. However, in both cases the T{sub s} remains several times lower than the T{sup F}{sub surf}. The T{sup F}{sub surf} is proportional to the flux of energy delivered to the growth surface by sputtered atoms and other fast particles, weakly depends on the depositing metal and can achieve several hundreds of deg. C. This phenomenon is explained by a model assuming formation of a hot thin surface layer (HTSL) on the top of the growing film, which exists only during film deposition and exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity. Due to this unique property the temperature T{sup F}{sub surf} of HTSL is several times higher than the T{sub s}. Variations in the T{sup F}{sub surf} fairly correlate with structure changes of Cr films along thickness investigated in detail previously.

  2. Whiskers, cones and pyramids created in sputtering by ion bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    A thorough study of the role which foreign atoms play in cone formation during sputtering of metals revealed many experimental facts. Two types of cone formation were distinquished, deposit cones and seed cones. Twenty-six combinations of metals for seed cone formation were tested. The sputtering yield variations with composition for combinations which form seed cones were measured. It was demonstrated that whisker growth becomes a common occurrence when low melting point material is sputter deposited on a hot nonsputtered high melting point electrode.

  3. Porous, High Capacity Coatings for Solid Phase Microextraction by Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Anubhav; Singh, Bhupinder; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Sevy, Eric T; Shellie, Robert A; Kaykhaii, Massoud; Linford, Matthew R

    2016-02-02

    We describe a new process for preparing porous solid phase microextraction (SPME) coatings by the sputtering of silicon onto silica fibers. The microstructure of these coatings is a function of the substrate geometry and mean free path of the silicon atoms, and the coating thickness is controlled by the sputtering time. Sputtered silicon structures on silica fibers were treated with piranha solution (a mixture of concd H2SO4 and 30% H2O2) to increase the concentration of silanol groups on their surfaces, and the nanostructures were silanized with octadecyldimethylmethoxysilane in the gas phase. The attachment of this hydrophobic ligand was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle goniometry on model, planar silicon substrates. Sputtered silicon coatings adhered strongly to their surfaces, as they were able to pass the Scotch tape adhesion test. The extraction time and temperature for headspace extraction of mixtures of alkanes and alcohols on the sputtered fibers were optimized (5 min and 40 °C), and the extraction performances of SPME fibers with 1.0 or 2.0 μm of sputtered silicon were compared to those from a commercial 7 μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber. For mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, amines, and esters, the 2.0 μm sputtered silicon fiber yielded signals that were 3-9, 3-5, 2.5-4.5, and 1.5-2 times higher, respectively, than those of the commercial fiber. For the heavier alkanes (undecane-hexadecane), the 2.0 μm sputtered fiber yielded signals that were approximately 1.0-1.5 times higher than the commercial fiber. The sputtered fibers extracted low molecular weight analytes that were not detectable with the commercial fiber. The selectivity of the sputtered fibers appears to favor analytes that have both a hydrophobic component and hydrogen-bonding capabilities. No detectable carryover between runs was noted for the sputtered fibers. The repeatability (RSD%) for a fiber (n = 3) was less than 10% for all analytes tested

  4. The new applications of sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential industrial applications of sputtering and ion plating are strictly governed by the unique features these methods possess. The outstanding features of each method, the resultant coating characteristics and the various sputtering modes and configurations are discussed. New, more complex coatings and deposits can be developed such as graded composition structures (metal-ceramic seals), laminated and dispersion strengthened composites which improve the mechanical properties and high temperature stability. Specific industrial areas where future effort of sputtering and ion plating will concentrate to develop intricate alloy or compound coatings and solve difficult problem areas are discussed.

  5. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  7. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  8. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  9. Minimization of the negative influence on the biosphere in heavy oil extraction and ecologically clean technology for the injection of the steam with supercritical parameters in oil strata on the basis of new ecologically clean tubing pipes with heat-resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Tarasov, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some ecological problems related to heavy-oil extraction and ways for minimizing the negative impacts of this process on the biosphere are discussed. The ecological hazard of, for example, frequently used multistage hydraulic fracturing of formation is noted and the advantages and perspectives of superheated steam injection are considered. Steam generators of a new type and ecologically clean and costeffective insulating for tubing pipes (TPs) are necessary to develop the superheated steam injection method. The article is devoted to solving one of the most important and urgent tasks, i.e., the development and usage of lightweight, nonflammable, environmentally safe, and cost-effective insulating materials. It is shown that, for tubing shielding operating at temperatures up to 420°C, the most effective thermal insulation is a highly porous material based on basalt fiber. The process of filtration deposition of short basalt fibers with a bunch of alumina thermal insulation tubing pipe coatings in the form of cylinders and cylindrical shells from liquid pulp is substantiated. Based on the thermophysical characteristics of basalt fibers and on the technological features of manufacturing highly porous coating insulation, the thickness of a tubing pipe is determined. During the prolonged pumping of the air at an operating temperature of 400°C in the model sample of tubing pipes with insulation and a protective layer, we find that the surface temperature of the thermal barrier coating does not exceed 60°C. Introducing the described technology will considerably reduce the negative impact of heavy-oil extraction on the biosphere.

  10. Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: The role of secondary electrons and multiply charged metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2008-05-19

    Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases {approx}Q{sup 1/2}, whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases {approx}Q{sup -1/2}, with Q being the mean ion charge state number.

  11. Development of RF sputtered chromium oxide coating for wear application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.

    1979-01-01

    The radio frequency sputtering technique was used to deposite a hard refractory, chromium oxide coating on an Inconel X-750 foil 0.1 mm thick. Optimized sputtering parameters for a smooth and adherent coating were found to be as follows: target-to-substrate spacing, 41.3 mm; argon pressure, 5-10 mTorr; total power to the sputtering module, 400 W (voltage at the target, 1600 V), and a water-cooled substrate. The coating on the annealed foil was more adherent than that on the heat-treated foil. Substrate biasing during the sputter deposition of Cr2O3 adversely affected adherence by removing naturally occurring interfacial oxide layers. The deposited coatings were amorphous and oxygen deficient. Since amorphous materials are extremely hard, the structure was considered to be desirable.

  12. Extended incident-angle dependence formula for physical sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Shibata, K.; Kenmotsu, T.; Muramoto, T.; Li, Z.; Kawamura, T.

    2007-06-01

    We extend a new semi-empirical formula for incident-angle dependence of normalized sputtering yield that includes the contribution from the direct knock-out process to the sputtering yield. This was not considered fully in the previous sputtering formula. Three parameters included in the new formula are estimated for data calculated with a Monte Carlo code ACAT for D+ ions incident obliquely on C, Fe and W materials in incident energy regions from several tens of eV to 10 keV. Then, the parameters are expressed as a function of incident energy. The extended formula with these functions well reproduces the calculated data of normalized sputtering yield in the whole energy ranges.

  13. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-05-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  14. Deposition of reactively ion beam sputtered silicon nitride coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.

    1982-01-01

    An ion beam source was used to deposit silicon nitride films by reactively sputtering a silicon target with beams of Ar + N2 mixtures. The nitrogen fraction in the sputtering gas was 0.05 to 0.80 at a total pressure of 6 to 2 millionth torr. The ion beam current was 50 mA at 500 V. The composition of the deposited films was investigated by auger electron spectroscopy and the rate of deposition was determined by interferometry. A relatively low rate of deposition of about 2 nm. one-tenth min. was found. AES spectra of films obtained with nitrogen fractions higher than 0.50 were consistent with a silicon to nitrogen ratio corresponding to Si3N4. However the AES spectra also indicated that the sputtered silicon nitride films were contaminated with oxygen and carbon and contained significant amounts of iron, nickel, and chromium, most probably sputtered from the holder of the substrate and target.

  15. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-12-06

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry.

  16. Development of hydrophobicity of mica surfaces by ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metya, Amaresh; Ghose, Debabrata; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    The hydrophilic mica surface can be made hydrophobic by low energy Ar+ ion sputtering. The ion sputtering leads to both topographical and physicochemical changes of the surface which are thought to be responsible for the water repelling behavior. The sessile drop method is used to evaluate the wetting properties of the sputtered mica surfaces. It has been shown that the sputter-pattern at the nano-length scale has little influence on the development of hydrophobicity. On the other hand, the wettability appears to be strongly connected with the chemistry of the bombarded surface. We have also studied the temporal evolution of contact angle as the water evaporates due to difference in vapor pressures between the droplet surface and the surroundings. The analysis offers a simple method to estimate the diffusion coefficient of water vapor.

  17. Sputter deposition of metallic thin film and directpatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K.-N.

    2005-09-09

    A compact apparatus is developed for deposition of metal thin film. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with a straight RF antenna, which is made of or covered with deposition material, serving as sputtering target at the same time. The average deposition rate of copper thin film is as high as 450nm/min. By properly allocating the metal materials on the sputtering antenna, mixture deposition of multiple metal species is achieved. Using an ion beam imprinting scheme also taking advantage of ion beam focusing technique, two different schemes of direct patterning deposition process are developed: direct depositing patterned metallic thin film and resistless ion beam sputter patterning. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated direct pattern transfer from a template with feature size of micro scale; patterns with more than 10x reduction are achieved by sputtering patterning method.

  18. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  19. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; ...

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  20. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  1. Formation of nanostructured metallic glass thin films upon sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ketov, Sergey V; Joksimovic, Rastko; Xie, Guoqiang; Trifonov, Artem; Kurihara, Kazue; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V

    2017-01-01

    Morphology evolution of the multicomponent metallic glass film obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was investigated in the present work. Two modes of metallic glass sputtering were distinguished: smooth film mode and clustered film mode. The sputtering parameters, which have the most influence on the sputtering modes, were determined. As a result, amorphous Ni-Nb thin films with a smooth surface and nanoglassy structure were deposited on silica float glass and Si substrates. The phase composition of the target appeared to have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the deposited amorphous thin film. The differences in charge transport and nanomechanical properties between the smooth and nanoglassy Ni-Nb film were also determined.

  2. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  3. Heavy metal resistance and genotypic analysis of metal resistance genes in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria present in Ni-rich serpentine soil and in the rhizosphere of Alyssum murale.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, R A I; van Berkum, P; Angle, J S

    2007-06-01

    Forty-six bacterial cultures, including one culture collection strain, thirty from the rhizosphere of Alyssum murale and fifteen from Ni-rich soil, were tested for their ability to tolerate arsenate, cadmium, chromium, zinc, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, and nickel in their growth medium. The resistance patterns, expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations, for all cultures to the nine different metal ions were surveyed by using the agar dilution method. A large number of the cultures were resistant to Ni (100%), Pb (100%), Zn (100%), Cu (98%), and Co (93%). However, 82, 71, 58 and 47% were sensitive to As, Hg, Cd and Cr(VI), respectively. All cultures had multiple metal-resistant, with heptametal resistance as the major pattern (28.8%). Five of the cultures (about of 11.2% of the total), specifically Arthrobacter rhombi AY509239, Clavibacter xyli AY509235, Microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum AY509226, Rhizobium mongolense AY509209 and Variovorax paradoxus AY512828 were tolerant to nine different metals. The polymerase chain reaction in combination with DNA sequence analysis was used to investigate the genetic mechanism responsible for the metal resistance in some of these gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that were, highly resistant to Hg, Zn, Cr and Ni. The czc, chr, ncc and mer genes that are responsible for resistance to Zn, Cr, Ni and Hg, respectively, were shown to be present in these bacteria by using PCR. In the case of, M. arabinogalactanolyticum AY509226 these genes were shown to have high homology to the czcD, chrB, nccA, and mer genes of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. Therefore, Hg, Zn, Cr and Ni resistance genes are widely distributed in both gram-positive and gram-negative isolates obtained from A. murale rhizosphere and Ni-rich soils.

  4. Magnetospheric ion sputtering and water ice grain size at Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Paranicas, C. P.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Teolis, B. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Kamp, L.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first calculation of Europa's sputtering (ion erosion) rate as a function of position on Europa's surface. We find a global sputtering rate of 2×1027 H2O s-1, some of which leaves the surface in the form of O2 and H2. The calculated O2 production rate is 1×1026 O2 s-1, H2 production is twice that value. The total sputtering rate (including all species) peaks at the trailing hemisphere apex and decreases to about 1/3rd of the peak value at the leading hemisphere apex. O2 and H2 sputtering, by contrast, is confined almost entirely to the trailing hemisphere. Most sputtering is done by energetic sulfur ions (100s of keV to MeV), but most of the O2 and H2 production is done by cold oxygen ions (temperature ∼ 100 eV, total energy ∼ 500 eV). As a part of the sputtering rate calculation we compared experimental sputtering yields with analytic estimates. We found that the experimental data are well approximated by the expressions of Famá et al. for ions with energies less than 100 keV (Famá, M., Shi, J., Baragiola, R.A., 2008. Sputtering of ice by low-energy ions. Surf. Sci. 602, 156-161), while the expressions from Johnson et al. fit the data best at higher energies (Johnson, R.E., Burger, M.H., Cassidy, T.A., Leblanc, F., Marconi, M., Smyth, W.H., 2009. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere, in: Pappalardo, R.T., McKinnon, W.B., Khurana, K.K. (Eds.), Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.). We compare the calculated sputtering rate with estimates of water ice regolith grain size as estimated from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, and find that they are strongly correlated as previously suggested by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Fanale, F.P., Zent, A.P., 1983. Frost grain size metamorphism: Implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces. Icarus 56, 233-245.). The mechanism responsible for the sputtering rate/grain size link is uncertain. We also report a surface composition estimate using

  5. Fine plastic foil as backing for sputtered nickel targets.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Anna; Seppälä, Raimo

    Targets of (58)Ni and (60)Ni with areal density between 71 and 105 μg/cm(2) backed with polyimide foil of 35-40 μg/cm(2) were prepared by sputtering with Ar ions produced by a home made sputtering device at the Target Laboratory, University of Jyväskylä. The efficiency of the procedure was about 20 %.

  6. Dust Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge with Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Tawidian, H.; Mikikian, M.; Lecas, T.; Boufendi, L.

    2011-11-29

    Dust particles are grown in the PKE chamber by sputtering materials. The sputtering efficiency and the gas phase reactions can be affected by the gas type and particularly by the ion mass. Due to the presence of growing dust particles, the huge loss of electrons can trigger many instabilities in the plasma. These instabilities, the growth kinetics and the structure of the dust cloud, are compared by using two different gases: argon and krypton.

  7. Preparation of Copper Nanoparticles in Liquid by Matrix Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Ko; Narushima, Takashi; Udagawa, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    As a new method for nanoparticles preparation, magnetron sputtering of metal atoms and clusters into organic liquids has been intensively used recently. In this study, metallic copper nanoparticles dispersed in pentaerythritol ethoxylate were prepared by this process. Their size control was achieved by controlling the sputtering current. Specific absorption at ca. 580 nm was detected by UV-Vis measurement which is attributed to the specific plasmon absorption of metallic copper. TEM observation also revealed the formation of metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Formation of Ordered Nanoscale Semiconductor Dots by Ion Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Facsko; Dekorsy; Koerdt; Trappe; Kurz; Vogt; Hartnagel

    1999-09-03

    A formation process for semiconductor quantum dots based on a surface instability induced by ion sputtering under normal incidence is presented. Crystalline dots 35 nanometers in diameter and arranged in a regular hexagonal lattice were produced on gallium antimonide surfaces. The formation mechanism relies on a natural self-organization mechanism that occurs during the erosion of surfaces, which is based on the interplay between roughening induced by ion sputtering and smoothing due to surface diffusion.

  9. Optical Properties of Magnetron sputtered Nickel Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Fidele; Geerts, Wilhelmus J.; Cui, Yubo

    2015-03-01

    The study of optical properties of Nickel (Ni) is important, given the pivotal role it plays in the semiconductor and nano-electronics technology. Ni films were made by DC and RF magnetron sputtering in an ATC Orion sputtering system of AJA on various substrates. The optical properties were studied ex situ by variable angle spectroscopic (220-1000 nm) ellipsometry at room temperature. The data were modeled and analyzed using the Woollam CompleteEase Software fitting ellipsometric and transmission data. Films sputtered at low pressure have optical properties similar to that of Palik. Films sputtered at higher pressure however have a lower refraction index and extinction coefficient. It is expected from our results that the density of the sputtered films can be determined from the ellipsometric quantities. Our experiments also revealed that Ni is susceptible to a slow oxidation changing its optical properties over the course of several weeks. The optical properties of the native oxide differ from those of reactive sputtered NiO similar as found by. Furthermore the oxidation process of our samples is characterized by at least two different time constants.

  10. Kinetic simulation of neutral particle transport in sputtering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Gallian, Sara; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Ries, Stefan; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2013-09-01

    For many physical vapor deposition applications using sputtering processes, knowledge about the detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the involved gas species is of great importance. Modeling of the involved gas dynamic and plasma processes is however challenging, because the operating pressure is typically below 1 Pa. In consequence, only kinetic descriptions are appropriate. In order to approach this problem, the dynamics of sputtered particle transport through a neutral gas background is simulated. For this study, a modified version of the three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code dsmcFoam is utilized. The impact of a transient sputtering wind is investigated in a generic reactor geometry, which may be used for dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS), High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), as well as sputtering in capacitively coupled discharges. In the present work a rarefaction of the background gas is observed. Moreover in pulsed mode the temporal dynamics of the rarefaction and subsequent recovery of the background gas is investigated. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation in the frame of TRR 87.

  11. XPS Study of Plasma- and Argon Ion-Sputtered Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The similarity of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) and the fluoropolymer film deposited by rf (radio frequency) plasma sputtering (SPTFE) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), noted earlier in the literature, has been reconfirmed. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XPS (X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and UV (ultraviolet) spectroscopy has been employed in apparently the first study to involve preparation of PPTFE and SPTFE in the same reactor and under comparable low-power plasma conditions. Most of the work concerned the use of He or Ar as sputtering gas, but some runs were also carried out with the other rare gases Ne, Kr and Xe. The C1s XPS spectra of SPTFE films displayed a relatively higher content of CF2 groups, and yielded higher F/C (fluorine / carbon) ratios, than PPTFE films, while the SPTFE films were somewhat more transparent in the UV than PPTFE. The F/C ratios for SPTFE were essentially independent of the rare gas used for sputtering. Increasing rf power from 10 to 50 W for Xe plasma-sputtering of PTFE resulted in successively lower F/C ratios (1.55 to 1.21), accompanied by sputtering of the glass reactor occurring at 40 W and above. Some limited XPS, FT-IR and UV data are presented on Ar ion-sputtered PTFE.

  12. Sputter Deposition of Yttrium-Barium Superconductor and Strontium Titanium Oxide Barrier Layer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, James Kelly

    1992-01-01

    The commercial application of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7 -x} thin films requires the development of deposition methods which can be used to reproducibly deposit films with good superconducting properties on insulating and semiconducting substrates. Sputter deposition is the most popular method to fabricate Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor thin films, but when used in the standard configuration suffers from a deviation between the compositions of the Y-Ba-Cu-O sputter target and deposited films, which is thought to be primarily due to resputtering of the film by negative ions sputtered from the target. In this study, the negative ions were explicitly identified and were found to consist predominantly O^-. The sputter yield of O^- was found to depend on the Ba compound used in the fabrication of Y -Ba-Cu-O targets and was related to the electronegativity difference between the components. An unreacted mixture of rm Y_2O_3, CuO, and BaF_2 was found to have the lowest O^- yield among targets with Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3. The high yield of O^- from rm YBa_2Cu_3O _{7-x} was found to depend on the target temperature and be due to the excess oxygen present. The SIMS negative ion data supported the composition data for sputter-deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O films. Targets using BaF _2 were found to improve the Ba deficiency, the run-to-run irreproducibility and the nonuniformity of the film composition typically found in sputtered Y -Ba-Cu-O films. Superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films were formed on SrTiO_3 substrates by post-deposition heat treatment of Y-Ba-Cu-O-F films in humid oxygen. The growth of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-x}, thin films on common substrates such as sapphire or silicon requires the use of a barrier layer to prevent the deleterious interaction which occurs between Y-Ba-Cu-O films and these substrates. Barrier layers of SrTiO_3 were studied and found to exhibit textured growth with a preferred (111) orientation on (100) Si substrates. However, SrTiO_3 was found to be

  13. Heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2000-11-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

  14. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  15. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu interconnections of large scale integrated devices by optimizing sputtering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masao; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun; Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2013-07-01

    Improving the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was attempted by optimizing the sputtering conditions. The reflow characteristics of films deposited under various sputtering conditions were evaluated by measuring their filling level in via holes. It was found that the reflow characteristics of the Cu films are strongly influenced by the deposition parameters. Deposition at low temperatures and the addition of H2 or N2 to the Ar sputtering gas had a significant influence on the reflow characteristics. Imperfections in the Cu films before and after the high-temperature, high-pressure treatments were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results showed that low temperature and the addition of H2 or N2 led to films containing a large number of mono-vacancies, which accelerate atomic diffusion creep and dislocation core diffusion creep, improving the reflow characteristics of the Cu films.

  16. Effect of Sputtering Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of NiO Films Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xinzhong; Zhen, Zhiqiang; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Tang, Miaomiao

    2017-03-01

    NiO thin films were deposited on sapphire and Corning 1737 glass substrates using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The structures, optical and electrical properties of NiO films grown under different sputtering temperatures were thoroughly studied. The NiO films were composed of different-size NiO nano-grains with a strong (111) preferred orientation. The NiO grain size increased with the sputtering temperature increase. The band gap values decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.38 eV on the sputtering temperature increase from 30°C to 450°C. Moreover, the electrical property variations of the NiO samples were studied by the Hall effect in detail.

  17. Annealing of gold nanostructures sputtered on polytetrafluoroethylene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanolayers sputtered on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface and their changes induced by post-deposition annealing at 100°C to 300°C are studied. Changes in surface morphology and roughness are examined by atomic force microscopy, electrical sheet resistance by two point technique, zeta potential by electrokinetic analysis and chemical composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in dependence on the gold layer thickness. Transition from discontinuous to continuous gold coverage takes place at the layer thicknesses 10 to 15 nm and this threshold remains practically unchanged after the annealing at the temperatures below 200°C. The annealing at 300°C, however, leads to significant rearrangement of the gold layer and the transition threshold increases to 70 nm. Significant carbon contamination and the presence of oxidized structures on gold-coated samples are observed in XPS spectra. Gold coating leads to a decrease in the sample surface roughness. Annealing at 300°C of pristine PTFE and gold-coated PTFE results in significant increase of the sample surface roughness. PMID:22078024

  18. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter depoairion are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq. cm. resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x to to the -6/ohm. cm. for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm. cm. for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  19. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  20. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter deposition are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq cm resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x 10 to the -6th/ohm cm for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm cm for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  1. Multi-cathode unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sproul, William D.

    1991-01-01

    Ion bombardment of a growing film during deposition is necessary in many instances to ensure a fully dense coating, particularly for hard coatings. Until the recent advent of unbalanced magnetron (UBM) cathodes, reactive sputtering had not been able to achieve the same degree of ion bombardment as other physical vapor deposition processes. The amount of ion bombardment of the substrate depends on the plasma density at the substrate, and in a UBM system the amount of bombardment will depend on the degree of unbalance of the cathode. In multi-cathode systems, the magnetic fields between the cathodes must be linked to confine the fast electrons that collide with the gas atoms. Any break in this linkage results in electrons being lost and a low plasma density. Modeling of the magnetic fields in a UBM cathode using a finite element analysis program has provided great insight into the interaction between the magnetic fields in multi-cathode systems. Large multi-cathode systems will require very strong magnets or many cathodes in order to maintain the magnetic field strength needed to achieve a high plasma density. Electromagnets offer the possibility of independent control of the plasma density. Such a system would be a large-scale version of an ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) system, but, for the UBM system where the plasma would completely surround the substrate, the acronym IBED might now stand for Ion Blanket Enhanced Deposition.

  2. Sputtered Thallium-Barium Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changyao

    Thin films, a necessary form of materials for most sensors and electronic applications, of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu -O have been studied. The samples were prepared by the precursor method. Precursor films of Ba-Ca-Cu-O were first deposited on the single crystal substrates of MgO, LaAlO _3, and SrTiO_3 by rf-magnetron sputtering. The following heat-treatment facilitated the incorporation of thallium into the precursor films and proper phase formation. Processing variables were systematically studied and the resulting films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Superconducting microbridges patterned by photolithography and wet chemical etching were used for R-T and I-V characteristics measurements. The resistive broadening of superconducting transition under magnetic fields was discussed in the framework of Anderson -Kim flux-creep theory. The activation energy for the flux -creep appears to be of functional form rm U_{o}~(1-T/ rm T_{c})/B^{1/2}. .

  3. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 1023-3.0 × 1024 m-2, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 1024 m-2, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit.

  4. Composition, morphology and mechanical properties of sputtered TiAlN coating

    SciTech Connect

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2014-03-24

    TiAlN coating was deposited on the tungsten carbide cutting tool by using DC magnetron sputtering system to study the influence of substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate on the composition, morphology and mechanical properties. The negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate was varied from about −79 to −221 V and 30 sccm to 72 sccm, respectively. The coating composition and roughness were characterized by using SEM/EDX and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. The dynamic ultra micro hardness tester was used to measure the mechanical properties. The coating hardness increases to about 10-12 GPa with an increase of the negatively substrate bias up to − 200 V and it tend to decrease with an increase in nitrogen flow rate up to 70 sccm. The increase of hardness follows the increase of Ti and N content and rms coating roughness.

  5. The role of surface microstructure in the sputtering of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; Nahemow, M.D. ); McGrath, R.T. ); Baratta, A.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Extensive exposure to tokamak plasmas may result in significant alterations to the surface microstructure of graphite plasma-facing components. A change in microstructure from a commercial isotropic graphite to an amorphous carbon film may produce a significant change in the total sputtering yield and the level of plasma contamination. To investigate this sensitivity to surface microstructure, sputtering experiments on a variety of graphites with various surface structures were performed using the ion--surface interaction system (ISIS).{sup 1} ISIS is a computerized ion beam sputtering system equipped with twin quartz crystal microbalances capable of simultaneously monitoring both sputtering and redeposition of the beam target material. ISIS was used to obtain sputtering data on two orientations of pyrolytic graphite at seven energies between 100 eV and 10 keV. Helium bombardment perpendicular to the prism plane produced yields 2 to 7 times higher than on the basal plane. Proton bombardment perpendicular to the prism plane produced yields 45% higher than those on the basal plane. Amorphous graphite films produced from Poco AXF-5Q and Union Carbide ATJ graphites using an argon radio-frequency (rf) plasma discharge were also irradiated. Sputtering yields on the amorphous films were as much as 50% to an order of magnitude higher than those measured on commercial bulk samples. Pre and post-irradiation scanning electron microscopy of selected targets was performed to monitor surface microstructure. A structural mechanism responsible for the magnitude of physical sputtering is suggested, and an effective surface binding energy is introduced to quantify this structural dependence.

  6. Sputter-depth profiling for thin-film analysis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S

    2004-01-15

    Following a brief historical background, the concepts and the present state of sputter-depth profiling for thin-film analysis are outlined. There are two main branches: either the removed matter (as in mass- or optical-spectroscopy-based secondary-ion mass spectrometry or glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy), or the remaining surface (as in Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) is characterized. These complementary methods show the same result if there is no preferential sputtering of a component. The common root of both is the fundamental ion-solid interaction. Understanding of how the latter influences the depth resolution has led to important improvements in experimental profiling conditions such as sample rotation and the use of low-energy ions at glancing incidence. Modern surface-analysis instruments can provide high-resolution depth profiles on the nanometre scale. Mathematical models of different sophistication were developed to allow deconvolution of the measured profile or quantification by reconstruction of the in-depth distribution of composition. For the latter purpose, the usefulness of the so-called mixing-roughness-information (MRI) depth model is outlined on several thin-film structures (e.g. AlAs/GaAs and Si/Ge), including its extension to quantification of sputter-depth profiles in layer structures with preferential sputtering of one component (Ta/Si). Using the MRI model, diffusion coefficients at interfaces as low as 10(-22) m(2) s(-1) can be determined. Fundamental limitations of sputter-depth profiling are mainly traced back to the stochastic nature of primary-particle energy transfer to the sputtered particle, promoting atomic mixing and the development of surface roughness. Owing to more sophisticated experimental methods, such as low-energy cluster ion bombardment, glancing ion incidence or 'backside' sputtering, these ultimate limitations can be reduced to the atomic monolayer scale.

  7. Development of magnetron sputtering simulator with GPU parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ilyoup; Kim, Jihun; Bae, Junkyeong; Lee, Jinpil

    2014-12-01

    Sputtering devices are widely used in the semiconductor and display panel manufacturing process. Currently, a number of surface treatment applications using magnetron sputtering techniques are being used to improve the efficiency of the sputtering process, through the installation of magnets outside the vacuum chamber. Within the internal space of the low pressure chamber, plasma generated from the combination of a rarefied gas and an electric field is influenced interactively. Since the quality of the sputtering and deposition rate on the substrate is strongly dependent on the multi-physical phenomena of the plasma regime, numerical simulations using PIC-MCC (Particle In Cell, Monte Carlo Collision) should be employed to develop an efficient sputtering device. In this paper, the development of a magnetron sputtering simulator based on the PIC-MCC method and the associated numerical techniques are discussed. To solve the electric field equations in the 2-D Cartesian domain, a Poisson equation solver based on the FDM (Finite Differencing Method) is developed and coupled with the Monte Carlo Collision method to simulate the motion of gas particles influenced by an electric field. The magnetic field created from the permanent magnet installed outside the vacuum chamber is also numerically calculated using Biot-Savart's Law. All numerical methods employed in the present PIC code are validated by comparison with analytical and well-known commercial engineering software results, with all of the results showing good agreement. Finally, the developed PIC-MCC code is parallelized to be suitable for general purpose computing on graphics processing unit (GPGPU) acceleration, so as to reduce the large computation time which is generally required for particle simulations. The efficiency and accuracy of the GPGPU parallelized magnetron sputtering simulator are examined by comparison with the calculated results and computation times from the original serial code. It is found that

  8. Chemical modification of sputtered amorphous-carbon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leezenberg, Pieter B.; Johnston, William H.; Tyndall, George W.

    2001-03-01

    Methods to chemically passivate the surfaces of amorphous-carbon films (a-C) produced by dc magnetron sputtering were studied. The chemical composition of carbon surfaces produced via sputtering are dependent upon the environment to which the carbon is exposed immediately following deposition. When the sputtered film is vented to ambient conditions, free radicals produced at the surface during the deposition process are quenched by reaction with oxygen and/or water to form an oxidized, hydrophilic surface. If the sputtered carbon film is, however, exposed to a reactive gas prior to venting to ambient, the chemical nature of the resulting surface can be modified substantially. Specifically, a less highly oxidized and much more hydrophobic carbon surface is produced when the surface free radicals are quenched via either an addition reaction (demonstrated with a fluorinated olefin) or a hydrogen abstraction reaction (demonstrated with two alkyl amines). Chemical modification of amorphous-carbon films can also be accomplished by performing the sputtering in a reactive plasma formed from mixtures of argon with molecular hydrogen, amines, and perfluorocarbons. The elemental composition of these films, and the relative reactivity of the surfaces formed, were investigated via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact-angle goniometry, respectively. In the case of sputtering with a mixture of argon and hydrogen, increasing the hydrogen flow results in an increase in the amount of hydrogen incorporated into the carbon film and a decrease in the surface free energy. Sputtering in diethylamine produces an amorphous-carbon film into which nitrogen is incorporated. The free energies of the a-C:N surfaces produced in this process are similar to those of the a-C:H films. Sputtering in a fluorocarbon vapor results in the incorporation of fluorine into the film structure and the formation of very low free-energy surfaces. Increasing the concentration of the fluorocarbon in the

  9. Sputter deposition of nanocrystalline beta-SiC films and molecular dynamics simulations of the sputter process.

    PubMed

    Ziebert, Carlos; Ye, Jian; Ulrich, Sven; Prskalo, Alen-Pilip; Schmauder, Siegfried

    2010-02-01

    Thin nanocrystalline films of silicon carbide (SiC) have been deposited on Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in pure Ar atmosphere. Simultaneously classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of sputtering of beta-SiC by Ar atoms were performed using IMD and Materials Explorer software with a combination of the Tersoff and the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark (ZBL) potential in order to get more insight into the sputter process. In experiments the bias voltage (0 to -40 V) has been varied at constant substrate temperature of 900 degrees C to investigate the influence on the composition, the constitution and the mechanical properties of crystalline beta-SiC films. At second the substrate temperature has been varied between 900 degrees C and 100 degrees C to find the minimum substrate temperature that is needed to get nanocrystalline beta-SiC under the applied sputter conditions (ceramic SiC target, 300 W rf power, 18 cm target-substrate distance, 50 sccm Ar gas flow, 0.26 Pa total gas pressure). The films have been characterized by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hardness and residual stress have been investigated by nanoindentation and wafer bending. In the MD simulations the sputter yield was determined as a function of the energy of the incident Ar atoms (in the interesting range for sputter deposition, i.e., 50-1000 eV). To our knowledge this is the first time that the sputter yield of a SiC target was determined as a function of the energy of the incident Ar atoms in the low energy range by using MD simulations and compared with experimental results.

  10. Reconstructing accurate ToF-SIMS depth profiles for organic materials with differential sputter rates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam J; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G

    2015-09-07

    To properly process and reconstruct 3D ToF-SIMS data from systems such as multi-component polymers, drug delivery scaffolds, cells and tissues, it is important to understand the sputtering behavior of the sample. Modern cluster sources enable efficient and stable sputtering of many organics materials. However, not all materials sputter at the same rate and few studies have explored how different sputter rates may distort reconstructed depth profiles of multicomponent materials. In this study spun-cast bilayer polymer films of polystyrene and PMMA are used as model systems to optimize methods for the reconstruction of depth profiles in systems exhibiting different sputter rates between components. Transforming the bilayer depth profile from sputter time to depth using a single sputter rate fails to account for sputter rate variations during the profile. This leads to inaccurate apparent layer thicknesses and interfacial positions, as well as the appearance of continued sputtering into the substrate. Applying measured single component sputter rates to the bilayer films with a step change in sputter rate at the interfaces yields more accurate film thickness and interface positions. The transformation can be further improved by applying a linear sputter rate transition across the interface, thus modeling the sputter rate changes seen in polymer blends. This more closely reflects the expected sputtering behavior. This study highlights the need for both accurate evaluation of component sputter rates and the careful conversion of sputter time to depth, if accurate 3D reconstructions of complex multi-component organic and biological samples are to be achieved. The effects of errors in sputter rate determination are also explored.

  11. Sputter deposition with nearly-parallel coating flux

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.; Bayne, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    A method for producing a dense, nearly-parallel flux of sputtered atoms is described. This method allows sputter depositing films having substantially 100% of theoretical density. The sputtering chamber contains a target having a surface that is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the target surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about .65 Pa to limit scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. The angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface do not vary greatly even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate. An experimental sputtering system is described. Deposition rates are given as a function of distance from the target edge and distance from the target plane. Metallography of sputter deposited Ni is presented.

  12. EMI shielding using composite materials with two sources magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Jaroszewski, M.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the preparation composite materials for electromagnetic shields using two sources magnetron sputtering DC-M is presented. A composite material was prepared by coating a nonwoven polypropylene metallic layer in sputtering process of targets Ti (purity 99%) and brass alloy MO58 (58%Cu, 40%Zn, 2%Pb) and ϕ diameter targets = 50 mm, under argon atmosphere. The system with magnetron sputtering sources was powered using switch-mode power supply DPS (Dora Power System) with a maximum power of 16 kW and a maximum voltage of 1.2 kV with group frequency from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. The influence of sputtering time of individual targets on the value of the EM field attenuation SE [dB] was investigated for the following supply conditions: pressure pp = 2x10-3 Torr, sputtering power P = 750 W, the time of applying a layer t = 5 min, group frequency fg = 2 kHz, the frequency of switching between targets fp = 1 Hz.

  13. Dynamical simulation of sputtering and reflection from a ternary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshinaga, H.; Yamamura, Y.

    The sputtering and the reflection from a Tb0.2Fe0.7Co0.1 alloy due to Ar+ ion bombardment have been investigated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT-DIFFUSE which include the compositional change induced by ion influence. In the Tb-Fe-Co system, Fe atoms are preferentially sputtered. The atomic size of a Tb atom is the largest of these three atoms, and so Tb atoms trap preferentially in vacancies. The steady-state concentration of Tb atoms at the topmost layer is larger than the bulk concentration for the low energy ions due to radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering of Fe atoms. As the ion fluence increases, the atomic fractions of sputtered atoms calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code become those of the bulk concentration. The depth profiles of each element at the steady state depend on the incident energy. The total sputtering yield and the reflection coefficient from a Tb-Fe-Co alloy calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code are larger than those by the ACAT code at near-threshold energies, where the ACAT code does not include the ion-influence effect. The energy spectra of back-scattered Ar atoms from the present ternary alloy have very similar profiles to those from a monoatomic Tb target, especially for low-energy Ar+ ions.

  14. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  15. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  16. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: combining simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Tomas; Vlcek, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has recently been used for preparation of various oxide films with high application potential, such as TiO2, ZrO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, VO2. Using our patented method of pulsed reactive gas flow control with an optimized reactive gas inlet, we achieved significantly higher deposition rates compared to typical continuous dc magnetron depositions. We have developed a time-dependent model of the reactive HiPIMS. The model includes a depth-resolved description of the sputtered target (featuring sputtering, implantation and knock-on implantation processes) and a parametric description of the discharge plasma (dissociation of reactive gas, ionization and return of sputtered atoms and gas rarefaction). The model uses a combination of experimental and simulation data as input. We have calculated the composition of the target and substrate for several deposition conditions. The simulations predict a reduced compound coverage of the target in HiPIMS compared to the continuous dc sputtering regime which explains the increased deposition rate. The simulations show that an increased dissociation of oxygen in a HiPIMS discharge is beneficial to achieve stoichiometric films on the substrate at high deposition rates.

  17. Nitinol: Tubing versus sputtered film - microcleanliness and corrosion behavior.

    PubMed

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Schüßler, Andreas; Quandt, Eckhard

    2016-08-01

    Corrosion behavior and microcleanliness of medical-device grade Nitinol tubing (Nix Ti1- x , x = 0.51; outer diameter 7 mm, wall thickness 0.5 mm), drawn from various ingot qualities, are compared to the characteristics of sputtered Nitinol film material (Nix Ti1- x , x = 0.51; thickness 50 µm). Electropolished tubing half-shell samples are tested versus as-received sputtered film samples. Inclusion size distributions are assessed using quantitative metallography and corrosion behavior is investigated by potentiodynamic polarization testing in phosphate-buffered saline at body temperature. For the sputtered film samples, the surface chemistry is additionally analyzed employing Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) composition-depth profiling. Results show that the fraction of breakdowns in the potentiodynamic polarization test correlates with number and size of the inclusions in the material. For the sputtered Nitinol film material no inclusions were detectable by light microscopy on the one hand and no breakdowns were found in the potentiodynamic polarization test on the other hand. As for electropolished Nitinol, the sputtered Nitinol film material reveals Nickel depletion and an Oxygen-to-Titanium intensity ratio of ∼2:1 in the surface oxide layer, as measured by AES. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1176-1181, 2016.

  18. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  19. Solar wind sputtering effects in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, C. C.; Haff, P. K.; Kellogg, W. K.

    1979-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the sputtering of the upper atmosphere of Mars by the solar wind was performed. The calculated sputtering yields imply loss rates (molecules/cm square - sec escaping the planet) for carbon dioxide, carbon, and oxygen of R(CO2) = 2.6 X 1000000/cm square - sec, R(C) = 6.6 X 1000000/cm square - sec, and R(O) = 7.7 X 1000000/cm - sec. The total mass loss by sputtering is only about 10% of that due to chemical and photo-chemical processes, but sputtering provides a major exospheric sink for carbon. The erosion process described here preferentially removes the lighter components of the atmosphere. Calculations based on a Monte Carlo simulation suggest that for a model atmosphere, 97% of the N2 and 33% of the CO2 originally present may have been sputtered away over 4.5 X 10 to the 9th power y. In the same length of time the (15)N/(14)N isotopic ratio for the bulk atmosphere would have increased by a factor 1.7.

  20. High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun

    2007-08-03

    The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

  1. On the evolution of film roughness during magnetron sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of long-range screening on the surface morphology of thin films grown with pulsed-dc (p-dc) magnetron sputtering is studied. The surface evolution is described by a stochastic diffusion equation that includes the nonlocal shadowing effects in three spatial dimensions. The diffusional relaxation and the angular distribution of the incident particle flux strongly influence the transition to the shadowing growth regime. In the magnetron sputtering deposition the shadowing effect is essential because of the configuration of the magnetron system (finite size of sputtered targets, rotating sample holder, etc.). A realistic angular distribution of depositing particles is constructed by taking into account the cylindrical magnetron geometry. Simulation results are compared with the experimental data of surface roughness evolution during 100 and 350 kHz p-dc deposition, respectively.

  2. Alloying of metal nanoparticles by ion-beam induced sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magudapathy, P.; Srivastava, S. K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Saravanan, K.; Das, A.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering technique has been utilized for controlled synthesis of metal alloy nanoparticles of compositions that can be tuned. Analysis of various experimental results reveals the formation of Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles on a silica substrate. Surface-plasmon optical resonance positions and observed shifts of Ag Bragg angles in X-ray diffraction pattern particularly confirm formation of alloy nanoparticles on glass samples. Sputtering induced nano-alloying mechanism has been discussed and compared with thermal mixing of Ag and Cu thin films on glass substrates. Compositions and sizes of alloy nanoparticles formed during ion-beam induced sputtering are found to exceed far from the values of thermal mixing.

  3. Anion formation in sputter ion sources by neutral resonant ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J. S.

    2016-02-15

    Focused Cs{sup +} beams in sputter ion sources create mm-diameter pits supporting small plasmas that control anionization efficiencies. Sputtering produces overwhelmingly neutral products that the plasma can ionize as in a charge-change vapor. Electron capture between neutral atoms rises as the inverse square of the difference between the ionization potential of the Cs state and the electron affinity of the sputtered atom, allowing resonant ionization at very low energies. A plasma collision-radiation model followed electronic excitation up to Cs(7d). High modeled Cs(7d) in a 0.5 mm recess explains the 80 μA/mm{sup 2} C{sup −} current density compared to the 20 μA/mm{sup 2} from a 1 mm recess.

  4. Interpretation of sputter depth profiles by mixing simulations.

    PubMed

    Kupris, G; Rössler, H; Ecke, G; Hofmann, S

    1995-10-01

    The interpretation of sputter depth profiles can be simplified by use of computer simulations. Distortions caused by mixing effects and distortions caused by the information depth of the analytical method have to be distinguished. Atomic mixing and the information depth distort the depth profile simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to take into consideration a superposition of both distortion effects. The sputtering of a GaAs/A1As multilayer has been calculated on a personal computer with the binary collision approximation code T-DYN by Biersack and with an own layer model. A new computer code LAMBDA has been used for the investigation of the influence of the AES information depth in addition to atomic mixing and preferential sputtering. A comparison of the calculated and the measured depth profile explains the observed effects. Therefore conclusions can be drawn about the original elemental distribution in the sample from the measured depth profile.

  5. Physics of arcing, and implications to sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-03-15

    Arc and glow discharges are defined based on their cathode processes. Arcs are characterized by collective electron emission, which can be stationary with hot cathodes (thermionic arcs), or non-stationary with cold cathodes (cathodic arcs). A brief review on cathodic arc properties serves as the starting point to better understand arcing phenomena in sputtering. Although arcing occurs in both metal and reactive sputtering, it is more of an issue in the reactive case. Arcing occurs if sufficiently high field strength leads to thermal runaway of an electron emission site. The role of insulating layers and surface potential adjustment through current leakage is highlighted. In the situation of magnetron sputtering with ''racetrack'', the need for a model with two spatial dimensions is shown. In many cases, arcing is initiated by breakdown of dielectric layers and inclusions. It is most efficiently prevented if formation and excessive charge-up of dielectric layers and inclusions can be avoided.

  6. Carbon Back Sputter Modeling for Hall Thruster Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Yim, John T.

    2016-01-01

    In support of wear testing for the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) program, the back sputter from a Hall effect thruster plume has been modeled for the NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The predicted wear at a near-worst case condition of 600 V, 12.5 kW was found to be on the order of 3 4 mkhour in a fully carbon-lined chamber. A more detailed numerical monte carlo code was also modified to estimate back sputter for a detailed facility and pumping configuration. This code demonstrated similar back sputter rate distributions, but is not yet accurately modeling the magnitudes. The modeling has been benchmarked to recent HERMeS wear testing, using multiple microbalance measurements. These recent measurements have yielded values, on the order of 1.5- 2 microns/khour.

  7. Technology Trend of Sputtering System for Magnetoresistive Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunekawa, Koji

    Magnetoresistive films used for read-heads of hard disc drives, magnetic random access memory devices, and magnetic sensors are fabricated by magnetron sputtering method. Since giant magnetoresistive and tunnel magnetoresistive films are composed of multilayered films, in which the thickness of each layer is in the nanometer range, high accuracy in thickness control and thickness uniformity is required for the sputtering systems. Film properties are also influenced by the quality of the vacuum during the fabrication process. This article addresses such issues on the deposition of magnetoresistive films, and introduces mass-production sputtering technologies capable of fabricating high quality multilayers. Furthermore, fabrication methods of the tunnel barrier in tunnel magnetoresistive devices are also described.

  8. Sputtering - Its relationship to isotopic fractionation on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon, oxygen, sulfur and, possibly, potassium show systematic enrichment of heavier isotopes with increasing soil maturity, probably as a result of solar-wind sputtering, but such a pattern is not exhibited by solar wind-implanted species. Apparently sputter-erosion is not penetrating to their implantation depth, about 200 A. This suggests that sputtering on the moon is being impeded by deposition of vapor condensate following meteoritic impact. Although neither secular variation in the isotopic composition at the source of regolith carbon, probably the solar wind, nor isotopic fractionation of carbon after implantation in the regolith can be ruled out, carbon isotope systematics currently yield no evidence in support of either process.

  9. Ion beam sputter target and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Higdon, Clifton; Elmoursi, Alaa A.; Goldsmith, Jason; Cook, Bruce; Blau, Peter; Jun, Qu; Milner, Robert

    2014-09-02

    A target for use in an ion beam sputtering apparatus made of at least two target tiles where at least two of the target tiles are made of different chemical compositions and are mounted on a main tile and geometrically arranged on the main tile to yield a desired chemical composition on a sputtered substrate. In an alternate embodiment, the tiles are of varied thickness according to the desired chemical properties of the sputtered film. In yet another alternate embodiment, the target is comprised of plugs pressed in a green state which are disposed in cavities formed in a main tile also formed in a green state and the assembly can then be compacted and then sintered.

  10. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Feng Lu, Hongyuan; Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping; Huang, Rongxia

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  11. The contribution of collision cascades to sputtering and radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M W

    2004-01-15

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of sputtered atoms has tested theories of sputtering and radiation damage. Experiments measuring the time of flight of sputtered atoms in precisely defined directions from the emitting surface, from which the related velocity and energy distributions may be deduced, are described. The energy distribution from polycrystalline targets often fits the form E/(E + Eb)3 derived from a theoretical model in which the bombarding ions initiate collision cascades that eject atoms through the surface. It is assumed that atoms are bound to the surface by a binding force normal to the surface, represented as a binding energy, in the formula. It is shown how this theory relates to that of radiation damage. Departures from the formula seem to correlate with high-energy density in cascades and/or low values of Eb/kT0, with T0 the target temperature. A second component then appears in the energy spectrum approximated by [formula: see text], where deltaT is an effective local temperature rise induced by cascades. The velocity distributions from single crystals are strongly affected by both the direction of ion incidence, indicative of ion channelling, and by emission in directions close to simple crystal axes, indicative of momentum focusing within cascades. Models of the cascade region, and the local heating it causes, have been deduced from sputtering experiments and have advanced our understanding of defect structures caused by radiation damage. Momentum focusing processes are active in creating interstitial-vacancy pairs in both radiation damage and sputtering and their properties have been deduced from these experiments. It is shown how the study of sputtering has enhanced the understanding of radiation damage.

  12. Raman imaging of biofilms using gold sputtered fiber optic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Christina Grace Charlet; Manoharan, Hariharan; Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Sai, V. V. Raghavendra

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report characterization of bacterial biofilm using gold sputtered optical fiber probe as substrates for confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements. The chemical composition and the heterogeneity of biofilms in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was evaluated. The spatial distribution of bacterial biofilm on the substrates during their growth phase was studied using Raman imaging. Further, the influence of substrate's surface on bacterial adhesion was investigated by studying growth of biofilms on surfaces with hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings. This study validates the use of gold sputtered optical fiber probes as SERS substrates in confocal microscopic configuration to identify and characterize clinically relevant biofilms.

  13. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhongzhen Xiao, Shu; Ma, Zhengyong; Cui, Suihan; Ji, Shunping; Pan, Feng; Tian, Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-09-15

    Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  14. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.; Manos, Dennis; Nartowitz, Ed

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  15. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  16. Crystallinity of RF-Sputtered MoS2 Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-15

    RF-Sputtered c MoS2 Films fl 0) J. R. LINCE and PAUL D. FLEISCHAUER Chemistry and Physics Laboratory ’ Laboratory Operations The Aerospace Corporation...block number) The crystallinity and morphology of thin, radio-frequency (rf)-sputtered MoS2 films deposited on 440C stainless steel substrates at both...and 8-20 scans). Under SEM, the films exhibited 4, "ridgelike" (or platelike) formation region for thicknesses between 0.18 and 1.0 m MoS2 . X-ray

  17. Observation of Dust Grain Sputtering in a Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, P.; Williams, B. J.; Blair, W. P.; Borkowski, K. J.; Gaetz, T. J.; Sankrit, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have detected emission in C IV λλ1548,1551 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using COS on HST. The intensity agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates assumed. However, the CIV intensity 10" behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25" behind it. Projection effects and a complex geometry are probably responsible for the discrepancy.

  18. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, Martin; Schrempel, Frank; Füchsel, Kevin; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Patzig, Christian; Berthold, Lutz; Höche, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The growth of Ge on Si(100) by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C), films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  19. Advances in sputtered and ion plated solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1985-01-01

    The glow discharge or ion assisted vacuum deposition techniques, primarily sputtering and ion plating, have rapidly emerged and offer great potential to deposit solid lubricants. The increased energizing of these deposition processes lead to improved adherence and coherence, favorable morphological growth, higher density, and reduced residual stresses in the film. These techniques are of invaluable importance where high precision machines tribo-components require very thin, uniform lubricating films (0.2 m), which do not interface with component tolerances. The performance of sputtered MoS2 films and ion plated Au and Pb films are described in terms of film thickness, coefficient of friction, and wear lives.

  20. Coating of nanoporous membranes: atomic layer deposition versus sputtering.

    PubMed

    Grigoras, K; Airaksinen, V M; Franssila, S

    2009-06-01

    Nanoporous anodic alumina membranes and silicon samples with plasma etched nanopores have been coated with zinc oxide or gold layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD) or sputtering, respectively. In the case of ALD process, the precursor pulses were extended, compared with planar substrate coating. Thick (60 microm) anodic alumina membranes have been conformally coated with zinc oxide ALD layer. Metal sputtering technique was used just for opposite purpose--to minimize the penetration of gold into the pores during gold-coating of the top and bottom surfaces of the membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to investigate the layer thickness, uniformity and conformality inside the nanopores.

  1. Growth of RuO2 nanorods in reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Tsun; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hsiung, Chang-Po; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2006-08-01

    The synthesis of RuO2 nanorods with reactive sputtering was demonstrated in this work. The synthesis process is very much like the metal organic chemical vapor deposition, except that RuO3 generated with reactive sputtering under high oxygen-to-argon flow ratio (>5SCCM /15SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) and high substrate temperature (>300°C) is used in place of the metal organic precursor. RuO2 nanorods tend to grow steadily with constant aspect ratio (˜27) and the field-emission characteristics appear very sensitive to their spatial distribution.

  2. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass, SON68, and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems due to their fundamental and practical significance. Our study shows that if the size of analysis areas is same, the highest sputter rate of argon cluster sputtering can be 2-3 times faster than the highest sputter rates of oxygen or cesium sputtering. More importantly, high quality data and high sputter rates can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering while this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, for deep depth profiling of insulating samples, the measurement efficiency of argon cluster sputtering can be about 6-15 times better than traditional cesium and oxygen sputtering. Moreover, for a SrTiO3/SrCrO3 bi-layer thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate, the true 18O/16O isotopic distribution at the interface is better revealed when using the argon cluster sputtering source. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the measurement efficiency of insulating materials, and thus can expand the application of ToF-SIMS to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin films, and many other potential systems.

  3. Influence of microstructure and chemical composition of sputter deposited TiO2 thin films on in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mirjam; Genvad, Axel; Astrand, Maria; Strømme, Maria; Enqvist, Håkan

    2011-12-01

    Functionalisation of biomedical implants via surface modifications for tailored tissue response is a growing field of research. Crystalline TiO(2) has been proven to be a bone bioactive, non-resorbable material. In contact with body fluids a hydroxyapaptite (HA) layer forms on its surface facilitating the bone contact. Thus, the path of improving biomedical implants via deposition of crystalline TiO(2) on the surface is interesting to follow. In this study we have evaluated the influence of microstructure and chemical composition of sputter deposited titanium oxide thin films on the in vitro bioactivity. We find that both substrate bias, topography and the flow ratio of the gases used during sputtering affect the HA layer formed on the films after immersion in simulated body fluid at 37°C. A random distribution of anatase and rutile crystals, formed at negative substrate bias and low Ar to O(2) gas flow ratios, are shown to favor the growth of flat HA crystal structures whereas higher flow ratios and positive substrate bias induced growth of more spherical HA structures. These findings should provide valuable information when optimizing the bioactivity of titanium oxide coatings as well as for tailoring process parameters for sputtered-based production of bioactive titanium oxide implant surfaces.

  4. Optical and structural properties of sputter-deposited nanocrystalline Cu2O films: effect of sputtering gas.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Chawla, A K; Ayyub, P

    2006-04-01

    We report the effect of the atomic mass of the sputtering gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) on the structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. We find that the atomic mass of the sputtering gas significantly affects the primary crystallite size as well as the surface morphology and texture. Optical reflectance and transmission measurements show that the nanocrystalline thin films are transparent over most of the visible region. The HOMO-LUMO gap obtained from optical absorption spectra show a size-dependent quantum shift with respect to the bulk band gap reported for Cu2O (2.1 eV).

  5. Method and apparatus for sputtering utilizing an apertured electrode and a pulsed substrate bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.; Shaltens, R. K. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The method and equipment used for sputtering by use of an apertured electrode and a pulsed substrate bias are discussed. The technique combines the advantages of ion plating with the versatility of a radio frequency sputtered source. Electroplating is accomplished by passing a pulsed high voltage direct current to the article being plated during radio frequency sputtering.

  6. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  7. Reactive DC magnetron sputtered zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin film and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, B.; Ashok, K.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Kuppusami, P.; Jayachandran, M.

    2008-05-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared by using reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering onto different substrates. A good polycrystalline nature with face centered cubic structure was observed from X-ray Diffraction for ZrN thin films. The observed 'd' values from the X-ray Diffraction pattern were found to be in good agreement with the standard 'd' values (JCPDS-89-5269). An emission peak is observed at 587nm from Photoluminescence studies for the excitation at 430nm. The resistivity value (ρ) of 2.1798 (μΩ cm) was observed. ZrN has high wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. A less negative value of Ecorr and lower value of Icorr observed for ZrN / Mild Steel (MS) clearly confirm the better corrosion resistance than the bare substrate. Also the higher Rct value and lower Cdl value was observed for ZrN / MS from Nyquist - plot.

  8. Kr bubble formation and growth in sputtered Au

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.; Bayne, M.A.; Hays, D.D.; Moss, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Sputtering parameters were adjusted to produce Kr content up to several atomic percent in sputtered Au. As-sputtered density was approximately 17.5 g/cm/sup 3/ or 91% of theoretical density for a Kr content of approximately 5 at.%. Kr bubble formation and growth behavior was characterized as a function of heat treatment time and temperature (below the melting point) by transmission electron microscopy, optical metallography, and density measurement. Kr bubbles as small as 50 A diameter and densities down to 72% of theoretical (14.0 g/cm/sup 3/) were observed. Larger bubbles in excess of 1 ..mu..m diameter were observed in the lowest density samples. Surface finishes better than 20 ..mu..m were produced on the substrate sides of these sputtered deposits by replication of machined substrate surfaces. However, surface finish was degraded with increasing deposit thickness for deposits containing up to 5 at.% Kr. Surfaces were also degraded by heat treatments sufficiently severe to produce large (1 ..mu..m diameter) Kr bubbles intersecting the deposit surfaces.

  9. Preparation and characterization of RF magnetron sputtered calcium pyrophosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Yan; Wolke, J G C; Yubao, Li; Jansen, J A

    2006-03-15

    CaP ceramic has been widely used as coating on metals in orthopedics and oral dentistry. Variations in CaP composition can lead to different dissolution/precipitation behavior and may also affect the bone response. In the present study calcium pyrophosphate and hydroxylapatite coatings were successfully prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The phase composition, morphological properties, and the dissolution in SBF were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, EDS, SEM, and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all the sputtered coatings were amorphous and changed into a crystal structure after IR-radiation. The temperature for the crystallization of the amorphous coatings is lower for the hydroxylapatite coating (550 degrees C), compared to the calcium pyrophosphate coating (650 degrees C). All sputtered amorphous coatings were instable in SBF and dissolved partially within 4 wks of incubation. The heat-treated coatings appeared to be stable after incubation. These results showed that magnetron sputtering of calcium pyrophosphate coating is a promising method for forming a biocompatible ceramic coating.

  10. Pretreatment of lubricated surfaces with sputtered cadmium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Cadmium oxide is used with a dry solid lubricant on a surface to improve wear resistance. The surface topography is first altered by photochemical etching to a predetermined pattern. The cadmium oxide is then sputtered onto the altered surface to form an intermediate layer to more tightly hold the dry lubricant, such as graphite.

  11. Elementary surface processes during reactive magnetron sputtering of chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, Sascha; Corbella, Carles Keudell, Achim von

    2015-10-07

    The elementary surface processes occurring on chromium targets exposed to reactive plasmas have been mimicked in beam experiments by using quantified fluxes of Ar ions (400–800 eV) and oxygen atoms and molecules. For this, quartz crystal microbalances were previously coated with Cr thin films by means of high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The measured growth and etching rates were fitted by flux balance equations, which provided sputter yields of around 0.05 for the compound phase and a sticking coefficient of O{sub 2} of 0.38 on the bare Cr surface. Further fitted parameters were the oxygen implantation efficiency and the density of oxidation sites at the surface. The increase in site density with a factor 4 at early phases of reactive sputtering is identified as a relevant mechanism of Cr oxidation. This ion-enhanced oxygen uptake can be attributed to Cr surface roughening and knock-on implantation of oxygen atoms deeper into the target. This work, besides providing fundamental data to control oxidation state of Cr targets, shows that the extended Berg's model constitutes a robust set of rate equations suitable to describe reactive magnetron sputtering of metals.

  12. Sputtering of metals at ion-electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Korshunov, S. N.; Skorlupkin, I. D.

    2014-02-01

    It has been found that, in contrast to the commonly accepted opinion, simultaneous irradiation by 15-keV Ar+ ions and 2.5-keV electrons at temperatures above 0.5 T m ( T m is the melting temperature) induces much larger sputtering of metallic copper, nickel, and steel than irradiation only by Ar+ ions. The effect increases with the temperature. At T = 0.7 T m, the sputtering coefficients in the case of ion-electron irradiation are more than twice as large as the sputtering coefficients in the case of irradiation by Ar+ ions. The experiments on the sublimation of copper show that the sublimation rate in the case of the heating of a sample by an electron beam is higher than that in the case of heating in an electric vacuum oven. The revealed effects are explained by the electron-induced excitation of adatoms (atoms stuck over the surface, which appear owing to ion bombardment). Excited adatoms have a smaller binding energy with the surface and are sputtered more easily.

  13. Formation of metastable excited states during sputtering of transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wucher, A.; Sroubek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a simple model which treats the formation of metastable excited neutral atoms during sputtering of a transition metal as a two step process. First, the energy deposited into the electronic system of the solid by electronic energy losses of all moving particles in the collision cascade is considered to lead to a locally altered equilibrium electronic state of the solid. It is found that this step is dominated by collective interaction with the conduction band electrons rather than by electron promotion in binary atom-atom collisions. Second, sputtered excited atoms are assumed to be formed by resonant neutralization of excited ions (reflecting the altered equilibrium state) while crossing the surface. It is shown that this model explains the total as well as the velocity dependent excitation probability observed in recent experiments on sputtered neutral silver atoms, which cannot be understood in terms of existing theories describing the formation of excited states in sputtering. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Sputtered gold mask for deep chemical etching of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.; Olive, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Sputtered mask resists chemical attack from acid and has adherence to withstand prolonged submergence in etch solution without lifting from silicon surface. Even under prolonged etch conditions with significant undercutting, gold mask maintained excellent adhesion to silicon surface and imperviousness to acid.

  15. Diffusion of co-sputtered metals as bonding materials for 3D interconnects during thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S Y; Chen, H Y; Chen, K N

    2012-03-01

    Diffusion behaviors of co-sputtered metals during thermal treatments were investigated, where these co-sputtered metals can be used as bonding materials for 3D Interconnects. In this paper, we report the diffusion behaviors and discuss the diffusion mechanisms of co-sputtered metals before and after annealing. Atom and vacancy volume, vacancy formation energy, and activation energy are proposed to explain the diffusion direction and diffusion rate among different co-sputtered metals. Based on the excellent bonding performance of this method, Cu/metal co-sputtering bonding is considered as a potential candidate for advanced bonding technology.

  16. Sputtering phenomena of discharge chamber components in a 30-cm diameter Hg ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    Sputtering and deposition rates were measured for discharge chamber components of a 30-cm diameter mercury ion thruster. It was found that sputtering rates of the screen grid and cathode baffle were strongly affected by geometry of the baffle holder. Sputtering rates of the baffle and screen grid were reduced to 80 and 125 A/hr, respectively, by combination of appropriate geometry and materials selections. Sputtering rates such as these are commensurate with thruster lifetimes of 15,000 hours or more. A semiempirical sputtering model showed good agreement with the measured values.

  17. Molecular Dynamics simulations of platinum plasma sputtering. : A comparative case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brault, Pascal; Chuon, Sotheara; Bauchire, Jean-Marc

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations are carried out for investigating atomic processes of platinum sputtering. Sputtered Pt atom energy distribution functions are determined at different sputtering argon ionenergies: 100, 500 and 1000 eV. Calculated energy distribution functions show a cross-over from Thompson theory to binary collision model when increasing argon ion energy and Pt atom sputtered energy. Implanted argon ion number is depending on its kinetic energy, while it is not the case in binary collision approximation. Finally sputtering yields are greater for Thompson theory than for binary collision model at low energy, but converge to the close values at high energy.

  18. Time-of-flight secondary neutral & ion mass spectrometry using swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, L.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a new time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer designed to investigate sputtering phenomena induced by swift heavy ions in the electronic stopping regime. In this experiment, particular emphasis is put on the detection of secondary ions along with their emitted neutral counterparts in order to examine the ionization efficiency of the sputtered material. For the detection of neutral species, the system is equipped with a pulsed VUV laser for post-ionization of sputtered neutral atoms and molecules via single photon ionization at a wavelength of 157 nm (corresponding to 7.9 eV photon energy). For alignment purposes and in order to facilitate comparison to nuclear sputtering conditions, the system also includes a 5 keV Ar+ ion beam directed to the same sample area. The instrument has been added to the M1-branch beam line at the German accelerator facility in Darmstadt (GSI) and was tested with 4.8 MeV/u Au26+ ions impinging onto various samples including metals, salts and organic films. It is found that secondary ion and neutral spectra obtained under both bombardment conditions can be acquired in an interleaved manner throughout a single accelerator pulse cycle, thus making efficient use of valuable beam time. In addition, the keV ion beam can be intermittently switched to dc mode between subsequent data acquisition windows and accelerator pulses in order to ensure reproducible surface conditions. For the case of a dynamically sputter cleaned metal surface, comparison of secondary ion and neutral signals obtained under otherwise identical instrumental conditions reveals a nearly identical ionization probability of atoms emitted under electronic and nuclear sputtering conditions.

  19. Particle contamination formation and detection in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Weiss, C.A.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1996-10-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination can cause electrical shorting, pin holes, problems with photolithography, adhesion failure, as well as visual and cosmetic defects. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique that provides real-time, {ital in-situ} imaging of particles > 0.3 {mu}m in diameter. Using this technique, the causes, sources and influences on particles in plasma and non-plasma and non-plasma processes may be independently evaluated and corrected. Several studies employing laser light scattering have demonstrated both homogeneous and heterogeneous causes of particle contamination. In this paper, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. In this region, film redeposition is followed by filament or nodule growth and enhanced trapping which increases filament growth. Eventually the filaments effectively ``short circuit`` the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes heating failure of the filament fracturing and ejecting the filaments into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor (IC) fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests that this mechanism may be universal to many sputtering processes.

  20. Carbon Back Sputter Modeling for Hall Thruster Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Yim, John Tamin

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime requirements for electric propulsion devices, including Hall Effect thrusters, are continually increasing, driven in part by NASA's inclusion of this technology in it's exploration architecture. NASA will demonstrate high-power electric propulsion system on the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM). The Asteroid Redirect Robotic mission is one candidate SEP TDM, which is projected to require tens of thousands of thruster life. As thruster life is increased, for example through the use of improved magnetic field designs, the relative influence of facility effects increases. One such effect is the sputtering and redeposition, or back sputter, of facility materials by the high energy thruster plumes. In support of wear testing for the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) project, the back sputter from a Hall effect thruster plume has been modeled for the NASA Glenn Research Center's Vacuum Facility 5. The predicted wear at a near-worst case condition of 600 V, 12.5 kW was found to be on the order of 1 micron/kh in a fully carbon-lined chamber. A more detailed numerical Monte Carlo code was also modified to estimate back sputter for a detailed facility and pumping configuration. This code demonstrated similar back sputter rate distributions, but is not yet accurately modeling the magnitudes. The modeling has been benchmarked to recent HERMeS wear testing, using multiple microbalance measurements. These recent measurements have yielded values on the order of 1.5 - 2 micron/kh at 600 V and 12.5 kW.

  1. Effects of heavy modes on vacuum stability in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizi, Leonardo; Scrucca, Claudio A.

    2010-11-01

    We study the effects induced by heavy fields on the masses of light fields in supersymmetric theories, under the assumption that the heavy mass scale is much higher than the supersymmetry breaking scale. We show that the square-masses of light scalar fields can get two different types of significant corrections when a heavy multiplet is integrated out. The first is an indirect level-repulsion effect, which may arise from heavy chiral multiplets and is always negative. The second is a direct coupling contribution, which may arise from heavy vector multiplets and can have any sign. We then apply these results to the sGoldstino mass and study the implications for the vacuum metastability condition. We find that the correction from heavy chiral multiplets is always negative and tends to compromise vacuum metastability, whereas the contribution from heavy vector multiplets is always positive and tends on the contrary to reinforce it. These two effects are controlled respectively by Yukawa couplings and gauge charges, which mix one heavy and two light fields respectively in the superpotential and the Kähler potential. Finally we also comment on similar effects induced in soft scalar masses when the heavy multiplets couple both to the visible and the hidden sector.

  2. Three-dimensional particle simulation of back-sputtered carbon in electric propulsion test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hongru; Cai, Guobiao; Liu, Lihui; Shang, Shengfei; He, Bijiao

    2017-03-01

    The back-sputtering deposition on thruster surface caused by ion bombardment on chamber wall material affects the performance of thrusters during the ground based electric propulsion endurance tests. In order to decrease the back-sputtering deposition, most of vacuum chambers applied in electric propulsion experiments are equipped with anti-sputtering targets. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of plume experimental system (PES) including double layer anti-sputtering target is established. Simulation cases are made to simulate the plasma environment and sputtering effects when an ion thruster is working. The particle in cell (PIC) method and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to calculate the velocity and position of particles. Yamamura's model is used to simulate the sputtering process. The distribution of sputtered anti-sputtering target material is presented. The results show that the double layer anti-sputtering target can significantly reduce the deposition on thruster surface. The back-sputtering deposition rates on thruster exit surface for different cases are compared. The chevrons on the secondary target are rearranged to improve its performance. The position of secondary target has relation with the ion beam divergence angle, and the radius of the vacuum chamber. The back-sputtering deposition rate is lower when the secondary target covers the entire ion beam.

  3. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  4. The effect of plasma impurities on the sputtering of tungsten carbide.

    PubMed

    Vörtler, K; Björkas, C; Nordlund, K

    2011-03-02

    Understanding of sputtering by ion bombardment is needed in a wide range of applications. In fusion reactors, ion impacts originating from a hydrogen-isotope-rich plasma will lead, among other effects, to sputtering of the wall material. To study the effect of plasma impurities on the sputtering of the wall mixed material tungsten carbide molecular dynamics simulations were carried out. Simulations of cumulative D cobombardment with C, W, He, Ne or Ar impurities on crystalline tungsten carbide were performed in the energy range 100-300 eV. The sputtering yields obtained at low fluences were compared to steady state SDTrimSP yields. During bombardment single C atom sputtering was preferentially observed. We also detected significant W(x)C(y) molecule sputtering. We found that this molecule sputtering mechanism is of physical origin.

  5. The influence of landing points on the sputtering of mono-crystal solids due to cluster impacting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Guo-jian; Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi; Luo, Guang-nan

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of sputtering due to cluster impacting which has been widely studied is an important but unsolved problem. In present research, we discuss the effect of the landing point on the sputtering with the method of molecular dynamics. The results show that the landing points play significant roles on sputter yield when the temperature of target is low. Specific landing points can cause particular sputtering patterns which lead to different sputtering yield and moving directions of sputtered atoms. The mechanism of this phenomenon is that specific landing keeps symmetries and anisotropies of target lattice, which influence the sputtering yield.

  6. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bailey, Nathan; Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin

    2016-11-01

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  7. Ion beam sputtering of Ti: Influence of process parameters on angular and energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenschläger, T.; Feder, R.; Neumann, H.; Rice, C.; Schubert, M.; Bundesmann, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E-n, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson's theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to simulations done with the Monte Carlo code SDTrimSP. Both confirm in principle the experimental findings.

  8. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  9. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Aoki, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    2005-03-01

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H +, D +, T +, He +) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D + ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy.

  10. Sputtering deposition and characterization of ultrathin amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation focuses on experimental investigations of ultrathin, ultrasmooth amorphous carbon (a-C) films deposited on Si(100) substrates by radio frequency (RF) sputtering and characterization of the nanomechanical and nanotribological properties and thermal stability of the films. Ultrathin a-C films of thickness 5--100 nm and typical root-mean-square roughness of 0.15--1 nm were deposited on ultrasmooth Si(100) substrates using pure argon as the sputtering gas. A low-pressure RF argon discharge model was used to analyze the plasma parameters in the film growth environment. These plasma parameters correlate the deposition conditions with the film growth processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface force microscopy (SFM) were used to characterize the nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of the a-C films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the compositions and microstructures of the films. Sputter-etching measurements of the a-C films by energetic argon ion bombardment were used to study the surface binding energy of carbon atoms in a-C films deposited under different conditions. The dependence of film properties on deposition conditions was studied, and relations between nanomechanical and nanotribological properties were discussed in terms of a modified deformation index. The deformation and nanotribology mechanisms of the a-C films were compared with those of other films, such as TiC and Cr films (both 100 nm thick), and bulk Si(100). Reactive RF sputtering of nitrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CNx) films was investigated by introducing nitrogen into the a-C films during film growth by using an argon-nitrogen gas mixture as the sputtering gas. The alloying effect of nitrogen on the film growth and properties, such as hardness and surface energy, was studied and interpreted in terms of the changes in the plasma environment induced due to differences in the composition of the sputtering gas mixture. The thermal

  11. Ionized magnetron sputtering of aluminum(,2)oxygen(,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Patrick Fernando

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation shows a detailed study of the conditions necessary for sputtering alumina using a novel variant of ionized magnetron sputtering (IMS) first demonstrated by Yamashita et. al. The study presented herein leverages concurrent research at our laboratory on high density plasmas, plasma characterization and charged particle beams research to demonstrate a new source capable of sputtering hydrated alumina films at high rates. High quality ceramics such as Al2O3 find uses in a variety of applications, and in particular, for mass storage applications. Consequently, there exists an ever-growing need to provide and improve the capability of growing thick insulating films. Ideally, the insulating film should be stoichiometric and able to be grown at rates high enough to be easily manufacturable. Alumina is a particularly attractive due to its high density, Na barrier properties, and stability and radiation resistance. However, high quality films are often difficult to achieve with conventional RF plasma due to extremely slow deposition rates and difficulties associated with system cooling. The preferred method is to reactively sputter Al from a solid target in an O2 ambient. Nevertheless, this process is inherently unstable and leads to arcing and uneven target wear when magnetrons are used. In this study, we build the sputtering source, evaluate, and maximize the deposition characteristics of alumina films sputtered from a solid target in an Ar/O2 ambient. Semi-crystalline (kappa + theta) alumina has been reported using a similar technique at temperatures as low 370 C. The difference in the system used herein is that RF power is used for both, the inductive and capacitive components. Additionally, we use a solid target made of sintered alumina throughout the experiment. A model is developed using regression analysis and compared to results obtained. Because plasma parameters can interact with each other, we explore ICP/CCP power interactions and gas influence

  12. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  13. Supported plasma sputtering apparatus for high deposition rate over large area

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Jr., Edwin D.; Laegreid, Nils

    1977-01-01

    A supported plasma sputtering apparatus is described having shaped electrical fields in the electron discharge region between the cathode and anode and the sputter region between the target and substrate while such regions are free of any externally applied magnetic field to provide a high deposition rate which is substantially uniform over a wide area. Plasma shaping electrodes separate from the anode and target shape the electrical fields in the electron discharge region and the sputter region to provide a high density plasma. The anode surrounds the target to cause substantially uniform sputtering over a large target area. In one embodiment the anode is in the form of an annular ring surrounding a flat target surface, such anode being provided with a ribbed upper surface which shields portions of the anode from exposure to sputtered material to maintain the electron discharge for a long stable operation. Several other embodiments accomplish the same result by using different anodes which either shield the anode from sputtered material, remove the sputtered coating on the anode by heating, or simultaneously mix sputtered metal from the auxiliary target with sputtered insulator from the main target so the resultant coating is conductive. A radio frequency potential alone or together with a D.C. potential, may be applied to the target for a greater sputtering rate.

  14. Sequential sputtered Co-HfO2 granular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, M.; Ng, V.

    2017-03-01

    A systematic study of magnetic, magneto-transport and micro-structural properties of Co-HfO2 granular films fabricated by sequential sputtering is presented. We demonstrate reduction in ferromagnetic-oxide formation by using HfO2 as the insulting matrix. Microstructure evaluation of the films showed that the film structure consisted of discrete hcp-Co grains embedded in HfO2 matrix. Films with varying compositions were prepared and their macroscopic properties were studied. We correlate the variation in these properties to the variation in film microstructure. Our study shows that Co-HfO2 films with reduced cobalt oxide and varying properties can be prepared using sequential sputtering technique.

  15. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  16. Growth and Characterization of Sputtered BSTO/BaM Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Srinath, S.; Frey, N. A.; Heindl, R.; Srikanth, H.; Coffey, K. R.; Dudney, Nancy J

    2005-01-01

    Multilayers of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BSTO) and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM), with tunable permeability and permittivity are attractive systems for radio frequency and microwave applications. We have grown multilayers of BSTO and BaM using magnetron sputtering on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Film growth conditions such as sputtering parameters were optimized to obtain high quality multilayers. X-ray diffraction established that both BSTO and BaM were formed and cross-sectional SEM studies showed sharp interfaces between BSTO and BaM layers. Magnetization showed a large coercivity ( {approx}2000 Oe) consistent with the hexaferrite component. The hysteresis loops also revealed the distinct influence of magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies at different temperatures.

  17. Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Naoki; Wada, Motoi

    2011-01-01

    The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

  18. Erosion of Extraction Electrodes of Ion Sources due to Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2011-01-07

    The effects upon erosion due to implanted atoms in extraction electrodes of an ion source have been investigated through calculating the sputtering yields with a Monte Carlo simulation code, ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that the sputtering yields of extraction electrodes are substantially affected by the retention of implanted atoms depending upon the mass ratio of electrode materials and extracted ions from the source plasma. The enhanced erosion takes place as the heavier ion beam species like phosphor is implanted into lighter electrode material like carbon. Additional mixing of materials arising from ion source operation, such as hot cathode materials evaporation onto a carbon extraction electrode, can shorten the lifetime of the extraction electrodes.

  19. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; to Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu–W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu–W and Cu–V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering. PMID:27877871

  20. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  1. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium - A new technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting U-235 has been used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer in order to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E exp -1.77 for E not less than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the random collision cascade model of sputtering.

  2. Anomalous Plastic Deformation and Sputtering of Ion Irradiated Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nanowires of various diameters were irradiated with 100 keV and 300 keV Ar+ ions on a rotatable and heatable stage. Irradiation at elevated temperatures above 300 °C retains the geometry of the nanostructure and sputtering can be gauged accurately. The diameter dependence of the sputtering shows a maximum if the ion range matches the nanowire diameter, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on binary collisions. Nanowires irradiated at room temperature, however, amorphize and deform plastically. So far, plastic deformation has not been observed in bulk silicon at such low ion energies. The magnitude and direction of the deformation is independent of the ion-beam direction and cannot be explained with mass-transport in a binary collision cascade but only by collective movement of atoms in the collision cascade with the given boundary conditions of a high surface to volume ratio. PMID:25951108

  3. Darkening of silicate rock powders by solar wind sputtering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1973-01-01

    Hydrogen ion irradiation of powdered igneous rocks, including Apollo rocks, has been observed in the laboratory to darken the powders and to make their optical properties similar to the moon's. An extensive series of investigations shows that this darkening is not spurious. These results are consistent with those of other investigators, including Nash (1967). Darkening of lunar igneous rock powders by the formation of solar wind-sputtered glass films is a real process which occurs on the moon. The time scale for darkening of undisturbed lunar soil is of the order of 50,000-100,000 yr. Comparison of the rates of the formation of glasses on the lunar surface by solar wind sputter-deposition, meteorite impact melting, and impact vaporization-deposition indicates that these processes are of comparable importance under the present flux of meteorites.

  4. A method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    SciTech Connect

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating currentThe center tap of the tmsformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the ftwsformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  5. Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Danagoulian, Areg; Klein, Andreas; Mcneil, Wendy V; Yuan, Vincent W

    2008-01-01

    We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

  6. Energy distributions of sputtered copper neutrals and ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Direct quantitative analysis of surfaces by secondary ion mass spectrometry will depend on an understanding of the yield ratio of ions to neutrals. This ratio as a function of the energy of the sputtered particles has been obtained for a clean polycrystalline copper surface sputtered by 1000-3000 eV Ar(+). The energy distributions of both neutral and ionized copper were measured with a retarding potential analyzer using potential modulation differentiation and signal averaging. The maximum for both distributions is identical and occurs near 2.5 eV. The energy distributions of neutrals is more sharply peaked than that of the ions, presumably as a consequence of more efficient nutralization of slow escaping ions by the mobile electrons of copper. The ion-neutral ratio is compared with results from various ionization models.

  7. Physicochemical model for reactive sputtering of hot target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, Viktor I.; Karzin, Vitaliy V.; Bondarenko, Anastasia S.

    2017-02-01

    A physicochemical model for reactive magnetron sputtering of a metal target is described in this paper. The target temperature in the model is defined as a function of the ion current density. Synthesis of the coating occurs due to the surface chemical reaction. The law of mass action, the Langmuir isotherm and the Arrhenius equation for non-isothermal conditions were used for mathematical description of the reaction. The model takes into consideration thermal electron emission and evaporation of the target surface. The system of eight algebraic equations, describing the model, was solved for the tantalum target sputtered in the oxygen environment. It was established that the hysteresis effect disappears with the increase of the ion current density.

  8. Towards an optimised sputtered MoS2 lubricant film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the tribological quality of MoS2 lubricant films formed by magnetron sputtering is determined by the choice of sputtering conditions. By selecting the appropriate conditions, films of extremely high lubricity and endurance (in vacuum), which are well suited to many space applications, are obtained. Such MoS2 films, when applied to precision ball hearings, give rise to the lowest torques (for the given test conditions) yet seen in our laboratory. While a remarkably good performance is obtained in vacuum, tests in air show a marked deterioration in lubricating qualities. It is demonstrated that this is attributable to the adsorption of water vapor on MoS2 surfaces and that the degree of deterioration is related to the partial pressure of water vapor present. Analysis of results indicates that the factors relevant to obtaining optimum films are deposition rate and film composition.

  9. Angular distribution of particles sputtered from metals and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wucher, A.; Reuter, W.

    1988-07-01

    The angular distributions of atoms sputtered from pure Cu and Be as well as Cu/sub 98/Be/sub 2/, Cu/sub 71/Zn/sub 29/, Co/sub 3/Au, and WSi/sub 2.3/ were investigated for bombardment with Ar/sup +/ ions of 250 eV and 2 keV under normal incidence. Between polar emission angles theta = 0/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/, for the higher bombarding energy all observed angular distributions look very much alike and follow essentially a cos/sup 3/ theta law. For the low bombarding energy, however, significant differences between the angular distributions of the alloy constituents are found. The effect, which is most pronounced for CuBe, seems to scale with the atomic mass in the way that the lower mass particles are sputtered preferentially along the surface normal.

  10. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  11. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  12. Growth and characterization of sputtered BSTO/BaM multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, S.; Frey, N. A.; Heindl, R.; Srikanth, H.; Coffey, K. R.; Dudney, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    Multilayers of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BSTO) and BaFe12O19 (BaM), with tunable permeability and permittivity are attractive systems for radio frequency and microwave applications. We have grown multilayers of BSTO and BaM using magnetron sputtering on Al2O3 substrates. Film growth conditions such as sputtering parameters were optimized to obtain high quality multilayers. X-ray diffraction established that both BSTO and BaM were formed and cross-sectional SEM studies showed sharp interfaces between BSTO and BaM layers. Magnetization showed a large coercivity (˜2000Oe ) consistent with the hexaferrite component. The hysteresis loops also revealed the distinct influence of magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies at different temperatures.

  13. Anomalous Plastic Deformation and Sputtering of Ion Irradiated Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Andreas; Noack, Stefan; Wesch, Werner; Glaser, Markus; Lugstein, Alois; Ronning, Carsten

    2015-06-10

    Silicon nanowires of various diameters were irradiated with 100 keV and 300 keV Ar(+) ions on a rotatable and heatable stage. Irradiation at elevated temperatures above 300 °C retains the geometry of the nanostructure and sputtering can be gauged accurately. The diameter dependence of the sputtering shows a maximum if the ion range matches the nanowire diameter, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on binary collisions. Nanowires irradiated at room temperature, however, amorphize and deform plastically. So far, plastic deformation has not been observed in bulk silicon at such low ion energies. The magnitude and direction of the deformation is independent of the ion-beam direction and cannot be explained with mass-transport in a binary collision cascade but only by collective movement of atoms in the collision cascade with the given boundary conditions of a high surface to volume ratio.

  14. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; To Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu-W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu-W and Cu-V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering.

  15. Step edge sputtering yield at grazing incidence ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henri; Polop, Celia; Michely, Thomas; Friedrich, Andreas; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2004-06-18

    The surface morphology of Pt(111) was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy after 5 keV Ar+ ion bombardment at grazing incidence in dependence of the ion fluence and in the temperature range between 625 and 720 K. The average erosion rate was found to be strongly dependent on the ion fluence and the substrate temperature during bombardment. This dependence is traced back to the variation of step concentration with temperature and fluence. We develop a simple model allowing us to determine separately the constant sputtering yields for terraces and for impact area stripes in front of ascending steps. The experimentally determined yield of these stripes--the step-edge sputtering yield--is in excellent agreement with our molecular dynamics simulations performed for the experimental situation.

  16. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  17. Sputtering and codeposition of silicon carbide with deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causey, Rion A.

    2003-03-01

    Due to its excellent thermal properties, silicon carbide is being considered as a possible plasma-facing material for fusion devices. If used as a plasma-facing material, the energetic hydrogen isotope ions and charge-exchanged neutrals escaping from the plasma will sputter the silicon carbide. To assess the tritium inventory problems that will be generated by the use of this material, it is necessary that we know the codeposition properties of the redeposited silicon carbide. To determine the codeposition properties, the deuterium plasma experiment at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California has been used to directly compare the deuterium sputtering and codeposition of silicon carbide with that of graphite. A Penning discharge at a flux of 6×10 19 D/m 2 and an energy of ≈300 eV was used to sputter silicon and carbon from a pair of 0.05 m diameter silicon carbide disks. The removal rate of deuterium gas from the fixed volume of the system isolated from all other sources and sinks was used to measure the codeposition probability (probability that a hydrogen isotope atom will be removed through codeposition per ion striking the sample surface). A small catcher plate used to capture a fraction of the codeposited film was analyzed using Auger spectroscopy. This analysis showed the film to begin with a high carbon to silicon ratio due to preferential sputtering of the carbon. As the film became thicker, the ratio of the depositing material changed over to the (1:1) value that must eventually be attained.

  18. Superconductivity in sputtered CuMO6S8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S.; Woollam, J. A.; Kammerdiner, L.; Luo, H. L.; Martin, C.

    1977-01-01

    Samples were prepared by melting the metals, followed by annealing to various temperatures. The result was a structurally weak material. Sputtered films on sapphire substrates were prepared and studied. The substrates give the films mechanical strength and permit easy attachment of electrical leads. Materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, electrical resistance vs. temperature, and critical current measurements. Some of the results on CuMo6S8 are presented.

  19. Modeling of the Sputtering Efficiency for Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Leblanc, F.; Fang, X.; Johnson, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Ip, W.; Li, L.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of a hot corona with the related escape rate of the oxygen atoms is an important issue affecting the evolution of the Marian atmosphere. While the dissociative recombination process appears to dominate the non-thermal escaping rate of the oxygen atoms, atmospheric sputtering by the re-impact of the pickup exospheric ions could have played a role in earlier epochs and at solar maximum in the present epoch. Due to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic fields and the shielding of the crustal fields near Mar's surface, the pickup ions may re-impact the atmosphere with a variety of angles, energies, and spatial distributions. While night-side sputtering is suggested to occur based on modeling (Li et al., 2011), the sputter component due to pickup ion impacts on the oxygen corona can be distinguished from other ejection mechanisms, such as dissociative recombination. In preparation for the Maven mission, we performed a Monte Carlo model of the upper atmosphere coupled to a molecular dynamic calculation for the molecular collisions developed by Leblanc and Johnson (2002) to study the cascade sputtering effects in the region of the Martian exobase. Different incident angle and energy spectrum of the impact ions were tested. Further calculations with more realistic pickup ion impact distributions will be performed based on the numerical results of a 3D Monte Carlo Pickup Ion Transport model, which includes the electromagnetic backgrounds from the 3D multi-species MHD simulations (Y. Ma et al., 2004; Y. Ma and A. F. Nagy, 2007).

  20. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Wen G.

    1997-01-01

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  1. Retention of Sputtered Molybdenum on Ion Engine Discharge Chamber Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Dever, Joyce A.; Power, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Grit-blasted anode surfaces are commonly used in ion engines to ensure adherence of sputtered coatings. Next generation ion engines will require higher power levels, longer operating times, and thus there will likely be thicker sputtered coatings on their anode surfaces than observed to date on 2.3 kW-class xenon ion engines. The thickness of coatings on the anode of a 10 kW, 40-centimeter diameter thruster, for example, may be 22 micrometers or more after extended operation. Grit-blasted wire mesh, titanium, and aluminum coupons were coated with molybdenum at accelerated rates to establish coating stability after the deposition process and after thermal cycling tests. These accelerated deposition rates are roughly three orders of magnitude more rapid than the rates at which the screen grid is sputtered in a 2.3 kW-class, 30-centimeter diameter ion engine. Using both RF and DC sputtering processes, the molybdenum coating thicknesses ranged from 8 to 130 micrometers, and deposition rates from 1.8 micrometers per hour to 5.1 micrometers per hour. In all cases, the molybdenum coatings were stable after the deposition process, and there was no evidence of spalling of the coatings after 20 cycles from about -60 to +320 C. The stable, 130 micrometer molybdenum coating on wire mesh is 26 times thicker than the thickest coating found on the anode of a 2.3 kW, xenon ion engine that was tested for 8200 hr. Additionally, this coating on wire mesh coupon is estimated to be a factor of greater than 4 thicker than one would expect to obtain on the anode of the next generation ion engine which may have xenon throughputs as high as 550 kg.

  2. In vitro flow measurements in ion sputtered hydrocephalus shunts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental procedure for accurate measurements of the pressure-drop/flow rate relationship in hydrocephalus shunts. Using a fish-hook arrangement, small flow rates in a perforated ion-sputtered Teflon microtubule were measured in vitro in a pressured system and were correlated with pressure in the system. Results indicate that appropriate drainage rates could be obtained in the physiological range for hydrocephalus shunts.

  3. Magnetron sputtering in rigid optical solar reflectors production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asainov, O. Kh; Bainov, D. D.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Sidelev, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetron sputtering was applied to meet the growing need for glass optical solar reflectors. This plasma method provided more uniform deposition of the silver based coating on glass substrates resulted in decrease of defective reflectors fraction down to 5%. For instance, such parameter of resistive evaporation was of 30%. Silver film adhesion to glass substrate was enhanced with indium tin oxide sublayer. Sunlight absorption coefficient of these rigid reflectors was 0.081-0.083.

  4. Plasma regimes in high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Arcos, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS) is a relatively recent variation of magnetron sputtering where high power is applied to the magnetron in short pulses. The result is the formation of dense transient plasmas with a high fraction of ionized species, ideally leading to better control of film growth through substrate bias. However, the broad range of experimental conditions accessible in pulsed discharges results in bewildering variations in current and voltage pulse shapes, pulse power densities, etc, which represent different discharge behaviors, making it difficult to identify relevant deposition conditions. The complexity of the plasma dynamics is evident. Within each pulse, plasma characteristics such as plasma composition, density, gas rarefaction, spatial distribution, degree of self-sputtering, etc. vary with time. A recent development has been the discovery that the plasma emission can self-organize into well-defined regions of high and low plasma emissivity above the racetrack (spokes), which rotate in the direction given by the E ×B drift and that significantly influence the transport mechanisms in HPPMS. One seemingly universal characteristic of HPPMS plasmas is the existence of well defined plasma regimes for different power ranges. These regimes are clearly differentiated in terms of plasma conductivity, plasma composition and spatial plasma self-organization. We will discuss the global characteristics of these regimes in terms of current-voltage characteristics, energy-resolved QMS and OES analysis, and fast imaging. In particular we will discuss how the reorganization of the plasma emission into spokes is associated only to specific regimes of high plasma conductivity. We will also briefly discuss the role of the target in shaping the characteristics of the HPPMS plasma, since sputtering is a surface-driven process. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the SFB-TR87.

  5. Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.

    PubMed

    Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

    1978-07-28

    The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique.

  6. Calculating Sputter Rate Angular Dependence Using Optical Profilometry (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-26

    This work attempts to determine angular dependence curves for sputter rates of a material based on a single experimental measurement. An aluminum...angular dependence curve to match the given erosion profile. The calculated profile matched well with the experimental profile; however, neither matched...the optimization routine, the angular dependence curve was input to the COLISEUM plasma modeling code, which generated the same erosion profile as the experimental data.

  7. Energy and angular distributions of sputtered atoms at normal incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Takiguchi, T.; Ishida, M.

    1991-12-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT has been applied to investigate the angular distribution and the energy distribution of atoms sputtered from Cu and Nb targets by normally incident Ar+ ions. It is found that there are two important effects which affect the angular distributions and the energy distributions of sputtered atoms, i.e., the anisotropic effect and the bulk recoil effect. The former effects means that the recoil flux keeps the memory of the incident ion-beam direction because of the incomplete cascade, while the latter one means the contributions of recoils generated at the deeper layer to the angular and the energy distributions of sputtered atoms. The anisotropic effect is important in the low energy region, and it makes the angular distribution under-cosine and the high energy tail of the energy distribution fall off faster than the Thompson distribution. The bulk recoil effect makes angular distribution be over-cosine and the peak position of the energy distribution be shifted to somewhat higher energies.

  8. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150 mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400 MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10 nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4 K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  9. Sputter deposited Terfenol-D thin films for multiferroic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanchandra, K. P.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Wetzlar, K. P.; Sun, W. Y.; Nordeen, P.; Carman, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the sputter deposition and crystallization process to produce high quality Terfenol-D thin film (100 nm) with surface roughness below 1.5 nm. The Terfenol-D thin film was produced using DC magnetron sputtering technique with various sputtering parameters and two different crystallization methods, i.e. substrate heating and post-annealing. Several characterization techniques including WDS, XRD, TEM, AFM, SQUID and MOKE were used to determine the physical and magnetic properties of the Terfenol-D films. TEM studies reveal that the film deposited on the heated substrate has large grains grown along the film thickness producing undesirable surface roughness while the film crystallized by post-annealing method shows uniformly distributed small grains producing a smooth surface. The Terfenol-D film was also deposited onto (011) cut PMN-PT single crystal substrate. With the application of an electric field the film exhibited a 1553 Oe change in coercivity with an estimated saturation magnetostriction of λs = 910 x 10-6.

  10. Sputtering as a Technique for Applying Tribological Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear-induced mechanical failures may be controlled to extend the life of tribological components through the interposition of selected solid materials between contacting surfaces. Thin solid films of soft and hard materials are appropriate to lower friction and enhance the wear resistance of precision tribo-elements. Tribological characteristics of thin hard coats deposited on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous substrates were tested. The thin hard coats used were titanium nitride films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic titanium. High contact stress, low speed tests showed wear rate reductions of one or more magnitude, even with films a few micrometers in thickness. Low contact stress, high speed tests carried out under rather severe test conditions showed that thin films of TiN afforded significant friction reduction and wear protection. Thin hard coats were shown to improve the friction and wear performance of rolling contacts. Satisfactory film-to-substrate adhesion strengths can be obtained with reactive magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests were employed to assess the effectiveness of the sputtering technique.

  11. Binding energy effects in cascade evolution and sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    The MARLOWE model was extended to include a binding energy dependent on the local crystalline order, so that atoms are bound less strongly to their lattice sites near surfaces or associated damage. Sputtering and cascade evolution were studied on the examples of self-ion irradiations of Cu and Au monocrystals. In cascades, the mean binding energy is reduced {approximately}8% in Cu with little dependence on the initial recoil energy; in Au, it is reduced {approximately}9% at 1 keV and {approximately}15% at 100 keV. In sputtering, the mean binding energy is reduced {approximately}8% in Cu and {approximately}15% in Au with little energy dependence; the yields are increased about half as much. Most sites from which sputtered atoms originate are isolated in both metals. Small clusters of such sites occur in Cu, but there are some large clusters in Au, especially in [111] targets. There are always more large clusters with damage-dependent binding than with a constant binding energy, but only a few clusters are compact enough to be regarded as pits.

  12. Low Energy Sputtering Experiments for Ion Engine Lifetime Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchemin Olivier B.; Polk, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The sputtering yield of molybdenum under xenon ion bombardment was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. The measurements were made for ion kinetic energies in the range 100-1keV on molybdenum films deposited by magnetron sputtering in conditions optimized to reproduce or approach bulk-like properties. SEM micrographs for different anode bias voltages during the deposition are compared, and four different methods were implemented to estimate the density of the molybdenum films. A careful discussion of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance is proposed and it is shown that this method can be used to measure mass changes that are distributed unevenly on the crystal electrode surface, if an analytical expression is known for the differential mass-sensitivity of the crystal and the erosion profile. Finally, results are presented that are in good agreement with previously published data, and it is concluded that this method holds the promise of enabling sputtering yield measurements at energies closer to the threshold energy in the very short term.

  13. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Henry, M.; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-01

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, Tc. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150 mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400 MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb2O5, consumed the top 6-10 nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. Tc measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a Tc approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4 K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  14. Enhancement of bioactivity on medical polymer surface using high power impulse magnetron sputtered titanium dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ju; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Ying-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a novel technique, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which provides a higher ionization rate and ion bombardment energy than direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), to deposit high osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings with anatase (A-TiO2) and rutile (R-TiO2) phases onto the biomedical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer substrates at low temperature. The adhesions of TiO2 coatings that were fabricated using HIPIMS and DCMS were compared. The in vitro biocompatibility of these coatings was confirmed. The results reveal that HIPIMS can be used to prepare crystallinic columnar A-TiO2 and R-TiO2 coatings on PEEK substrate if the ratio of oxygen to argon is properly controlled. According to a tape adhesion test, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings had an adhesion grade of 5B even after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) environments for 28days. Scratch tests proved that HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings undergo cohesive failure. These results demonstrate that the adhesive force between HIPIMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK is stronger than that between DCMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK. After a long period (28days) of immersion in SBF, a bone-like crystallinic hydroxyapatite layer with a corresponding Ca/P stoichiometry was formed on both HIPIMS-TiO2. The osteoblast compatibility of HIPIMS-TiO2 exceeded that of the bare PEEK substrate. It is also noticeable that the R-TiO2 performed better in vitro than the A-TiO2 due to the formation of many negatively charged hydroxyl groups (-OH(-)) groups on R-TiO2 (110) surface. In summary, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings satisfied the requirements for osseointegration, suggesting the possibility of using HIPIMS to modify the PEEK surface with TiO2 for spinal implants.

  15. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  16. Simulation of ion beam sputtering with SDTrimSP, TRIDYN and SRIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofsäss, H.; Zhang, K.; Mutzke, A.

    2014-08-01

    A quantitative simulation of ion beam sputtering and related collision cascade effects is essential for applications of ion beam irradiation in thin film deposition, surface treatment and sculpting with focused ion beams, ion beam smoothing of surfaces and ion-induced nanopattern formation. The understanding of fundamental ion-solid interaction processes relevant for nanostructure formation, ion-induced mass redistribution, sputter yield amplification, ion beam mixing and dynamic compositional changes requires reliable simulations of ion-solid interaction processes in particular at low ion energies. In this contribution we discuss the possibilities, the key benefits and the limitations of three popular binary collision Monte Carlo simulation programs (SDTrimSP, TRIDYN and SRIM). The focus will be set to the calculation of angle dependent sputter yields, angular distribution of sputtered particles, sputter yields for compound materials, sputter yield amplification effects, as well as the extraction of parameters relevant for modeling ion-induced surface pattern formation from vacancy and recoil atom distributions.

  17. Effect upon the Sputtering Threshold Due to Accumulation of Projectiles in Target Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Hyakutake, Toru; Nishiyama, Masaki; Muramoto, Tetsuya; Nishida, Michio

    In order to quantify the accumulation effect of projectiles in target material for sputtering, sputtering yields of carbon for pure graphite and the projectile retaining carbon target material bombarded by xenon and helium ions are calculated with a Monte Carlo code ACAT. The ACAT results have indicated that the threshold energy for sputtering is reduced due to the accumulation of the xenon atoms in graphite. Meanwhile, the threshold energy for carbon sputtering is not largely influenced by the retained helium atoms in graphite. Mass ratio of the projectile to the target atom is the important factor for the low energy sputtering yield. An empirical formula for sputtering yields for graphite retaining xenon atoms has been proposed.

  18. Effect of deuterium retention upon sputtering yield of tungsten by deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Ono, T.; Wada, M.

    2011-08-01

    Sputtering yields of tungsten from tungsten containing deuterium (D2) and tungsten containing carbon (C) atoms bombarded by deuterium and carbon atoms are calculated with a Monte Carlo code ACAT. The ACAT results have shown that the tungsten sputtering yields are changed by carbon retention in tungsten. The tungsten sputtering yield by deuterium bombardment around the sputtering threshold for pure tungsten have been enlarged by two mechanisms; one is the reduction in sputtering threshold due to smaller surface binding energy, the other is the enhanced development of collision cascade. As the carbon bombarding energy exceeds 200-300 eV, the sputtering yields for tungsten retaining deuterium and carbon become smaller due to the reduction in density of tungsten target atoms.

  19. AFM characterization of nonwoven material functionalized by ZnO sputter coating

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Bingyao; Yan Xiong; Wei Qufu Gao Weidong

    2007-10-15

    Sputter coatings provide new approaches to the surface functionalization of textile materials. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven material was used as a substrate for creating functional nanostructures on the fiber surfaces. A magnetron sputter coating was used to deposit functional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures onto the nonwoven substrate. The evolution of the surface morphology of the fibers in the nonwoven web was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations revealed a significant difference in the morphology of the fibers before and after the sputter coating. The AFM images also indicated the effect of the sputtering conditions on the surface morphology of the fibers. The increase in the sputtering time led to the growth of the ZnO grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher pressure in the sputtering chamber could cause the formation of larger grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher power used also generated larger grains on the fiber surfaces.

  20. Effect of sputtering power on the magnetic properties of amorphous perpendicular TbFeCo films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Huang, Ya; Xu, Zhan; Dong, Shuo; Chen, Ruofei

    2017-02-01

    A series of amorphous perpendicular TbFeCo films are sputtered using a composite target. The magnetic properties of the TbFeCo films are found to strongly be influenced by sputtering power. The above-RT magnetic compensation point in the films sputtered at high powers is revealed by thermomagnetic measurements. With increasing the power the compensation point shifts considerably towards higher temperature, while only a slight reduction in the Curie temperature occurs. The coercivity is found to initially increase with the power and then falls, which is in accordance with film composition moving from FeCo-rich to Tb-rich side. This can be well explained by the sputtering yield of Tb, which increases faster than FeCo atoms with the power during the sputtering. Our results show a convenient way to adjust the coercivity of the films by modifying the Tb-to-FeCo ratio using the sputtering power.

  1. Molecular dynamics study on low-energy sputtering of carbon material by Xe ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramoto, T.; Hyakutake, T.

    2013-05-01

    The low-energy sputtering of carbon material under Xe ion bombardment is studied through the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. For the normal incidence of Xe, the MD result of sputtering yield almost agrees with the experimental result by Williams et al. (AIAA-2004-3788). However, the experimental result shows a less incident angle dependence than the MD result because the experiment performed on a rough surface. It is found that the sputtered particles have memory of the projectile because the sputtered particles by the low-energy projectile undergo only a few collisions before the ejection. Low density of an amorphous carbon surface brings the decrease of the sputtering yield and the increase of high-energy sputtered atoms.

  2. Effect of substrate bias on the structural and electrical properties of sputtered Mo thin films on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxiong

    2016-07-04

    The metal molybdenum (Mo) thin films deposited on flexible substrates can act as the contact electrode of flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 or Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells. In this work, in order to enhance the structural and electrical characteristics of flexible Mo thin films, a negative substrate bias was applied during the direct current sputtering of Mo thin films. The flexible substrates used for growing the Mo films were stainless steel foils and polyimides. The characteristics of Mo thin films were studied by x-ray diffraction and sheet resistance measurements. The measured results reveal that an optimal value of negative substrate bias can be found for improving the electrical and structural characteristics of Mo thin films on flexible substrates. The minimum sheet resistances of Mo thin films are 2.50 Ω/sq and 2.73 Ω/sq for the stainless steel foil and polyimide substrates, respectively.

  3. Effect of sputtering power on structural and optical properties of radio frequency-sputtered In2S3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong Hyun; Cho, Shinho; Hui, Kwun Nam; Son, Young Guk

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films as a substitute for the CdS buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. The In2S3 films were deposited on glass substrates using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The sputtering power was changed from 60 to 120 W in 20 W increments. The effects of sputtering power on the crystallinity, surface morphology, and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The XRD analyses indicated that the films were polycrystalline β-In2S3 structures with two preferred orientations along the (103) and (206) directions. The AFM images revealed that the films had nanosized grains and that the size increased from 7 nm for the samples prepared at 60 W to 13 nm for those prepared at 120 W. The optical band gap of the samples was found to vary between 2.88 and 2.43 eV.

  4. Sputtering yield calculations using an interatomic potential with the shell effect and a new local model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijie; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Ono, Tadayoshi; Yamamura, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    In order to test the availabilities of the theoretical screening lengths with the shell effect and the new local electronic-energy-loss model proposed by Yamamura et al., the sputtering yields due to various ion impacts on monatomic materials were calculated with the ACAT code. It is found that the sputtering yields calculated by the Molière potential with the present theoretical screening lengths are in reasonable good agreement with experimental data and Yamamura's empirical sputtering formula without free parameters.

  5. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, Y.; Tawara, H.

    1996-03-01

    The ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence are presented graphically for various ion-target combinations as a function of the incident ion energy. To supplement the experimental data, sputtering yields are calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows the available experimental and ACAT data points, together with the sputtering yields calculated by an empirical formula whose parameters determined from the best fit to available data.

  6. Lubrication with sputtered MoS2 films: Principles, operation, limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1991-01-01

    The present practices, limitations, and understanding of thin sputtered MoS2 films are reviewed. Sputtered MoS2 films can exhibit remarkable tribological properties such as ultralow friction coefficients (0.01) and enhanced wear lives (millions of cycles) when used in vacuum or dry air. To achieve these favorable tribological characteristics, the sputtering conditions during deposition must be optimized for adequate film adherence and appropriate structure (morphology) and composition.

  7. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    MedlinePlus

    ... effect of using a nonhormonal intrauterine device for birth control. When an IUD is the cause of excessive menstrual bleeding, you may need to remove it. Pregnancy complications. A single, heavy, late period may be due to a miscarriage. If ...

  8. Heavy fermion quantum criticality.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Zaira; Santiago, David I

    2008-09-26

    During the last few years, investigations of rare-earth materials have made clear that heavy fermion quantum criticality exhibits novel physics not fully understood. In this work, we write for the first time the effective action describing the low energy physics of the system. The f fermions are replaced by a dynamical scalar field whose nonzero expected value corresponds to the heavy fermion phase. The effective theory is amenable to numerical studies as it is bosonic, circumventing the fermion sign problem. Via effective action techniques, renormalization group studies, and Callan-Symanzik resummations, we describe the heavy fermion criticality and predict the heavy fermion critical dynamical susceptibility and critical specific heat. The specific heat coefficient exponent we obtain (0.39) is in excellent agreement with the experimental result at low temperatures (0.4).

  9. Simulation of sputter-induced roughness for depth profiling of thin film structures.

    PubMed

    Wöhner, T; Ecke, G; Rössler, H; Hofmann, S

    1995-10-01

    Sputtering induced surface roughening is the dominant factor that degrades depth resolution in sputter profiling of polycrystalline film samples. Due to the dependence of the sputtering yield on the crystallographic orientation, ion beam incidence angle and composition, the local sputtering rate differs from grain to grain. A simple computer program based on a model of Marton and Fine can simulate such a roughness development within one layer, an improved version can even be applied for interfaces. A further extension of the program using a model of Hauffe includes effects like shadowing and enhanced peak erosion leading to surface smoothing.

  10. RF magnetron sputter deposition and analysis of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Holland, Anthony S.; Fardin, Ernest; Kandasamy, Sasikaran

    2006-01-01

    The paper investigates conditions for depositing perovskite-oriented strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films using RF magnetron sputtering. PSZT is a material that can exhibit high piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The deposition was conducted using an 8/65/35 PSZT sputtering target. The effects of sputtering conditions and the deposition rates for films sputtered onto several surfaces (including gold and platinum coated substrates) were studied. Combinations of in-situ heating during sputtering and post-deposition Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) were performed and resulting phases determined. RTA was carried out in argon to observe their effects. The sputtered films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Results show dramatic differences in the grain structure of the deposited films on the different surfaces. The stoichiometry of the sputtered films is demonstrated using XPS. In the case of gold and platinum coated substrates, sputtering was also carried out for different durations, to establish the growth rate of the film, and to observe the variation in grain size with sputtering duration. The deposited thin films were resistant to most chemical wet etchants and were Ion Beam Etched (IBE) at 19 nm/min.

  11. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  12. Light induced suppression of sulfur in a cesium sputter ion source

    PubMed Central

    Martschini, Martin; Rohlén, Johan; Andersson, Pontus; Golser, Robin; Hanstorp, Dag; Lindahl, Anton O.; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Forstner, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    New techniques for suppression of atomic isobars in negative ion beams are of great interest for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Especially small and medium-sized facilities can significantly extend their measurement capabilities to new interesting isotopes with a technique independent of terminal voltage. In a new approach, the effect of continuous wave laser light directed towards the cathode surface in a cesium sputter ion source of the Middleton type was studied. The laser light induced a significant change in oxygen, sulfur and chlorine negative ion production from a AgCl target. Approximately 100 mW of laser light reduced the sulfur to chlorine ratio by one order of magnitude. The effect was found to depend on laser power and ion source parameters but not on the laser wavelength. The time constant of the effect varied from a few seconds up to several minutes. Experiments were first performed at the ion beam facility GUNILLA at University of Gothenburg with macroscopic amounts of sulfur. The results were then reproduced at the VERA AMS facility with chemically cleaned AgCl targets containing ∼1 ppm sulfur. The physical explanation behind the effect is still unclear. Nevertheless, the technique has been successfully applied during a regular AMS measurement of 36Cl. PMID:23576897

  13. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 × 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 °C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density.

  14. Continued improvment of large area, in situ sputter deposition of superconducting YBCO thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truman, J. K.; White, W. R.; Ballentine, P. H.; Mallory, D. S.; Kadin, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x onto substrates of up to 3-in diameter by an integrated off-axis sputtering is reported. The substrate is located above the center of an 8-in-diameter YBCO planar target, and, in conjunction with a negative ion shield, negative ion effects are avoided. A large radiant heater provides backside, noncontact heating of the bare substrates. YBCO films have been grown on polished 1-cm2 MgO and LaAlO3 substrates with Tc = 90 K or greater, Jc = 2.5 x 10 exp 6 A/sq cm or greater at 77 K, and microwave surface resistance Rs less than 0.4 micro-ohm at 77 K and 10 GHz. The films have a very smooth surface morphology. Uniformity data for LaAlO3 substrates are less than +/-5 percent in Rs. Thickness uniformity results for 3-in substrates indicate less than 10 percent variation. The growth of epitaxial insulating films for use with YBCO films and application of the YBCO films in microwave devices are briefly discussed.

  15. Light induced suppression of sulfur in a cesium sputter ion source.

    PubMed

    Martschini, Martin; Rohlén, Johan; Andersson, Pontus; Golser, Robin; Hanstorp, Dag; Lindahl, Anton O; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Forstner, Oliver

    2012-04-01

    New techniques for suppression of atomic isobars in negative ion beams are of great interest for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Especially small and medium-sized facilities can significantly extend their measurement capabilities to new interesting isotopes with a technique independent of terminal voltage. In a new approach, the effect of continuous wave laser light directed towards the cathode surface in a cesium sputter ion source of the Middleton type was studied. The laser light induced a significant change in oxygen, sulfur and chlorine negative ion production from a AgCl target. Approximately 100 mW of laser light reduced the sulfur to chlorine ratio by one order of magnitude. The effect was found to depend on laser power and ion source parameters but not on the laser wavelength. The time constant of the effect varied from a few seconds up to several minutes. Experiments were first performed at the ion beam facility GUNILLA at University of Gothenburg with macroscopic amounts of sulfur. The results were then reproduced at the VERA AMS facility with chemically cleaned AgCl targets containing ∼1 ppm sulfur. The physical explanation behind the effect is still unclear. Nevertheless, the technique has been successfully applied during a regular AMS measurement of (36)Cl.

  16. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found ... the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves. Alternative Names Endocarditis (culture-negative) Images Culture-negative ...

  17. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  19. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  20. Thermochromism of sputter-deposited vanadium oxyfluoride coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, K.A.; Granqvist, C.G.

    1990-12-31

    Thermochromism offers interesting possibilities for controlling the radiative throughput through windows, as well as for numerous other applications. The purpose of this brief paper is to point at the potential and prospects of using sputter-deposited vanadium oxyfluoride coatings. A thermochromic coating, suitable for energy-efficient windows, is characterized by a transmittance which drops as the temperature goes above a certain comfort temperature.Thermochromism in VO{sub 2}-based materials is well known; it is connected with a reversible structural transition from a low-temperature monoclinic phase to a high-temperature phase with metallic-like properties. The metallic phase is characterized by a plasma wavelength at {approximately} 1 {mu}m. Hence it is possible to accomplish a temperature-dependent modulation of the near-infrared transmittance. In order to produce a practically useful window coating, the VO{sub 2}-based material must be processed suitably. The authors discuss how magnetron sputtering can be used for (potential) large-area deposition. Among the many alternative approaches for depressing the phase change temperature they note the replacement of oxygen by fluorine and the introduction of stress either from the substrate or from a suitable overlayer. The work reported here deals with fluorination through reactive sputter deposition. A key result, reported below, is that the fluorination leads to a significant decrease of the luminous absorptance. Finally, it may be that a practical window coating must invoke a three-layer design with a VO{sub 2}-based coating embedded between antireflecting dielectric layers; this latter point will not be pursued further here.

  1. Physics of arcing, and implications to sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-12-15

    Arcing is a well-known, unwanted discharge regime observed on the surface of sputtering targets. The discharge voltage breaks down to less than 50 V while the current jumps to elevated levels. Arcing is unwanted because it prevents uniform deposition and creates particulates. The issue of arcing has been dealt with by target surface conditioning and by using modern power supplies that have arc suppression incorporated. With increasing quality requirements in terms of uniformity of coatings, and absence of particulates, especially for electrochromic and other advanced coatings applications, the issue of arcing warrants a closer examination with the goal to find other, physics-based, and hopefully better approaches of arcing prevention. From a physics point of view, the onset of arcing is nothing else than the transition of the discharge to a cathodic arc mode, which is characterized by the ignition of non-stationary arc spots. Arc spots operate by a sequence of microexplosions, enabling explosive electron emission, as opposed to secondary electron emission. Arc spots and their fragments have a size distribution in the micrometer and sub-micrometer range, and a characteristic time distribution that has components shorter than microseconds. Understanding the ignition conditions of arc spots are of central physical interest. Spot ignition is associated with electric field enhancement, which can be of geometric nature (roughness,particles), or chemical nature (e.g. oxide formation) and related local accumulation of surface charge. Therefore, it is clear that these issues are of particular concern when operating with high-density plasmas, such as in high-power pulsed sputtering, and when using reactive sputter gases.

  2. Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

  3. Magnetron-Sputtered YSZ and CGO Electrolytes for SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Shipilova, A. V.; Ionov, I. V.; Kovalchuk, A. N.; Rabotkin, S. V.; Oskirko, V. O.

    2016-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering has been used for deposition of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped CeO2 (CGO) layers on NiO-YSZ commercial anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. To increase the deposition rate and improve the quality of the sputtered thin oxide films, asymmetric bipolar pulse magnetron sputtering was applied. Three types of anode-supported cells, with single-layer YSZ or CGO and YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte, were prepared and investigated. Optimal thickness of oxide layers was determined experimentally. Based on the electrochemical characteristics of the cells, it is shown that, at lower operating temperatures of 650°C to 700°C, the cells with single-layer CGO electrolyte are most effective. The power density of these fuel cells exceeds that of the cell based on YSZ single-layer electrolyte at the same temperature. Power densities of 650 mW cm-2 and 500 mW cm-2 at 700°C were demonstrated by cells with single-layer YSZ and CGO electrolyte, respectively. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved in a bilayer-electrolyte single cell, as compared with cells with a single electrolyte layer. Maximum power density of 1.25 W cm-2 at 800°C and 1 W cm-2 at 750°C under voltage of 0.7 V were achieved for the YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte cell with YSZ and CGO thickness of about 4 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer to prevent electrical current leakage in the CGO layer, leading to the overall enhanced performance. This performance is comparable to the state of the art for cells based on YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte.

  4. ELM-induced W sputtering sources in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezinsek, S.; den Harder, N.; Guillemaut, C.

    2015-11-01

    JET equipped with Be wall and W divertor showed after one year of operation intact W surfaces at the target plates. Eroded W from both divertor legs contributes to the total W source and content in the plasma. Detailed analysis of the intra-ELM and inter-ELM W source in H-mode discharges has been carried out using spectroscopy of W, D and Be emission and, independently, using ECE and LP to determine respectively the ion impact energies and fluxes to the target plate. The inter-ELM W source can be eliminated in detached conditions due to impact energies below the sputtering threshold, leaving the intra-ELM source to be the dominant one (80%). Comparison between inner and outer divertor showed that both sources are comparable in the intra-ELM phase. Dedicated composition analysis reveals that sputtering by Be ions can account for the residual inter-ELM source, but cannot explain the intra-ELM source due to the low Be concentration in the plasma (1%). D + with energies above 1keV dominate the intra-ELM W sputtering whereas in the inter-ELM phase energies of D + are below the threshold. These energetic ions are transported from the pedestal region to the target plate during ELM excursion. The W source and content as function of the ELM frequency and ion impact energy has been studied for a set of plasmas showing initially a linear increase before decoupling due to ELM-flushing of W from the confined region sets in at about 40Hz. The range of ELM frequencies in JET covers the frequencies predicted for the ITER H-mode baseline scenarios with ELM pacing and detached inter-ELM phase. The W source in ITER will be determined by the intra-ELM phase.

  5. Characterization of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Matej

    Paper I: In the first paper, we present a new approach in the characterization of the high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge evolution—time- and species-resolved plasma imaging—employing a set of band-pass optical interference filters suitable for the isolation of the emission originating from different species populating the plasma. We demonstrate that the introduction of such filters can be used to distinguish different phases of the discharge, and to visualize numerous plasma effects including background gas excitations during the discharge ignition, gas shock waves, and expansion of metal-rich plasmas. In particular, the application of this technique is shown on the diagnostics of the 200 µs long non-reactive HiPIMS discharges using a Cr target. Paper II: In order to gain further information about the dynamics of reactive HiPIMS discharges, both fast plasma imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are used for a systematic investigation of the 200 µs long HiPIMS pulses operated in Ar, N2 and N 2/Ar mixtures and at various pressures. It is observed that the dense metal plasma created next to the target propagates in the reactor at a speed ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 km s-1, depending on the working gas composition and the pressure. In fact, it increases with higher N 2 concentration and with lower pressure. The visible form of the propagating plasma wave changes from a hemispherical shape in Ar to a drop-like shape extending far from the target with increasing N2 concentration, owing to the significant emission from molecular N2. Interestingly, the evidence of the target self-sputtering is found for all investigated conditions, including pure N2 atmosphere. Paper III: Here, we report on the time- and species-resolved plasma imaging analysis of the dynamics of the 200 µs long HiPIMS discharges above a Cr target ignited in pure O2. It is shown that the discharge emission is dominated solely by neutral and

  6. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-12-09

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres. The preliminary data on the properties of a Au-Cu binary alloy system by SEM and STEM analysis is presented.

  7. FY04&05 LDRD Final Report Fission Fragment Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B; Trelenberg, T; Meier, T; Felter, T; Sturgeon, J; Kuboda, A; Wolfer, B

    2006-02-22

    Fission fragments born within the first 7 {micro}m of the surface of U metal can eject a thousand or more atoms per fission event. Existing data in the literature show that the sputtering yield ranges from 10 to 10,000 atoms per fission event near the surface, but nothing definitive is known about the energy of the sputtered clusters. Experimental packages were constructed allowing the neutron irradiation of natural uranium foils to investigate the amount of material removed per fission event and the kinetic energy distribution of the sputtered atoms. Samples were irradiated but were never analyzed after irradiation. Similar experiments were attempted in a non-radioactive environment using accelerator driven ions in place of fission induced fragments. These experiments showed that tracks produced parallel to the surface (and not perpendicular to the surface) are the primary source of the resulting particulate ejecta. Modeling studies were conducted in parallel with the experimental work. Because the reactor irradiation experiments were not analyzed, data on the energy of the resulting particulate ejecta was not obtained. However, some data was found in the literature on self sputtering of {sup 252}Cf that was used to estimate the velocity and hence the energy of the ejected particulates. Modeling of the data in the literature showed that the energy of the ejecta was much lower than had been anticipated. A mechanism to understand the nature of the ejecta was pursued. Initially it was proposed that the fission fragment imparts its momenta on the electrons which then impart their momenta on the nuclei. Once the nuclei are in motion, the particulate ejecta would result. This initial model was wrong. The error was in the assumption that the secondary electrons impart their momenta directly on the nuclei. Modeling and theoretical considerations showed that the secondary electrons scatter many times before imparting all their momenta. As a result, their energy transfer is

  8. Synthesis of nanostructures by combination of electrospinning and sputtering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaño, Wilfredo

    2011-10-01

    Electrospinning and sputtering are well known techniques for the formation of different materials in the shape of fibers and films, respectively. Both techniques offer the advantage of being able to prepare a broad range of materials, from metals to insulators, in a different range of compositions and structures. Their combined used offers then a unique opportunity to explore the fabrication of different materials with tailored compositions and nanostructures. An interesting application results when the electrospun fibers are used as templates for sputtering of palladium metal. Palladium (Pd) is one of the most prominent materials studied for the detection of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen rapidly dissociates on its surface and diffuses into subsurface layers forming palladium hydride with consequent changes in optical, mechanical and electrical properties that are easily detected. Materials with nanoscale morphologies are promising to improve sensor performance as they provide large surface areas for adsorption, and smaller crystallite size reducing the time needed for ``bulk'' diffusion. In this presentation it will be shown how Pd nanoribbons and nanoshells are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition on top of the mat of polymer fibers. Sputtering is a line-of-sight deposition process and the fibers become a variable angle-substrate for the incoming Pd flux. A larger amount of palladium is deposited on top of the fiber where the incoming flux is perpendicular to the surface compared to the sides where the flux is incident at a glancing angle. The top and sides of the fibers shadow their bottom parts closer to the substrate preventing any substantial deposition there. The end result of the deposition is the formation of Pd nanostructures, thicker in the middle region than at the edges, with a large void network. The high sensitivity and response time shown to 1% or less of hydrogen in nitrogen is understood to result from the reduced dimensions combined with this

  9. Pattern evolution during ion beam sputtering; reductionistic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the ripple pattern during the ion beam sputtering (IBS) is expounded via the evolution of its constituent ripples. For that purpose, we perform numerical simulation of the ripple evolution that is based on Bradley-Harper model and its non-linear extension. The ripples are found to evolve via various well-defined processes such as ripening, averaging, bifurcation and their combinations, depending on their neighboring ripples. Those information on the growth kinetics of each ripple allow the detailed description of the pattern development in real space that the instability argument and the diffraction study both made in k-space cannot provide.

  10. Retrospective sputter depth profiling using 3D mass spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiliang; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    A molecular multilayer stack composed of alternating Langmuir-Blodgett films was analyzed by ToF-SIMS imaging in combination with intermediate sputter erosion using a focused C60(+) cluster ion beam. From the resulting dataset, depth profiles of any desired lateral portion of the analyzed field-of-view can be extracted in retrospect, allowing the influence of the gating area on the apparent depth resolution to be assessed. In a similar way, the observed degradation of depth resolution with increasing depth of the analyzed interface can be analyzed in order to determine the 'intrinsic' depth resolution of the method.

  11. Processing-Structure Correlation in DC Sputtered Molybdenum Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majid; Islam, Mohammad; Akram, Aftab; Manzoor, Umair

    2013-12-01

    Molybdenum thin films were sputter deposited under different conditions of DC power and chamber pressure. The structure and topography of the films were investigated using AFM, SEM and XRD techniques. Van der Pauw method and tape test were employed to determine electrical resistivity and interfacial strength to the substrate, respectively. All the films are of sub-micron thickness with maximum growth rate of 78 nm/min and crystallite size in the range of 4 to 21 nm. The films produced at high power and low pressure exhibit compressive residual strains, low electrical resistivity and poor adhesion to the glass substrate, whereas the converse is true for films produced at high pressure.

  12. Ion acceleration and cooling in gasless self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-31

    Copper plasma with hyperthermal directed velocity (8.8 eV) but very low temperature (0.6 eV) has been obtained using self-sputtering far above the runaway threshold. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were simultaneously measured at 34 locations. The IEDFs show the tail of the Thompson distribution near the magnetron target. They transform to shifted Maxwellians with the ions being accelerated and cooled. We deduce the existence of a highly asymmetric, pressure-driven potential hump which acts as a controlling"watershed" between the ion return flux and the expanding plasma.

  13. Pyrolytic Removal Of The Plastic Mandrel From Sputtered Beryllium Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; Letts, S A; Buckley, S R; Fearon, E

    2005-07-25

    An engineering model is presented for the removal of the plastic mandrel from the inside of a sputtered Be shell. The removal is accomplished by forcing heated air in and out of the 4 to 5 {micro}m laser drilled fill hole in the capsule wall by cycling the external pressure between 2 and 5 atm. The plastic is combusted to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by this exposure, thus removing the mandrel. Calculations are presented to evaluate the various parameters in the approach. Experimental confirmation of the effectiveness of the removal is shown.

  14. Metal coated glasses by sputtering and their microfouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougo, T.; Kanematsu, H.; Wada, N.; Hihara, T.; Minekawa, M.; Fujita, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Some elements as contaminant tend to be concentrated in biofilm. In order to prevent the fogging of glass, it is very important to control biofilm formation by metal dissolution. In this study, Metals were deposited on glass substrate by Helicon-wave-excited-plasma sputtering process. Sample was very thin metals layer like as half mirror, it could transmit light. The results of biofilm formation test, biofilm formation were inhibited on Cu, Sn and Cr, and light transmission of these samples was not degradation. It could be said that inhibition of biofilm formation was effective to suppressing cloudiness.

  15. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stöber, Laura Patocka, Florian Schneider, Michael Schmid, Ulrich; Konrath, Jens Peter Haberl, Verena

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  16. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  17. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  18. Relationship of Work-Family Conflict to Substance Use among Employed Mothers: The Role of Negative Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frone, Michael R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested model relating work-family conflict to heavy alcohol use and cigarette use among employed mothers via domain-specific (job- and family-related) and general negative effect. Data from 366 employed mothers of adolescents revealed that work-family conflict was indirectly related to both heavy alcohol use and cigarette use via negative effect.…

  19. Sputtered cathodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: insights into potentials, challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schwanitz, Bernhard; Rabis, Annett; Horisberger, Michael; Scherer, Günther G; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The level of Pt loadings in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) is still one of the main hindrances for implementation of PEFCs into the market. Therefore, new catalyst and electrode preparation methods such as sputtering are of current interest, because they allow thin film production and have many cost saving advantages for electrode preparation. This paper summarises some of the most important studies done for sputtered PEFCs, including non carbon supported electrodes. Furthermore, it will be shown that an understanding of the main morphological differences between sputtered and ink-based electrodes is crucial for a better understanding of the resulting fuel cell performance. Especially, the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) plays a key role for a further increase in PEFC performance of sputtered electrodes. The higher surface specific activities i(k,spec) of sputtered compared to ink-based electrodes will be discussed as advantage of the thin film formation. The so- called particle size effect, known in literature for several years, will be discussed as reason for the higher i(k,spec) of sputtered electrodes. Therefore, a model system on a rotating disc electrode (RDE) was studied. For sputtered PEFC cathodes Pt loadings were lowered to 100 μg(Pt)/cm(2), yet with severe performance losses compared to ink-based electrodes. Still, for Pt sputtered electrodes on a carbon support structure remarkably high current densities of 0.46 A/cm(2) at 0.6 V could be achieved.

  20. On the influence of the corpuscular sputtering on the motion of dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.; Kapisinsky, I.

    1992-07-01

    The influence of the corpuscular sputtering on the motion of interplanetary dust particle is investigated. Simultaneous action of the Poynting-Robertson effect, corpuscular drag and corpuscular sputtering is taken into account. Analytical solutions of the basic differential equations are presented for circular orbits.

  1. Deposition of Tungsten Thin Films on Flexible Polymer Substrates by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huo, Zhenxuan; Jiao, Xiangquan; Zhong, Hui; Shi, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated thin tungsten films deposited on polymer substrates by direct-current magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Unlike tungsten films deposited on rigid substrates, films on polymer substrates grew at appropriate sputtering power, low sputtering pressure, and low substrate temperature. High sputtering power results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, compact microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. However, high-power sputtering damages the polymer substrates. Enhancing sputtering pressure substantially degrades tungsten orientation and increases electrical resistivity. Furthermore, a slight increase in substrate temperature results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, a dense microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. Nonetheless, a high substrate temperature results in soft and deformed polymer substrates; this degrades tungsten crystal orientation and substantially roughens tungsten films. On the basis of this study, compact and flat tungsten films with low electrical resistivity can be obtained at a sputtering power of 69 W, a sputtering pressure of 1 Pa, a substrate temperature of 100°C, and a distance between target and substrate of 60 mm.

  2. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  3. Reactive sputtering of titanium in Ar/CH4 gas mixture: Target poisoning and film characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, O.A.; Rumaiz, A.; Shah, S.

    2009-03-01

    Reactive sputtering of titanium target in the presence of Ar/CH{sub 4} gas mixture has been investigated. With the addition of methane gas to above 1.5% of the process gas a transition from the metallic sputtering mode to the poison mode was observed as indicated by the change in cathode current. As the methane gas flow concentration increased up to 10%, the target was gradually poisoned. The hysteresis in the cathode current could be plotted by first increasing and then subsequently decreasing the methane concentration. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the deposited films confirmed the formation of carbide phases and the transition of the process from the metallic to compound sputtering mode as the methane concentration in the sputtering gas is increased. The paper discusses a sputtering model that gives a rational explanation of the target poisoning phenomenon and shows an agreement between the experimental observations and calculated results.

  4. Modeling of the Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas; Lundin, Daniel; Raadu, Michael; Brenning, Nils; Minea, Tiberiu

    2015-09-01

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) provides both a high ionization fraction of the sputtered material and a high dissociation fraction of the molecular gas. We demonstrate this through an ionization region model (IRM) of the reactive Ar/O2 HiPIMS discharge with a titanium target. We explore the influence of oxygen dilution on the discharge properties such as electron density, the ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor and the oxygen dissociation fraction. We discuss the important processes and challenges for more detailed modeling of the reactive HiPIMS discharge. Furthermore, we discuss experimental observations during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti target in Ar/N2 and Ar/O2 atmosphere. The discharge current waveform is highly dependent on the reactive gas flow rate, pulse repetition frequency and discharge voltage. The discharge current increases with decreasing repetition frequency and increasing flowrate of the reactive gas.

  5. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaohong; Xu, Wenzheng; Huang, Fenglin; Chen, Dongsheng; Wei, Qufu

    2016-12-01

    Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag2O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  6. Solutions for discharge chamber sputtering and anode deposit spalling in small mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.; Hiznay, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed solutions to the problems of sputter erosion and sputtered material spalling in the discharge chamber of small mercury ion thrusters are presented. The accelerated life test evaluated three such proposed solutions: (1) the use of tantalum as a single low sputter yield material for the exposed surfaces of the discharge chamber components subject to sputtering, (2) the use of a severely roughened anode surface to improve the adhesion of the sputter-deposited coating, and (3) the use of a wire cloth anode surface in order to limit the size of any coating flakes which might spall from it. Because of the promising results obtained in the accelerated life test with anode surfaces roughened by grit-blasting, experiments were carried out to optimize the grit-blasting procedure. The experimental results and an optimal grit-blasting procedure are presented.

  7. Accelerated life test of sputtering and anode deposit spalling in a small mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Tantalum and molybdenum sputtered from discharge chamber components during operation of a 5 centimeter diameter mercury ion thruster adhered much more strongly to coarsely grit blasted anode surfaces than to standard surfaces. Spalling of the sputtered coating did occur from a coarse screen anode surface but only in flakes less than a mesh unit long. The results were obtained in a 200 hour accelerated life test conducted at an elevated discharge potential of 64.6 volts. The test approximately reproduced the major sputter erosion and deposition effects that occur under normal operation but at approximately 75 times the normal rate. No discharge chamber component suffered sufficient erosion in the test to threaten its structural integrity or further serviceability. The test indicated that the use of tantalum-surfaced discharge chamber components in conjunction with a fine wire screen anode surface should cure the problems of sputter erosion and sputtered deposits spalling in long term operation of small mercury ion thrusters.

  8. A Closer Look at Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Mansur, L.; Reinhold, C.

    2008-01-01

    Solar-wind induced potential sputtering of the lunar surface may be a more efficient erosive mechanism than the "standard" kinetic (or physical) sputtering. This is partly based on new but limited laboratory measurements which show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. The enhancements seen in the laboratory can be orders of magnitude for some surfaces and highly charged incident ions, but seem to depend very sensitively on the properties of the impacted surface in addition to the fluence, energy and charge of the impacting ion. For oxides, potential sputtering yields are markedly enhanced and sputtered species, especially hydrogen and light ions, show marked dependence on both charge and dose.

  9. Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) for neural stimulation electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ehrlich, Julia; Plante, Timothy D.; Smirnov, Anton; Shire, Douglas B.; Gingerich, Marcus; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) deposited by DC reactive sputtering from an iridium metal target have been characterized in vitro for their potential as neural recording and stimulation electrodes. SIROFs were deposited over gold metallization on flexible multielectrode arrays fabricated on thin (15 µm) polyimide substrates. SIROF thickness and electrode areas of 200–1300 nm and 1960–125600 µm2, respectively, were investigated. The charge-injection capacities of the SIROFs were evaluated in an inorganic interstitial fluid model in response to charge-balanced, cathodal-first current pulses. Charge injection capacities were measured as a function of cathodal pulse width (0.2 – 1 ms) and potential bias in the interpulse period (0.0 to 0.7 V vs. Ag|AgCl). Depending on the pulse parameters and electrode area, charge-injection capacities ranged from 1–9 mC/cm2, comparable with activated iridium oxide films (AIROFs) pulsed under similar conditions. Other parameters relevant to the use of SIROF on nerve electrodes, including the thickness dependence of impedance (0.05–105 Hz) and the current necessary to maintain a bias in the interpulse region were also determined. PMID:17271216

  10. Ga Lithography in Sputtered Niobium for Superconductive Micro and Nanowires.

    DOE PAGES

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.; Wolfley, Steven L.; ...

    2014-08-18

    This work demonstrates the use of FIB implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 um by and 10 um and 100 um by 100 um, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 x 1015 cm-2 at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic techniquemore » is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 um long connected to 50 um wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc =7.7 K, was measured using MPMS. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.« less

  11. Ga Lithography in Sputtered Niobium for Superconductive Micro and Nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.; Wolfley, Steven L.; Monson, Todd C.

    2014-08-18

    This work demonstrates the use of FIB implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 um by and 10 um and 100 um by 100 um, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 x 1015 cm-2 at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic technique is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 um long connected to 50 um wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc =7.7 K, was measured using MPMS. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.

  12. Ga lithography in sputtered niobium for superconductive micro and nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, M. David; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Lewis, Rupert

    2014-08-18

    This work demonstrates the use of focused ion beam (FIB) implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 μm by 10 μm and 100 μm by 100 μm, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic technique is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 μm long connected to 50 μm wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) = 7.7 K was measured using a magnetic properties measurement system. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.

  13. Reactively sputtered titanium carbide thin films: Preparation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eizenberg, M.; Murarka, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    The low resistivity and refractory nature of titanium carbide makes it potentially useful as a diffusion barrier in thin film metallization schemes. In the present investigation, deposition and properties of thin titanium carbide films have been investigated. The films were deposited by reactive radio frequency sputtering in methane-argon mixtures on a variety of substrates. The effects of methane to argon ratio, total sputtering pressure, and power on the film deposition rate, composition and properties were determined. There were interactive effects of these parameters on the composition and properties of these films. Resistivity increased with carbon content; for Ti/C≥1 it was ˜200 μΩ cm. Stress that was compressive was maximum in the nearly stoichiometric TiC film. Grain size was small in all films, especially so in carbon rich films. All stoichiometric titanium carbide films were resistant to HF solutions. Films with TiC/≥1 dissolved easily in ethylene dinitrilo tetra acetric acid (EDTA) solution.

  14. Ga lithography in sputtered niobium for superconductive micro and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, M. David; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Lewis, Rupert

    2014-08-01

    This work demonstrates the use of focused ion beam (FIB) implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 μm by 10 μm and 100 μm by 100 μm, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 × 1015 cm-2 at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic technique is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 μm long connected to 50 μm wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) = 7.7 K was measured using a magnetic properties measurement system. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.

  15. Molecular sputter depth profiling using carbon cluster beams.

    PubMed

    Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Sputter depth profiling of organic films while maintaining the molecular integrity of the sample has long been deemed impossible because of the accumulation of ion bombardment-induced chemical damage. Only recently, it was found that this problem can be greatly reduced if cluster ion beams are used for sputter erosion. For organic samples, carbon cluster ions appear to be particularly well suited for such a task. Analysis of available data reveals that a projectile appears to be more effective as the number of carbon atoms in the cluster is increased, leaving fullerene ions as the most promising candidates to date. Using a commercially available, highly focused C (60) (q+) cluster ion beam, we demonstrate the versatility of the technique for depth profiling various organic films deposited on a silicon substrate and elucidate the dependence of the results on properties such as projectile ion impact energy and angle, and sample temperature. Moreover, examples are shown where the technique is applied to organic multilayer structures in order to investigate the depth resolution across film-film interfaces. These model experiments allow collection of valuable information on how cluster impact molecular depth profiling works and how to understand and optimize the depth resolution achieved using this technique.

  16. Thermoelectric properties of DC-sputtered filled skutterudite thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Gaosheng; Zuo, Lei; Chen, Jie; Lu, Ming; Yu, Liangyao

    2015-03-28

    The Yb filled CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite thermoelectric thin films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and figure of merit ZT of the samples are characterized in a temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are obtained to assess the phase composition and crystallinity of thin film samples at different heat treatment temperatures. Carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities are obtained from Hall Effect measurements, which provide further insight into the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient mechanisms. The thermal conductivity of thin film filled skutterudite was found to be much less compared with bulk Yb filled CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite. In this work, the 1020 K heat treatment was adopted for thin film post process due to the high degree of crystallinity as well as avoiding reverse heating effect. Thin film samples of different thicknesses were prepared with the same sputtering deposition rate and maximum ZT of 0.48 was achieved at 700 K for the 130 nm thick sample. This value was between half and one third of the bulk figure of merit which was due to the lower Hall mobility.

  17. Dielectric breakdown during Cs+ sputtering of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahoud, F.; Guillot, J.; Audinot, J. N.; Bertrand, P.; Delcorte, A.; Migeon, H. N.

    2014-02-01

    Thin films of insulating polymers are sometimes analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) or by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without the use of an electron gun. In this work, both SIMS and XPS have been used to study the chemical and structural modifications due to the charge effect during Cs+ sputtering of a thin film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The kinetic energy distribution study shows that at a small primary fluence ˜1015 Cs+ ions/cm2, the dielectric breakdown voltage of the PVC film is reached, i.e. the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive. XPS study indicates that the conducting phase created in the PVC film after energetic Cs+ bombardment consists of graphitized carbon and metallic cesium clusters. After the dielectric breakdown of the film, the positive charge, previously accumulated on the surface, is neutralized through the conductive regions, which are created in the insulating film. During Cs+ sputtering of a PVC film, the chemical structure of the analyzed surface is completely modified and some ionic bonds such as CsC and CsCl are also created.

  18. Double circular erosion patterns on dielectric target in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ejima, Seiki

    2009-10-01

    In rf magnetron sputtering, a circular erosion pattern forms on the surface of a circular metal conductor target with permanent magnets on its back. In this case, the theory behind the erosion pattern has been established. However, in the case of a dielectric target, a double circular erosion pattern is formed. So far, this pattern has been phenomenologically recognized by experimenters; however, it has not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed a magnetron sputtering experiment with a SiO2 dielectric target, and confirmed the formation of a double circular erosion pattern. The dimensions of the double circular erosion pattern varied depending on the insulation resistance or the thickness of the SiO2 target. Furthermore, we found that the dimensions of a double circular erosion pattern changed by making a gap between the SiO2 target and guard ring. Based on the experimental results, we have proposed a qualitative model to explain the formation mechanism of double circular erosion patterns.

  19. Magnetron Sputtered Molybdenum Oxide for Application in Polymers Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Dikov, Hr; Vitanov, P.; Popkirov, G.; Gergova, R.; Grancharov, G.; Gancheva, V.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of molybdenum oxide were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering in Ar from a MoO3 target at different deposition power on glass and silicon substrates. The thickness of the films was determined by profilometer measurements and by ellipsometry. The films were annealed in air at temperatures between 200 and 400°C in air. The optical transmission and reflection spectra were measured. The conductivity of the as deposited and annealed films was determined. The crystal structure was probed by Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation state of the surface was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopy. The deposition technique described above was used to experiment with MoOx as a hole transport layer (HTL) in polymer solar cells with bulk hetrojunction active layer, deposited by spin coating. The performance of these layers was compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which is the standard material used in this role. The measured current-voltage characteristics of solar cells with the structure glass/ITO/HTL/Poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/Al demonstrate that the studied MoOx layer is a good HTL and leads to comparable characteristics to those with PEDOT:PSS. On the other hand the deposition by magnetron sputtering guarantees reliable and repeatable HTLs.

  20. Microstructures and mechanical properties of sputtered Cu/Cr multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Kung, H.; Mitchell, T.E.; Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu/Cr multilayers prepared by sputtering onto {l_brace}100{r_brace} Si substrates at room temperature are presented. The films exhibit columnar grain microstructures with nanoscale grain sizes. The interfaces are planar and abrupt with no intermixing, as expected from the phase diagram. The multilayers tend to adopt a Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationship: {l_brace}110{r_brace}Cr // {l_brace}111{r_brace}Cu, <111>Cr // <110>Cu. The hardness of the multilayered structures, as measured by nanoindentation, increase with decreasing layer thickness for layer thicknesses ranging from 200 nm to 50 nm, whereas for lower thicknesses the hardness of the multilayers is independent of the layer thickness. Dislocation-based models are used to interpret the variation of hardness with layer periodicity. The possible effects of factors such as grain size within the layers, density and composition of films and residual stress in the multilayers are highlighted. Comparisons are made to the mechanical properties of sputtered polycrystalline Cu/Nb multilayers which, like Cu/Cr, exhibit sharp fcc/bcc interfaces with no intermixing and a KS orientation relationship, but have a small shear modulus mismatch.

  1. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering on Flexible Substrate Using Different Sputtering Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumtong, T.; Sukwisute, P.; Sakulkalavek, A.; Sakdanuphab, R.

    2017-02-01

    The microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thin films have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited on flexible substrate (polyimide) by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Sb2Te3 target using different sputtering pressures in the range from 4 × 10-3 mbar to 1.2 × 10-2 mbar. The crystal structure, [Sb]:[Te] ratio, and electrical and thermoelectric properties of the films were analyzed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Hall effect and Seebeck measurements, respectively. The XRD spectra of the films demonstrated polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation of (015), (110), and (1010). A high-intensity spectrum was found for the film deposited at lower sputtering pressure. EDS analysis of the films revealed the effects of the sputtering pressure on the [Sb]:[Te] atomic ratio, with nearly stoichiometric films being obtained at higher sputtering pressure. The stoichiometric Sb2Te3 films showed p-type characteristics with electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of 35.7 S cm-1, 6.38 × 1019 cm-3, and 3.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The maximum power factor of 1.07 × 10-4 W m-1 K-2 was achieved for the film deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.0 × 10-2 mbar.

  2. RF-magnetron sputtered kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film using single quaternary sputtering target prepared by sintering process.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongjun; Choi, Moonsuk; Heo, Seung Chan; Kim, Dohyung; Chung, Chulwon; Choi, Changhwan

    2013-11-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film applicable to an absorber material in compound thin film solar cells was deposited by a single quaternary sputtering target containing four components--Cu, Zn, Sn, and S-and its material properties were investigated. A single quaternary sputtering target was fabricated by sequential powder mixing/ball milling, pressure moulding, and a sintering process. An as-fabricated pellet or sputter target sintered at 500 degrees C-700 degrees C showed relevant peaks associated with CZTS phases. However, acceptable density as a sputter target (> 90% of ideal density) was attained up to a sintering temperature of only 500 degrees C due to thermal expansion. Unlike other metallic precursor approaches, there was no volume expansion after sulfurization. The sulfurized CZTS film contained CZTS phases including some secondary phases such as SnS or SnS2 depending on the film thickness. This result was attributed to the different sputtering yields of the constituents in the sputter target. Optical E(g) decreased with increasing deposition time. The E(g) attained was 1.488 eV, well-matched to the reported CZTS data. The carrier concentration, resistivity, and mobility of the CZTS film were 1.29 x 10(17) cm(-3), 1.2 x 10(-1) omega x cm and 5.44 cm(-3) N x sec, respectively, showing suitability for absorber layer applications.

  3. Bonding Low-density Nanoporous Metal Foams Using Sputtered Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M; Cervantes, O; Akaba, C; Hamza, A; Foreman, R; Teslich, N

    2007-08-21

    A method has been developed for bonding low-density nanoporous metal foam components to a substrate using solder that is sputtered onto the surfaces. Metal foams have unusual properties that make them excellent choices for many applications, and as technologies for processing these materials are evolving, their use in industry is increasing dramatically. Metal foams are lightweight and have advantageous dynamic properties, which make them excellent choices for many structural applications. They also provide good acoustic damping, low thermal conductivity, and excellent energy absorption characteristics. Therefore, these materials are commonly used in the automotive, aerospace, construction, and biomedical industries. The synthesis of nanoporous metal foams with a cell size of less then 1 {micro}m is an emerging technology that is expected to lead to widespread application of metal foams in microdevices, such as sensors and actuators. One of the challenges to manufacturing components from metal foams is that they can be difficult to attach to other structures without degrading their properties. For example, traditional liquid adhesives cannot be used because they are absorbed into foams. The problem of bonding or joining can be particularly difficult for small-scale devices made from nanoporous foam, due to the requirement for a thin bond layer. The current study addresses this problem and develops a method of soldering a nanoporous metal foam to a substrate with a bond thickness of less than 2 {micro}m. There are many applications that require micro-scale metal foams precisely bonded to substrates. This study was motivated by a physics experiment that used a laser to drive a shock wave through an aluminum foil and into a copper foam, in order to determine the speed of the shock in the copper foam. To avoid disturbing the shock, the interface between the copper foam and the aluminum substrate had to be as thin as possible. There are many other applications that

  4. Dramatically enhanced oxygen uptake and ionization yield of positive secondary ions with C60+ sputtering.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua-Yang; Tsai, Meng-Hung; You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chieh; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-04-03

    To explore C(60)(+) sputtering beyond low-damage depth profiling of organic materials, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to examine metallic surfaces during and after C(60)(+) sputtering. During C(60)(+) sputtering, XPS spectra indicated that the degrees of carbon deposition were different for different metallic surfaces. Moreover, for some metals (e.g., Al, W, Ta, Ti, and Mo), the intensity of the O 1s photoelectron increased significantly during C(60)(+) sputtering, even though the instrument was under ultrahigh vacuum (<5 × 10(-7) Pa). This result indicated that the rate of oxygen uptake was greater than the rate of C(60)(+) sputtering. This behavior was not observed with the commonly used Ar(+) sputtering. To measure the oxygen uptake kinetics, pure oxygen was leaked into the chamber to maintain a 5 × 10(-6) Pa oxygen environment. The C(60)(+)-sputtered surface had a clearly increased rate of oxygen uptake than the Ar(+)-sputtered surface, even for moderately reactive metals such as Fe and Ni. For relatively nonreactive metals such as Cu and Au, a small amount of carbon was implanted and no oxygen uptake was observed. High-resolution XPS spectra revealed the formation of metal carbides on these reactive metals, and the carbon deposition and enhanced uptake of oxygen correlated to the carbide formation. Because oxygen enhances the secondary ion yield through surface passivation, the enhanced oxygen uptake due to C(60)(+) sputtering could be beneficial for SIMS analysis. To examine this hypothesis, C(60)(+) and Ar(+) were used as primary ions, and it was found that the intensity enhancement (because of the oxygen flooding at 5 × 10(-6) Pa) was much higher with C(60)(+) than with Ar(+). Therefore, oxygen flooding during C(60)(+) sputtering has a great potential for enhancing the detection limit due to the enhanced oxygen uptake.

  5. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  6. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  7. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  8. Dolly For Heavy Towbar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed lightweight dolly enables operator to cart heavy towbar to remote site over unpaved roads or rough terrain. Acts as simple, lightweight towed vehicle to support rear of towbar. Removed quickly at point of use. Saves labor, and eliminates need for truck and forklift.

  9. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  10. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  11. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  12. Heavy-ion flux enhancement in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere during CIR passage: Mars Express ASPERA-3 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yagi, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tokumaru, M.; Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.

    2011-02-01

    A characteristic heavy-ion signature observed in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere during passages of Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) structures in solar wind is reported. We analyzed data obtained by the IMA/ASPERA-3 onboard the Mars Express (MEX) from September to October 2007. We compared the solar wind velocity at Mars derived from a shifted Maxwellian fitting to the IMA data with time-shifted Advanced Composition Explorer satellite data taken at ˜1 AU to the Martian orbit. Using the derived solar wind velocity, we identified four CIR structures passing through Mars quasiperiodically. Coinciding with the CIR passages, the IMA observed heavy-ion flux enhancement in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere. The heavy-ion energies reach ≥100 eV and sometimes up to approximately several kiloelectron volts. Observed ion velocity distribution functions show that they are mainly precipitating toward the Martian ionosphere. The flux of the precipitating ions is typically 105-106 (104-105) cm-2 s-1 for the energy range of 50-500 eV (≥500 eV) and it becomes by one order of magnitude higher in one event. While the flux level is consistent with a previous model prediction of sputtering ions, the intermittent occurrence of the heavy-ion precipitation differs from conventional expectation of constant precipitation. These results suggest that the efficiency of the sputtering process in the Martian atmospheric escape is highly variable with dynamic solar wind variations.

  13. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  14. Reactively-sputtered zinc semiconductor films of high conductivity for heterojunction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A high conductivity, n-doped semiconductor film is produced from zinc, or Zn and Cd, and group VI elements selected from Se, S and Te in a reactive magnetron sputtering system having a chamber with one or two targets, a substrate holder, means for heating the substrate holder, and an electric field for ionizing gases in the chamber. Zinc or a compound of Zn and Cd is placed in the position of one of the two targets and doping material in the position of the other of the two targets. Zn and Cd may be placed in separate targets while a dopant is placed in the third target. Another possibility is to place an alloy of Zn and dopant, or Zn, Cd and dopant in one target, thus using only one target. A flow of the inert gas is ionized and directed toward said targets, while a flow of a reactant gas consisting of hydrides of the group VI elements is directed toward a substrate on the holder. The targets are biased to attract negatively ionized inert gas. The desired stochiometry for high conductivity is achieved by controlling the temperature of the substrate, and partial pressures of the gases, and the target power and total pressure of the gases in the chamber.

  15. Two-Functional Direct Current Sputtered Silver-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, J.; Louda, M.; Cerstvy, R.; Baroch, P.; Ditta, I. B.; Steele, A.; Foster, H. A.

    2009-04-01

    The article reports on structure, mechanical, optical, photocatalytic and biocidal properties of Ti-Ag-O films. The Ti-Ag-O films were reactively sputter-deposited from a composed Ti/Ag target at different partial pressures of oxygen p_{O2} on unheated glass substrate held on floating potential U fl. It was found that addition of 2 at.% of Ag into TiO2 film has no negative influence on UV-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2 film. Thick ( 1,500 nm) TiO2/Ag films containing (200) anatase phase exhibit the best hydrophilicity with water droplet contact angle (WDCA) lower than 10° after UV irradiation for 20 min. Thick ( 1,500 nm) TiO2/Ag films exhibited a better UV-induced hydrophilicity compared to that of thinner ( 700 nm) TiO2/Ag films. Further it was found that hydrophilic TiO2/Ag films exhibit a strong biocidal effect under both the visible light and the UV irradiation with 100% killing efficiency of Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 after UV irradiation for 20 min. Reported results show that single layer of TiO2 with Ag distributed in its whole volume exhibits, after UV irradiation, simultaneously two functions: (1) excellent hydrophilicity with WDCA < 10° and (2) strong power to kill E. coli even under visible light due to direct toxicity of Ag.

  16. Two-Functional Direct Current Sputtered Silver-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Musil, J; Louda, M; Cerstvy, R; Baroch, P; Ditta, I B; Steele, A; Foster, H A

    2009-04-01

    The article reports on structure, mechanical, optical, photocatalytic and biocidal properties of Ti-Ag-O films. The Ti-Ag-O films were reactively sputter-deposited from a composed Ti/Ag target at different partial pressures of oxygen pO(2) on unheated glass substrate held on floating potential U(fl). It was found that addition of ~2 at.% of Ag into TiO(2) film has no negative influence on UV-induced hydrophilicity of TiO(2) film. Thick (~1,500 nm) TiO(2)/Ag films containing (200) anatase phase exhibit the best hydrophilicity with water droplet contact angle (WDCA) lower than 10° after UV irradiation for 20 min. Thick (~1,500 nm) TiO(2)/Ag films exhibited a better UV-induced hydrophilicity compared to that of thinner (~700 nm) TiO2/Ag films. Further it was found that hydrophilic TiO(2)/Ag films exhibit a strong biocidal effect under both the visible light and the UV irradiation with 100% killing efficiency of Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 after UV irradiation for 20 min. Reported results show that single layer of TiO(2) with Ag distributed in its whole volume exhibits, after UV irradiation, simultaneously two functions: (1) excellent hydrophilicity with WDCA < 10° and (2) strong power to kill E. coli even under visible light due to direct toxicity of Ag.

  17. Two-Functional Direct Current Sputtered Silver-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The article reports on structure, mechanical, optical, photocatalytic and biocidal properties of Ti–Ag–O films. The Ti–Ag–O films were reactively sputter-deposited from a composed Ti/Ag target at different partial pressures of oxygen on unheated glass substrate held on floating potentialUfl. It was found that addition of ~2 at.% of Ag into TiO2film has no negative influence on UV-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2film. Thick (~1,500 nm) TiO2/Ag films containing (200) anatase phase exhibit the best hydrophilicity with water droplet contact angle (WDCA) lower than 10° after UV irradiation for 20 min. Thick (~1,500 nm) TiO2/Ag films exhibited a better UV-induced hydrophilicity compared to that of thinner (~700 nm) TiO2/Ag films. Further it was found that hydrophilic TiO2/Ag films exhibit a strong biocidal effect under both the visible light and the UV irradiation with 100% killing efficiency ofEscherichia coliATCC 10536 after UV irradiation for 20 min. Reported results show that single layer of TiO2with Ag distributed in its whole volume exhibits, after UV irradiation, simultaneously two functions: (1) excellent hydrophilicity with WDCA < 10° and (2) strong power to killE. colieven under visible light due to direct toxicity of Ag. PMID:20596342

  18. The behaviour of arcs in carbon mixed-mode high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, M. D.; Putman, K. J.; Ganesan, R.; Lattemann, M.; Stueber, M.; Ulrich, S.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Marks, N. A.

    2017-04-01

    Mixed-mode deposition of carbon is an extension of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering in which a short-lived arc is deliberately allowed to ignite on the target surface to increase the ionised fraction of carbon in the deposition flux. Here we investigate the ignition and evolution of these arcs and examine their behaviour for different conditions of argon pressure, power supply voltage, and current. We find that mixed-mode deposition is sensitive to the condition of the target surface, and changing the operating parameters causes changes in the target surface condition which themselves affect the discharge in a process of negative feedback. Initially the arcs are evenly distributed on the target racetrack, but after a long period of operation the mode of erosion changes and arcs become localised in a small region, resulting in a pronounced nodular structure. We also quantify macroparticle generation and observe a power-law size distribution typical of arc discharges. Fewer particles are generated for operation at lower Ar pressure when the arc spot velocity is higher.

  19. Ferroelectricity and ferroelectric resistive switching in sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jinyu; Liu, Ziyan; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric properties and ferroelectric resistive switching (FE-RS) of sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films were investigated. The HZO films with the orthorhombic phase were obtained without capping or post-deposition annealing. Ferroelectricity was demonstrated by polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops measured in a positive-up negative-down manner and piezoresponse force microscopy. However, defects such as oxygen vacancies caused the films to become leaky. The observed ferroelectricity and semiconducting characteristics led to the FE-RS effect. The FE-RS effect may be explained by a polarization modulated trap-assisted tunneling model. Our study not only provides a facile route to develop ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films but also explores their potential applications in FE-RS memories.

  20. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  1. Effect of Zinc Oxide Film Deposition Position on the Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Low-Temperature Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Kazushige; Nakata, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Toshimasa; Otsuki, Shigeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Setsuo

    2008-09-01

    We report on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition position on the characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by magnetron sputtering with no intentional heating of the substrate. We evaluate the properties of ZnO (channel semiconductor) films deposited at various positions with respect to the target position. We show that the film deposition at a position off-centered from the target results in good TFT characteristics. This might be due to the fact that the off-centered deposition position is effective for suppressing the effect of energetic negative ions in the plasma.

  2. Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2007-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

  3. Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. PMID:17323432

  4. Plasma-ion-induced Sputtering And Heating Of Titan'S Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal J.

    2006-09-01

    Plasma-ion-induced sputtering and heating of Titan's atmosphere O.J. Tucker (1), R.E. Johnson (1), M. Michael (1), V.I. Shematovich (1,2) J.H. Luhmann (3), S.A. Ledvina (3) (1) University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA (2) Institute of Astronomy RAS, Moscow 109017, Russia, (3) University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheres equivalent in size similar to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that can be employed in interpreting Cassini data at Titan. It is shown that the globally averaged flux of magnetospheric and pickup ions deposit more energy in Titan's upper atmosphere than solar radiation. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated and compared to available Cassini data. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., “ The magnetospheric plasma-driven evolution of satellite atmospheres” Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann,"Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003). 1

  5. Mars heavy ion precipitating flux as measured by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Modolo, R.; Curry, S.; Luhmann, J.; Lillis, R.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Hara, T.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J.; Eparvier, F.; Larson, D.; Connerney, J.; Jakosky, B.

    2015-11-01

    In the absence of an intrinsic dipole magnetic field, Mars' O+ planetary ions are accelerated by the solar wind. Because of their large gyroradius, a population of these planetary ions can precipitate back into Mars' upper atmosphere with enough energy to eject neutrals into space via collision. This process, referred to as sputtering, may have been a dominant atmospheric loss process during earlier stages of our Sun. Yet until now, a limited number of observations have been possible; Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms-3/Mars Express observed such a precipitation only during extreme conditions, suggesting that sputtering might be not as intense as theoretically predicted. Here we describe one example of precipitation of heavy ions during quiet solar conditions. Between November 2014 and April 2015, the average precipitating flux is significant and in agreement with predictions. From these measured precipitating fluxes, we estimate that a maximum of 1.0 × 1024 O/s could have been lost due to sputtering.

  6. Full System Model of Magnetron Sputter Chamber - Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C; Gilmer, G; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Wemhoff, A; Barbee, T

    2007-05-04

    The lack of detailed knowledge of internal process conditions remains a key challenge in magnetron sputtering, both for chamber design and for process development. Fundamental information such as the pressure and temperature distribution of the sputter gas, and the energies and arrival angles of the sputtered atoms and other energetic species is often missing, or is only estimated from general formulas. However, open-source or low-cost tools are available for modeling most steps of the sputter process, which can give more accurate and complete data than textbook estimates, using only desktop computations. To get a better understanding of magnetron sputtering, we have collected existing models for the 5 major process steps: the input and distribution of the neutral background gas using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), dynamics of the plasma using Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC), impact of ions on the target using molecular dynamics (MD), transport of sputtered atoms to the substrate using DSMC, and growth of the film using hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and MD methods. Models have been tested against experimental measurements. For example, gas rarefaction as observed by Rossnagel and others has been reproduced, and it is associated with a local pressure increase of {approx}50% which may strongly influence film properties such as stress. Results on energies and arrival angles of sputtered atoms and reflected gas neutrals are applied to the Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of film growth. Model results and applications to growth of dense Cu and Be films are presented.

  7. In situ stress evolution during and after sputter deposition of Al thin films.

    PubMed

    Pletea, M; Koch, R; Wendrock, H; Kaltofen, R; Schmidt, O G

    2009-06-03

    The stress, growth, and morphology evolution of Al thin films up to 300 nm thick, sputter deposited at a constant rate of 0.04 nm s(-1) onto thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates have been investigated for various sputter pressures in the range from 0.05 to 6 Pa. The stress evolution has been studied during and after the film deposition by means of in situ substrate curvature measurements using an optical two-beam deflection method. In order to obtain insight into the mechanisms of stress generation and relaxation, the microstructure of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, focused-ion-beam microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The stress evolution during the early stage of deposition of films is consistent with the Volmer-Weber growth mode known for metals with high adatom mobility. For thicker films, the compressive stress increases in the sputter pressure range of 0.05-0.5 Pa, whereas at even higher sputter pressures a transition from compressive to tensile stress takes place. This transition is correlated with a change from a relatively dense to a more porous microstructure characterized by decreasing mass density and increasing electrical resistivity with increasing sputter pressure. The dependence of the stress and microstructure on the sputter pressure can be consistently understood through a combination of the stress mechanisms for vapor and sputter deposited films proposed in the literature.

  8. The mechanism of growth of ZnO nanorods by reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, R.; Major, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    DC reactive magnetron sputtering of zinc target in argon-oxygen sputtering atmosphere has been used to grow ZnO thin films/nanorods on Si in a wide substrate temperature range of 300-750 °C and under different sputtering conditions, namely, DC power, sputtering pressure and oxygen percentage in the sputtering atmosphere. Powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and a combination of top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies of ZnO films and nanorods grown under different conditions, have shown that substrate temperature critically controls their growth behavior and morphology, eventually resulting in the growth of vertically c-axis oriented, highly aligned and separated ZnO nanorods at substrate temperatures of 700-750 °C. The strongly substrate temperature dependent growth of nanorods is explained by considering that the growth above 600 °C, takes place in the 'desorption regime', in which, the surface diffusion length decreases exponentially with temperature. The diameter of nanorods increases with increase of DC power or decrease of sputtering pressure, which is attributed to the increase of surface diffusion length at higher deposition flux. The morphology of ZnO nanorods is not significantly affected by oxygen percentage in the sputtering atmosphere, since it does not influence the deposition flux.

  9. Low-temperature crystallization of TiO2 films by sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taga, Yasunori; Yamada, Naoomi

    2010-04-01

    Crystalline TiO2 film was formed on PET(polyethlene terephthalate) film by radio frequency sputter deposition method using a sintered TiO2 target by adding H2O gas to Ar gas for sputtering. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of the film of 100 nm thick was confirmed to be anatase crystallites of TiO2. In order to elucidate the mechanism of low temperature crystallization thus observed, direct measurement of surface temperature of growing films during sputter deposition was carried out by two methods of an infrared thermometer from the outside of vacuum chamber and a thermocouple attached to the growing film surface. Upon the beginning of sputter deposition in Ar gas, film temperature increased rapidly and became constant at 120°C after 30 min. Addition of H2O gas to Ar gas for sputtering resulted in further increase in film temperature and reached to 230 °C depending on the deposition conditions. Furthermore, photocatalytic performance of decomposition of methylene blue was examined to be enhanced remarkably as a result of crystallization of the film. It was concluded that low temperature crystallization of TiO2 film by sputter deposition was explained in terms of local heating of thin shallow surface region of growing film by kinetic energy deposition of sputtered particles.

  10. Extremely Sensitive Dependence of SnOx Film Properties on Sputtering Power

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunpeng; Xin, Qian; Du, Lulu; Qu, Yunxiu; Li, He; Kong, Xi; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    An extremely sensitive dependence of the electronic properties of SnOx film on sputtering deposition power is discovered experimentally. The carrier transport sharply switches from n-type to p-type when the sputtering power increases by less than 2%. The best n-type carrier transport behavior is observed in thin-film transistors (TFTs) produced at a sputtering power just below a critical value (120 W). In contrast, at just above the critical sputtering power, the p-type behavior is found to be the best with the TFTs showing the highest on/off ratio of 1.79 × 104 and the best subthreshold swing among all the sputtering powers that we have tested. A further increase in the sputtering power by only a few percent results in a drastic drop in on/off ratio by more than one order of magnitude. Scanning electron micrographs, x-ray diffraction spectra, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as TFT output and transfer characteristics are analyzed. Our studies suggest that the sputtering power critically affects the stoichiometry of the SnOx film. PMID:27824093

  11. Extremely Sensitive Dependence of SnOx Film Properties on Sputtering Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunpeng; Xin, Qian; Du, Lulu; Qu, Yunxiu; Li, He; Kong, Xi; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin

    2016-11-01

    An extremely sensitive dependence of the electronic properties of SnOx film on sputtering deposition power is discovered experimentally. The carrier transport sharply switches from n-type to p-type when the sputtering power increases by less than 2%. The best n-type carrier transport behavior is observed in thin-film transistors (TFTs) produced at a sputtering power just below a critical value (120 W). In contrast, at just above the critical sputtering power, the p-type behavior is found to be the best with the TFTs showing the highest on/off ratio of 1.79 × 104 and the best subthreshold swing among all the sputtering powers that we have tested. A further increase in the sputtering power by only a few percent results in a drastic drop in on/off ratio by more than one order of magnitude. Scanning electron micrographs, x-ray diffraction spectra, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as TFT output and transfer characteristics are analyzed. Our studies suggest that the sputtering power critically affects the stoichiometry of the SnOx film.

  12. Enhancement of the crystalline Ge film growth by inductively coupled plasma-assisted pulsed DC sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyeom; Han, Seung-Hee

    2014-11-01

    The effect of pulsed DC sputtering on the crystalline growth of Ge thin film was investigated. Ge thin films were deposited on the glass substrates using ICP-assisted pulsed DC sputtering. The Ge target was sputtered using asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC sputtering system with and without assistance of ICP source. The pulse frequency of 200 Hz and the pulse on time of 500 μsec (duty cycle = 10%) were kept during sputtering process. Crystal structures were studied from X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly showed crystalline film structures. The Ge thin films with randomly oriented crystalline were obtained using pulsed DC sputtering without ICP, whereas they had well aligned (220) orientation crystalline using ICP source. Moreover, the combination of ICP assistance and pulsed DC sputtering enhanced the growth of crystalline Ge thin films without hydrogen and metal by in situ deposition. The structure and lattice of the films were studied from TEM images. The cross-sectional TEM images revealed the deposited Ge films with columnar structure.

  13. Extremely Sensitive Dependence of SnOx Film Properties on Sputtering Power.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunpeng; Xin, Qian; Du, Lulu; Qu, Yunxiu; Li, He; Kong, Xi; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin

    2016-11-08

    An extremely sensitive dependence of the electronic properties of SnOx film on sputtering deposition power is discovered experimentally. The carrier transport sharply switches from n-type to p-type when the sputtering power increases by less than 2%. The best n-type carrier transport behavior is observed in thin-film transistors (TFTs) produced at a sputtering power just below a critical value (120 W). In contrast, at just above the critical sputtering power, the p-type behavior is found to be the best with the TFTs showing the highest on/off ratio of 1.79 × 10(4) and the best subthreshold swing among all the sputtering powers that we have tested. A further increase in the sputtering power by only a few percent results in a drastic drop in on/off ratio by more than one order of magnitude. Scanning electron micrographs, x-ray diffraction spectra, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as TFT output and transfer characteristics are analyzed. Our studies suggest that the sputtering power critically affects the stoichiometry of the SnOx film.

  14. [Spectrum diagnostics for optimization of experimental parameters in thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Cui, Yong-Liang; Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Huai, Su-Fang; Liu, Bao-Ting; Chen, Jin-Zhong

    2010-12-01

    The plasma emission spectra generated during the deposition process of Si-based thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using Cu and Al targets in an argon atmosphere were acquired by the plasma analysis system, which consists of a magnetron sputtering apparatus, an Omni-lambda300 series grating spectrometer, a CCD data acquisition system and an optical fiber transmission system. The variation in Cu and Al plasma emission spectra intensity depending on sputtering conditions, such as sputtering time, sputtering power, the target-to-substrate distance and deposition pressure, was studied by using the analysis lines Cu I 324. 754 nm, Cu I 327. 396 nm, Cu I 333. 784 nm, Cu I 353. 039 nm, Al I 394. 403 nm and Al I 396. 153 nm. Compared with the option of experimental parameters of thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, it was shown that emission spectra analysis methods play a guiding role in optimizing the deposition conditions of thin films in RF magnetron sputtering.

  15. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  16. Dynamical computer studies on palladium-platinum alloy sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, T.; Ishida, M.; Yamamura, Y.

    1994-07-01

    Using the hybrid Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT-DIFFUSE, we have investigated the two-component target sputtering and the associated stoichiometric changes near the surface, where we employed PdxPt1?x as a two-component alloy. The present ACAT-DIFFUSE code can estimate the slowing down process of energetic ions and the thermal process of moderated atoms. If the surface segregation is ignored, the simulation showed that the Pd signal of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) should be larger than that of low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS). If the segregation energy and the associated effective diffusion constant are properly selected, the simulated ISS values and the AES values of the Pd concentration are in good agreement with the experimental ISS and AES values.

  17. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  18. Superconductivity in sputtered CuMo6S8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S.; Woollam, J. A.; Kammerdiner, L.; Luo, H.-L.; Martin, C.

    1977-01-01

    The superconducting transition temperature and the superconducting upper critical fields for sputtered films of copper-containing ternary molybdenum chalcogenides (chevrel phases) were determined. The theory presented by Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (WHH) (1966) was used to make computer-generated plots of the superconducting upper critical field values versus the superconducting transition temperature values for various values of the Maki paramagnetic pair-breaking parameter and the spin-orbit scattering parameter. The interpretation of the graph suggests that the experimental data for at least one sample are above the maximum WHH theoretical limit in the lower temperature range. Possible explanations of this situation are discussed. In other calculations, a scaling law was found suitable for determining pinning force densities; this data was used to calculate critical current values. The relation between resistivity and temperature was studied.

  19. Sputter deposition of silicon oxynitride gradient and multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jörn; Bartzsch, Hagen; Frach, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The optical properties of silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtered films have been investigated. In particular the absorption characteristics of silicon nitride thin films in the visible spectrum and their optical bandgap were analyzed with regard to their composition and deposition properties. It can be shown that there is a significant difference between the absorption in the visible spectrum and the optical bandgap for these layers. The influence of unipolar and bipolar pulse modes on the optical layer properties is presented. The extinction coefficient for silicon nitride single layers could be reduced to a value of 2 x 10(-4) at 500 nm without external heating. There is also the dependence of the absorption of silicon oxynitride layers on the discharge voltage. We present the resulting spectra of rugate and edge filters that consist of these layers and offer lower absorption than single layers.

  20. Nylon-sputtered nanoparticles: fabrication and basic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskyi, O.; Kylián, O.; Solař, P.; Artemenko, A.; Kousal, J.; Slavínská, D.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.

    2012-12-01

    Nylon-sputtered nanoparticles were prepared using a simple gas aggregation cluster source based on a planar magnetron (Haberland type) and equipped with a nylon target. Plasma polymer particles originated in an aggregation chamber and travelled to a main (deposition) chamber with a gas flow through an orifice. The deposited nanoparticles were observed to have a cauliflower-like structure. The nanoparticles were found to be nitrogen-rich with N/C ratio close to 0.5. An increase in rf power from 60 to 100 W resulted in a decrease in mean particle size from 210 to 168 nm whereas an increase in their residence time in the cluster source from 0.7 to 4.6 s resulted in an increase in the size from 73 to 231 nm.

  1. Tungsten-vanadium oxide sputtered films for Electrochromic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, F.; Richardson, T.; Rubin, M.; Slack, J.; von Rottkay, K.

    1998-10-01

    Mixed vanadium and tungsten oxide films with compositions ranging from 0 to 100% vanadium (metals basis) were prepared by reactive sputtering from metallic vanadium and tungsten targets in an atmosphere of argon and oxygen. The vanadium content varied smoothly with the fraction of total power applied to the vanadium target. Films containing vanadium were more color neutral than pure tungsten oxide films, tending to gray-brown at high V fraction. The electrochromic switching performance of these films was investigated by in situ monitoring of their visible transmittance during lithium insertion/extraction cycling in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate). The solar transmittance and reflectance was measured ex situ. Films with vanadium content greater than about 15% exhibited a marked decrease in switching range. Coloration efficiencies followed a similar trend.

  2. Anisotropies in magnetron sputtered carbon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellgren, Niklas; Johansson, Mats P.; Broitman, Esteban; Hultman, Lars; Sundgren, Jan-Eric

    2001-04-01

    Carbon nitride CNx (0⩽x⩽0.35) thin films, deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 discharges have been studied with respect to microstructure using electron microscopy, and elastic modulus using nanoindentation and surface acoustic wave analyses. For growth temperature of 100 °C, the films were amorphous, and with an isotropic Young's modulus of ˜170-200 GPa essentially unaffected by the nitrogen fraction. The films grown at elevated temperatures (350-550 °C) show anisotropic mechanical properties due to a textured microstructure with standing basal planes, as observed from measuring the Young's modulus in different directions. The modulus measured in the plane of the film was ˜60-80 GPa, while in the vertical direction the modulus increased considerably from ˜25 to ˜200 GPa as the nitrogen content was increased above ˜15 at. %.

  3. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  4. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  5. Caesium sputter ion source compatible with commercial SIMS instruments.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2006-01-01

    A simple design for a caesium sputter cluster ion source compatible with commercially available secondary ion mass spectrometers is reported. This source has been tested with the Cameca IMS 4f instrument using the cluster Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -} ions, and will shortly be retrofitted to the floating low energy ion gun (FLIG) of the type used on the Cameca 4500/4550 quadruple instruments. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of analytical capabilities of the SIMS instrument due to the non-additive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ions with the same impact energy.

  6. Influence of RF power on magnetron sputtered AZO films

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Mohit; Modi, Pankaj; Dusane, R. O.

    2013-02-05

    Al-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) transparent conducting films are prepared on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering under different RF power with a 3 inch diameter target of 2 wt%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in zinc oxide. The effect of RF power on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO films was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The XRD data indicates a preferential c-axis orientation for all the films. All films exhibit high transmittance (<90%) in visible region. Films deposited at 60 W power exhibit lowest resistivity of 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{omega}cm. Such low-resistivity and high-transmittance AZO films when prepared using low RF power at room temperature could find important applications in flexible electronics.

  7. Interface Roughness Evolution in Sputtered WSi2/Si Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Y.; Zhou, H.; Zhou, L.; Headrick, R.; Macrander, A.; Ozcan, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of WSi{sub 2} and Si amorphous thin films by dc magnetron sputtering. In situ synchrotron x-ray scattering with high temporal resolution has been employed to probe the surface and interface roughness during film deposition. It is found that the WSi{sub 2}/Si multilayer surface alternately roughens and smoothes during deposition; while the Si layer roughness monotonically, the WSi{sub 2} layer is observed to smooth out when deposited on an initially rough surface. Subsequent deposition of the next layer effectively freezes in the surface morphology of the previous layer in each case. Energetic neutrals and ions assisting the growth may play a role in inducing this pronounced alternating pattern in the roughness.

  8. Morphological growth of sputtered MoS2 films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1975-01-01

    Sputtered MoS2 films from 300 A to 20,000 A thick were deposited on metal and glass surfaces. The substrate effects such as surface temperature, finish, pretreatment and chemistry as they affect the film formation characteristics were investigated by optical, electron transmission, electron diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Substrate temperature and surface chemistry were found to be the prime variables as to the formation of a crystalline or amorphous film. The friction characteristics are strictly influenced by the type of film formed. Surface chemistry and surface pretreatment account for compound formation and corresponding grain growth, which directly affect the adhesion characteristics, resulting in poor adherence. The type of surface finish (topography) as related to scratches, impurities, inhomogeneities, etc., are favorable nucleation sites for the growth of isolated and complex nodules within the film, and various complex surface overgrowths on the film. These nodular growth features have progressively more undesirable effects on the film behavior as the film thickness increases.

  9. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system. PMID:27966662

  10. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system.

  11. Magnetron sputtered nanostructured cadmium oxide films for ammonia sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dhivya, P.; Prasad, A.K.; Sridharan, M.

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were deposited on to glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique. The depositions were carried out for different deposition times in order to obtain films with varying thicknesses. The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure showing preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) micrographs showed uniform distribution of grains of 30–35 nm size and change in morphology from spherical to elliptical structures upon increasing the film thickness. The optical band gap value of the CdO films decreased from 2.67 to 2.36 eV with increase in the thickness. CdO films were deposited on to interdigitated electrodes to be employed as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas sensor. The fabricated CdO sensor with thickness of 294 nm has a capacity to detect NH{sub 3} as low as 50 ppm at a relatively low operating temperature of 150 °C with quick response and recovery time. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CdO films were deposited on to glass substrates using magnetron sputtering. • Deposition time was varied in order to obtain films with different thicknesses. • The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with preferred orientation along (1 1 1) direction. • The optical bandgap values of the films decreased on increasing the thickness of the films. • CdO films with different thickness such as 122, 204, 294 nm was capable to detect NH{sub 3} down to 50 ppm at operating temperature of 150 °C.

  12. Materials with negative stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, Tim

    Negative stiffness, or a reversal in the usual assumed direction between causal forces and ensuing deformations, has been proposed as a pathway to materials which exceed theoretical performance bounds. Negative stiffness, as a concept, represents a relaxation of tacitly assumed material behavior, but it violates no natural laws. Negative stiffness, normally unstable without constraint, is permissible for stability under special conditions, for example a rigid boundary constraint so long as the material satisfies strong ellipticity in the parlance of elasticity. Hence, negative stiffness is not observed in materials or structures which are not constrained. If negative stiffness is allowed for inclusions of material, which are surrounded by a stabilizing positive stiffness matrix, composite theory predicts large increases in the mechanical damping and composite stiffness. The work herein explores several material systems which possess negative stiffness, and seeks to characterize the composite mechanical properties of these systems. Two metal matrix composite systems, namely Sn-VO2 and Sn-BaTIO3, were investigated. Here, negative stiffness arises from the ferroelastic phase transformations in the ceramic inclusions; stability is imparted by the tin matrix. Polycrystalline In-Tl and BaTIO 3 were also studied. Here, the entire material volume is phase transforming. Constraint is imparted on a small volume fraction of crystallites by the surrounding material. Various manifestations of negative stiffness were observed. Thermally broad damping peaks which depended upon thermal cycling were observed in the Sn-VO2 composites. Furthermore, mechanical instabilities were seen in composites intentionally designed to be unstable. Negative stiffness was indicated in the In-Tl alloy by magnification of damping peaks over those observed in single crystals, increases in damping peaks with increased cooling rates, occurrence of damping peaks before the appearance of martensite and

  13. Secondary Effects of Heavy Drinking on Campus. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    While some may view college drinking as a "rite of passage" for students, the consequences of underage and high-risk drinking leave no room for doubt--excessive alcohol use is harmful, affecting both students and the institution as a whole. Not only do heavy drinkers negatively affect their own health and academic potential but also the physical,…

  14. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  15. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  16. In situ measurement of osmium concentrations in iron meteorites by resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.; Pellin, M. J.; Calaway, W. F.; Young, C. E.; Gruen, D. M.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1990-03-01

    Resonance ionization of sputtered atoms followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for in situ quantitative measurement of Os with a spatial resolution of about 70 microns. A linear correlation between Os(+) signal intensity and the known Os concentration was observed over a range of nearly 10,000 in Os concentration with an accuracy of about + or - 10 percent, a minimum detection limit of 7 parts per billion atomic, and a useful yield of 1 percent. Resonance ionization of sputtered atoms samples the dominant neutral-fraction of sputtered atoms and utilizes multiphoton resonance ionization to achieve high sensitivity and to eliminate atomic and molecular interferences.

  17. Ion beam sputtering of fluoropolymers. [etching polymer films and target surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ion beam sputter processing rates as well as pertinent characteristics of etched targets and films are described. An argon ion beam source was used to sputter etch and deposit the fluoropolymers PTFE, FEP, and CTFE. Ion beam energy, current density, and target temperature were varied to examine effects on etch and deposition rates. The ion etched fluoropolymers yield cone or spire-like surface structures which vary depending upon the type of polymer, ion beam power density, etch time, and target temperature. Sputter target and film characteristics documented by spectral transmittance measurements, X-ray diffraction, ESCA, and SEM photomicrographs are included.

  18. A self-sputtering ion source: A new approach to quiescent metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-03

    A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield like Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm2 at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm.

  19. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  20. Photoluminescence observation from zinc oxide formed by magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, D.; Babichev, A.; Nikitina, E.; Gudovskikh, A.; Kladko, P.

    2015-11-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature has been observed. The PL spectra were measured using an instrument from Accent Optical Technologies with a solid state UV laser (λ = 266 nm) as the pumping source and at the temperature of 300 K. Samples grown at sputtering power of 100-200 W show a strong photoluminescence (PL) at wavelength of 377 nm and its intensity shows non-linear dependence with magnetron power. At values of sputtering power less then 100 W PL signal was not observed. A correlation between PL, XRD intensity and ZnO grain size was shown.