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Sample records for st hil rutaceae

  1. Almeidea A. St.-Hil. Belongs to Conchocarpus J.C. Mikan (Galipeinae, Rutaceae): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Data, with a First Analysis of Subtribe Galipeinae

    PubMed Central

    Poleselli Bruniera, Carla; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Groppo, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Subtribe Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, subfamily Rutoideae) is the most diverse group of Neotropical Rutaceae, with 28 genera and approximately 130 species. One of its genera is Almeidea, whose species are morphologically similar to those of the genus Conchocarpus. Species of Almeidea occur in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil, with one species (Almeidea rubra) also present in Bolivia. The objective of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Almeidea, using a broader sampling of Galipeinae and other Neotropical Rutaceae, the first such study focused on this subtribe. To achieve this objective, morphological data and molecular data from the nuclear markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the plastid markers trnL-trnF and rps16 were obtained. Representatives of eight genera of Galipeinae and three genera of Pilocarpinae (included also in Galipeeae) and Hortia (closely related to Galipeeae) were used. Five species of Almeidea and seven of Conchocarpus were included, given the morphological proximity between these two genera. Individual (for each molecular marker) and combined phylogenetic analyses were made, using parsimony and Bayesian inference as optimization criteria. Results showed Galipeinae as monophyletic, with the species of Almeidea also monophyletic (supported by the presence of pantocolporate pollen) and nested in a clade with a group of species of Conchocarpus, a non-monophyletic group. Additionally, C. concinnus appeared in a group with Andreadoxa, Erythrochiton, and Neoraputia, other members of Galipeinae. As a result, Conchocarpus would be monophyletic only with the exclusion of a group of species related to C. concinnus and with the inclusion of all species of Almeidea with the group of species of Conchocarpus that includes its type species, C. macrophyllus. Thus, species of Almeidea are transferred to Conchocarpus, and the new combinations are made here. PMID:25951371

  2. Chemical Composition and in vitro Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Conchocarpus fontanesianus (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki & Pirani (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Cabral, Rodrigo S; Suffredini, Ivana B; Young, Maria C M

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and fruits of Conchocarpus fontanesianus, an endemic Brazilian species of Rutaceae. The plant material was harvested from two regions of the Atlantic rainforest in the State of São Paulo. The volatile compounds in the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS, allowing the quantification and identification of 54 components in total, which comprise about 97% of the total oil composition. From the leaves collected in Caraguatatuba and Juréia-Itatins, the major volatile compounds identified were as follows: spathulenol (22.32% and 16.67%) and α-cadinol (9.7% and 14.76%). However, β-myrcene (34.56%), (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.71%), and bicyclogermacrene (5.80%) were dominant in the fruits collected only in Juréia-Itatins. The in vitro biological activities were tested to evaluate the cytotoxic, antifungal, and antioxidant potential of essential oils from leaves and fruits.

  3. Methylxanthines and phenolics content extracted during the consumption of mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil) beverages.

    PubMed

    Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; Bizzotto, Carolina Schaper; Ballus, Cristiano Augusto; Poloni Rybka, Ana Cecília; Sobrinho, Merenice Roberto; Cerro-Quintana, Romina Sofia; Teixeira-Filho, José; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2010-02-24

    "Chimarrao" and "terere" are popular beverages consumed in South America prepared using mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.). "Chimarrao" consists of a partial infusion where hot water is added, while "terere" is a total infusion, with addition of cold water. This study was designed to simulate preparation of these beverages for consumption, in order to estimate the total amount of xanthines and phenolic compounds in aqueous extracts that would be ingested by the consumer. Different commercial types of mate were employed for "chimarrao" preparation (native, smooth, traditional, and course-ground), and these were compared to "terere". In "chimarrao", beverages from coarse-ground mate showed the highest levels of xanthines. However, "terere" presented quantities 2.5 times higher than the beverage of the coarse-ground mate. Considering the total phenolics in "chimarrao", there was no difference between the types of herbs, but in "terere", the extraction of almost all of the phenolics was observed.

  4. Anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hil.

    PubMed

    Alves Passos, Carlos Luan; Rodríguez, Raul; Ferreira, Christian; Costa Soares, Deivid; Vieira Somner, Genise; Hamerski, Lidilhone; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; Moraes Rezende, Claudia; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2017-02-01

    Extracts of Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hil leaves and stems were tested in order to identify potential agents against Leishmania amazonensis. The hexane fraction (HF) and dichloromethane subfractions (DDF and MDF) showed leishmanicidal effect. The anti-promastigote IC50 values were 10.29 (HF), 11.41 (DDF) and 28.33μg⁄mL (MDF); whereas those against amastigote were 7.2 (HF), 8.1 (DDF) and 6.5μg⁄mL (MDF). Among the fractions and subfractions assayed, only HF altered the cell cycle of the parasite, increasing 3-fold the number of cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase. HF also changed the parasite mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the percentage of annexin-V-propidium iodide positive promastigotes. Our evaluations of the IC50 values showed that HF, DDF and MDF decreased NO production in infected macrophages stimulated with IFN-γ and LPS. Moreover, HF increased the production of TNF-α in Leishmania infected macrophages. This paper reports for the first time the leishmanicidal activity of extracts and fractions of Serjania lethalis leaves and also characterizes its leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory properties.

  5. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  6. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.

  7. Development of an Innovative Nutraceutical Fermented Beverage from Herbal Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. PMID:22312286

  8. Exploring the genes of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) by NGS and de novo transcriptome assembly.

    PubMed

    Debat, Humberto J; Grabiele, Mauro; Aguilera, Patricia M; Bubillo, Rosana E; Otegui, Mónica B; Ducasse, Daniel A; Zapata, Pedro D; Marti, Dardo A

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼ 32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼ 1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge of yerba mate genes

  9. Exploring the Genes of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) by NGS and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Patricia M.; Bubillo, Rosana E.; Otegui, Mónica B.; Ducasse, Daniel A.; Zapata, Pedro D.; Marti, Dardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge of yerba mate genes

  10. Elemental characterization of commercial mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) before and after hot water infusion using ion beam techniques.

    PubMed

    Giulian, Raquel; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims dos; Shubeita, Samir de Moraes; Silva, Luiza Manfredi da; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia

    2007-02-07

    Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is used to prepare a traditional tealike beverage widely appreciated in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. In these countries, the tea is popularly known as mate or chimarrão. The aim of this work is to characterize the elemental composition of commercial Ilex paraguariensis and determine the portion of each element present in the leaves that is eluted in the water during the infusion process and consequently ingested by the drinker. Using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique, we verified the presence of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb at different concentrations, which accounts for about 3.4% of the total mass. The results show a loss of about 90% of K and Cl, 50% of Mg and P, and 20% of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb by the leaves after the infusion. The volume of water used in the infusion affects only the concentration of elements such as Cl, P, K, and Mg until the first 600 mL of water, where a steep decrease in the concentration of these elements was observed in brewed leaves. Furthermore, higher water temperatures (typical temperatures used in infusions, between 80 and 100 degrees C) favor the extraction of K and Cl into the infusion, while the concentration of other elements remains practically constant as a function of temperature.

  11. Genetic and Phytochemical Analysis to Evaluate the Diversity and Relationships of Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Elite Genetic Resources in a Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliana Cristhina; Gonela, Adriana; Gonçalves Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; Sturion, José Alfredo; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies × 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and 20 random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 - 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 - 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA > 5-CQA > 4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies.

  12. Biodiversité et spéciation dans le Sud-Est du Brésil et le bassin du fleuve Parana: exemple de quelques espèces appartenant à un complexe du genre Sorocea A. St.-Hil. (Moraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuc-Neto, Sergio

    1998-11-01

    In the genus Sorocea A. St.-Hil. (Moraceae) the species group of the coastal Atlantic from Brazil presents similar morphological taxa with taxonomical difficulties. Using a combined approach, linking morphology, ecology and biogeography and the concept of the Functional Biological Unit (FBU) it was possible to define and to specify the taxonomic ranks of nine FBUS, five considered as valid species of which one is new to science, four are subspecies and one is not described. All of these species, most of which are endemic to a restricted area, appear to be the result of a relatively recent and intense speciation caused by a phenomena of vicariance related to a rich and complex palaeohistory of the region (palaeoclimates; variations in the course of rivers, and in particular the Parana and Atlantic Mountains refugia).

  13. Reconfigurable HIL Testing of Earth Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing has carved a strong niche in several industries, such as automotive, aerospace, telecomm, and consumer electronics. As desktop computers have realized gains in speed, memory size, and data storage capacity, hardware/software platforms have evolved into high performance, deterministic HIL platforms, capable of hosting the most demanding applications for testing components and subsystems. Using simulation software to emulate the digital and analog I/O signals of system components, engineers of all disciplines can now test new systems in realistic environments to evaluate their function and performance prior to field deployment. Within the Aerospace industry, space-borne satellite systems are arguably some of the most demanding in terms of their requirement for custom engineering and testing. Typically, spacecraft are built one or few at a time to fulfill a space science or defense mission. In contrast to other industries that can amortize the cost of HIL systems over thousands, even millions of units, spacecraft HIL systems have been built as one-of-a-kind solutions, expensive in terms of schedule, cost, and risk, to assure satellite and spacecraft systems reliability. The focus of this paper is to present a new approach to HIL testing for spacecraft systems that takes advantage of a highly flexible hardware/software architecture based on National Instruments PXI reconfigurable hardware and virtual instruments developed using LabVIEW. This new approach to HIL is based on a multistage/multimode spacecraft bus emulation development model called Reconfigurable Hardware In-the-Loop or RHIL.

  14. Transcription of the Salmonella Invasion Gene Activator, hilA, Requires HilD Activation in the Absence of Negative Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Jennifer D.; Knosp, Boyd M.; Jones, Bradley D.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes human gastroenteritis and a systemic typhoid-like infection in mice. Infection is initiated by entry of the bacteria into intestinal epithelial cells and is mediated by a type III secretion system that is encoded by genes in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1. The expression of invasion genes is tightly regulated by environmental conditions such as oxygen and osmolarity, as well as by many bacterial factors. The hilA gene encodes an OmpR/ToxR family transcriptional regulator that activates the expression of invasion genes in response to both environmental and genetic regulatory factors. HilD is an AraC/XylS regulator that has been postulated to act as a derepressor of hilA expression that promotes transcription by interfering with repressor binding at the hilA promoter. Our research group has identified four genes (hilE, hha, pag, and ams) that negatively affect hilA transcription. Since the postulated function of HilD at the hilA promoter is to counteract the effects of repressors, we examined this model by measuring hilA::Tn5lacZY expression in strains containing negative regulator mutations in the presence or absence of functional HilD. Single negative regulator mutations caused significant derepression of hilA expression, and two or more negative regulator mutations led to very high level expression of hilA. However, in all strains tested, the absence of hilD resulted in low-level expression of hilA, suggesting that HilD is required for activation of hilA expression, whether or not negative regulators are present. We also observed that deletion of the HilD binding sites in the chromosomal hilA promoter severely decreased hilA expression. In addition, we found that a single point mutation at leucine 289 in the C-terminal domain of the α subunit of RNA polymerase leads to very low levels of hilA::Tn5lacZY expression, suggesting that HilD activates transcription of hilA by contacting and recruiting RNA polymerase to

  15. A HILS System for the Simulation of MAV Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    A HILS System for the Simulation of MAV Flight In this research a HILS system in which a small autopilot can experience flight stimuli, such as...pitch, roll, yaw, and GPS is investigated. These stimuli are controlled by a flight simulator hosting an airframe model that the autopilot in question...fly’s. Such a system allows the autopilot to fly the virtual model of the flight simulator while experiencing all flight stimuli as if it is in real

  16. [Pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Aphyllophorales: Hymenochaetaceae) on Erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Esquivel, R E; Carranza, J

    1996-12-01

    The pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Berk.) Ryv. on Erythrochiton gymnanthus K. (Rutaceae) was studied in Carara Biological Reserve, seasonal Pacific of Costa Rica. Growth rate and distribution of basidiocarps were determined on health and diseased plants. P. chrysita caused 52% growth reduction on diseased plants. Fungal hyphae were observed on epidermis, parenchyma and vascular tissue, where they caused cellular breakdown.

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of the Androecia in Ruteae (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Xiang, Xiao-guo; Wang, Yin-zheng; Li, Zhen-yu

    2015-01-01

    Ruta, which belongs to tribe Ruteae, is the type genus of the subfamily Rutoideae and the family Rutaceae. Molecular systematic studies have shown that the genera in Ruteae are closer related to Aurantioideae than to most other genera of Rutoideae, some of the genera traditionally placed in Ruteae have been shown to be nested within the Aurantioideae clade, but the diagnostic characters for determining new patterns in the relationship are poor. In this study, we investigated the floral development of Boenninghausenia in Ruteae (sensu stricto), Haplophyllum in the basal position of Aurantioideae and Murraya in traditional Aurantioideae using scanning electron microscopy. The androecium of Boenninghausenia is obdiplostemony. As androecia in other genera within Ruteae (s.s.) are also obdiplostemonous, reconstruction of the ancestral state indicates that obdiplostemony is an ancestral character in this clade. Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade. The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade. The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens. PMID:26332986

  18. A eukaryotic-like 3′ untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Casadesús, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Long 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are common in eukaryotic mRNAs. In contrast, long 3′UTRs are rare in bacteria, and have not been characterized in detail. We describe a 3′UTR of 310 nucleotides in hilD mRNA, a transcript that encodes a transcriptional activator of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Deletion of the hilD 3′UTR increases the hilD mRNA level, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR may play a role in hilD mRNA turnover. Cloning of the hilD 3′UTR downstream of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene decreases green fluorescent protein (GFP) activity in both Escherichia coli and S. enterica, indicating that the hilD 3′UTR can act as an independent module. S. enterica mutants lacking either ribonuclease E or polynucleotide phosphorylase contain similar amounts of hilD and hilD Δ3′UTR mRNAs, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR is a target for hilD mRNA degradation by the degradosome. The hilD 3′UTR is also necessary for modulation of hilD and SPI-1 expression by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Overexpression of SPI-1 in the absence of the hilD 3′UTR retards Salmonella growth and causes uncontrolled invasion of epithelial cells. Based on these observations, we propose that the S. enterica hilD 3′UTR is a cis-acting element that contributes to cellular homeostasis by promoting hilD mRNA turnover. PMID:24682814

  19. DC-HIL-expressing myelomonocytic cells are critical promoters of melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Sung; Tamura, Kyoichi; Cruz, Ponciano D; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-01

    A major barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumor's ability to induce T-cell tolerance by exploiting host regulatory mechanisms. Having discovered the DC-HIL receptor, which inhibits T-cell responses by binding to syndecan-4 on effector T cells, we posited the DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway to have an important role in cancer promotion. Among DC-HIL(+) myelomonocytic cells, during growth of implanted mouse melanoma, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were the most expanded population and the most potent at suppressing T-cell activation. Deletion of the DC-HIL gene or infusion of anti-DC-HIL mAb abrogated these cells' suppressor function and expansion, and markedly diminished melanoma growth and metastasis. IL-1β and IFN-γ were elevated in mice bearing melanoma, and concurrent exposure to both cytokines optimally induced DC-HIL expression by tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Ligation of DC-HIL transduced phosphorylation of its intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which in turn induced intracellular expression of IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), known to mediate T-cell suppression by CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Thus, DC-HIL is the critical mediator of these cells' suppressor function in melanoma-bearing mice and a potential target for improving melanoma immunotherapy.

  20. HIL range performance of notional hyperspectral imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Van A.; Howell, Christopher L.

    2016-05-01

    In the use of conventional broadband imaging systems, whether reflective or emissive, scene image contrasts are often so low that target discrimination is difficult or uncertain, and it is contrast that drives human-in-the-loop (HIL) sensor range performance. This situation can occur even when the spectral shapes of the target and background signatures (radiances) across the sensor waveband differ significantly from each other. The fundamental components of broadband image contrast are the spectral integrals of the target and background signatures, and this spectral integration can average away the spectral differences between scene objects. In many low broadband image contrast situations, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can preserve a greater degree of the intrinsic scene spectral contrast for the display, and more display contrast means greater range performance by a trained observer. This paper documents a study using spectral radiometric signature modeling and the U.S. Army's Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) to show how waveband selection by a notional HSI sensor using spectral contrast optimization can significantly increase HIL sensor range performance over conventional broadband sensors.

  1. A six nuclear gene phylogeny of Citrus (Rutaceae) taking into account hybridization and lineage sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Citrus (Rutaceae) comprises of many important cultivated species which generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4-12 Ma), incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms...

  2. Isolation of flindersiamine, isoflindersiamine, and a new alkaloid, heliparvifoline, from Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Chang, P T; Aynilian, G H; Cordell, G A; Tin-Wa, M; Fong, H H; Perdue, R E; Farnsworth, N R

    1976-04-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the leaves and twigs of Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of heliparvifoline, a new furoquinoline alkaloid, in addition to the known bases flindersiamine and isoflindersiamine.

  3. Perinatal toxicology of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeichen de Sa, R; Rey, A; Argañaraz, E; Bindstein, E

    2000-02-01

    Dried leaf infusions of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), 'rue', 'ruda', were found to cause perinatal changes in mice, at daily doses of 0.16, 0.80 and 1.60 g/kg, administered p.o. from 1 to 14 days post coitum. Significant decreases in the appearance time of physical signs, righting reflex and cliff avoidance together with minus scores in string test and swimming ability were observed. Moreover, histological studies showed progressive angiogenic development on placenta blood supply and weakness at blood barrier in brain, thymus and pery-lymph vestibule. We found out that the results tend to confirm the embryotoxic effect of the plant and its harmful use.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and phytochemical composition of the leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Brum, Thiele Faccim de; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Freitas, Robson Borba de; Machado, Michel Mansur; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-10-24

    Solanum guaraniticum is a shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family popularly known in Brazil as jurubeba or false-jurubeba. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from its leaves, verifying the ability to remove reactive species and identify and quantify phenolic compounds. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest amount of total polyphenols (546.57 ± 2.35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and the lowest IC(50) (9.11 ± 0.75 µg/mL) by the DPPH method. Furthermore, the chloroform fraction presented the highest content of flavonoids (75.73 ± 0.34 mg rutin equivalents/g), tannins (56.03 ± 0.68 mg catechin equivalents/g) and alkaloids (10.79 ± 0.06 mg/g). This fraction was effective in the scavenging of reactive species by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, in addition to completely reducing protein carbonyl content and reducing lipid peroxidation at basal levels even at low concentrations. Chlorogenic, caffeic and rosmarinic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC/DAD. These results show that S. guaraniticum is rich in phenolic compounds and has potential as an antioxidant.

  5. Poisoning by Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Bezerra, Cícero W; Medeiros, Marcia A; da Silva, Tatiane R; Neto, Eldinê G Miranda; Medeiros, Rosane M T

    2014-05-01

    Talisia esculenta is a tree that produces pitomba, a fruit consumed by human beings in several regions of Brazil. The current study reports 3 outbreaks of poisoning by leaves and fruits of T. esculenta affecting sheep and cattle and the experimental reproduction of the disease in sheep. In the first investigated outbreak, sheep ingested the leaves of the plant; another outbreak affected cattle and sheep that ingested leaves and fruits; and in a third outbreak, sheep ingested only the fruits. The animals developed severe nervous signs, but most recovered. Poisoning was reproduced experimentally in 5 sheep by the administration of 30-60 g of leaves/kg body weight and in 2 sheep with doses of 5 and 10 g of seeds/kg body weight, respectively. No significant necropsy or histologic lesions were found.

  6. Chemical characterization of candy made of Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Manoela A; Rovaris, Angela A; Maraschin, Marcelo; De Simas, Karina N; Pagliosa, Cristiane M; Podestá, Rossana; Amboni, Renata D M C; Barreto, Pedro L M; Amante, Edna R

    2008-06-25

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical properties of the residues from erva-mate processing and also to determine the candy-making performance with addition of residues from erva-mate on consumers' acceptance and purchase intent of this new product. The candies containing different amounts of mate powder were evaluated through overall acceptability test and purchase intent. Mate powder showed high contents of dietary fiber, total ash, and total polyphenols. The total dietary fiber content of the mate candies ranged from 5.7 to 6.29% on a dry matter basis. Supplementation with mate powder caused significant increases in polyphenol and mineral contents of mate candies. The incorporation of mate powder increased the hardness of the candies and produced desirable results in their nutritional characteristics. The sensory tests indicated that mate candies were acceptable and approved in relation to purchase intent.

  7. An azole, an amide and a limonoid from Vepris uguenensis (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheplogoi, Peter K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Coombes, Philip H; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2008-04-01

    The limonoid derivative, methyl uguenenoate, the azole, uguenenazole, and the amide, uguenenonamide, together with the known furoquinoline alkaloids flindersiamine and maculosidine, and syringaldehyde have been isolated from the root of the East African Rutaceae Vepris uguenensis. While methyl uguenenoate and the furoquinoline alkaloids displayed mild antimalarial activity, the azole and amide were completely inactive.

  8. Fur negatively regulates hns and is required for the expression of HilA and virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Sikes, Michael L; Fink, Ryan C; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Hassan, Hosni M

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the survival of living cells. However, excess iron is toxic, and its uptake is exquisitely regulated by the ferric uptake regulator, Fur. In Salmonella, the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes a type three secretion system, which is required for invasion of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. A major activator of SPI-1 is HilA, which is encoded within SPI-1. One known regulator of hilA is Fur. The mechanism of hilA regulation by Fur is unknown. We report here that Fur is required for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Fur is required for the activation of hilA, as well as of other HilA-dependent genes, invF and sipC. The Fur-dependent regulation of hilA was independent of PhoP, a known repressor of hilA. Instead, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, hns, was significantly derepressed in the fur mutant. Indeed, the activation of hilA by Fur was dependent on 28 nucleotides located upstream of hns. Moreover, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that Fur bound, in vivo, to the upstream region of hns in a metal-dependent fashion. Finally, deletion of fur in an hns mutant resulted in Fur-independent activation of hilA. In conclusion, Fur activates hilA by repressing the expression of hns.

  9. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  10. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  11. Chemical composition of Melicope belahe (Baill.) T. G. Hartley (Rutaceae) leaf essential oil from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Garcia, Gabriel; Charmillon, Julie-Marie; Désiré, Odile; Paoli, Mathieu; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Tomi, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Melicope belahe (Baill.) T.G. Hartley (Rutaceae) is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of leaf essential oil is reported for the first time. A sample was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, (13)C NMR) techniques. In total, 56 compounds have been identified. The chemical composition was dominated by α-pinene (42.6%) followed by linalool (6.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (5.2%).

  12. Leaf oil from Vepris madagascarica (Rutaceae), source of (E)-anethole.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2013-08-01

    The volatile components isolated from leaves of Vepris madagascarica (Baillon) H. Perier (Rutaceae), an endemic species of north-eastern, sub-humid forests of Madagascar, were investigated by GC (Retention Indices), GC-MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Oil samples obtained on laboratory and industrial scales exhibited similar composition, dominated by phenylpropanoids. (E)-anethole (78.2% and 78.6%) was the major component followed by estragole (15.6% and 15.4%). In addition, trunk bark oil also contained (E)-anethole as its major component (84.6%), as well as various sesquiterpenes in low contents.

  13. Alkaloids from stems of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as potential treatment for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine Monteiro; Maier, James Andreas; da Silva, Marcelo Rogério; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Simote, Simone Yasue; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pirani, José Rubens; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx

    2010-12-13

    Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae), popularly known as guarantã, goiabeira, is a native tree from Brazil. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanol stems extract afforded the isolation of six alkaloids: leiokinine A, leptomerine, kokusaginine, skimmianine, maculine and flindersiamine. All isolated compounds were tested for acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, in vitro and displayed anticholinesterasic activity. The alkaloid leptomerine showed the highest activity (IC₅₀ = 2.5 mM), similar to that of the reference compound galanthamine (IC₅₀ = 1.7 mM). The results showed for the first time the presence of alkaloids leptomerine and skimmianine in E. leiocarpa (Engl.) with potent anticholinesterasic activity.

  14. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  15. Biting deterrence, repellency, and larvicidal activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) essential oil and its major individual constituents against mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical profile was identified using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Undecanone (43.2% ± 0.8), 2-nonanone (27.9% ± 0.8) and 2-nonyl acetate (10.6% ± 0.2) we...

  16. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  17. Production of an active anti-CD20-hIL-2 immunocytokine in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Novelli, Flavia; Salzano, Anna M; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Pioli, Claudio; Donini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CD20 murine or chimeric antibodies (Abs) have been used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and other diseases characterized by overactive or dysfunctional B cells. Anti-CD20 Abs demonstrated to be effective in inducing regression of B-cell lymphomas, although in many cases patients relapse following treatment. A promising approach to improve the outcome of mAb therapy is the use of anti-CD20 antibodies to deliver cytokines to the tumour microenvironment. In particular, IL-2-based immunocytokines have shown enhanced antitumour activity in several preclinical studies. Here, we report on the engineering of an anti-CD20-human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2) based on the C2B8 mAb (Rituximab) and the resulting ectopic expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The scFv-Fc-engineered immunocytokine is fully assembled in plants with minor degradation products as assessed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Purification yields using protein-A affinity chromatography were in the range of 15-20 mg/kg of fresh leaf weight (FW). Glycopeptide analysis confirmed the presence of a highly homogeneous plant-type glycosylation. 2B8-Fc-hIL2 and the cognate 2B8-Fc antibody, devoid of hIL-2, were assayed by flow cytometry on Daudi cells revealing a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of Rituximab and were effective in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of human PBMC versus Daudi cells, demonstrating their functional integrity. In 2B8-Fc-hIL2, IL-2 accessibility and biological activity were verified by flow cytometry and cell proliferation assay. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a recombinant immunocytokine based on the therapeutic Rituximab antibody scaffold, whose expression in plants may be a valuable tool for NHLs treatment.

  18. High-level expression and efficient refolding of therapeutically important recombinant human Interleukin-3 (hIL-3) in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Vikas Kumar; Adivitiya; Khasa, Yogender Pal

    2016-11-15

    Human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) is a pleiotropic cytokine that stimulates the differentiation and proliferation of multipotent hematopoietic cells thus making it a therapeutically important molecule. In this study, its poor expression yield was improved by addressing various upstream bottlenecks in E. coli heterologous system. The codon-optimized hIL-3 gene was cloned under various signal sequences and solubility enhancer fusion tags for its hyper-expression under a strong T7 promoter. The optimization of shake flask expression studies resulted in a hIL-3 protein concentration of 225 mg/L in the form of inclusion bodies (IBs). Lowering of inducer concentration and cultivation temperature did not improve its solubility. The hIL-3 protein was refolded from IBs and resulted a protein recovery yield of 53% after optimization of refolding conditions. The refolded protein was subsequently purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and gave ∼95% pure protein. The conformational properties of the refolded hIL-3 protein were studied by CD and fluorescence spectrometry where protein showed 40% α-helix and 12% β-sheets with a fluorescence emission maxima at 344 nm. The molecular identity was further confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and western blot analysis. The biological activity of refolded protein was confirmed via cell proliferation assay on human erythroleukemia TF-1 cells where commercial hIL-3 was taken as a standard control.

  19. Genetic structure based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite loci of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae) in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, K; Chaves, L J; Vencovsky, R; Kageyama, P Y

    2011-04-19

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is a woody species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. The flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa spp bees, and seeds are dispersed by mammals with distinct home range sizes. As a consequence, relative contributions of pollen and seeds to overall gene flow can vary according to different spatial scales. We studied the genetic structure of four natural populations of S. lycocarpum separated by 19 to 128 km, including individuals located along dirt roads that interlink three of the populations. A total of 294 individuals were genotyped with five nuclear and six chloroplast microsatellite markers. Significant spatial genetic structure was found in the total set of individuals; the Sp statistic was 0.0086. Population differentiation based on the six chloroplast microsatellite markers (θ(pC) = 0.042) was small and similar to that based on the five nuclear microsatellite markers (θ(p) = 0.054). For this set of populations, pollen and seed flow did not differ significantly from one another (pollen-to-seed flow ratio = 1.22). Capability for long distance seed dispersion and colonization of anthropogenic sites contributes to the ability of S. lycocarpum to maintain genetic diversity. Seed dispersion along dirt roads may be critical in preserving S. lycocarpum genetic diversity in fragmented landscapes.

  20. The anti-inflammatory effect of Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil (Mate) in a murine model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ana Beatriz Gobbo; da Silva, Carlos Henrique Blum; Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius P S; de Campos Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Baratto, Bruna; Fröde, Tânia Silvia; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott

    2016-07-01

    Ilex paraguariensis is a native plant from Southern America, where it is used as a beverage. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat many diseases including inflammation. However, we do not yet know precisely how this effect occurs. We therefore evaluated its anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model of pleurisy. The standardized CE, BF and ARF fractions, Caf, Rut and CGA were able to reduce leukocyte migration, exudate concentration, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels. Moreover, I. paraguariensis also inhibited the release of Th1/Th17 pro-inflammatory cytokines, while increasing IL-10 production and improving the histological architecture of inflamed lungs. In addition, its major compounds decreased p65 NF-κB phosphorylation. Based on our results, we can conclude that I. paraguariensis exerts its anti-inflammatory action by attenuating the Th1/Th17 polarization in this model. This fact suggests that the use of this plant as a beverage can protect against Th1/Th17 inflammatory diseases.

  1. Technological Characterization and Stability of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Aquifoliaceae (Maté) Spray-Dried Powder

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, Francini K.J.; Borghetti, Greice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present work was designed to produce an Ilex paraguariensis spray-dried powder (SDP), in semi-industrial scale, in order to characterize its technological and chemical properties as well as to evaluate the thermal stability and photostability of the main polyphenol constituents. The yield of the spray-drying process was satisfactory (67%). The resulting SDP showed to be a material presenting spherical particles with a mean size of 19.6 μm, smooth surface, and good flow properties. The four polyphenol compounds previously reported for the species—neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and rutin—were identified. Regarding the photostability test, the polyphenols present in the SDP proved to be stable against ultraviolet C radiation for 48 hours, independently of the packaging material. In the thermal stability test, the polyphenols were demonstrated to be hygroscopic and responsive to temperature (40°C) under an atmosphere of high relative humidity (75%) for 4 months, especially when the SDP was conditioned in permeable flasks. These findings demonstrate that heat and residual moisture content play an important role in the stability of the polyphenols and reinforce the relevance of conditioning SDP in humid tight packages under low temperatures. PMID:21370969

  2. Inbreeding effects in Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil populations, an endangered species of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Moura, T M; Siqueira, M V B M; Oliveira, G C X

    2013-11-26

    The inbreeding effective population size is an estimate of inbreeding and genetic drift in populations. It is an important tool for conservation genetics because it represents the number of individuals that are effectively contributing alleles to the subsequent generations. Several studies have been published in the last decades on the genetic structure of natural plant populations of the Cerrado, the Central-Brazilian savannahs, but most of them do not present effective size estimates. The objective of this study was to show such estimates for Solanum lycocarpum, a Cerrado species that is in danger of genetic erosion. We utilized microsatellites, isozymes, and 2 natural populations for each marker to estimate the population inbreeding effective size of a group of populations (N(^)e(v)) and the minimum number of populations that should be conserved (S(^)(ref)) in order to retain an effective number of 500. For the 2 markers that were utilized, only approximately 12% of the individuals are effective in the populations. The value obtained for S(^)(ref) was approximately 80.

  3. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Cytotoxic, and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of the Leaves of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Guilherme Augusto Ferreira; Morais, Melissa Grazielle; Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; Assis Silva, Izabela Caputo; Aleixo, Álan Alex; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Soares, Adriana Cristina; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim Maurício; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract and fractions obtained from leaves of Solanum lycocarpum were examined in order to determine their phenolic composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic potential. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD analysis indicated that the flavonoids apigenin and kaempferol were the main phenolic compounds present in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly more pronounced for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanol fractions than that of the commercial antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The hexane and dichloromethane fractions were more active against the tested bacteria. The hydroethanol fraction exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg in the later phase of inflammation. However, the antiedematogenic effect of the higher dose of the ethyl acetate fraction (150 mg/kg) was more pronounced. The ethyl acetate fraction also presented a less cytotoxic effect than the ethanol extract and other fractions. These activities found in S. lycocarpum leaves can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenolic constituents such as flavonoids. This work provided the knowledge of phenolic composition in the extract and fractions and the antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of leaves of S. lycocarpum. PMID:26064159

  4. [Natural ocurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils cultivated with Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) in Misiones, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Schapovaloff, María E; Angeli Alves, Luis F; Urrutia, María I; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to morphologically isolate, identify and characterize entomopathogenic fungi present in soils cultivated with Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis). A survey of native entomopathogenic fungi was conducted from 40 soil samples grown with Paraguay tea in the province of Misiones, Argentina, from May 2008 to June 2010. The soil dilution plate methodology on selective culture media was used to isolate microorganisms. Taxonomic identification was performed using macroscopic and microscopic characters and specific keys. Twenty nine strains, belonging to the species Beauveria bassiana (n = 17), Metarhizium anisopliae (n = 2) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (n = 10) were isolated and identified.

  5. Modulation of the antibiotic activity against multidrug resistant strains of coumarins isolated from Rutaceae species.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Sara A L; Borges, Nathalie H P B; Souto, Augusto L; de Figueiredo, Pedro T R; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Tavares, Josean F

    2017-03-01

    The first occurrences and dissemination of resistant microorganisms led to the inefficacy of many antibiotics, available in the market nowadays, therefore, the search for new substances with antimicrobial activity from natural sources has gained a great importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by coumarins such as bergapten, xantotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin obtained from two Rutaceae species (Metrodorea mollis and Pilocarpus spicatus). The antimicrobial activity was assessed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), using the microdilution method. The MIC was >256 g/mL for all coumarins tested. Regarding the modulation of drug resistance assay, the isopimpinellin reducted the MIC of erytromicin by 4 times, whereas imperatorin exhibited the best result, reducing the MIC of tetracycline (2 times), erytomicin (4 times) and norfloxacin (4 times). By reducing the MIC of ethidium bromide, the imperatorin is consider in fact, as a putative efflux pump inhibitor of bacteria.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers for the clonal shrub Orixa japonica (Rutaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Setsuko, Suzuki; Sugai, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0.140 to 0.875, respectively. Five of the 16 loci showed a low null allele frequency. Because Orixa is a monotypic genus, cross-amplification in a consubfamilial species, Skimmia japonica, was tested, and only one locus showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers developed for O. japonica contribute to clone identification for studies examining the clonal structure and true sex ratio in the wild. Moreover, five markers that have a low null allele frequency can also be used for estimating mating systems or performing parentage analysis. PMID:27785383

  7. Major Clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) Based on rbcL and atpB Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, Michael J.; Holmes, Gareth D.; Forster, Paul I.; Cantrill, David J.; Ladiges, Pauline Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. Conclusions/Significance This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group’s evolutionary and biogeographic history

  8. Characteristics of invasion-reduced hilA gene mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shuang; Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Xiumei; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes huge losses in poultry industry and also food poisoning in humans due to its being a food-borne pathogen. Functions of Invasion-related genes need to be explored, as invasion is a key step for Salmonella infection. In this study, a transposon mutant library of Salmonella Enteritidis isolate SM6 was constructed and screened for the invasion-related genes via incubation with Caco-2 cells. Three stably attenuated mutants were identified for significantly reduced invasion with insertions all in hilA (hyperinvasive locus A) gene. We constructed and evaluated the hilA deletion mutant in vivo and in vitro. SM6△hilA showed significantly reduced ability to invade Caco-2 cells and decreased pathogenicity in chicks. However, the bacterial load and pathological damage in the cecum were significantly higher than those in the SM6 in vivo. Present results provide new evidences for pathogenicity research on Salmonella Enteritidis.

  9. Singlet Oxygen Scavenging Activity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oils from Rutaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Yoko; Satoh, Kazue; Shibano, Katsushige; Kawahito, Yukari; Shioda, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Since we have been exposed to excessive amounts of stressors, aromatherapy for the relaxation has recently become very popular recently. However, there is a problem which responds to light with the essential oil used by aromatherapy. It is generally believed that singlet oxygen is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as light-induced skin disorders and inflammatory responses. Here we studied whether essential oils can effectively scavenge singlet oxygen upon irradiation, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Green light was used to irradiate twelve essential oils from rutaceae. Among these twelve essential oils, eight were prepared by the expression (or the compression) method (referred to as E oil), and four samples were prepared by the steam distillation method (referred to as SD oil). Five E oils enhanced singlet oxygen production. As these essential oils may be phototoxic, it should be used for their use whit light. Two E oils and three SD oils showed singlet oxygen scavenging activity. These results may suggest that the antioxidant activity of essential oils are judged from their radical scavenging activity. Essential oils, which enhance the singlet oxygen production and show higher cytotoxicity, may contain much of limonene. These results suggest that limonene is involved not only in the enhancement of singlet oxygen production but also in the expression of cytotoxic activity, and that attention has to be necessary for use of blended essential oils. PMID:18648659

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong’s (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong’s (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieria cytisoides group, 2. Zieria granulata group, 3. Zieria laevigata group, 4. Zieria smithii group, 5. Zieria aspalathoides group, 6. Zieria furfuracea group, 7. Zieria montana group, and 8. Zieria robusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieria robusta and Zieria cytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100. PMID:25698892

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray's taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray’s taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group. PMID:28273098

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong's (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong's (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieriacytisoides group, 2. Zieriagranulata group, 3. Zierialaevigata group, 4. Zieriasmithii group, 5. Zieriaaspalathoides group, 6. Zieriafurfuracea group, 7. Zieriamontana group, and 8. Zieriarobusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieriarobusta and Zieriacytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100.

  14. Photo-activated DNA binding and antimicrobial activities of furoquinoline and pyranoquinolone alkaloids from rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Fujinori; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2004-06-01

    To find novel photo-active compounds of potential use in photochemotherapy from higher plants, photo-activated antimicrobial and DNA binding activities of the furoquinolines, skimmianine, kokusaginine, and haplopine, and a pyranoquinolone, flindersine, from two species of Rutaceae plants were investigated. TLC overlay assays against a methichillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were employed to test antimicrobial properties. All of the tested compounds showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine, flindersine > skimmianine. Weaker activity was found for C. albicans. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of these compounds was investigated by a method using restriction enzymes and a specially designed 1.5 kb DNA fragment. Kokusaginine showed inhibition against all of the 16 restriction enzymes. Haplopine showed a similar inhibition pattern but the binding activity against Asc I and Sma I with restriction sequences consisting only of G and C was very weak. Skimmianine showed binding activity against Xba I, BciV I, Sal I, Pst I, Sph I and Hind III, but very weak or no activity was found for the other restriction enzymes. A pyranoquinolone, flindersine, showed no activity against any of the restriction enzymes. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of furoquinolines was therefore in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine > skimmianine, which was the same order as their photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA is one of the cellular targets for the furoquinolines to exert their biological activities, similar to psoralens. However, because flindersine showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus but did not show photo-activated DNA binding activity, it is clear that there are other cellular target components for this compound to exert photo-toxic activity.

  15. A workflow for in silico design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors using well-known miniprotein scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Salvador; Aguila, Sergio A; Pimienta, Genaro

    2017-04-01

    The over-expression of immune-suppressors such as IL-10 is a crucial landmark in both tumor progression, and latent viral and parasite infection. IL-10 is a multifunctional protein. Besides its immune-cell suppressive function, it also promotes B-cell tumorigenesis of lymphomas and melanoma. Human pathogens like unicellular parasites and viruses that remain latent inside B cells promote the over-expression of hIL-10 upon infection, which inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, and at the same time mediates B cell proliferation. The B-cell specific oncogenic latent virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a viral homologue of hIL-10 (ebvIL-10), expressed during lytic viral proliferation. Once expressed, ebvIL-10 inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, assuring EBV re-infection. During long-term latency, EBV-infected B cells over-express hIL-10 to assure B-cell proliferation, occasionally inducing EBV-mediated lymphomas. The amino acid sequences of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 are more than 80% identical and thus have a very similar tridimensional structure. Based on their published crystallographic structures bound to their human receptor IL10R1, we report a structure-based design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors based on 3 loops from IL10R1 that establish specific hydrogen bonds with the two IL10s. We have grafted these loops onto a permissible loop in three well-known miniprotein scaffolds-the Conus snail toxin MVIIA, the plant-derived trypsin inhibitor EETI, and the human appetite modulator AgRP. Our computational workflow described in detail below was invigorated by the negative and positive controls implemented, and therefore paves the way for future in vitro and in vivo validation assays of the IL-10 inhibitors engineered.

  16. Bile Acids Function Synergistically To Repress Invasion Gene Expression in Salmonella by Destabilizing the Invasion Regulator HilD.

    PubMed

    Eade, Colleen R; Hung, Chien-Che; Bullard, Brian; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Gunn, John S; Altier, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. are carried by and can acutely infect agricultural animals and humans. After ingestion, salmonellae traverse the upper digestive tract and initiate tissue invasion of the distal ileum, a virulence process carried out by the type III secretion system encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Salmonellae coordinate SPI-1 expression with anatomical location via environmental cues, one of which is bile, a complex digestive fluid that causes potent repression of SPI-1 genes. The individual components of bile responsible for SPI-1 repression have not been previously characterized, nor have the bacterial signaling processes that modulate their effects been determined. Here, we characterize the mechanism by which bile represses SPI-1 expression. Individual bile acids exhibit repressive activity on SPI-1-regulated genes that requires neither passive diffusion nor OmpF-mediated entry. By using genetic methods, the effects of bile and bile acids were shown to require the invasion gene transcriptional activator hilD and to function independently of known upstream signaling pathways. Protein analysis techniques showed that SPI-1 repression by bile acids is mediated by posttranslational destabilization of HilD. Finally, we found that bile acids function synergistically to achieve the overall repressive activity of bile. These studies demonstrate a common mechanism by which diverse environmental cues (e.g., certain short-chain fatty acids and bile acids) inhibit SPI-1 expression. These data provide information relevant to Salmonella pathogenesis during acute infection in the intestine and during chronic infection of the gallbladder and inform the basis for development of therapeutics to inhibit invasion as a means of repressing Salmonella pathogenicity.

  17. Starter substrate specificities of wild-type and mutant polyketide synthases from Rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Lukacin, Richard; Schreiner, Stephan; Silber, Katrin; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-02-01

    Chalcone synthases (CHSs) and acridone synthases (ACSs) belong to the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) and condense the starter substrate 4-coumaroyl-CoA or N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs to produce flavonoids and acridone alkaloids, respectively. ACSs which have been cloned exclusively from Ruta graveolens share about 75-85% polypeptide sequence homology with CHSs from other plant families, while 90% similarity was observed with CHSs from Rutaceae, i.e., R. graveolens, Citrus sinensis and Dictamnus albus. CHSs cloned from many plants do not accept N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA as a starter substrate, whereas ACSs were shown to possess some side activity with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The transformation of an ACS to a functional CHS with 10% residual ACS activity was accomplished previously by substitution of three amino acids through the corresponding residues from Ruta-CHS1 (Ser132Thr, Ala133Ser and Val265Phe). Therefore, the reverse triple mutation of Ruta-CHS1 (mutant R2) was generated, which affected only insignificantly the CHS activity and did not confer ACS activity. However, competitive inhibition of CHS activity by N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA was observed for the mutant in contrast to wild-type CHSs. Homology modeling of ACS2 with docking of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone suggested that the starter substrates for CHS or ACS reaction are placed in different topographies in the active site pocket. Additional site specific substitutions (Asp205Pro/Thr206Asp/His207Ala or Arg60Thr and Val100Ala/Gly218Ala, respectively) diminished the CHS activity to 75-50% of the wild-type CHS1 without promoting ACS activity. The results suggest that conformational changes in the periphery beyond the active site cavity volumes determine the product formation by ACSs vs. CHSs in R. graveolens. It is likely that ACS has evolved from CHS, but the sole enlargement of the active site pocket as in CHS1 mutant R2 is insufficient to explain this process.

  18. The two-component system CpxR/A represses the expression of Salmonella virulence genes by affecting the stability of the transcriptional regulator HilD

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Palacios, Irene J.; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Calva, Edmundo; Bustamante, Víctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica can cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans and animals mainly by the presence of pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, containing 39 and 44 genes, respectively. The AraC-like regulator HilD positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as many other Salmonella virulence genes including those located in SPI-2. A previous report indicates that the two-component system CpxR/A regulates the SPI-1 genes: the absence of the sensor kinase CpxA, but not the absence of its cognate response regulator CpxR, reduces their expression. The presence and absence of cell envelope stress activates kinase and phosphatase activities of CpxA, respectively, which in turn controls the level of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). In this work, we further define the mechanism for the CpxR/A-mediated regulation of SPI-1 genes. The negative effect exerted by the absence of CpxA on the expression of SPI-1 genes was counteracted by the absence of CpxR or by the absence of the two enzymes, AckA and Pta, which render acetyl-phosphate that phosphorylates CpxR. Furthermore, overexpression of the lipoprotein NlpE, which activates CpxA kinase activity on CpxR, or overexpression of CpxR, repressed the expression of SPI-1 genes. Thus, our results provide several lines of evidence strongly supporting that the absence of CpxA leads to the phosphorylation of CpxR via the AckA/Pta enzymes, which represses both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes. Additionally, we show that in the absence of the Lon protease, which degrades HilD, the CpxR-P-mediated repression of the SPI-1 genes is mostly lost; moreover, we demonstrate that CpxR-P negatively affects the stability of HilD and thus decreases the expression of HilD-target genes, such as hilD itself and hilA, located in SPI-1. Our data further expand the insight on the different regulatory pathways for gene expression involving CpxR/A and on the complex regulatory network governing virulence in Salmonella. PMID:26300871

  19. St. Lucia.

    PubMed

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position.

  20. DNA-based diagnostic tests for Salmonella strains targeting hilA, agfA, spvC and sef genes.

    PubMed

    Crăciunaş, Cornelia; Keul, Anca-Livia; Flonta, Mirela; Cristea, Mariana

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hilA, agfA, spvC and sef genes amplification by PCR as a method for detection of Salmonella strains. Twenty nine isolates of Salmonella spp. including 6 different serotypes were analyzed in this study. The bacteria were isolated between 2005 and 2007 and serotyped at the Clinical Hospital of Infectious Disease, Cluj-Napoca. Ten non-Salmonella strains were also tested by the same procedure. We used a direct PCR technique, DNA extraction had been skipped and the bacterial cell wall denaturated in the first step of the reaction. All Salmonella strains gave positive results by the PCR amplification of hilA gene. The utilization of the sef, and spvC genes or spvC and agfA genes in a multiplex PCR provides a valuable diagnostic tool for Salmonella enteritidis strains.

  1. A colonisation-inhibition culture consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strains protects against infection by strains of both serotypes in broilers.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-08-06

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes.

  2. In silico clustering of Salmonella global gene expression data reveals novel genes co-regulated with the SPI-1 virulence genes through HilD

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Flores, Irma; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Sánchez-Pérez, Mishael; Paredes, Claudia C.; Collado-Vides, Julio; Salgado, Heladia; Bustamante, Víctor H.

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of Salmonella enterica serovars cause intestinal and systemic infections to humans and animals. Salmonella Patogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) is a chromosomal region containing 39 genes that have crucial virulence roles. The AraC-like transcriptional regulator HilD, encoded in SPI-1, positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as of several other virulence genes located outside SPI-1. In this study, we applied a clustering method to the global gene expression data of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium from the COLOMBOS database; thus genes that show an expression pattern similar to that of SPI-1 genes were selected. This analysis revealed nine novel genes that are co-expressed with SPI-1, which are located in different chromosomal regions. Expression analyses and protein-DNA interaction assays showed regulation by HilD for six of these genes: gtgE, phoH, sinR, SL1263 (lpxR) and SL4247 were regulated directly, whereas SL1896 was regulated indirectly. Interestingly, phoH is an ancestral gene conserved in most of bacteria, whereas the other genes show characteristics of genes acquired by Salmonella. A role in virulence has been previously demonstrated for gtgE, lpxR and sinR. Our results further expand the regulon of HilD and thus identify novel possible Salmonella virulence genes. PMID:27886269

  3. Integration of a complex regulatory cascade involving the SirA/BarA and Csr global regulatory systems that controls expression of the Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 virulence regulons through HilD.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luary C; Yakhnin, Helen; Camacho, Martha I; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Puente, José L; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in Luria-Bertani medium, HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multifactorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events.

  4. Composition and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the essential oil from Annona sylvatica A. St.-Hil.

    PubMed

    Formagio, Anelise S N; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Dos Santos, Luiz A C; Cardoso, Claúdia A L; Foglio, Mary Anny; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Andrade-Silva, Magaiver; Kassuya, Cândida A L

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Annona sylvatica (EOAS) was extracted by hydrodistillation, and the analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in the EOAS were sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, z-caryophyllene, β-maaliene, γ-gurjunene, silphiperfol-5-en-3-ol, ledol, cubecol-1-epi, and muurola-3,5-diene. Oral administration of the EOAS (20 and 200 mg/kg) and subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, reference drug) significantly inhibited carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mouse paw edema. The anticancer activity the EOAS showed growth inhibitory activity on all cell lines when administered in a high concentration. The EOAS inhibited the growth of human cancer cell lines with GI(50) values in the range of 36.04-45.37 μg/mL on all of the cell lines tested. This work describes for the first time the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of the essential oil of A. sylvatica and its composition. Considering that drugs currently available for the treatment of inflammatory and cancer conditions show undesirable side-effects, the present results may have clinical relevance and open new possibilities for the development of novel anti-inflammatory and anticancer drugs.

  5. In vivo redox effects of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl., Lantana grisebachii Stuck and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. on blood, thymus and spleen of mice.

    PubMed

    Canalis, A M; Cittadini, M C; Albrecht, C; Soria, E A

    2014-09-01

    Argentinian native plants Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Lantana grisebachii and Ilex paraguariensis are known to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We demonstrated it in vivo by the redox changes in murine hemolymphatic tissues after infusive extract intake of these plants as revealed in organic trophism, tissue phenolics, hydroperoxides, superoxide, nitrites and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in thymus, blood and spleen. A. quebracho-blanco reduced hydroperoxidation in blood and spleen of both sexes, with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase negativization in lymphatic organs and thymic nitrosative up-regulation. Males have shown increased phenolic content in blood after treatment. L. grisebachii and I. paraguariensis treatment exhibited incomplete antioxidation and oxidative induction in the studied tissues. Different results according to sex were found in redox response to phenolics and their kinetics, with males showing antioxidant effects, whereas females showed oxidative susceptibility. A. quebracho-blanco exhibited protection of murine tissues against oxidation in both sexes and modulation of their trophism, supporting its therapeutic uses in inflammatory diseases. Also, gender had significant influence in phenolic biodistribution and redox response.

  6. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Methanolic Extract and Fractions from Davilla elliptica St. Hil. (Dilleniaceae) on Bothrops jararaca Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Catarine Massucato; Delella, Flavia Karina; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Rinaldo, Daniel; Lopes-Ferreira, Monica Valdyrce dos Anjos; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Vilegas, Wagner; Felisbino, Sergio Luis; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and haemorrhage are the main characteristics of tissue injury in botropic envenomation. Although some studies have shown that anti-venom prevents systemic reactions, it is not efficient in preventing tissue injury at the site of the bite. Therefore, this work was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract and fractions from D. elliptica and to evaluate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process. Effects of the extract and fractions from D. elliptica were evaluated using a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats, and leukocyte rolling was visualized by intravital. The quantification of MMPs activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) extracted from the dermis of mice treated with extract and fractions alone or incubated with venom was determined by zymographic analyses. Our results show that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fractions significantly reduced paw oedema after the carrageenan challenge. Treatment with the tannins fraction also resulted in considerable inhibition of the rolling of leukocytes and this fraction was able to decrease the activation of MMP-9. These results confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract and tannins fraction of D. elliptica and showed that the dermonecrosis properties of B. jararaca venom might be mediated through the inhibition of MMP-9 activity. PMID:26042466

  7. Organic and Conventional Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil) Improves Metabolic Redox Status of Liver and Serum in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Cátia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana D.; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Godoy, Alessandra; Funchal, Cláudia; Coitinho, Adriana S.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is widely used in South America to prepare nonalcoholic drinks rich in polyphenols. These compounds are able to prevent the generation of reactive species, thus minimizing the incidence of several diseases. In this perspective, we hypothesized that yerba mate may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced oxidative damage in liver and serum of rats. Animals (n = 42) received distilled water (control) or yerba mate (organic or conventional) for fifteen days. Then, half of the rats of each group received 60 mg/kg PTZ intraperitoneally or saline solution. After 30 min the animals were euthanized and the liver and blood were collected. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate avoided PTZ-induced oxidative damage and nitric oxide production in the liver and serum of the rats. Moreover, both kinds of yerba mate prevented the decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein content) defenses in the liver and serum. In addition, histopathologic analysis of the liver showed that yerba mate reduced PTZ-induced cell damage. These findings indicate that yerba mate provides hepatoprotection and improves antioxidant status in the serum, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies using nutraceuticals drinks. PMID:26784339

  8. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  9. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Fiaz; Us Saqib, Qazi Najam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. Aims: This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark. Results: The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin. Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control. PMID:26120229

  11. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  12. Melicope balgooyi Appelhans, W.L. Wagner & K.R. Wood, a new species and new record in Melicope section Melicope (Rutaceae) for the Austral Islands

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.; Wood, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melicope balgooyi, a new species of Melicope (Rutaceae) is described. It is known only from the Austral Islands in the South Pacific (French Polynesia). However, it is not closely related to the other two species previously known from the Austral Islands, which are part of Melicope section Vitiflorae. The new species belongs to Melicope section Melicope and is most closely related to species from New Zealand, the Kermadec Islands, and the Society Islands. The new species has alternate to sub-opposite leaves, which is a very rare arrangement in Melicope and has only been described for two other species of the genus so far. PMID:25197227

  13. A Salmonella Enteritidis hilAssrAfliG deletion mutant is a safe live vaccine strain that confers protection against colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Geeraerts, S; Balan, V; Elroy, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2013-10-17

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans. Therefore, there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonization-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the safety and efficacy of a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonization-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. After administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old chickens, this strain could not be isolated from the gut, internal organs or faeces after 21 days of age. In addition, administration of this strain to one-day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and caecal and internal organ colonization of a Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an attenuated Salmonella strain for which both the safety and efficacy has been shown in long-term experiments (until slaughter age) in broiler strain can potentially be used as a live colonization-inhibition strain for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis infections in broilers.

  14. Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2011-04-01

    Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, α-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals.

  15. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  16. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents.

  17. Phylogeny of Acronychia (Rutaceae) and First Insights into Its Historical Biogeography and the Evolution of Fruit Characters

    PubMed Central

    Holzmeyer, Laura; Duretto, Marco; Crayn, Darren; Hörandl, Elvira; Heslewood, Margaret; Jayanthan, Janani; Appelhans, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Acronychia (Citrus family, Rutaceae) contains 49 species of trees and shrubs that are found mainly in rain forest. The genus has a large distributional range from mainland southern Asia to Australia and New Caledonia, but most species are endemic to either New Guinea or Australia. This study aimed to provide the first detailed molecular phylogeny of Acronychia and use it to test the taxonomic value of fruit morphological characters, and infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Methodology Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) were undertaken on nucleotide sequence data from two plastid (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) and three nuclear markers (ETS, ITS, NIAi3) from 29 Acronychia species (59% of the genus) and representatives of related genera. Results and Conclusions The results indicate that the South-East Asian genus Maclurodendron is nested phylogenetically within Acronychia and must be synonymized to render Acronychia monophyletic. Fruit morphological characters have been used previously to infer relationships within Acronychia and our analyses show that these characters are informative for some subclades but are homoplasious for the group as a whole. Apocarpous fruits are the ancestral state in Acronychia and subapocarpous and fully syncarpous fruits are derived. The unisexual flowers of Maclurodendron are derived from bisexual flowers, which are found in all species of Acronychia as well as its relatives. Acronychia probably first evolved on Australia with range expansion to New Guinea via stepping-stone dispersal or direct land connections within the Sahul Shelf, followed by two independent dispersals to areas west of New Guinea. Most species of Acronychia occur in either Australia or New Guinea, but no species occurs in both regions. This is surprising given the close proximity of the landmasses, but might be explained by ecological factors. PMID:26301574

  18. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  19. St. John's Wort (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or foods a ...

  20. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStSt(Y)St(Y) genome constitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-03-17

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St1St2, similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R)269. All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St(Y). Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St(Y). According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  1. [Development, science, and politics: the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da Silva; Maio, Marcos Chor

    2007-12-01

    The article uses the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica (International Institute of the Hylean Amazon--IIHA) as a point of departure for analyzing the topic of development. We first address post-World War II relations between science and development. Next, we examine the Brazilian government's initiatives in the Amazon during the 1940s and how the IIHA project was received. Lastly, we analyze the controversies ignited in Brazil by Unesco's plan. The IIHA project was a catalyst of the development debate in post-World War II Brazil. The discussions then sparked in Brazil and the project's denouement solidified a development model for the Amazon that even today underpins initiatives taken in the region.

  2. Citrus medica L. cv Diamante (Rutaceae) peel extract improves glycaemic status of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; D'Angelo, Danila; Lombardi, Pietro; Mastellone, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, antilipidaemic and antioxidant activities of Citrus medica cv Diamante (Rutaceae) hydroalcoholic (CD) peel extract in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ability of CD to protect against oxidative stress was investigated by using different in vitro assays and in vivo by using the reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test and the biological antioxidant potential test (BAP). Two different doses of CD extract (300 and 600 mg/kg/die) were administered at ZDF rats for 4 weeks. CD reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A dose-dependent effect on body weight and serum glucose levels was observed. A decrease of d-ROMs and an increase of BAP were recorded by using the dose of 600 mg/kg. The extract inhibited lipid peroxidation (IC50 value of 0.23 mg/ml). These findings suggest as an efficient phytotherapeutic approach in combating hyperlipidaemic and hyperglycaemic disorders.

  3. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  4. Administration of a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain by coarse spray to newly hatched broilers reduces colonization and shedding of a Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; van Immerseel, F

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans. Colonization inhibition (CI) occurs when a live Salmonella strain is administered to chickens and subsequently protects against challenge with another Salmonella strain belonging to the same serotype. A Salmonella Enteritidis hilAssrAfliG deletion mutant has previously been proven to reduce colonization and shedding of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis strain in newly hatched broilers after experimental infection. In this study, we compared two administration routes for this strain. Administering the Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain through drinking water on the first day of life resulted in decreased fecal shedding and cecal colonization of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain administered 24 h later using a seeder-bird model. When administering the CI strain by coarse spray on newly hatched broiler chicks, an even more pronounced reduction of cecal colonization was observed, and fecal shedding of the Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain ceased during the course of the experiment. These data suggest that administering a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to newly hatched chicks using a coarse spray is a useful and effective method that reduces colonization and shedding of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis strain after early challenge.

  5. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  6. 6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ST. (right) AND FOURTH ST. (left), SHOWING CARPENTERS HALL, FIRST BANK OF U.S. AND SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis is tucked in a bend of the Mississippi River, just south of the point at which the Illinois River joins the larger Mississippi, and where the Missouri River flows in from the west. Drainage patterns to the east, on the Illinois side, are highlighted with green vegetation. Meandering rivers in the verdant Ozark Plateau appear to the south and west.

    This true-color view from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was taken with the instrument's downward looking (nadir) camera on October 15, 2005. The urban areas of greater St. Louis show up as grey-white, including nearby Kirkwood, Webster Groves, Clayton, University City, Ferguson, St. Ann, St. Charles, and East St. Louis. The region is home to nearly three million people.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. Melicope oppenheimeri, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kennetah R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Melicope oppenheimeri K.R. Wood, Appelhans & W.L. Wagner (section Pelea (A. Gray) Hook. f., Rutaceae), a rare endemic tree from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement. The new species differs from Hawaiian congeners by its carpels basally connate 1/5, narrowed into a strongly reflexed beak 10–15 mm long. It also differs in a combination of leaves with 7–10 pair of secondary veins; cymes to 3 cm long; peduncles 5–6.5 mm long; flowers perfect; capsules 4–9 × 40–52 mm; and a densely appressed short-sericeous ovary. Melicope oppenheimeri is known only from an isolated cliff-base plateau in upper Waihe‘e Valley, West Maui. Its discovery brings the number of recognized Melicope J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. species in the Hawaiian Islands to 49. A table is included indicating the conservation status of Hawaiian Melicope and Platydesma H. Mann., which is nested within Melicope sect. Pelea. Melicope oppenheimeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27698584

  9. Effects of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MACF) (Rutaceae) peel oil against developmental stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ivoke, Njoku; Ogbonna, Priscilla C; Ekeh, Felicia N; Ezenwaji, Ngozi E; Atama, Chinedu I; Ejere, Vincent C; Onoja, Uwakwe S; Eyo, Joseph E

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel by steam distillation was carried out against the developmental stages of the yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti to evaluate its toxicity, and ovicidal and larvicidal potency. Volatile oil components isolated and characterized by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included varying levels of monoterpene aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. Test results of the essential oil showed that egg hatching was completely inhibited at 400 ppm, while further development of 1st to 2nd larval stage was inhibited at 100 ppm. Regression analysis results also indicated that the peel essential oil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the viability of the test eggs and inhibited the development of 1st larval stage to 2nd larval instar. The LC50 and LC90 values obtained for 2nd instars (180.460, 334.629 ppm, respectively); and for 4th instars (210.937, 349.489 ppm, respectively) after 24-hour exposure were time but not dose dependent, as each LC value was a product of an inverse relationship between the oil concentration and exposure time. The results indicated that the peel oil could be a potent persistent larvicide.

  10. A combinatorial approach of N-terminus blocking and codon optimization strategies to enhance the soluble expression of recombinant hIL-7 in E. coli fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nirmala; Adivitiya; Khasa, Yogender Pal

    2016-12-01

    Human interleukin-7 (hIL-7) is a therapeutically important cytokine involved in lymphocyte development and survival. In previous reports, a uniformly poor expression of hIL-7 has been shown in Escherichia coli host with the problem of inclusion body formation. In this study, the role of codon optimization and N-terminus blocking using various solubility enhancer fusion tags was explored to improve its soluble expression. The use of codon optimization strategy improved its expression to 80 ± 5 mg/L at shake flask level. The utilization of pelB leader sequence resulted in an unprocessed protein in the form of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies with lower expression yields. The N-terminus fusion of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), thioredoxin (Trx), and NusA tags increased the expression in the range of 90-140 mg/L, where >90 % of the fusion protein was obtained in soluble form. The fed-batch fermentation of SUMO-tagged hIL-7 protein was optimized at bioreactor level, where a high volumetric product concentration of 2.65 g/L was achieved by controlling the plasmid segregation instability using high antibiotic concentration. The specific product yield (YP/X) and volumetric product concentration were 1.38 and 2.55-fold higher compared to batch results, respectively. A preparative scale affinity chromatography resulted in a high recovery yield of 50.6 mg/L with ∼90 % purity. The conformational property of purified recombinant hIL-7 from CD spectroscopy showed a typical helical structure with 31.5 % α-helix and 26.43 % β-sheet. The biological activity of purified protein was tested using IL-7-dependent murine immature B lymphocyte (2E8) cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide salt (MTT) assay, where it showed a similar biological activity as standard control.

  11. View of looking southeast of 2313 31st St. hipped ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of looking southeast of 2313 31st St. - hipped roof house with engaged porch located in Shawmut Mill village section of Valley - 2313 Thirty-first Street (House), 2313 Thirty-first Street, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  12. Mt. St. Helens Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Len

    1992-01-01

    Provides a personal account of one science teacher's participation in a teacher workshop in which teachers learned about volcanic development, types of eruption, geomorphology, plate tectonics, volcano monitoring, and hazards created by volcanoes by examining Mt. St. Helens. Provides a graphic identifying volcanoes active since 1975. (MDH)

  13. Candide in St. Louis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    A young, St. Louis, Missouri, architectural firm, seeking a personal style of practice, has succeeded in creating structures that reveal client input, and which are sensitive, articulate, and at ease with complexity. Describes an elementary school, a condominium, a shopping mall, a high school, and a "community mall." Illustrated with photographs…

  14. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  15. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  16. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Berin D E; Auld, Tony D; Keith, David A; Hui, Francis K C; Ooi, Mark K J

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  17. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  18. St. Kitts and Nevis.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    St. Kitts and Nevis have areas of 68 and 36 square miles respectively and the terrain is mountainous. The population is 45,800 total and the annual growth rate is .2%. The ethnic make up is almost all black African with some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese. The religions are primarily Anglican, with evangelical Protestant and Catholic minorities. Infant mortality stands at 41/1000. The government is a constitutional monarchy with a Westminster type parliament. There is a governor, a prime minister, a cabinet, an 11 -member appointed upper house and a 11- member elected house of representatives. The gross national product is $83 million and the annual growth rate is 4.6%. There are no natural resources, and agricultural products include sugarcane, cotton, peanuts, and vegetables. Industry is made up of manufacturing 12.9%, transport and communications 13%, construction 9.1% and hotels and restaurants 4.5%. The Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis became independent in 1983. The government diversified the agriculture by planting other crops than sugar, producing gelled ethanol, and developing a cane spirits liquor. Tourism has grown the most and in 1987 passed sugar as the main source of income. International aid will assist in finishing a road that will open the southeast area of St. Kitts for construction of hotels, where some of the best beaches are located.

  19. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  20. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  1. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  2. Influence of drying methods and agronomic variables on the chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) obtained from high-pressure CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Freitas, Lisiane dos Santos; Dariva, Cláudio; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2007-12-12

    The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of two drying methods (microwave and vacuum oven) and some agronomic variables (plant fertilization conditions and sunlight intensity) on the characteristics of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves extracts obtained from high-pressure carbon dioxide extractions performed in the temperature range from 20 to 40 degrees C and from 100 to 250 bar. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Ervateira Barão LTDA, Brazil. Chemical distribution of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). In addition to extraction variables, results showed that both sample drying methods and agronomic conditions exert a pronounced influence on the extraction yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  3. Ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid and ent-7α-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid from Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St-Hil. & Tul. modulate K(+) and Ca(2+) channels to reduce cytosolic calcium concentration on guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rosimeire F; Martins, Italo R R; Travassos, Rafael A; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Ferreira, Alice T; Nouailhetas, Viviane L A; Aboulafia, Jeannine; Rigoni, Vera L S; da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2012-03-05

    In this study we investigated the mechanism underlying the spasmolytic action of ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid (trachylobane-360) and ent-7α-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid (trachylobane-318), diterpenes obtained from Xylopia langsdorfiana, on guinea pig ileum. Both compounds inhibited histamine-induced cumulative contractions (slope=3.5±0.9 and 4.4±0.7) that suggests a noncompetitive antagonism to histaminergic receptors. CaCl(2)-induced contractions were nonparallelly and concentration-dependently reduced by both diterpenes, indicating blockade of calcium influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(v)). The Ca(v) participation was confirmed since both trachylobanes equipotently relaxed ileum pre-contracted with S-(-)-Bay K8644 (EC(50)=3.5±0.7×10-(5) and 1.1±0.2×10-(5)M) and KCl (EC(50)=5.5±0.3×10-(5) and 1.4±0.2×10-(5)M). K(+) channels participation was confirmed since diterpene-induced relaxation curves were significantly shifted to right in the presence of 5mM tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)) (EC(50)=0.5±0.04×10-(4) and 2.0±0.5×10-(5)M). ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)), voltage activated K(+) channels (K(V)), small conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (SK(Ca)) or big conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca)) did not seem to participate of trachylobane-360 spasmolytic action. However trachylobane-318 modulated positively K(ATP), K(V) and SK(Ca) (EC(50)=1.1±0.3×10-(5), 0.7±0.2×10-(5) and 0.7±0.2×10-(5)M), but not BK(Ca). A fluorescence analysis technique confirmed the decrease of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) induced by both trachylobanes in ileal myocytes. In conclusion, trachylobane-360 and trachylobane-318 induced spasmolytic activity by K(+) channel positive modulation and Ca(2+) channel blockade, which results in [Ca(2+)](c) reduction at cellular level leading to smooth muscle relaxation.

  4. Mt. St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Movie

    This 3-D anaglyph image of Mt. St. Helens volcano combines the nadir-looking and back-looking band 3 images of ASTER. To view the image in stereo, you will need blue-red glasses. Make sure to look through the red lens with your left eye. Figure 1: This ASTER image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The image is centered at 46.2 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude.

    Movie: The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a natural color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  6. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  7. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  8. [History of St. Johns wort].

    PubMed

    Pöldinger, W

    2000-12-14

    St.-John's wort owes its name to the fact that it flowers at the time of the summer solstice on or around St. John's day on 24 June. Having been administered as a remedy by the Roman military doctor Proscurides as early as the 1st century AD, it was mainly used for magic potions during the Middle Ages. It was not only used to protect humans and animals against witches, demons and evil diseases, but it was also added to the fire when moulding "Freikugel" [1]. Paracelsus was one of the first doctors to concern themselves with St.-John's wort. However, where it had formerly been used for a plethora of indications, in more recent times it has found its place in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In numerous clinical double-blind trials against placebo and other antidepressants the whole extract of St.-John's wort, e.g. as in Jarsin coated tablets, has proved to be just as effective as the other antidepressants for mild and moderate depression, but not for severe depression.

  9. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  10. The Greening of St Patrick's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennie

    1993-01-01

    The grade 6-7 class at St. Patrick's School in Hamilton (Ontario) engages in outdoor environmental projects to enhance classroom learning. Some student activities have been (1) worm composting; (2) tree planting; (3) restoring tern nesting areas; and (4) planning and cultivating a sophisticated garden on school grounds. (KS)

  11. Fort St. Vrain experience report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the core region constraint devices (RCDs) which will be installed in Fort St. Vrain to remedy core temperature fluctuations at high power-to-flow thresholds, summarizes the engineering analyses supporting the design, and evaluates effects on fuel handling operations. (DLC)

  12. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  13. The Secrets of St. Agnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Janell

    2006-01-01

    This article reveals the disturbing truths uncovered by a retired biology professor about the past practices of a North Carolina hospital. In the 1990s, Irene Clark was a biology professor at St. Augustine's College, a historically Black college in Raleigh, North Carolina. One day, a janitor asked the native Virginian what she knew about the…

  14. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  15. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  16. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

  17. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  18. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  19. The Wake of St. Vincent.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.; Gleason, Arthur C.; Gluhosky, Paul A.; Grubii, Vanda

    1997-03-01

    The island of St. Vincent and the other Windward Islands in the southeastern Caribbean were chosen as a field site for the study of weak mountain wakes. By the authors' definition, a `weak wake' forms when the potential vorticity generated by a mountain is not strong enough to advect itself into eddies; rather, it is simply advected downstream by the ambient flow. GOES-8 and Landsat sunglint images unambiguously revealed that the mountainous Windward Islands have remarkably long straight wakes. The length of St. Vincent's wake exceeds 300 km although its width is only 20 km. Near the islands, the wake structures reflect the details of the island topography. These wakes do not exhibit any obvious diurnal effect.Boat surveys in the lee of St. Vincent confirmed the existence of features seen in the images: the sharp wake boundary, the small valley-induced jet embedded in the near wake, and the absence of any reverse flow. Aircraft surveys gave evidence of descent over the island and showed that the wake air is relatively warm and dry. The length of the wake (L) agrees with the formula L = H/2CD (where H is the wake depth and CD is the surface drag coefficient), implying that the reacceleration of the wake air is caused by the ambient streamwise pressure gradient rather than by lateral entrainment of momentum or geostrophic adjustment.Two numerical models were used to simulate St. Vincent's wake, a single-layer hydrostatic model and a 3D nonhydrostatic model. Both models indicated that air descent, acceleration, wave breaking, and weak potential vorticity generation occur over the island, causing a long straight wake.

  20. ST Segment Elevation with Normal Coronaries

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pooja; Sharma, Ashwini; Paul, Timir

    2016-01-01

    Noncardiac causes should be kept in the differential while evaluating ST elevation on EKG. Rarely abdominal pathologies like acute pancreatitis can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Once acute coronary syndrome is ruled out by emergent cardiac catheterization alternative diagnosis should be sorted. Abdominal pathologies, like acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis, can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Treating the underlying condition would result in resolution of these EKG changes. PMID:27403165

  1. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of StRATUS (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2014-0142 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) Michael A. Falugi Structures Technology Branch Aerospace...Conference Paper Preprint 01 May 2012 – 28 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Steel Reinforced Advanced Thin Unitized Structure ( StRATUS ) is a new hybrid laminate concept composed of carbon fiber composite sandwiched between thin

  3. St. John's wort - an overview.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    This article aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) which is one of the oldest and best investigated medicinal herbs. Dried alcoholic extracts are the most important preparations on the market although a variety of other preparations are available. Depressive disorders according to modern diagnostic standards are the best known and most widely investigated indication although the more traditional, broader indication of 'psycho-vegetative disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety and/or nervous agitation', including diagnoses such as somatoform disorders, might more adequately describe what Hypericum extracts are actually used for by many practitioners. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but the available research clearly shows that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported, often in a synergistic manner. Hypericum extracts have consistently shown activity in pharmacological models related to antidepressant effects. Randomized clinical trials show that Hypericum extracts are more effective than placebo and similarly effective as standard antidepressants while having better tolerability in the acute treatment of major depressive episodes. The most important risk associated with Hypericum extracts are interactions with other drugs. Therefore, physicians need to be informed whether their patients take St. John's wort products. If the risk of interactions is adequately taken into account, high quality Hypericum extracts are an effective and safe tool in the hand of qualified health profession-als in primary care.

  4. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  5. Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E₂.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Moraes, Thiago de Mello; Kushima, Hélio; Tanimoto, Alexandre; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Bauab, Taís Maria; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-01-15

    Citrus lemon (CL) belongs to Rutaceae family and is popularly known in Brazil as limão siciliano. The phytochemical analysis of CL fruit bark essential oil showed two majority components, limonene (LIM) and β-pinene (PIN). This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action from CL, LIM and PIN in ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. After ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, the ulcer area was measured and the stomachs were destined to histology (HE and PAS), immunohistochemistry for HSP-70 and VIP and glutathione (GSH) measurement. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds was determined. The ulcer area for indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers was measured. PGE₂ concentration was biochemically measured. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori was determined in vitro. In ethanol model, CL and LIM demonstrated 100% of gastroprotection, while PIN did not exert effective gastroprotection (53.26%). In the indomethacin model, CL and LIM offered effective gastroprotection but PIN did not show gastroprotective effect. The gastric ulcer area of rats pretreated with NO-synthase inhibitor or SH-blocker was decreased in comparison to the control group. The MIC obtained for CL was 125 μg/mL, for LIM was 75 μg/mL and for PIN was 500 μg/mL. The gastroprotective effect of CL and LIM was involved with increasing in mucus secretion, HSP-70 and VIP, but not with GSH, NO or SH compounds. CL gastroprotective mechanism is involved with PGE₂. PIN did not present gastroprotective activity.

  6. ACTH Action on StAR Biology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies.

  7. ACTH Action on StAR Biology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies. PMID:27999527

  8. VIEW SOUTH ON CLARK ST.BUILDING 101 CLARK ST. ROPE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH ON CLARK ST.-BUILDING 101 CLARK ST. ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  9. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  10. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  11. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  12. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  13. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  14. Amylases StAmy23, StBAM1 and StBAM9 regulate cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers in distinct ways.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Shijing; Tian, Zhendong; Sonnewald, Uwe; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-03-28

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) in potato is detrimental to the quality of processed products. Conversion of starch to reducing sugars (RS) by amylases is considered one of the main pathways in CIS but is not well studied. The amylase genes StAmy23, StBAM1, and StBAM9 were studied for their functions in potato CIS. StAmy23 is localized in the cytoplasm, whereas StBAM1 and StBAM9 are targeted to the plastid stroma and starch granules, respectively. Genetic transformation of these amylases in potatoes by RNA interference showed that β-amylase activity could be decreased in cold-stored tubers by silencing of StBAM1 and collective silencing of StBAM1 and StBAM9. However, StBAM9 silencing did not decrease β-amylase activity. Silencing StBAM1 and StBAM9 caused starch accumulation and lower RS, which was more evident in simultaneously silenced lines, suggesting functional redundancy. Soluble starch content increased in RNAi-StBAM1 lines but decreased in RNAi-StBAM9 lines, suggesting that StBAM1 may regulate CIS by hydrolysing soluble starch and StBAM9 by directly acting on starch granules. Moreover, StBAM9 interacted with StBAM1 on the starch granules. StAmy23 silencing resulted in higher phytoglycogen and lower RS accumulation in cold-stored tubers, implying that StAmy23 regulates CIS by degrading cytosolic phytoglycogen. Our findings suggest that StAmy23, StBAM1, and StBAM9 function in potato CIS with varying levels of impact.

  15. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  16. 18. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's School,' from the commemorative booklet published ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's School,' from the commemorative booklet published for the 125th anniversary of St. Mary's Parish, 1980. View Southwest, North Front and East Side, at St. John Street and Church Street (Original in possession of St. Mary's Parish) - St. Mary's Roman Catholic School, Northwest corner of Church Avenue & Guthrie Street, McKees Rocks, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  18. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  19. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  20. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  1. Nunaput Negeqlirmi (Our Village of St. Mary's).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Yup'ik Eskimo children from the fifth and sixth grades of St. Mary's Public School, St. Mary's, Alaska, wrote this collection of 28 short stories. The 55 page book is printed in both Yup'ik and English. It features large type and illustrations drawn by the children and is intended for use in a bilingual education program. Some of the stories deal…

  2. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  3. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  4. St2-80: a new FISH marker for St genome and genome analysis in Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shi, Qinghua; Su, Handong; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2017-03-17

    The St genome is one of the most fundamental genomes in Triticeae. Repetitive sequences are widely used to distinguish different genomes or species. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) screen a new sequence that could easily distinguish the chromosome of the St genome from those of other genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and (ii) investigate the genome constitution of some species that remain uncertain and controversial. We used degenerated oligonucleotide primer PCR (Dop-PCR), Dot-blot, and FISH to screen for a new marker of the St genome and to test the efficiency of this marker in the detection of the St chromosome at different ploidy levels. Signals produced by a new FISH marker (denoted St2-80) were present on the entire arm of chromosomes of the St genome, except in the centromeric region. On the contrary, St2-80 signals were present in the terminal region of chromosomes of the E, H, P, and Y genomes. No signal was detected in the A and B genomes, and only weak signals were detected in the terminal region of chromosomes of the D genome. St2-80 signals were obvious and stable in chromosomes of different genomes, whether diploid or polyploid. Therefore, St2-80 is a potential and useful FISH marker that can be used to distinguish the St genome from those of other genomes in Triticeae.

  5. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, Alexandra; Hinzey, Shawn Adrian; Frigo, Janette Rose; Proicou, Michael Chris; Borges, Louis

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  6. ST13 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ST13, a cytoplasmic homotetramer protein belonging to the FAM10 family, interacts with HSC70 as well as DNAJ homologs and HSP90. ST13 is an adaptor protein that mediates the association of the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90. It has been shown to be involved in the assembly process of glucocorticoid receptor, which requires the assistance of multiple molecular chaperones. The expression of the ST13 gene is reported to be downregulated in colorectal carcinoma tissue suggesting that is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  7. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  8. St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. (the Company) is located in Nashua, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire.

  9. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-09

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  10. Water resources of St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of St. Tammany Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  11. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  12. A nosocomial outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Chinese hospital: dissemination of ST11 and emergence of ST37, ST392 and ST395.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ye, L; Guo, L; Zhao, Q; Chen, R; Luo, Y; Chen, Y; Tian, S; Zhao, J; Shen, D; Han, L

    2013-11-01

    In China, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) -producing K. pneumoniae isolates have been identified. However, little is known about the spread and outbreak of KPC-producing enterobacterial pathogens. In this study, 48 non-duplicated KPC-producing isolates were analysed for genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test, and sequence type (ST) by multilocus sequence typing. S1-PFGE and Southern blot were used for plasmid profiling, and PCR and subsequent sequencing were performed to determine the effects of genetic background on the blaKPC gene. From December 2011 to June 2012, an outbreak of the KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae was observed. The 48 isolates of K. pneumoniae are categorized into eight PFGE types (A1, A2, A3, A4, B, C, D and E). The predominant pathogens of the outbreak were strains with PFGE types A1, A2 and A3, which all belong to ST11. Furthermore, ST37, ST392 and ST395 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates have also been sporadically identified. The blaKPC-2 -carrying plasmids vary in size from 30 to 220 kb. The genetic environments of the blaKPC-2 gene for most strains were consistent with the genetic structure of blaKPC-2 on the plasmid pKP048. In conclusion, the dissemination and outbreak of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in this study appeared to be clonal, and ST11 K. pneumoniae was the predominant clone attributed to the outbreak. This is the first study to report the emergence and spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST392 and ST395 worldwide. Our findings suggest that horizontal transfer of Tn3-based transposons might mediate the spread of blaKPC-2 gene between different K. pneumoniae clones in China.

  13. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  14. 76 FR 44531 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St..., call or e-mail Marine Science Technician First Class Jo A. Hoover, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention.... 2064; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. The purpose of the proposed rule is...

  15. Stückelberg formulation of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico

    2016-10-01

    We suggest that holography can be formulated in terms of the information capacity of the Stückelberg degrees of freedom that maintain gauge invariance of the theory in the presence of an information boundary. These Stückelbergs act as qubits that account for a certain fraction of quantum information. Their information capacity is measured by the ratio of the inverse Stückelberg energy gap to the size of the system. Systems with the smallest gap are maximally holographic. For massless gauge systems this information measure is universally equal to the inverse coupling evaluated at the systems' length scale. In this language it becomes very transparent why the Stückelberg information capacity of black holes saturates the Bekenstein bound and accounts for the entire information of the system. The physical reason is that the strength of quantum interaction is bounded from below by the gravitational coupling, which scales as area. Observing the striking similarity between the scalings of the energy gap of the boundary Stückelberg modes and the Bogoliubov modes of critical many-body systems, we establish a connection between holography and quantum criticality through the correspondence between these modes.

  16. Space Radar Image of St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a spaceborne radar image of the area surrounding St. Louis, Missouri, where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers come together. The city of St. Louis is the bright gold area within a bend in the Mississippi River at the lower center of the image. The rivers show up as dark blue sinuous lines. Urbanized areas appear bright gold and forested areas are shown as a brownish color. Several bridges can be seen spanning the river near downtown St. Louis. The Missouri River flows east, from left to right, across the center of the image, and meets the Mississippi River, which flows from top to bottom of the image. A small stretch of the Illinois River is shown at the top of the image where it merges with the Mississippi. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left). Flat farmland areas within the river floodplains appear blue on the image. The major roadways that pass through the area can be seen radiating out from, and encircling, the city of St. Louis. These highways, the rivers and the bridges help maintain St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.

  17. StCDPK3 Phosphorylates In Vitro Two Transcription Factors Involved in GA and ABA Signaling in Potato: StRSG1 and StABF1

    PubMed Central

    Grandellis, Carolina; Fantino, Elisa; Muñiz García, María Noelia; Bialer, Magalí Graciela; Santin, Franco; Capiati, Daniela Andrea; Ulloa, Rita María

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+) transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG) that modulates gibberellin (GA) content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical) to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3. The potato RSG family of transcription factors is composed of three members that share similar features. The closest homologue to NtRSG, which was named StRSG1, was amplified and sequenced. qRT-PCR data indicate that StRSG1 is mainly expressed in petioles, stems, lateral buds, and roots. In addition, GA treatment affected StRSG1 expression. StCDPK3 transcripts were detected in leaves, petioles, stolons, roots, and dormant tubers, and transcript levels were modified in response to GA. The recombinant StRSG1-GST protein was produced and tested as a substrate for StCDPK3 and StCDPK1. 6xHisStCDPK3 was able to phosphorylate the potato StRSG1 in a Ca2+-dependent way, while 6xHisStCDPK1 could not. StCDPK3 also interacts and phosphorylates the transcription factor StABF1 (ABRE binding factor 1) involved in ABA signaling, as shown by EMSA and phosphorylation assays. StABF1 transcripts were mainly detected in roots, stems, and stolons. Our data suggest that StCDPK3 could be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling at the onset of tuber development. PMID:27907086

  18. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST169 and novel ST354 SCCmec II-III isolates related to the worldwide ST71 clone.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Koizumi, A; Saito, M; Muramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y

    2016-01-01

    The recent appearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a concern for both veterinary and human healthcare. MRSP clonal lineages with sequence type (ST) 71-spa t02-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) II-III and ST68-spa t06-SCCmec V have spread throughout Europe and North America, respectively. The current study compared the molecular characteristics of 43 MRSP isolates from dogs in Japan with those of MRSP from previous reports using multilocus sequence typing based on seven housekeeping genes, SCCmec typing, and detection of antimicrobial resistance genes. Three related clonal lineages, ST71, ST169, and the newly registered ST354, were observed in SCCmec II-III isolates from Japan, despite MRSP SCCmec II-III isolates being thought to belong to a single clonal lineage. The majority of SCCmec II-III isolates belonging to ST169 (9/11) and ST354 (3/3), but not ST71 (0/11), harboured tetM. Four STs were observed for the SCCmec V isolates; however, neither ST68 nor related STs were found in the Japanese MRSP isolates. In conclusion, MRSP SCCmec II-III isolates from Japan belonged to ST71 and related STs (ST169 and ST354). A variety of MRSP SCCmec V clones, including some novel clones, were identified.

  19. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  20. Swithin St. Cleeve: Variable Star Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzenhoffer, K.

    1986-12-01

    THomas Hardy's romance "Two on a Tower" is the first novel to use an astronomical background as its unifying theme and the first to cast an astronomer in the role of protagonist. One subplot of the novel concerns Swithin St. Cleeve's quest for fame through his observations of variable stars. Despite a number of observational and instrumental setbacks, he makes an amazing discovery about variable stars, one he is certain will excite the astronomical world. But before he can get the news into print, another astronomer announces that very discover and takes from St. Cleeve the fame he thought would be his.

  1. Mount St. Helens Volcano, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mount St. Helens Volcano (46.0N, 122.0W) and its blast zone can be seen in this northeast looking infrared view. Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams can also be seen in the near area. The Columbia River can be seen at the bottom of the view. When Mt. St. Helens erupted on 18 May 80, the top 1300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.

  2. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-97-020) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  3. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-92-017) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  4. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  5. Loftin Collection (Spirit of St. Louis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Ryan NYP 'Spirit of St. Louis' equipped with 220 HP Wright Whirlwind engine. Charles A. Lindbergh flew this aircraft non-stop from New York to Paris in the period May 20-21 1927. Photographed in San Diego, California. This photo was used in a report, NACA TN, written by Donald Hall who designed the aircraft.

  6. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  7. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  8. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  9. St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a half-life of 26.5 hours (half-life is the amount of time it takes your body to eliminate half of the dose of the medication). It is likely that levels of St. John’s Wort would be low after one week, but there are no studies looking ...

  10. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  11. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to…

  12. Sivuqam Ungipaghaatangi (St. Lawrence Island Legends).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slwooko, Grace

    Transmitted orally for generations until the Eskimo language became a written one, the eleven St. Lawrence Island legends compiled in this volume for high school students tell of feats that were accomplished through supernatural power. Meant for both entertainment and instruction, the tales convey wise council indirectly through the conversations…

  13. Life Parallels Art at St. Bonaventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author chronicles the summary firing of Joseph Greer, a veteran sociology professor, over allegations of racism that evoke comparison to a Philip Roth novel about political correctness run amuck. Unlike the fictional story, the faculty at St. Bonaventure University did not seem to have much of an appetite for censuring…

  14. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  15. 101st Congress: The Children's Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reports on legislation on child care and regulations for children's television enacted during the 101st congress. Legislation involving block grants, Title IV-A funding, and earned income tax credits was intended to bring about quality improvement and affordability. Reauthorizations included Head Start, Follow Through, Community Services Block…

  16. Action Research at St Mark's Academy 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Alex, Ed.; Riggall, Anna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    St Mark's Church of England Academy is an 11-18 academy situated in Mitcham, South London. It offers a commitment to high achievement within a community of care, underpinned by the Christian values of hope, love and trust. The academy encourages the development of the moral and spiritual well-being of students, alongside their academic success.…

  17. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  18. Mount St. Helens Classroom Activities: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Educational Service District 112, Vancouver.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide secondary teachers with an assortment of classroom activities dealing with the Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, in the areas of science, social studies, math, language arts and school newspaper activities. Copy masters and teacher versions of all activities are contained within this guide,…

  19. Mount St. Helens Classroom Activities: Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Educational Service District 112, Vancouver.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide elementary teachers with an assortment of classroom activities dealing with the Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, in the areas of science, social studies, math, language arts, and school newspaper activities. Copy masters and teacher versions of all activities are contained with this guide,…

  20. 78 FR 44927 - 101st Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION 101st Commission Meeting Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its... presentations concerning Arctic research activities The focus of the meeting will be Arctic research...

  1. Pleistocene glaciation on st. George, pribilof islands.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D M; Einarsson, T

    1966-04-15

    A small ice cap (covering about 12 square kilometers) and at least two-probably four-cirque glaciers (each covering less than 1 square kilometer) occurred on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, probably during the Illinoian; Glaciation. Snowbanks persisted during a later cold cycle, probably during the Wisconsin Glaciation, with no glaciers existing. We found no evidence of glaciation on other Pribilof islands.

  2. ST14 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ST14 protein is an epithelial-derived, integral membrane serine protease and is found to be activated by sphingosine 1-phosphate. The expression of this protease has been associated with breast, colon, prostate, and ovarian tumors, which implicates its role in cancer invasion, and metastasis.

  3. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  4. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  5. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  6. St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

  7. St. Louis Educational Museum: A Centennial Commemoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The St. Louis, Missouri Educational Museum has its roots in the 1904 Centennial Exposition, held at Forest Park on the edge of the city. The theme of the exposition was education and technology. Seventy thousand local school children visited the exposition, and at its conclusion an initiative was launched to purchase some of the exhibitions as…

  8. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  9. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  10. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  11. Material Connections: Steuart Building, St. Albans School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The addition to the St. Albans campus in Washington, D.C., relates both to the style and the siting of the older "collegiate gothic" school nearby. The mixed-use building contains five classrooms, art and music spaces, and a student lounge. (Author/MLF)

  12. Bacteria and emerging chemical contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  13. Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St. Augustine Inlet, St. Johns County, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 12 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St. Augustine...default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-12 July 2016 Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St...Augustine Inlet RSM” ERDC/CHL TR-16-12 ii Abstract This report provides a description of Regional Sediment Management (RSM) investigations performed

  14. 4. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF 400 BLOCK OF SEVENTH ST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF 400 BLOCK OF SEVENTH ST. SHOWING 415 SEVENTH ST. (SOUTHWEST VIEW) Jeff Wolf, Photographer, February 1981 - Cullinan Building, 415 Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Role of Strouhal number (St) in free swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    St of 0.2-0.4 has become synonymous with efficient self propulsion. Is it the cause, or an effect? As has been argued by a number of authors, St alone is insufficient to decide optimal motion because many inefficient combinations of amplitude and frequency lead to the same St. In this talk we show a simple ramification of free swimming where the swim speed and St are outputs. The iso-lines for speed, St, and thrust coincide so long as there is no massive leading-edge separation. It appears that St is simply related to how the drag coefficient and geometry of the body relates to the thrust coefficient and geometry of the propulsor. For a given combination of propulsor and body, St of motion is essentially independent of amplitude, frequency, and speed, and is only a function of shape. Some motions are efficient, and some are not. But they all have the same St. Supported by ONR MURI.

  16. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO WALNUT ST. (upper horizontal line), SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 3. VIEW NORTHWARD FROM 51 N. THIRD ST. TO 63 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWARD FROM 51 N. THIRD ST. TO 63 N. THIRD ST. (FROM RIGHT TO LEFT). WEST (FRONT) FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - North Third Street Area Study, 17-63 North Third Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, ca. 1934 Sculptor Carl Milles working on Indian God of Peace - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  19. DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ALONG MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAY FROM 14TH STREET - St. Francis de Sales Church, 2100 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 19. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, 1931 Cornerstone ceremony - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  1. Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B regulate intestinal homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueqin; Li, Zhouhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-11-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) tightly regulate stem cells for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Little is known about the regulation of tissue homeostasis by the ECM. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), important components of the ECM, are involved in a variety of biological events. Two heparin sulfate 3-O sulfotransferase (Hs3st) genes, Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B, encode the modification enzymes in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are required for adult midgut homeostasis. Depletion of Hs3st-A in enterocytes (ECs) results in increased intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Moreover, increased ISC proliferation is also observed in Hs3st-B null mutant alone, or in combination with Hs3st-A RNAi. Hs3st-A depletion-induced ISC proliferation is effectively suppressed by simultaneous inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that tissue homeostasis loss in Hs3st-A-deficient intestines is due to increased EGFR signaling. Furthermore, we find that Hs3st-A-depleted ECs are unhealthy and prone to death, while ectopic expression of the antiapoptotic p35 is able to greatly suppress tissue homeostasis loss in these intestines. Together, our data suggest that Drosophila Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation and midgut homeostasis maintenance.

  2. ST7-DRS on LISA Pathfinder: Initial Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Curt; Ziemer, John; Barela, Phil; Demmons, Nathaniel; Dunn, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Hsu, Oscar; Liepack, Otfrid; Maghami, Peiman; O'Donnell, James; Slutsky, Jacob; Thorpe, James; Romero-Wolfe, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a European Space Agency Mission to demonstrate technologies for future space-based gravitational wave observatories, was launched from French Guiana on Dec 3, 2015. A payload on LPF is the NASA-provided ST7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS). We will describe the current state of ST7-DRS, including results from the initial on-orbit commissioning and the experimental plan for the ST7-DRS operations in the summer of 2016.

  3. 33 CFR 117.643 - Pine River (St. Clair).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pine River (St. Clair). 117.643 Section 117.643 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.643 Pine River (St. Clair). The draw of the S29 bridge, mile 0.1 at St....

  4. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  5. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  8. Public School in St. Louis: Place, Performance, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report compares the demand for public education in St. Louis during the 2007-08 school year with both the supply and location of public schools operated by St. Louis Public Schools and charter schools. The geographic areas of analysis are the city of St. Louis and its zip codes. The first four sections of this report contain background…

  9. 75 FR 8390 - St. Croix River Aids to Navigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard St. Croix River Aids to Navigation AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public... the aids to navigation in the St. Croix River. DATES: A public meeting will be held on Tuesday, March... review the current Aids to Navigation system on the St. Croix River and discuss concerns and...

  10. 17. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's New School,' from the commemorative booklet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's New School,' from the commemorative booklet published for the dedication of the school, September 1923. View Southeast, North Front and West Side perspective at Church and Guthrie Street, including Rectory and Church (Original in possession of St. Mary's Parish) - St. Mary's Roman Catholic School, Northwest corner of Church Avenue & Guthrie Street, McKees Rocks, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  12. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  13. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  14. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrat, J.

    1989-01-01

    From the south, snow-covered Mount St. Helens looms proudly under a fleecy halo of clouds, rivaling the majestic beauty of neighboring Mount Rainer, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams. Salmon fishermen dot the shores of lakes and streams in the mountain's shadow, trucks loaded with fresh-cut timber barrel down backroads, and deer peer out from stands of tall fir trees. 

  15. Naval S&T Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Research (Budget Activity (BA) 6.1) and early Applied Research (BA 6.2). This is the seed corn that explores “undiscovered technologies” for future...This part of the S&T continuum (time horizon 5 to 20 years) consists of Basic and early Applied Research, which form the “Petri dish” to germinate the...exchange visits, conferences and workshops and provides seed funding for innovative technologies that address the needs of the Navy and Marine Corps

  16. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    NASA`s New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2005 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be

  17. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  18. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. DT-9 is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be subsequently selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment.

  19. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the ST-9 mission, a systems validation project of NMP. This is the latest of a series of deep space activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five candidate technologies which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technologies under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA in 2003 and that one these five technologies capability areas will be selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment. This work performed at JPL under contract with NASA

  20. ST/HR hysteresis: exercise and recovery phase ST depression/heart rate analysis of the exercise ECG.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R

    1999-01-01

    ST segment depression/heart rate (ST/HR) hysteresis is a recently introduced novel computer method for integrating the exercise and recovery phase ST/HR analysis for improved detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). It is a continuous diagnostic variable that extracts the prevailing direction and average magnitude of the hysteresis in ST depression against HR during the first 3 consecutive minutes of postexercise recovery. This article reviews the development and evaluation of this new method in a clinical population of 347 patients referred for a routine bicycle exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) test at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Of these patients, 127 had angiographically proven CAD, whereas 13 had no CAD according to angiography, 18 had no perfusion defect according to Tc-99m-sestamibi myocardial imaging and single photon emission computed tomography, and 189 were clinically normal with respect to cardiac diseases. For each patient, the values for ST/HR hysteresis, ST/HR index, end-exercise ST depression, and recovery ST depression were determined for each lead of the Mason-Likar modification of the standard 12-lead exercise ECG and maximum value from the lead system (aVL, aVR, and V1 excluded). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (ie, the discriminative capacity) of the ST/HR hysteresis was 89%, which was significantly larger than that of the end-exercise ST depression (76%, P < .0001), recovery ST depression (84%, P = .0063) or ST/HR index (83%, P = .0023), indicating the best diagnostic performance of the ST/HR hysteresis in detection of CAD regardless of the partition value selection. Furthermore, the superior diagnostic performance of the method was relatively insensitive to the ST segment measurement point or to the ECG lead selection. These results suggest that the ST/HR hysteresis improves the clinical utility of the exercise ECG test in detection of CAD.

  1. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Hartmann, H.M.; Nimmagadda, M.R. ); Williams, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) and vicinity properties, and the Latty Avenue Properties, including the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS). The general location of these properties is shown in Figure 1; the properties are referred to collectively as the St. Louis Site. None of the properties are owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War 2. The activities addressed in this environmental evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report are being proposed as interim components of a comprehensive cleanup strategy for the St. Louis Site. As part of the Department's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), DOE is proposing to conduct limited decontamination in support of proprietor-initiated activities at the SLDS, commonly referred to as the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. The primary goal of FUSRAP activity at the SLDS is to eliminate potential environmental hazards associated with residual contamination resulting from the site's use for government-funded uranium processing activities. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  3. The St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan: an ecological profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Raphael, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    The St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair form a part of the connecting channel system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. This report synthesizes existing information on the ecological structure and function of this ecosystem. Chapters include descriptions of climatology, hydrology, and geology of the region; biological characteristics; ecological relationships; and commercial and recreational uses, as well as discussions of management considerations and issues. The St. Clair system provides valuable habitat for migratory waterfowl and fish spawning and nurseries, and contains some of the most extensive emergent wetlands in the region. The system is used for navigation, municipal and industrial waste disposal, recreational boating, fishing and waterfowl hunting. Allowing for multiple human uses while maintaining important waterfowl and fish populations is the greatest challenge facing managers of this system.

  4. High energy astrophysics 21st century workshop 'Space Capabilities in the 21st Century'. [NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhome, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of 20th-century NASA accomplishments and of the infrastructure and technology that NASA plans to have in place in the 21st century is presented. Attention is given to the Great Observatories Program, AXAF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Small Explorers Program, the Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors, and the X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer. Also discussed are earth-to-orbit communication links, transportation in the 1990s, the evolution of the space infrastructure, and the Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the possibilities of the 21st-century infrastructure, with emphasis on exploration on Mars and the moon. Topics addressed include telecommunications, navigation, information management, and 21st-century space science.

  5. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana F; Orlando, Ulises; Helfenberger, Katia E; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2015-06-15

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane. StAR is a 37-kDa protein with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that is cleaved off during mitochondrial import to yield 30-kDa intramitochondrial StAR. StAR acts exclusively on the OMM and its activity is proportional to how long it remains on the OMM. However, the precise fashion and the molecular mechanism in which StAR remains on the OMM have not been elucidated yet. In this work we will discuss the role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) as part of the mechanism that regulates StAR retention on the OMM and activity.

  6. SO/ST/SRG - SCHEDULING PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Organizer contains a primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options as follows: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds 25 groups of up to 25 names for each group. The other file holds 25 records. Each 60-character-long record holds a task schedule title or it is a blank entry. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout. There is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the schedule title of the last schedule title file deleted by the user. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are "past due" and/or "near term". ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term

  7. Genomic Evolution of Two Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains from ST-2 Clones Isolated in 2000 and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2000 and ST-2_clon_2010).

    PubMed

    López, M; Rueda, A; Florido, J P; Blasco, L; Gato, E; Fernández-García, L; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón, J; Cisneros, J M; Garnacho-Montero, J; Vila, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2016-10-20

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a successful nosocomial pathogen due to its ability to persist in hospital environments by acquiring mobile elements such as transposons, plasmids, and phages. In this study, we compared two genomes of A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in 2000 (ST-2_clon_2000) and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2010) from GenBank project PRJNA308422.

  8. Genomic Evolution of Two Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains from ST-2 Clones Isolated in 2000 and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2000 and ST-2_clon_2010)

    PubMed Central

    López, M.; Rueda, A.; Florido, J. P.; Blasco, L.; Gato, E.; Fernández-García, L.; Martínez-Martínez, L.; Fernández-Cuenca, F.; Pachón, J.; Cisneros, J. M.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Vila, J.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Pascual, A.; Bou, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a successful nosocomial pathogen due to its ability to persist in hospital environments by acquiring mobile elements such as transposons, plasmids, and phages. In this study, we compared two genomes of A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in 2000 (ST-2_clon_2000) and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2010) from GenBank project PRJNA308422. PMID:27795287

  9. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  10. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), will soon announce the final concept for the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. NASA issued the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2004 and it is expected that at least one of the five technology capability areas will

  12. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas

  13. Spherical tokamak (ST) transmutation of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Cheng, E.T.; Galambos, John D; Cerbone, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for an ST fusion core that drives a He-cooled, actinide-bearing, molten-salt blanket of moderate power density to generate electricity is examined for the first time. The results show that the fusion core is suited for this purpose and require a level of plasma, power density, engineering, and material performances moderate in comparison with what has been considered desirable for fusion-only power plants. The low aspect ratio of ST introduces a relatively thick, diverted scrape-off layer which leads to reduced heat fluxes at the limiter and divertor tiles. The use of a demountable, water-cooled, single-turn copper center leg for the toroidal field coils enables simplifications of the fusion core configuration and improves overall practicality for future power applications. These result in much reduced size and cost of the fusion core for the transmutation power plant relative to an optimized fusion-only fusion core. Surrounded by a separate tritium-breeding zone, the molten-salt blanket concept is in principle less complex and costly than the thermal breeding blankets for fusion. These combine to effect major reductions in the cost and weight of the power core equipment for the transmutation power plant. The minimum cost of electricity for such a power plant is thus reduced from the best fusion-only counterpart by more than 30%, based on consistent but approximate modeling. The key issues, development steps, and the potential value inherent in the ST fusion core in addressing the world needs for nuclear waste reduction and energy production are discussed.

  14. Water resources of St. Helena Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-07-27

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  15. [Methylphenidate induced ST elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-03-05

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose, and subsequent episodes of myocardial injury due to the use and misuse of methylphenidate over a period of two years. We recommend an increased attention to the subscription of methylphenidate to patients, who are at risk of misuse and patients, who have a cardiovascular history.

  16. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  17. International S&T Engagement Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    where possible, according to S&T oppottuniti es. o Strengthen and broaden domestic science and engineering activ ities and foster an environment of...Army’ s International Techno logy Centers ( ITCs ), Navy’ s Office ofNava l Research-G loba l (ONR-G), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research...ually with partner nation(s) to the development of the technology); or o Follow and learn ( i.e., develop or deploy capabili ty); or o Watch (i.e

  18. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  19. Water resources of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for management of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  20. Water resources of St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  1. 76 FR 68098 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ..., Florida. The fireworks, which will be launched from Spa Beach Park, will explode over the waters of Tampa... vicinity of Spa Beach in St. Petersburg, Florida. The temporary safety zone will be enforced from 9:30 p.m... (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts,...

  2. World spherical torus (ST) research as coordinated by the IEA ST Implementing Agreement (IA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.; Takase, Y.; Lloyd, B.

    2012-10-01

    Since the establishment of the IEA ST IA in 2007, the world ST research community has grown to 24 ST experiments in seven countries. For the second 5 years of the IA, major upgrades of the NSTX (USA) and MAST (UK) are or will soon be underway aiming to start enhanced experimental research in 2015. Major tests of solenoid-free start-up are addressed by experiments in Japan including QUEST (Kyushu U.), TST-2 (U. Tokyo), and LATE (Kyoto U.), Pegasus (U. Wisconsin), and SUNIST (Tsinghua U., PRC). These aim to develop database to minimize/remove the central solenoid and enable truly compact fusion energy devices. Lithium-only PFCs are tested in LTX (PPPL). The community is considering low to modest-Q applications to fusion energy R&D. These range from small size (R˜0.5m) volume neutron sources delivering several MW fusion neutrons, to medium size (R˜1.0m, 50-MW) fusion science and technology experimental facilities to enable critical R&D needed to develop database for a fusion DEMO and other energy applications. Progress and remaining ST R&D will be summarized.

  3. Outbreak of KPC-3-producing ST15 and ST348 Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Portuguese hospital.

    PubMed

    Vubil, D; Figueiredo, R; Reis, T; Canha, C; Boaventura, L; DA Silva, G J

    2017-02-01

    To date, only a few sporadic cases of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers have been reported in Portugal. Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 producers in a tertiary-care hospital during 2013. Twenty-seven ertapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were identified in patients at a tertiary-care hospital during 2013 isolated predominantly from urine (48·1%) and blood (25·9%) cultures. All isolates were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and most showed intermediate resistance to imipenem. The more frequent β-lactamases were TEM- (77·7%), CTX-M- (70·3%) and KPC-type (66·6%). KPC-3 was identified by sequencing. The bla KPC-3 gene was associated with an IncF plasmid, and efficiently transferred to E. coli J53. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing revealed three clusters of isolates which were further characterized by multi-locus sequence typing as ST11, ST15 and ST348. Ertapenem-resistant ST15 was already in circulation in the hospital, related to expression of OmpK36 modified porin, but the other two sequence types had not been previously found in the hospital. We conclude that the IncF plasmid mediated transfer of KPC-3 in the outbreak and that implementation of carbapenemase gene screening in isolates from patients on admission to hospital is advisable in order to control dissemination of these antimicrobial resistance elements.

  4. Diagnostics of ST Plasmas in NSTX: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; P. Efthimion; J. Foley; B. Jones; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; G. Taylor; F. Levinton; N. Luhmann

    2001-09-26

    This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities present in the diagnosis of spherical torus (ST) plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and discuss the corresponding diagnostic development that is presently underway. After a brief description of diagnostic systems currently installed, examples of ST-specific diagnostic challenges will be highlighted, as will another case, where the ST configuration offers opportunities for new measurements.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, S&T Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    integrates and pro- motes S&T and the economy. Further perfect the three - An excellent supporting environment is a guarantee for level deployment of S&T...organizational structure of enterprises, actively sup- 91FE0559G Beijing KEYAN GUANLI [SCIENCE port enterprise groups that integrate scientific research, RESEARCH...even ignored S&T security work in their technology the integration of S&T and the export-oriented economy. export activities . Several enterprises have

  6. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Pierre; Djibo, Saacou; Hamidou, Amina Amadou; Tenebray, Bernard; Borrow, Raymond; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Serogroup W135 ST-2881 meningococci caused a cluster of meningitis cases in Niger in 2003. Of 80 healthy persons in the patients' villages, 28 (35%) carried meningococci; 20 of 21 W135 carrier strains were ST-2881. Ten months later, 5 former carriers were still carriers of W135 ST-2881 strains. The serum bactericidal antibody activity changed according to carrier status. PMID:17073093

  7. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  8. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  9. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    PubMed

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  10. Limnological aspects of the St. Clair River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Thornley, Stewart; Edsall, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we sampled five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Mary's River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  11. Water resources of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, about 261 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, almost entirely from surface-water sources. Industrial use accounted for about 97 percent (253 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, and livestock. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that total water withdrawals in the parish ranged from about 138 to 720 Mgal/d, with industrial use of surface water making up the bulk of water withdrawals. The large decline in surface-water withdrawals from 1980 to 1985 was largely attributable to a decrease in industrial use from 654 Mgal/d in 1980 to 127 Mgal/d in 1985. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of St. Bernard Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  12. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  13. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  14. Outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 isolates in neonates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Sun, L; Ding, B; Yang, Y; Xu, X; Liu, W; Zhu, D; Yang, F; Zhang, H; Hu, F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children's Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment. The plasmids bearing antibiotic resistance genes were characterized by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The clinical data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. The 22 CRKP strains were resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested, except tigecycline and colistin. Overall, 59, 77, and 100 % of these strains were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem, respectively. The bla NDM-1 was positive in 77.3 % (17/22) of the CRKP strains, of which the 16 isolates from inpatients were designated as ST37 (n = 9) and ST76 (n =7) and one isolate from an outpatient belonged to ST846. The 17 bla NDM-1-positive isolates belonged to PFGE type A (n = 9), type C (n = 7), or type B (n = 1). The plasmids bearing bla NDM-1 could be transferred into recipient Escherichia coli J53 through conjugation in 88.2 % (15/17) of the strains. The hybridization results showed that the plasmids carrying the bla NDM-1 gene were approximately 50-240 kb in size. This is the first report of an outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 among neonates.

  15. Isolated Right Ventricular Infarction Mimicking Anterior ST-Segment Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Veysel; Coskun, Ugur; Yildiz, Ahmet; Gurmen, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes in patients with presence of ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads indicates left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. However, anterior ST-segment elevation has also been described in right ventricular myocardial infarction and is thought to be due to right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion. We present a rare case of isolated RVMI presenting with anterior ST-segment elevation due to proximal occlusion of a right coronary artery that was treated by primary coronary angioplasty. Primary coronary angioplasty and stenting of this artery was performed resulting in resolution of the chest pain and ST- segment elevation. PMID:27190867

  16. Clonal expansion of sequence type (ST-)5 and emergence of ST-7 in serogroup A meningococci, Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, P.; Décousset, L.; Riglet, V.; Castelli, P.; Stor, R.; Blanchet, G.

    2001-01-01

    One hundred four serogroup A meningococci in our collection, isolated in Africa from 1988 to 1999, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our results and data from the Internet indicate that sequence type 5 (ST-5) strains were responsible for most of African outbreaks and sporadic cases during this period. In 1995, a new clone, characterized by ST-7 sequence, emerged and was responsible for severe outbreaks in Chad (1998) and Sudan (1999). MLST and epidemiologic data indicate that ST-5 and ST-7 represent two virulent clones. These two STs, which belong to subgroup III, differ only in the pgm locus: allele pgm3 is characteristic for ST-5 and allele pgm19 for ST-7. Subgroup III strains were responsible for two pandemics in the 1960s and 1980s. Our data show that the third subgroup III pandemic has now reached Africa. PMID:11747698

  17. Cancer mortality and the method of chlorination of public drinking water: St. Louis City and St. Louis County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Marienfeld, C.J.; Collins, M.; Wright, H.; Reddy, R.; Shoop, G.; Rust, P.

    1986-09-01

    St. Louis City and St. Louis County, Missouri share the same public drinking water source, namely the Missouri River. The all cancer and most organ specific cancer mortality rates have been consistently and considerably higher for St. Louis City than for St. Louis County for the period 1960 through 1972. A change in the St. Louis County water treatment process, which included increasing the chlorine dosage and delaying the addition of ammonia to form chloramines until just prior to distribution, was instituted in 1955. St. Louis City has, by contrast, continued the lower chlorine level and early ammoniation. Trend analysis using the period 1960-67 and 1972-76 showed higher percentage as well as net cancer mortality rate per million increases for large bowel, liver and bladder cancers for St. Louis County. An apparent association between a probable increase in trihalomethane production in the St. Louis County water since 1955 and an increase in these specific cancer rates which exceed the increases in the St. Louis City rates appears to have been shown. This does not imply causality but is in general agreement with other studies which have examined water chlorination and cancer mortality.

  18. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 410, ST224, and ST1284 from Commercial Swine in South America

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ketrin C.; Moreno, Marina; Cabrera, Carlos; Spira, Beny; Cerdeira, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report for the first time the isolation of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli strains belonging to sequence type (ST) 410, ST224, and ST1284 in commercial swine in Brazil. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was located on F-::A9::B1 and C1::A9::B1 IncF-type plasmids, surrounded by a new genetic context comprising the IS26 insertion sequence truncated with the ISEcp1 element upstream of blaCTX-M-15. These results reveal that commercial swine have become a new reservoir of CTX-M-15-producing bacteria in South America. PMID:26824955

  19. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  20. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  1. The St. Petersburg paradox: An experimental solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul

    2016-03-01

    The St. Petersburg paradox refers to a gamble of infinite expected value, where people are likely to spend only a small entrance fee for it. There is a huge volume of literature that mostly concentrates on the psychophysics of the game; experiments are scant. Here, rather than focusing on the psychophysics, we offer an experimental, "physical" solution as if robots played the game. After examining the time series formed by one billion plays, we: confirm that there is no characteristic scale for this game; explicitly formulate the implied power law; and identify the type of α-stable distribution associated with the game. We find an α = 1 and, thus, the underlying distribution of the game is a Cauchy flight, as hinted by Paul Samuelson.

  2. [Building bridges toward the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M

    2000-10-01

    Just as Rome was not built in a day, there are few great inventions and discoveries that can be made overnight. There are always historical circumstances behind them. Laboratory Automation is not an exception. With the end of World War II in 1945 as a turning point, a large volume of American medicine was introduced all over Japan, and clinical laboratory testing which was imported at the same time has taken root and matured. As a result, we can now carry out prompt and fully automated laboratory testing second to none at many hospital laboratories. In this paper, I recall the development and summarize the expansion by focusing on clinical laboratory automation as it has developed in the latter half of the 20th century in Japan. I would feel amply rewarded for my efforts if this paper proved helpful to the young generation. The clinical laboratory of the 21st century rests on their shoulders.

  3. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  4. Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V; Mentnech, M S; Stettler, L E; Dollberg, D D; Green, F H

    1983-04-01

    Volcanic ash samples from four Mount St. Helens' volcanic eruptions were subjected to mineralogical, analytical, and hemolytic studies in order to evaluate their potential for cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity. Plagioclase minerals constituted the major component of the ash with free crystalline silica concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.2%. The in vitro hemolytic activity of the volcanic ash was compared to similar concentrations of cytotoxic and inert minerals. The ash was markedly hemolytic, exhibiting an activity similar to chrysotile asbestos, a known fibrogenic agent. The hemolysis of the different ash samples varied with particle size but not with crystalline silica concentration. The results of these studies taken in conjunction with the results of our animal studies indicate a fibrogenic potential of volcanic ash in heavily exposed humans.

  5. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  6. In the wake of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Nania, J; Bruya, T E

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  7. In the wake of Mount St Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Nania, J.; Bruya, T.E.

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  8. Storage, retrieval, and analysis of ST data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.

    1984-01-01

    Space Telescope can generate multidimensional image data, very similar in nature to data produced with microdensitometers. An overview is presented of the ST science ground system between carrying out the observations and the interactive analysis of preprocessed data. The ground system elements used in data archival and retrieval are described and operational procedures are discussed. Emphasis is given to aspects of the ground system that are relevant to the science user and to general principles of system software development in a production environment. While the system being developed uses relatively conservative concepts for the launch baseline, concepts were developed to enhance the ground system. This includes networking, remote access, and the utilization of alternate data storage technologies.

  9. Technology Maturation and Flight Validation Experience for NASA's ST8 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Some, Raphael R.; Fujita, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Background: a) Introduction to ST8 Project; b) ST8 Project timeline; c) ST8 technology payloads. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) as interpreted by NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). Role of Technology Review Boards (TRBs) in the evaluation of technology maturity for the NMP ST8 Project. Lessons learned from the ST8 TRB experience.

  10. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F; Abdussalam, M

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  11. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  12. Finite element thermal analysis for PMMA/st.st.304 laser direct joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Furat I.; Salloomi, Kareem N.; Akman, E.; Hajim, K. I.; Demir, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work is concerned with building a three-dimensional (3D) ab-initio models that is capable of predicting the thermal distribution of laser direct joining processes between Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and stainless steel 304(st.st.304). ANSYS® simulation based on finite element analysis (FEA) was implemented for materials joining in two modes; laser transmission joining (LTJ) and conduction joining (CJ). ANSYS® simulator was used to explore the thermal environment of the joints during joining (heating time) and after joining (cooling time). For both modes, the investigation is carried out when the laser spot is at the middle of the joint width, at 15 mm from the commencement point (joint edge) at traveling time of 3.75 s. Process parameters involving peak power (Pp=3 kW), pulse duration (τ=5 ms), pulse repetition rate (PRR=20 Hz) and scanning speed (v=4 mm/s) are applied for both modes.

  13. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  14. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  15. IMANIN: AN ANTIBIOTIC FROM ST. JOHN’S WORT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report contains a number of articles on imanin -- a new antibiotic preparation from St . John’s wort . Data are presented on imanin, its effect on...practice and on the chemical nature of biologically active substances from St . John’s wort . (Author)

  16. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  17. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  18. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  19. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Croix National Scenic Rivers. 7.9 Section 7.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.9 St. Croix National Scenic Rivers....

  20. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  1. 46 CFR 7.90 - St. Johns River, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Johns River, FL. 7.90 Section 7.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.90 St. Johns River, FL. A line drawn from the southeasternmost extremity of Little Talbot...

  2. Policy on Counting Superseded Checklists in StATS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As we proceed with implementing the State Authorization Tracking System (StATS), and develop management reports based on data in StATS, we continue to identify issues dealing with what events should or should not be counted in the system.

  3. 33 CFR 117.137 - St. Francis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Francis River. 117.137 Section 117.137 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.137 St. Francis River. The draws of...

  4. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  5. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  6. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  7. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  8. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  9. Chemistry of St. John's Wort: Hypericin and Hyperforin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, John J.; Rosenson, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The appeal as natural antidepressant is the major selling point of St. John's Wort, which is referred to as "Prozac from the plant kingdom". Hypericin and hyperforin, two major constituents with significant biological activity of St. John's Wort and which are complex molecules with unusual features, are examined.

  10. 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment 4 waveforms it radiates , techniques, or timing, within hours as what works and what does not work is...21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment JULY 2015 This page intentionally blank REPORT OF...THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD STUDY ON 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment July 2015 Office of the

  11. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  12. Classification of ischaemic episodes with ST/HR diagrams.

    PubMed

    Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis.

  13. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  14. Old Money: Economic History of St. Augustine. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Tom W.

    To better understand the economic aspects of early Florida and to gain an understanding of the continuity of history and economics, students analyze the economic origins and evolution of St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest city in the United States. This lesson plan involves taking the students on a field trip to St. Augustine where they form teams…

  15. G'ST and D do not replace FST.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Michael C

    2011-03-01

    The genetic differentiation among populations is affected by mutation as well as by migration, drift and selection. For loci with high mutation rates, such as microsatellites, the amount of mutation can influence the values of indices of differentiation such as G(ST) and F(ST). For many purposes, this effect is undesirable, and as a result, new indices such as G'(ST) and D have been proposed to measure population differentiation. This paper shows that these new indices are not effective measures of the causes or consequences of population structure. Both G'(ST) and D depend heavily on mutation rate, but both are insensitive to any population genetic process when the mutation rate is high relative to the migration rate. Furthermore, D is specific to the locus being measured, and so little can be inferred about the population demography from D. However, at equilibrium, D may provide an index of whether a particular marker is more strongly affected by mutation than by migration. I argue that F(ST) is a more important summary of the effects of population structure than D and that R(ST) or other measures that explicitly account for the mutation process are much better than G(ST), G'(ST), or D for highly mutable markers. Markers with lower mutation rates will often be easier to interpret.

  16. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  17. Literature and Tolerance at the University of St. Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikolajczak, Michael Allen

    2001-01-01

    Describes the controversy and eventual success of the use of "Heaven's Coast" by Mark Doty (an account of the author's mourning of the loss of his partner Wally to AIDS) as a common text for students at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. (EV)

  18. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  19. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  20. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  1. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  2. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  3. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  4. Hopes Riding on Leader for Troubled St. Louis District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    Kelvin Adams, who takes over next week as the St. Louis schools' seventh superintendent since 2003, will arrive already familiar with the dynamics of a district under state supervision. Still, the leadership and management challenges he faces are daunting. The St. Louis schools have been run since June 2007 by an appointed, three-person Special…

  5. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  6. Influence of the extent of coronary atherosclerotic disease on ST-segment changes induced by ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Francisco J; Vives-Borrás, Miquel; Solé-González, Eduard; García-Picart, Joan; Arzamendi, Dabit; Cinca, Juan

    2014-03-01

    The accuracy of the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) in predicting the site of acute coronary artery occlusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease is not well known. This study aimed to assess whether the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) modifies the artery-related ST-segment changes in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion. We reviewed the admission ECG, clinical records, and coronary angiography of 289 patients with STEMI caused by acute occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD; n = 140), right (n = 118), or left circumflex (LCx; n = 31) coronary arteries. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary reperfusion during the first 12 hours. The magnitude and distribution of artery-related ST-segment patterns were comparable in patients with single (n = 149) and multivessel (n = 140) CAD. Occlusion of proximal (n = 55) or mid-distal (n = 85) LAD artery induced ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V5, but only the proximal occlusion induced reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads II, III, and aVF (p <0.001). Proximal and mid-distal occlusion of right (n = 45 and 73, respectively) or LCx (n = 15 and 16) coronary artery always induced ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF and reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads V2 and V3. ST-segment elevation in lead V6 >0.1 mV predicted LCx artery occlusion. In conclusion, patients with STEMI with single or multivessel CAD have concordant artery-related ST-segment patterns on the admission ECG; in both groups, reciprocal ST-segment depression in LAD artery occlusion predicts a large infarct. Subendocardial ischemia at a distance is not a requisite for the genesis of reciprocal ST-segment changes.

  7. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  8. St. Louis Airport site environmental report for calendar year 1989, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, continued during 1989 at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) in St. Louis County, Missouri. SLAPS and its vicinity properties, including ditches north and south of the site, were designated for cleanup as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The monitoring program at SLAPS measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma dose rates; and uranium, thorium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. To assess the potential effect of SLAPS on public health, the potential radiation dose was estimated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) during calendar year 1989. 19 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. 76 FR 68101 - Safety Zone; Art Gallery Party St. Pete 2011 Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in the vicinity of Spa Beach in... Display in St. Petersburg, Florida. The fireworks display will be launched from Spa Beach and will explode... of Spa Beach in St. Petersburg, Florida. This safety zone will be enforced from 10:30 p.m....

  10. Situation Report--Antigua, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are: Antigua, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning…

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high

  12. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  13. St. Croix River Reconnaissance Report Including Stillwater, Minnesota and New Richmond, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    was determined that the flood problems at the Lake St. Croix communities of Bayport; Lake St. Croix Beach; Afton ; Prescott; Chisago Chain of Lakes...problems at the Lake St. -,. I Croix communities of Bayport, Lake St. Croix Beach, Afton , and Prescott; Chisago Chain of Lakes; Upper and Lower Clam...not only in the St. Croix River basin but on the Mississippi River below *the mouth of the St. Croix River as well. This objective included preserving

  14. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in major depression.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    The herb St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been used for centuries to treat a variety of medical illnesses. In certain areas of Europe, St John's wort has been a commonly prescribed treatment for depression, but, in the United States, it is available for purchase over the counter as an herbal supplement. Some researchers believe that specific chemical constituents of St John's wort produce change in depression in a way similar to that of antidepressant medications, yet this hypothesis is problematic. In addition, studies that support the efficacy of St John's wort in patients with mild-to-moderate depression have limitations that may affect the accuracy of their conclusions. Studies measuring the effect of St John's wort in major depression have reported conflicting results and need to be reexamined. Because St John's wort is considered by some to be an alternative to conventional therapies, clinicians need to know whether it is an effective and safe treatment for different levels of severity of depression. Current evidence does not support its use, and, because of potential drug interactions, St John's wort is not a benign treatment.

  15. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M.; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Sorbero, Melony E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)—used adjunctively or as monotherapy—to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder. Outcomes of interest included changes in depressive symptomatology, quality of life, and adverse effects. Efficacy meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 35 studies met inclusion criteria. There is moderate evidence, due to unexplained heterogeneity between studies, that depression improvement based on the number of treatment responders and depression scale scores favors SJW over placebo, and results are comparable to antidepressants. The existing evidence is based on studies testing SJW as monotherapy; there is a lack of evidence for SJW given as adjunct therapy to standard antidepressant therapy. We found no systematic difference between SJW extracts, but head-to-head trials are missing; LI 160 (0.3% hypericin, 1–4% hyperforin) was the extract with the greatest number of studies. Only two trials assessed quality of life. SJW adverse events reported in included trials were comparable to placebo, and were fewer compared with antidepressant medication; however, adverse event assessments were limited, and thus we have limited confidence in this conclusion. PMID:28083422

  16. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  17. Vaccines for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-06-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2-3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  18. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  19. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  20. Hospital cleaning in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2011-12-01

    More evidence is emerging on the importance of the clinical environment in encouraging hospital infection. This review considers the role of cleaning as an effective means to control infection. It describes the location of pathogen reservoirs and methods for evaluating hospitals' cleanliness. Novel biocides, antimicrobial coatings and equipment are available, many of which have not been assessed against patient outcome. Cleaning practices should be tailored to clinical risk, given the wide-ranging surfaces, equipment and building design. There is confusion between nursing and domestic personnel over the allocation of cleaning responsibilities and neither may receive sufficient training and/or time to complete their duties. Since less labourious practices for dirt removal are always attractive, there is a danger that traditional cleaning methods are forgotten or ignored. Few studies have examined detergent-based regimens or modelled these against infection risk for different patient categories. Fear of infection encourages the use of powerful disinfectants for the elimination of real or imagined pathogens in hospitals. Not only do these agents offer false assurance against contamination, their disinfection potential cannot be achieved without the prior removal of organic soil. Detergent-based cleaning is cheaper than using disinfectants and much less toxic. Hospital cleaning in the 21st century deserves further investigation for routine and outbreak practices.

  1. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Douglas Kinghorn, A

    2001-02-01

    The term pharmacognosy as a constituent scientific discipline of pharmacy has been in use for nearly 200 years, and it refers to studies on natural product drugs. During the last half of the 20th century, pharmacognosy evolved from being a descriptive botanical subject to one having a more chemical and biological focus. At the beginning of the 21st century, pharmacognosy teaching in academic pharmacy institutions has been given new relevance, as a result of the explosive growth in the use of herbal remedies (phytomedicines) in modern pharmacy practice, particularly in western Europe and North America. In turn, pharmacognosy research areas are continuing to expand, and now include aspects of cell and molecular biology in relation to natural products, ethnobotany and phytotherapy, in addition to the more traditional analytical method development and phytochemistry. Examples are provided in this review of promising bioactive compounds obtained in two multidisciplinary natural product drug discovery projects, aimed at the elucidation of new plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents and novel cancer chemopreventives, respectively. The systematic study of herbal remedies offers pharmacognosy groups an attractive new area of research, ranging from investigating the biologically active principles of phytomedicines and their mode of action and potential drug interactions, to quality control, and involvement in clinical trials.

  2. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  3. Water resources of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prior, Charles Henry; Schneider, Robert; Durum, W.H.

    1953-01-01

    Waters from the drift deposits and bedrock formations overlying the Hinckley sandstone are hard and calcareous and generally contain troublesome quantities of iron. Regular treatment is required of some public-supply wells for removal of iron encrustations. Water fr.om these sources generally exceeds 300 ppm hardness, but in some places the St. Peter sandstone and St. Lawrence formation yield water of better quality. The Hinckley sandstone yields the best quality ground-water because of its comparatively lower hardness and uniform temperature (about 52 F). However, the average hardness of the treated municipal supplies of St. Paul and Minneapolis is considerably less than water from the Hinckley.

  4. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Koeth, Oliver; Zeymer, Uwe; Schiele, Rudolf; Zahn, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM. PMID:20811565

  5. Separable quantizations of Stäckel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszak, Maciej; Marciniak, Krzysztof; Domański, Ziemowit

    2016-08-01

    In this article we prove that many Hamiltonian systems that cannot be separably quantized in the classical approach of Robertson and Eisenhart can be separably quantized if we extend the class of admissible quantizations through a suitable choice of Riemann space adapted to the Poisson geometry of the system. Actually, in this article we prove that for every quadratic in momenta Stäckel system (defined on 2 n dimensional Poisson manifold) for which Stäckel matrix consists of monomials in position coordinates there exist infinitely many quantizations-parametrized by n arbitrary functions-that turn this system into a quantum separable Stäckel system.

  6. First detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST68 from hospitalized equines in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, E; Simón, C; Ortega, C; Gómez, P; Lozano, C; Zarazaga, M; Torres, C

    2014-05-01

    Eight coagulase-positive staphylococci from equines with different pathologies obtained between 2005 and 2011 were investigated. Isolates were characterized by different molecular techniques (spa-, agr-, MLST), and clonal relatedness of strains was investigated by ApaI and SmaI PFGE. Anti-microbial resistance and virulence profiles were determined. Six isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, and two as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Of these, four isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and one S. pseudintermedius was mecA positive and typed as ST68. One MRSA ST398 strain was isolated in 2005 and might be one of the earliest MRSA ST398 descriptions in Spain. All 5 mecA-positive strains were multidrug resistant and were isolated from hospitalized equines. Three MRSA ST398 strains carried the recently described transposon Tn559 within the chromosomal radC gene. The mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius ST68 strain was also multidrug resistant and harboured the erm(B)-Tn5405-like element. This ST68 strain presented a clear susceptible phenotype to oxacillin and cefoxitin regardless of the presence of an integral and conserved mecA gene and mecA promoter, which enhances the need for testing the presence of this gene in routine analysis to avoid treatment failures. These data reflect the extended anti-microbial resistance gene acquisition capacities of both bacterial species and evidence their pathogenic properties. The first detection of MRSA ST398 and S. pseudintermedius ST68 in horses in Spain is reported.

  7. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  8. RadNet Air Data From St. George, UT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for St. George, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. 4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ROAD OVER SOURIS RIVER NEAR SOUTH END OF REFUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  10. EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan, accepting comments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For Immediate Release No.16-OPA006 EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan; accepting comments CHICAGO (March 30, 2016) -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is issuing a proposed plan to clean up soil contamin

  11. 13. Photocopy of illustration in St. Louis Illustrated, 1876. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of illustration in St. Louis Illustrated, 1876. Original in library of Lehmann Building, Missouri Botanical Garden. 'SHAW'S GARDEN,' BIRD'S EYE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. Interaction of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with clozapine.

    PubMed

    Van Strater, Annelies C P; Bogers, Jan P A M

    2012-03-01

    St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is notorious for its ability to induce the enzymes of the P450 system. Especially, it induces CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, enzymes that are closely involved in the metabolism of clozapine. We present a patient with schizophrenia, who was stable on a fixed dose with stable plasma level of clozapine, and who deteriorated after she started self-medicating with St John's wort. The reduced plasma clozapine level and the psychiatric condition normalized after the withdrawal of St John's wort. It is possible that, beside the induction of P450-enzymes, the induction of P-glycoprotein by St John's wort aggravated psychiatric deterioration of the patient. Physicians should be alert to patients self-medicating with over-the-counter medicines, especially when these medicines can lower clozapine concentrations below the therapeutic range.

  14. RadNet Air Data From St. Louis, MO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for St. Louis, MO from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  16. Cancer in beluga from the St. Lawrence estuary.

    PubMed Central

    Hammill, Mike O; Lesage, Véronique; Kingsley, Michael C S

    2003-01-01

    Martineau et al. (2002) reported that St. Lawrence beluga (SLB) have high cancer rates. Unfortunately, errors in their interpretation of the data have led them to overstate the importance of cancer and its links to environmental sources. PMID:12573920

  17. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Aethaelometer Anemometer Rain Gauge Pressure Sensor Radiometers Temperature Sensor Weighing Balance AA (Atomic Absorption Spectrometer) ...

  18. 50. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of St. S., Columbus, Ms. Side view of fixed truss span, from S. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  19. 1. 20472009 SPRUCE ST. RUNS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 2047-2009 SPRUCE ST. RUNS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. SOUTH (FRONT) FACADES. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Spruce Street Area Study, 2009-2045 Spruce Street (Houses), Spruce Street, north side, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) AND BREAD (right) STS., SHOWING OLD BUILDINGS - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN SIXTH (right) AND FIFTH (left) STS. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. The ecology of Lake St. Clair wetlands: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Herdendorf, C.E.; Raphael, C.N.; Jaworski, E.

    1986-09-01

    This publication reviews the ecological data and information on the wetlands of Lake St. Clair. The lake, which is a part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, is situated between southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. Lake St. Clair contains a substantial portion of the remaining Great Lakes coastal wetlands, with extensive wetlands occurring in the vicinity of the St. Clair River Delta. These wetlands are among the most productive areas in the Great Lakes ecosystem. This population summarizes the geologic history of the region leading to the development of wetlands and the present environment; biological production and community organization in the Lake St. Clair wetlands are also examined. The publication closes with a chapter on applied ecology which addresses issues such as wetland disturbance, management, and future prospects for these wetlands.

  4. Detail view of radiator in front assembly room St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of radiator in front assembly room - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Hagan Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 578-586 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. ISS Update: 1st Annual ISS R&D Conference

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks by phone on Wednesday with Julie Robinson, ISS Program Scientist, about the 1st Annual International Space Station Research and Development Confere...

  6. 76 FR 56492 - Environmental Impact Statement: St. Louis County, Missouri

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Charbonier Road between Earth City Expressway and Howdershell/Shackelford Road in northwestern St. Louis... flood-related detours between Charbonier Road and Earth City Expressway, (2) address capacity needs...

  7. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  8. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  9. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  10. E SERIES MAGAZINES FROM HASTINGS ST. SHOWING ACCESS DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E SERIES MAGAZINES FROM HASTINGS ST. SHOWING ACCESS DRIVE AND LOADING PLATFORMS. E 103 MAGAZINES IN FORGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, & Seventeenth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. RadNet Air Data From St. Paul, MN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for St. Paul, MN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  13. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  14. Genetic variation of St. Louis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    May, Fiona J; Li, Li; Zhang, Shuliu; Guzman, Hilda; Beasley, David W C; Tesh, Robert B; Higgs, Stephen; Raj, Pushker; Bueno, Rudy; Randle, Yvonne; Chandler, Laura; Barrett, Alan D T

    2008-08-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) has been regularly isolated throughout the Americas since 1933. Previous phylogenetic studies involving 62 isolates have defined seven major lineages (I-VII), further divided into 14 clades. In this study, 28 strains isolated in Texas in 1991 and 2001-2003, and three older, previously unsequenced strains from Jamaica and California were sequenced over the envelope protein gene. The inclusion of these new sequences, and others published since 2001, has allowed better delineation of the previously published SLEV lineages, in particular the clades of lineage II. Phylogenetic analysis of 106 isolates identified 13 clades. All 1991 and 2001-2003 isolates from Nueces, Jefferson and Harris Counties (Texas Gulf Coast) group in clade IIB with other isolates from these counties isolated during the 1980s and 1990s. This lack of evidence for introduction of novel strains into the Texas Gulf Coast over a long period of time is consistent with overwintering of SLEV in this region. Two El Paso isolates, both from 2002, group in clade VA with recent Californian isolates from 1998-2001 and some South American strains with a broad temporal range. Overall, these data are consistent with multiple introductions of SLEV from South America into North America, and provide support for the hypothesis that in most situations, SLEV circulates within a locality, with occasional incursions from other areas. Finally, SLEV has much lower nucleotide (10.1 %) and amino acid variation (2.8 %) than other members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex (maximum variation 24.6 % nucleotide and 11.8 % amino acid).

  15. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; NSTX Team

    2003-06-16

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50{sup o}) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set.

  16. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  17. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  18. St. John's wort for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome

    2013-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been extensively studied and reviewed for its use in depression; however, there is less salient discussion on its clinical application for a range of other psychiatric disorders. This article outlines the current evidence of the efficacy of St John's wort in common psychiatric disorders, including major depression, bipolar depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and somatization disorder. Mechanisms of action, including emerging pharmacogenetic data, safety, and clinical considerations are also detailed.

  19. The INSU and DMN network of ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petitdidier, M.; Klaus, V.; Baudin, F.; Crochet, M.; Penazzi, G.; Quinty, P.

    1986-01-01

    Due to their capabilities of measuring wind profiles with good time and height resolution, Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) are well adapted to carry out atmospheric research. In France, a Very High Frequency (VHF) and an Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) ST radar are working for research purposes. The INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) and the DMN (Direction de la Meteorologie Nationale) networks are discussed.

  20. Armored Battle Groups in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL WENDELL D. KOT )STIRUMtN STATE9M A: Approved fer public releft. distribution is izulatated...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (’ Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY i Individual Study Project 6...alternative to today’s heavy division force structure - Armored Battle Groups is examined. The Armored Battle Group organization devel- oped in the paper

  1. Petrology of impactites from Lake St. Martin structure, Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.; Mcgee, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The 23-km Lake St. Martin crater was produced 200 to 250 million years ago in Archean granitic to amphibolic gneiss, overlain by 400 to 500 m of Ordovician to Devonian limestone and dolomite. In the present paper, a schematic model of the field geology, petrology, and geochemistry is presented. The scenario is built in part on the calculations of Kieffer and Simonds and observations made on the Lake St. Martin structure.

  2. 76 FR 77208 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Islands of St. Croix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Activities for the Islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands AGENCY...; Circular A-16 ( http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a016/a016.html ), to affirm the Virgin Islands... activities for the islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas of the United States Virgin Islands, and...

  3. Evolution of subterminal satellite (StSat) repeats in hominids.

    PubMed

    Koga, Akihiko; Notohara, Morihiro; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2011-02-01

    Subterminal satellite (StSat) repeats, consisting of 32-bp-long AT-rich units (GATATTTCCATGTT(T/C)ATACAGATAGCGGTGTA), were first found in chimpanzee and gorilla (African great apes) as one of the major components of heterochromatic regions located proximal to telomeres of chromosomes. StSat repeats have not been found in orangutan (Asian great ape) or human. This patchy distribution among species suggested that the StSat repeats were present in the common ancestor of African great apes and subsequently lost in the lineage leading to human. An alternative explanation is that the StSat repeats in chimpanzee and gorilla have different origins and the repeats did not occur in human. The purpose of the present study was quantitative evaluation of the above alternative possibilities by analyzing the nucleotide variation contained in the repeats. We collected large numbers of sequences of repeat units from genome sequence databases of chimpanzee and gorilla, and also bonobo (an African great ape phylogenetically closer to chimpanzee). We then compared the base composition of the repeat units among the 3 species, and found statistically significant similarities in the base composition. These results support the view that the StSat repeats had already formed multiple arrays in the common ancestor of African great apes. It is thus suggested that humans lost StSat repeats which had once grown to multiple arrays.

  4. Evaluating the safety of St. John's Wort in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Myla E; Maxson, Ashley; Hanna, Fionna; Koren, Gideon

    2009-07-01

    St. John's Wort is a herbal therapy, shown to be effective in treating mild to moderate depression; a disease common in women in their childbearing years. With a significant proportion of unplanned pregnancies, exposure to St. John's Wort into pregnancy is expected to occur. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to this agent in pregnancy is associated with major malformations. We prospectively collected and followed subjects taking St. John's Wort and compared them to a matched group of pregnant women taking other pharmacologic therapy for depression and a third group of healthy women, not exposed to any known teratogens. We obtained follow-up information on 54 St. John's Wort exposed pregnancies and 108 pregnancies in the two comparator groups. Our results indicated that the rates of major malformations were similar across the three groups, with 5%, 4% and 0% in the St. John's Wort, disease comparator, and health group, respectively (p=0.26), This was not different that the 3-5% risk expected in the general population. The live birth and prematurity rates were also not different among the three groups. Though further large scale studies are still needed, this first study on the effects of St. John's Wort in human pregnancy does provide some evidence of fetal safety.

  5. Additions to the avifauna of St Matthew Island, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Litzow, Michael A.; Dementyev, Maksim N.

    2004-01-01

    St. Matthew Island (60°24' N, 172°42' W) is located in the north-central Bering Sea and is renowned for its distinctive Beringian flora and fauna. Because of its central position between the coasts of Russia and Alaska, St. Matthew Island and its nearby satellites, Hall and Pinnacle islands, support a mixture of Palearctic and Nearctic avifaunas. Of special interest to North American ornithologists are the numerous Eurasian bird species that visit the islands each spring and fall. Winker et al. (2002) published the first comprehensive summary of bird records for the 125 species detected on St. Matthew Island from 1899 to 1997. Because of its remote location, however, St. Matthew Island is seldom visited, and the island's avifauna remains poorly described.As part of an island-wide systematic survey for Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) and McKay's Buntings (Plectrophenax hyperboreus), our crew of five ornithologists was present on St. Matthew Island from 25 May to 9 July 2003. In this paper we provide information for 11 bird species seen for the first time on St. Matthew Island. Phylogenetic sequence and nomenclature follow the American Ornithologists' Union (1998, 2000) and Banks et al. (2002, 2003, 2004). An annotated species list with details of observation is on file at the University of Alaska Museum, Fairbank.

  6. Moving towards first science with the St. George recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Zachary; Berg, G. P. A.; Gilardy, G.; Moran, M.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Couder, M.

    2015-10-01

    The St. George recoil mass separator has recently been coupled to the 5MV St. Ana accelerator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Lab. St. George is a unique tool designed to measure radiative alpha-capture reactions for nuclei up to A = 40 in inverse kinematics in order to directly obtain cross sections required for astrophysical models of stellar and explosive helium burning. Commissioning of St. George is presently taking place with primary beams of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In this presentation, results will be shown for the measured energy acceptance of St. George, which compare favorably to COSY results when employing the calculated optimal ion-optical settings. Additionally, future plans will be discussed, such as assessing the angular acceptance of St. George and the re-integration of HiPPO at the separator target position to provide a dense, windowless helium gas-jet target. The material presented in this work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1419765.

  7. Effectiveness of Omura's ST.36 point (True ST.36) needling on the Wingate anaerobic test results of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozerkan, Kemal Nuri; Bayraktar, Bulent; Yucesir, Ilker; Cakir, Baris; Yilddiz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36) needling of young soccer players with the Wingate test. The Wingate test is a widely used and very well known ergometric bicycle test to measure anaerobic power. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (B.D.O.R.T.) of Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D. was used to determine the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36). Young soccer players (N = 20) between 15-16 years of age (Mean = 15.25 +/- 0.44) were involved in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups (ST.36 and Omura's ST.36) randomly. The groups were statistically similar in respect to their number, age, height and weight respectively, N = 10; 15.40 +/- 0.52, 15.10 +/- 0.32; 171.50 +/- 3.57, 171.00 +/- 4.81; 65.60 +/- 4.01, 61.50 +/- 4.77. The anaerobic power of the subjects were measured using Monark 894E ergometric bicycle. The breaking resistance was 75 g per kg of body weight of the subjects. The peak power, average power, minimum power and power drop were measured as absolute values and per kg of body weight. Subjects were tested twice, with and without acupuncture application. In one group needling was on ST.36, and in the other group it was on "Omura's ST.36 point." Before each test, subjects warmed up for 5 minutes by cycling on the same ergometer at 60 rotations per minute (RPM), without load. Statistically significant increases were measured with the needling of Omura's ST 36 point in peak power (p < 0.01), and relative peak power (p < 0.01) in comparison to Wingate test results without needling. ST.36 needling showed statistically insignificant increases of the same measurements and comparison. We conclude that needling of both points, but especially Omura's ST.36, seem to be effective for increasing the anaerobic power of young soccer players measured with Wingate anaerobic power test. More research is needed to support these findings in all aspects.

  8. Status of soluble ST2 levels in serum of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Shomali, Shadi; Nadri, Mohammad; Boostani, Reza; Jarahi, Lida; Youssefi, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    ST2 is a member of IL-1 receptor family expressed on Th2 cells and regulates Th2 responces. The gene of ST2 encodes soluble ST2 (sST2) and the transmembrane ST2 (ST2L) isoforms through alternative mRNA splicing. The discovery of IL33/ ST2 signaling pathway, has drawn a great scientific attention to this system. sST2 has been shown to be an indacating factor in various infl ammatory conditions. This study aims to evaluate serum sST2 levels in HTLV-1 infected patients. This study included 49 HTLV-1 seropositive cases of which 14 were sympthomatic. Controls consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. sST2 level was measured using a quantitative ELISA assay and the results of the study groups were compared. Corroborating the previous reports, sST2 was lower in females (P = 0.003). The sST2 levels was slightly increased in HTLV-1 patients, though such increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.91), in addition sST2 level did not correlate significantly to the disease duration (P = 0.78). Despite some other chronic viral infection, HTLV-1 seems not to induce high serum sST2. However owing to relatively high normal variation of sST2 levels and rather small sample size, we stongly recommend further reseach with preferably larger sample size to evalute sST2 in HTLV-1 infected patients.

  9. 78 FR 22416 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. Helena, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Class E airspace for St. Helena, CA. St. Helena Fire Department Heliport has been changed to Napa County... requested the change to the airport name of Napa County Fire Department Heliport, St. Helena, CA. The Class... Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at St. Helena, CA, to Napa County...

  10. The Economic Impact of Eight Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the St. Louis SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact of eight cultural institutions on the economy of the St. Louis (Missouri) area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis Conservatory and School for the Arts, Missouri Botannical Garden, St. Louis Symphony, McDonnell Planetarium, Loretto-Hilton…

  11. Agreement between the Administration of St. John's University, New York and the St. John's Chapter of the American Association of University Professors--Faculty Association at St. John's University, 1982-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between St. John's University, New York, and St. John's Chapter (650 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) and the St. John's Faculty Association (FA) covering the period July 1, 1982-June 30, 1985 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: AAUP recognition, relationship…

  12. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  13. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  14. Immunotoxical evaluation of St. Lawrence beluga whales (Deiphinapterus leucas)

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, S. De; Fournier, M.; Martineau, D.; Beland, P.

    1995-12-31

    An isolated population of beluga whales live in the St. Lawrence estuary. From approximately 5,000 at the beginning of the century, they now number 500 and their number has not increased since the last 10 years. High concentrations of environmental contaminants including organohalogens (mostly PCBs and DDT), as well as heavy metals (mostly mercury and lead) and HAP exposure have been demonstrated in tissues of these animals. A high incidence of diverse and severe lesions including infections with mildly pathogenic bacteria and numerous tumors were found upon examination of carcasses from the same population. An immunotoxicological evaluation of St. Lawrence beluga whales compared to relatively unpolluted Arctic animals was undertaken to study the possibility of a contaminants induced immunosuppression which would explain the diversity and severity of those lesions. As a first step, several assays were developed to evaluate immune functions in beluga whales, and baseline data were established using Arctic animals. In vitro exposure of Arctic beluga lymphocytes to single contaminants present in St. Lawrence beluga blubber were also performed and showed a suppression of proliferation of lymphocytes with concentrations of mercury below those found in liver of adult St. Lawrence animals. Animal models were also developed to evaluate the immunotoxic potential of the mixture of contaminants found in blubber of St. Lawrence belugas. Rats were fed lipids from either St. Lawrence or Arctic belugas or a mixture of the two groups, and immune functions will be evaluated in these animals. Finally, the last step of the study will be to catch belugas in the St. Lawrence, evaluate their immune functions, compare them to those of Arctic animals and relate them to concentrations of the different contaminants measured in their blubber and plasma.

  15. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Mustapha M.; Marsh, Jane W.; Krauland, Mary G.; Fernandez, Jorge O.; de Lemos, Ana Paula S.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Harrison, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African ‘meningitis belt’ and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution. PMID:26629539

  16. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  17. The effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) and porcine somatotropin (pST) on growth factor and metabolic variables in horses.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, F C; Ruffin, D S; Brendemeuhl, J P; Veenhuizen, J J; Sartin, J L

    1996-04-01

    Effects of exogenous pST and bST on metabolic and growth factor variables were examined in three studies with lighthorse mares (455 to 545 kg). In Study 1, eight mares received five s.c. injections of bST or pST (30 mg/d). In Studies 2 and 3, five mares received one s.c. injection of a prolonged release formulation designed to deliver 500 mg of bST (Study 2) or pST (Study 3) over 14 d. Blood samples were collected for several days before injection to establish baseline values, at frequent intervals during treatment, and for several days thereafter. In all studies, blood urea nitrogen concentrations were decreased (P < .001) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations were increased (P < .001) within 48 h after bST or pST injection relative to pretreatment values. Similarly, insulin and glucose were increased (P < .001) relative to pretreatment values, after bST or pST administration. In Studies 2 and 3, circulating ST concentrations were increased (P < .001) for at least 14 d after injection, despite severe local tissue reactions at the prolonged release formulation injection site. Insulin-like growth factor I ligand blotting of serum revealed bands with molecular weights (MW) of 45, 32, 30, and 18 kDa, and two bands of > 96 kDa. These results indicate that 1) bST and pST are biologically active in horses, which respond metabolically to exogenous ST in a manner similar to other mammalian species, 2) circulating IGF binding proteins are present in horses, and 3) the commercially available dairy cow product POSILAC (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) is not appropriate for the delivery of bST in horses due to injection site reactions accompanying the administration of the oil-based prolonged release formulation.

  18. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  19. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  20. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  1. Comparative Genomics of the Listeria monocytogenes ST204 Subgroup.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Allnutt, Theodore; Bradbury, Mark I; Fanning, Séamus; Chandry, P Scott

    2016-01-01

    The ST204 subgroup of Listeria monocytogenes is among the most frequently isolated in Australia from a range of environmental niches. In this study we provide a comparative genomics analysis of food and food environment isolates from geographically diverse sources. Analysis of the ST204 genomes showed a highly conserved core genome with the majority of variation seen in mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons and phage insertions. Most strains (13/15) harbored plasmids, which although varying in size contained highly conserved sequences. Interestingly 4 isolates contained a conserved plasmid of 91,396 bp. The strains examined were isolated over a period of 12 years and from different geographic locations suggesting plasmids are an important component of the genetic repertoire of this subgroup and may provide a range of stress tolerance mechanisms. In addition to this 4 phage insertion sites and 2 transposons were identified among isolates, including a novel transposon. These genetic elements were highly conserved across isolates that harbored them, and also contained a range of genetic markers linked to stress tolerance and virulence. The maintenance of conserved mobile genetic elements in the ST204 population suggests these elements may contribute to the diverse range of niches colonized by ST204 isolates. Environmental stress selection may contribute to maintaining these genetic features, which in turn may be co-selecting for virulence markers relevant to clinical infection with ST204 isolates.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ST 1435 administered by different routes.

    PubMed

    Noé, G; Salvatierra, A; Heikinheimo, O; Maturana, X; Croxatto, H B

    1993-12-01

    The ovulation inhibiting potency of the synthetic progestin ST 1435 (Nestorone) is high after parenteral administration and practically nil after oral administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ST 1435 after single oral or intravenous administration or after long-term treatment with subdermal implants in women. After administration, as a single i.v. bolus, the plasma disappearance rate of immunoreactive ST 1435 had two components with half-lives (mean +/- SE) of 3.5 +/- 0.5 and 83 +/- 14 min, respectively. The volume of distribution was 4.7 +/- 1.3 L/Kg and the metabolic clearance rate was 55 +/- 6 L/Kg/d. After oral administration, the bioavailability was about 10% of the dose. After chronic subdermal administration, the plasmatic clearance was slower than following the acute doses. These results show that ST 1435 has shorter half-lives and a faster clearance rate than progestins which bind SHBG. The large volume of distribution indicates accumulation in the extravascular space and was expected in view of the high affinity of ST 1435 for progesterone receptors. The slower plasma elimination rate after chronic administration was attributed to the re-entry of a larger mass of drug from the extravascular space, and/or accumulation of immunoreactive metabolites with slower clearance than the parent steroid.

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Listeria monocytogenes ST204 Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Edward M.; Allnutt, Theodore; Bradbury, Mark I.; Fanning, Séamus; Chandry, P. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The ST204 subgroup of Listeria monocytogenes is among the most frequently isolated in Australia from a range of environmental niches. In this study we provide a comparative genomics analysis of food and food environment isolates from geographically diverse sources. Analysis of the ST204 genomes showed a highly conserved core genome with the majority of variation seen in mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons and phage insertions. Most strains (13/15) harbored plasmids, which although varying in size contained highly conserved sequences. Interestingly 4 isolates contained a conserved plasmid of 91,396 bp. The strains examined were isolated over a period of 12 years and from different geographic locations suggesting plasmids are an important component of the genetic repertoire of this subgroup and may provide a range of stress tolerance mechanisms. In addition to this 4 phage insertion sites and 2 transposons were identified among isolates, including a novel transposon. These genetic elements were highly conserved across isolates that harbored them, and also contained a range of genetic markers linked to stress tolerance and virulence. The maintenance of conserved mobile genetic elements in the ST204 population suggests these elements may contribute to the diverse range of niches colonized by ST204 isolates. Environmental stress selection may contribute to maintaining these genetic features, which in turn may be co-selecting for virulence markers relevant to clinical infection with ST204 isolates. PMID:28066377

  4. St. Louis River fish migrations: Gains and losses of ecosystem ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Twin Ports fishery has undergone change from a migratory fish-based fishery to a Lake Superior-based fishery, and is now returning to a diverse fishery that includes fish of both life histories. These changes reflect past disturbances to the Great Lakes ecosystem as well as recent water quality improvement and efforts to restore habitat in the St. Louis River. Migratory fishes are an important ecosystem service for the St. Louis River, and improvements to the ecosystem quality within the St. Louis River Area of Concern has benefited migratory fishes. The coastal wetlands within the lower river provide direct support to a variety of high-value, recreationally-important fish species, including walleye, northern pike, and bass. Moreover, these wetlands serve as nursery habitat for a broader suite of high-value, commercially-important species. Restoration has likely improved the value of these coastal wetlands because low-value rough species tend to be more prevalent in degraded coastal wetlands, whereas high-value commercial and game fishes are more prevalent in high-quality coastal wetlands. There have been losses in ecosystem services, as well. Owing to legacy contamination of mercury and PCBs, migratory fishes in the St. Louis River have sufficiently high contaminant burdens to warrant consumption advisories, and recent movement research demonstrates that there is a positive relationship between increased use of St. Louis River habitat (versus Lake Superior)

  5. [Mechanism of action of St. Johns wort extract].

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Singer, A; Wonnemann, M

    2000-12-14

    Over the last few years St-John's wort preparations have been used in large quantities in Germany for treating mild to moderate depression. In the meantime the antidepressive action of these extracts has been proved in numerous placebo-controlled studies. Furthermore, a considerably lower adverse effect rate compared with classic antidepressants has been established. Analogously to other antidepressants, subchronic St-John's wort treatment of rats showed significant down-regulation of beta receptor density and a significant increase in 5HT2 receptors. The extract also exhibited antidepressant activity in animal pharmacological models of depression. Interest is now focused on identifying the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action of this phytotherapeutic agent. Like other working parties, we were only able to identify a weak inhibitory effect of the extract and the pure substance hypericin on the monoamine oxidases A and B. Similarly to synthetic antidepressants, St-John's wort exerts marked inhibitory effects on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline. However, dopamine and uptake and neuronal uptake of GABA and L-glutamate are also inhibited. These effects may mainly be attributed to the substance hyperforin contained in the extract. An additional, as yet unknown, pharmacological mechanism of action of St-John's wort extracts is beginning to emerge. Although hyperforin shows similar properties to classical antidepressants, there are indications of a novel mechanism of action. Our laboratory is currently investigating the means by which St-John's wort extract, or its constituent hyperforin, develops its antidepressant action.

  6. St John's Wort treating patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2009-11-01

    Problems of eye contact and expressive language limit the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions in patients suffering from pervasive developmental disorders. For that reason, additive psychopharmacological interventions are sometimes needed to improve symptomatology. In our preliminary open trial, three male patients with autistic disorder, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria, completed an open trial of St John's Wort. Subjects were included in the study if their eye contact and expressive language was inadaequate for their developmental level and if they had not tolerated or responded to other psychopharmacologic treatments (methylphenidate, clonidine or desipramine). Parent and mentor ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, irritability, stereotypy, and inappropriate speech factors improved slightly during treatment with St John's Wort. Clinician ratings (Psychiatric Rating Scale Autism, Anger and Speech Deviance factors; Global Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impressions efficacy) did not improve significantly. St John's Wort was only modestly effective in the short-term treatment of irritability in some patients with autistic disorder.

  7. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  8. Alignment Sensitivity Study of the St. ANA Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Michelle; Couder, Manoel; Jung, Hyo Soon; Setoodehnia, Kiana

    2014-09-01

    The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. Project advisor

  9. Geology of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, Douglas W.

    2002-01-01

    The rocks of St. John, which is located near the eastern end of the Greater Antilles and near the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate, consist of Cretaceous basalt, andesite, keratophyre, their volcaniclastic and hypabyssal intrusive equivalents, and minor calcareous rocks and chert. These rocks were intruded by Tertiary mafic dikes and tonalitic plutons. The oldest rocks formed in an extensional oceanic environment characterized by abundant keratophyre and sheeted dikes. Subduction-related volcanism of the east-west-trending marine Greater Antilles volcanic arc began on St. John near the transition between the Early and Late Cretaceous. South-directed compression, probably caused by the initial collision between the Greater Antilles arc of the Caribbean plate and the Bahama platform of the North American plate, deformed the Cretaceous strata into east-west-trending folds with axial-plane cleavage. Late Eocene tonalitic intrusions, part of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism, produced a contact aureole that is as much as two kilometers wide and that partly annealed the axial-plane cleavage. East-west compression, possibly related to the relative eastward transport of the Caribbean plate in response to the beginning of spreading at the Cayman Trough, produced long-wavelength, low-amplitude folds whose axes plunge gently north and warp the earlier folds. A broad north-plunging syncline-anticline pair occupies most of St. John. The last tectonic event affecting St. John is recorded by a series of post-late Eocene sinistral strike-slip faults related to the early stages of spreading at the Cayman Trough spreading center and sinistral strike-slip accommodation near the northern border of the Caribbean plate. Central St. John is occupied by a rhomb horst bounded by two of these sinistral faults. Unlike other parts of the Greater Antilles, evidence for recent tectonic movement has not been observed on St. John.

  10. CO-ST-IN - CONTROL-STRUCTURE-INTERACTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, K.

    1994-01-01

    CO-ST-IN is a program developed for NASA to help facilitate the study of Control Structure Interaction, the dynamic coupling between control systems and flexible structures. Current space structures are larger and more flexible than previous designs. At the same time, increased demands are being placed on the performance of control systems. For many space structures it is essential to analyze the interaction of control systems with structural flexibility. CO-ST-IN was designed to complement and enhance rather than to replace the structural dynamics and control system analysis tools already available at NASA. The functions performed by CO-ST-IN can be roughly divided into three areas: 1) data transfer between structural dynamics and control systems software (MSC/NASTRAN, I-DEAS, EASY5 and MATRIXx are currently supported to varying degrees); 2) modal selection at both the component and system level as a means of model reduction; and 3) simulation of the coupled system (given simple controllers). CO-ST-IN reduces the size of the structural model by selecting system modes on the basis of input/output coupling (three algorithms along with a number of other options are offered). This allows the analyst to use far fewer modes in the coupled analysis, since the program will select those which are most closely coupled to the structural inputs and outputs. Another special capability is the calculation of structural outputs such as element forces and stresses using either the mode acceleration or mode displacement approach directly within the coupled simulation. This eliminates the need to return to MSC/NASTRAN for recovery of this data, accelerating the turnaround time of analyses. The transfer of input forces for transient analysis in MSC/NASTRAN is also supported. CO-ST-IN was implemented on a DEC VAX with the VMS operating system. This FORTRAN77 program has a memory requirement of 9.4 MB. CO-ST-IN was developed in 1989.

  11. Performance Evaluation and Opportunity Assessment for St. Bernard Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-06-01

    This report describes efforts by IBACOS, a Department of Energy Building America research team, in the St. Bernard Project, a nonprofit, community-based organization whose mission is to assist Hurricane Katrina survivors return to their homes in the New Orleans area. The report focuses on energy modeling results of two plans that the St. Bernard Project put forth as 'typical' building types and on quality issues that were observed during the field walk and Best Practice recommendations that could improve the energy efficiency and durability of the renovated homes.

  12. Performance Evaluation and Opportunity Assessment for St. Bernard Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    This report describes efforts by IBACOS, a Building America research team, in the St. Bernard Project, a nonprofit, community-based organization whose mission is to assist Hurricane Katrina survivors to return to their homes in the New Orleans area. The report focuses on energy modeling results of two plans that the St. Bernard Project put forth as 'typical' building types and on quality issues that were observed during the field walk and best practice recommendations that could improve the energy efficiency and durability of the renovated homes.

  13. Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience.

    PubMed

    Shore, J H; Tatum, E L; Vollmer, W M

    1986-05-01

    Following the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption, psychiatric reactions were studied in the disaster area and in a control community. Using the new criterion-based diagnostic method for psychiatric epidemiologic research, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the authors found a significant prevalence of disaster-related psychiatric disorders. These Mount St. Helens disorders included depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress reaction. There was a progressive "dose-response" relationship in the comparison of control, low-exposure, and high-exposure groups. The dose-response pattern occurred among both the bereaved and the property-loss victims.

  14. Subarachnoid haemorrhage mimicking transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-H; Juan, Y-H; Chang, S-L; Lee, W-L; How, C-K; Hsu, T-F

    2015-08-01

    Patients often present to the emergency department with loss of consciousness. The differential diagnosis of such condition may be difficult because of limited clinical information. The authors present a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with initial electrocardiographic (ECG) finding mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which was confirmed to resolve in a follow-up study. Accurate and timely diagnosis of SAH-related ST-segment elevation was important, as the therapeutic strategy for SAH is completely different from that for STEMI. If the clinicians do not have other tools for diagnosis, the follow-up ECG may help us make a most possible diagnosis.

  15. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: macroeconomic models

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, A.E.; Trocki, L.K.; Yeamans, M.K.; Kolstad, C.D.

    1984-08-01

    A macroeconometric model describing the St. Lucian economy was developed using 1970 to 1982 economic data. Results of macroeconometric forecasts for the period 1983 through 1985 show an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) for 1983 and 1984 with a decline in 1985. The rate of population growth is expected to exceed GDP growth so that a small decline in per capita GDP will occur. We forecast that garment exports will increase, providing needed employment and foreign exchange. To obtain a longer-term but more general outlook on St. Lucia's economy, and to evaluate the benefit of geothermal energy development, we applied a nonlinear programming model. The model maximizes discounted cumulative consumption.

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic profiles of Escherichia coli isolates belonging to clinical sequence type 131 (ST131), clinical non-ST131, and fecal non-ST131 lineages from India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Ranjan, Amit; Nandanwar, Nishant; Babbar, Anshu; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-12-01

    In view of the epidemiological success of CTX-M-15-producing lineages of Escherichia coli and particularly of sequence type 131 (ST131), it is of significant interest to explore its prevalence in countries such as India and to determine if antibiotic resistance, virulence, metabolic potential, and/or the genetic architecture of the ST131 isolates differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. A collection of 126 E. coli isolates comprising 43 ST131 E. coli, 40 non-ST131 E. coli, and 43 fecal E. coli isolates collected from a tertiary care hospital in India was analyzed. These isolates were subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based fingerprinting, O typing, phylogenetic grouping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene (VAG) detection. Representative isolates from this collection were also analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), conjugation, metabolic profiling, biofilm production assay, and zebra fish lethality assay. All of the 43 ST131 E. coli isolates were exclusively associated with phylogenetic group B2 (100%), while most of the clinical non-ST131 and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates were affiliated with the B2 (38%) and A (58%) phylogenetic groups, respectively. Significantly greater proportions of ST131 isolates (58%) than non-ST131 isolates (clinical and stool E. coli isolates, 5% each) were technically identified to be extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). The clinical ST131, clinical non-ST131, and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates exhibited high rates of multidrug resistance (95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production (86%, 83%, and 91%, respectively), and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production (28%, 33%, and 0%, respectively). CTX-M-15 was strongly linked with ESBL production in ST131 isolates (93%), whereas CTX-M-15 plus TEM were present in clinical and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates. Using MLST, we confirmed the presence of two NDM-1

  17. Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolates Belonging to Clinical Sequence Type 131 (ST131), Clinical Non-ST131, and Fecal Non-ST131 Lineages from India

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Arif; Ranjan, Amit; Nandanwar, Nishant; Babbar, Anshu; Jadhav, Savita

    2014-01-01

    In view of the epidemiological success of CTX-M-15-producing lineages of Escherichia coli and particularly of sequence type 131 (ST131), it is of significant interest to explore its prevalence in countries such as India and to determine if antibiotic resistance, virulence, metabolic potential, and/or the genetic architecture of the ST131 isolates differ from those of non-ST131 isolates. A collection of 126 E. coli isolates comprising 43 ST131 E. coli, 40 non-ST131 E. coli, and 43 fecal E. coli isolates collected from a tertiary care hospital in India was analyzed. These isolates were subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based fingerprinting, O typing, phylogenetic grouping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene (VAG) detection. Representative isolates from this collection were also analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), conjugation, metabolic profiling, biofilm production assay, and zebra fish lethality assay. All of the 43 ST131 E. coli isolates were exclusively associated with phylogenetic group B2 (100%), while most of the clinical non-ST131 and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates were affiliated with the B2 (38%) and A (58%) phylogenetic groups, respectively. Significantly greater proportions of ST131 isolates (58%) than non-ST131 isolates (clinical and stool E. coli isolates, 5% each) were technically identified to be extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). The clinical ST131, clinical non-ST131, and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates exhibited high rates of multidrug resistance (95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production (86%, 83%, and 91%, respectively), and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production (28%, 33%, and 0%, respectively). CTX-M-15 was strongly linked with ESBL production in ST131 isolates (93%), whereas CTX-M-15 plus TEM were present in clinical and stool non-ST131 E. coli isolates. Using MLST, we confirmed the presence of two NDM-1

  18. Molecular epidemiology of coagulase-negative bloodstream isolates: detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis ST2, ST7 and linezolid-resistant ST23.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Camacho-Ortíz, Adrián; González-González, Gloria; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to persistence of coagulase-negative staphylococci are diverse; to better understanding of their dynamics, the characterization of nosocomial isolates is needed. Our aim was to characterize phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus human blood isolates from two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico, the Hospital Universitario in Monterrey and the Hospital Civil in Guadalajara. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet staining. Detection of the ica operon and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing were performed by PCR. Clonal relatedness was determined by Pulsed-fiel gel electrophoresis and Multi locus sequence typing. Methicillin-resistance was 85.5% and 93.2% for S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. Both species showed resistance >70% to norfloxacin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. Three S. epidermidis and two S. haemolyticus isolates were linezolid-resistant (one isolate of each species was cfr+). Most isolates of both species were strong biofilm producers (92.8% of S. epidermidis and 72.9% of S. haemolyticus). The ica operon was amplified in 36 (43.4%) S. epidermidis isolates. SCCmec type IV was found in 47.2% of the S. epidermidis isolates and SCCmec type V in 14.5% of S. haemolyticus isolates. No clonal relatedness was found in either species. Resistance to clindamycin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin was associated with biofilm production for both species (p<0.05). A G2576T mutation in 23S rRNA gene was detected in an S. haemolyticus linezolid-resistant isolate. All linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis isolates belonged to ST23; isolate with SCCmec type IV belonged to ST7, and isolate with SCCmec type III belonged to ST2. This is the first report of ST7 in Mexico. There was a high genetic diversity in both species, though both species shared

  19. St. John's Wort versus Counterfeit St. John's Wort: An HPTLC Study.

    PubMed

    Frommenwiler, Débora A; Reich, Eike; Sudberg, Sidney; Sharaf, Maged H M; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Lucas, Ben

    2016-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. is the most commonly used herb for treating depression. Due to the popularity of this botanical, there is a potential for economically driven adulteration of St. John's wort (SJW) products. The goal of this study was to investigate SJW ingredients suspected to be adulterated based on simple preliminary HPTLC tests. Commercial samples were analyzed by HPTLC following the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph methodology, with additional visualization under white light. A number of these samples presented odd methanolic solution colors and unconventional HPTLC fingerprints, suggesting the presence of other species and/or extraneous polar additives. To achieve identification and separation of the polar additives, a new reversed-phase HPTLC method was developed. The adulterants were identified as synthetic dyes in the amounts of 0.51 to 1.36% by weight. Identities of the dyes were confirmed by scanning densitometry and HPTLC-MS. A modified USP method with additional detection mode permitted the identification of eight SJW samples adulterated with dyes and six others with flavonoid fingerprints different from those specified by USP from a total of 37 samples of dry extracts, finished products, and bulk raw herb. A decision flowchart is proposed to guide the detection of adulteration of SJW in a systematic fashion.

  20. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Burke, Thomas A; Jones, James J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the "Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments" workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered.

  1. Public health assessment for Tutu Wellfield, St. Thomas, St. Thomas County, Virgin Islands. Cerclis No. VID982272569. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-14

    The Tutu Wellfield National Priorities List (NPL) site is in east-central St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Island. Twenty-two wells in the Turpentine Run Basin contain at minimum a trace of volatile organic contaminants. Volatile and chlorinated hydrocarbons including benzene; toluene; 1,2-trans-dichloroethene (DCE); trichloroethene (TCE); and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were detected in several of the wells. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that the Tutu Wellfield National Priorities List (NPL) site, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, poses a public health hazard for past, present, and possible future ingestion of contaminated groundwater.

  2. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  3. StRoBe: A Classroom-on-Task Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    Researchers as well as others evaluating teachers or programs are often interested in the verbal and non-verbal behaviors related to the learning of students in classrooms. The Student Record of Behavior (StRoBe) is a classroom observation instrument designed to provide simple low inference information concerning student behaviors related to…

  4. St. Lawrence River Freeze-Up Forecast Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assel, R. A.

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) is presented for calculating the date of freeze-up on the St. Lawrence River at Massena, N.Y. The SOP is based on two empirical temperature decline equations developed for Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, N.Y., respectively. Input data needed to forecast freeze-up consist of the forecast December flow rate and…

  5. Summary of the NCRP 51st Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Cool, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, the last presentation of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Annual Meeting is a summary of the presentations and discussions by the Program Committee Chair. Thus, it is now time to try to sum up a day and a half of very excellent presentations on a wide variety of subjects in this 51st Annual Meeting.

  6. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  7. Learning from Mount St. Helens: Catastrophic Events as Educational Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeremy

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the study of catastrophic events should be given temporary precedence over the normal curriculum in order to help students understand the causes, consequences, and recovery alternatives, deal with trauma, and allay fear of recurrence and feelings of helplessness. Uses the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens to demonstrate how…

  8. St. Petersburg Junior College Factbook, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    This 1997-98 factbook is intended to provide statistical information to support sound planning and decision making, as well as to provide an historical perspective of St. Petersburg Junior College. Topics include: (1) a brief college history; (2) a look to the future; (3) a description of the service area, and data related to the College's student…

  9. Geography: The "Essential" Skill for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2008-01-01

    As people head further into the 21st Century, they are living in a constantly changing and interdependent world. As such, students need a global awareness that includes familiarity with different cultures, beliefs, and lifestyles in order to understand and address global issues. Geography can help students understand these issues. In this article,…

  10. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  11. Long-term Trends in St. Louis River Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality impairments caused by sewage and industrial waste discharge into the St. Louis River have been a primary concern for clean-up efforts throughout the last century. Surveys dating back to 1928 reveal severely degraded water quality in much of the river below Fond du L...

  12. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions…

  14. 7. CONNECTION PIER #4 TO PRATT ST. BULKHEAD WITH HANDWRITTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONNECTION PIER #4 TO PRATT ST. BULKHEAD WITH HANDWRITTEN CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT BETWEEN O.F. LACKEY AND SANFORD & BROOKS CO, DWG. 144, 1" = 1', MADE BY H.S. - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 4, South side of Pratt Street between Frederick Street & Market Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. [Phytotherapy threats with emphasis on St. John's wort medicines].

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Jacek; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Henryk; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Plant medicines used by patients in self-treatment contain powerfully acting active substances which can be a source of adverse events including interactions with synthetic medicines. Usage of St. John's wort causes high risk of various complications. St. John's wort preparations shouldn't be combined with antidepressants without physician's consultation. Long-term intake of medicines which contain Hypericum perforatum extracts can be a reason of undesirable interactions with isoenzymes CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for which St John's wort is a substrate. Compounds present in the St. John's wort, especially hyperforin, increase the activity of cytochrome P450 in the liver and intestinal mucosa as well as P-gp, which can accelerate their elimination from the body, decrease their concentrations and reduce the effect. Effective and safe phytotherapy requires a lot of knowledge about the properties and toxicity of preparations used and accurate monitoring of the consequences of their actions.

  16. Parenting in the 21st Century: A Return to Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Yolanda K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Parents are potentially the most influential individuals in children's lives. The 21st Century parent has to compete, however, with multiple sources of information, both human and nonhuman, (e.g. children's peers, non-familial adults, TV, technology gadgets, Internet) in shaping the minds, values, and beliefs of children. In the absence of a…

  17. Unraveling the Mystery of Stöber Silica's Microporosity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Wan, Quan; Qin, Zonghua; Fu, Yuhong; Gu, Yuantao

    2016-09-13

    Puzzling aspects of the microporous structure of Stöber silica, including inconsistencies in the BET specific surface area and the long measurement time required for N2 adsorption, hinder further research on and potential applications of this material. In this work, Stöber silica samples prepared using systematic and detailed post-treatment methods were characterized by N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We have found that the often overlooked sample preparation conditions may be the main causes that perplex the gas adsorption characterization results of Stöber silica samples. The pore-blocking processes associated with a variety of sample treatment methods are discussed in detail. Strong evidence for the particle growth model and pore-blocking mechanism involving ethoxyl groups, Si species, and condensation of silanols is provided. A remarkable result is that the measurement time is shortened from 1 month in our previous work to 2-3 days for samples with large specific surface areas. A suitable post-treatment condition is recommended to obtain microporous Stöber silica with a short measurement time, including water washing, low temperature drying without a vacuum, and a short storage time.

  18. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  19. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  20. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  1. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  2. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  3. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  4. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  5. Collection Development Policy: Academic Library, St. Mary's University. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvia, Margaret

    This guide spells out the collection development policy of the library of St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. The guide is divided into the following five topic areas: (1) introduction to the community served, parameters of the collection, cooperation in collection development, and priorities of the collection; (2) considerations in…

  6. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  7. Properties of the exotic metastable ST12 germanium allotrope

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Zhang, Haidong; Kim, Duck Young; Hu, Wentao; Bullock, Emma S.; Strobel, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of semiconducting materials are of great importance to a vast range of contemporary technologies. Diamond-cubic germanium is a well-known semiconductor, although other ‘exotic' forms may possess distinct properties. In particular, there is currently no consensus for the band gap and electronic structure of ST12-Ge (tP12, P43212) due to experimental limitations in sample preparation and varying theoretical predictions. Here we report clear experimental and theoretical evidence for the intrinsic properties of ST12-Ge, including the first optical measurements on bulk samples. Phase-pure bulk samples of ST12-Ge were synthesized, and the structure and purity were verified using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and wavelength/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical measurements indicate that ST12-Ge is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.59 eV and a direct optical transition at 0.74 eV, which is in good agreement with electrical transport measurements and our first-principles calculations. PMID:28045027

  8. An Empirical Approach to the St. Petersburg Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klyve, Dominic; Lauren, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The St. Petersburg game is a probabilistic thought experiment. It describes a game which seems to have infinite expected value, but which no reasonable person could be expected to pay much to play. Previous empirical work has centered around trying to find the most likely payoff that would result from playing the game n times. In this paper, we…

  9. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  10. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help…

  11. General Revenue Sharing in St. Louis City and County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Etta Lou; Barnett, Malcolm Joel

    Unlike typical Federal catergorical grants which are highly specific, General Revenue Sharing grants (GRS) are free of restrictions or conditions. The Missouri Advisory Committee, in viewing the impact of GRS on St. Louis City and County, received evidence regarding: (1) the nature of GRS-funded expenditures; (2) the limits of citizen…

  12. Army Recruiting Challenges in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    on top of the normal daily challenges recruiters routinely face, it is time to revisit Army recruiting and make it more relevant in the 21st Century...prescription medication and other behavior altering drugs, such as Ritalin , makes Generation Yers the most medicated generation in history

  13. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  14. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  15. The Role of Educators in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Lynn; Bayer, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    This brief article reports on selective presentations from the January, 2004, conference, "Poverty, Partnerships and Peace: The Role of Educators in the 21st Century," sponsored by the Committee on Teaching about the United Nations. Topics covered include the importance of teaching girls in Afghanistan and the connection between poverty…

  16. Tuberculosis in St. Petersburg and the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Samarina, Arina; Zhemkov, Vladimir; Zakharova, Olga; Hoffner, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health concern and challenges the national structures for infection control and health care, as well as international institutions, to develop and implement new strategies to control and combat this disease. In our report, we investigated the TB epidemiological situation in St. Petersburg and the countries around the Baltic Sea using national epidemiological statistics and epidemiological reports of international organizations, such as the WHO and Euro-TB. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a steep increase in tuberculosis was seen in the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg and the Baltic States, after which it stabilized at levels significantly higher compared to the Nordic countries. Moreover, the epidemiological situation in St. Petersburg and the Baltic States was aggravated by the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection, as well as that of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, which imposed further difficulties in gaining control of TB. During the studied period, the TB burden in neither St. Petersburg nor Baltic States has had a significant impact on the epidemiology in the low TB burden neighbouring countries around the Baltic Sea.

  17. Overcoming Challenges: Superintendent's 21st Annual Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 21st Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2009-10. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  18. The Badge of Poverty: The St. Louis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carl E.; And Others

    This booklet reports a study designed to probe into some of the important human dimensions that characterize poverty. The study was restricted to a specific low-income area in the heart of St. Louis, Mo. Personal household interviews were conducted, covering topics about problems and topics as seen by the respondents. Among the findings were that:…

  19. Magmagenesis at Soufriere volcano St Vincent, Lesser Antilles Arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, E.; Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.; Hawkesworth, C.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1998-01-01

    Soufriere volcano of St Vincent (3 wt %, whereas various projections onto phase diagrams are more consistent with relatively anhydrous magmas. Primary magmas at Soufriere were generated by around 15% melting of mid-ocean ridge basalt type mantle sources which had been modified by addition of fluids released from the slab containing contributions from subducted sediments and mafic crust.

  20. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  1. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  2. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  3. Gate houses at corner of Peoria St. and east Colfax ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gate houses at corner of Peoria St. and east Colfax Ave., the original main entrance to Fitzsimons, looking southwest. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their…

  5. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  6. St. John Valley Bilingual Education Project, Madawaska, Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    The St. John Valley Bilingual Education Project (Project VIBE) has undertaken the multidisciplinary French/English bilingual education of public school students in Madawaska, a Maine community near the Canadian border. The present report represents a complete description of this Title VII program, covering program development, staffing and…

  7. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  8. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glovebox using SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1994-08-31

    SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation.

  9. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  10. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  11. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The new "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner IN ACTION", presented like a colorful flowchart, was previewed without fanfare at the annual Midwinter meeting of the American Library Association in Denver, Colorado, in January (American Library Association 2009). This new publication does a good job in further defining the student…

  12. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  13. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  14. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  15. [Invasive mucormycosis in patients with hemoblastosis in St.-Petersburg].

    PubMed

    Khostelidi, S N; Volkova, A G; Popova, M O; Bogomolova, T S; Kolbin, A S; Boĭchenko, É G; Podol'tseva, É I; Klimovich, A V; Belogurova, M B; Medvedeva, N V; Ziuzgin, I S; Zubarovskaia, L S; Vasil'eva, N V; Klimko, N N

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four patients with mucormycosis in 10 hospitals of St. Petersburg were observed in 2004-2013. The most frequent underlying diseases of mucormycosis were acute leukoses (64%). In 100% of the patients mucormycosis developed as a nosocomial infection. The risk factors, etiology, basic clinical signs and strategy in the treatment of mucormycosis were analyzed.

  16. 27 CFR 9.51 - Isle St. George.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isle St. George. 9.51 Section 9.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.51...

  17. 27 CFR 9.51 - Isle St. George.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isle St. George. 9.51 Section 9.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.51...

  18. [Ischemic pseudo-normalization of T waves and ST segment].

    PubMed

    Agraou, B; Agraou, H; Bodart, J C; Abolmaali, K; el Mansour, N; Vilarem, D; Manouvrier, J; Peltier, J M

    1999-10-01

    The development of acute myocardial ischaemia in a territory with baseline repolarization abnormalities can be reflected by transient pseudo-normalisation of the T wave and/or ST segment. These repolarization abnormalities can occur spontaneously, during a stress test or during of an isoproterenol test. Clinicians should be familiar with these unusual electrocardiographic changes of acute ischaemia, which require appropriate surveillance and treatment.

  19. Special Focus: Preparing Students for the 21st Century Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadourakis, Giorgos M.

    2016-01-01

    The Special Focus in this issue of "Industry and Higher Education" comprises three papers that address practical approaches to the critical challenge of preparing students adequately for employment and career development in the 21st century workplace. The papers, refereed, extended and revised for publication in the journal originate…

  20. Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum ST8Sh and Its Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Perin, Luana M; Carneiro, Bruno M; Rahal, Paula; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-02-23

    Total DNA extracted from Lb. plantarum ST8Sh was screened for the presence of more than 50 genes related to production of biogenic amines (histidine decarboxylase, tyrosine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase), virulence factors (sex pheromones, gelatinase, cytolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance, enterococcal surface protein, endocarditis antigen, adhesion of collagen, integration factors), and antibiotic resistance (vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin). Lb. plantarum ST8Sh showed a low presence of virulence genes. Only 13 genes were detected (related to sex pheromones, aggregation substance, adhesion of collagen, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, but not to vancomycin, and bacitracin) and may be considered as indication of safety for application in fermented food products. In addition, interaction between Lb. plantarum ST8Sh and drugs from different groups were determined in order to establish possible application of the strain in combination with commercial drugs. Cytotoxicity of the semi-purified bacteriocins produced by Lb. plantarum ST8Sh was depended on applied concentration-highly cytotoxic when applied at 25 μg/mL and no cytotoxicity at 5 μg/mL.

  1. A Parent's Guide to 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Step-by-step, schools from the elementary through high school levels are making the transition to 21st-century learning. Some have crossed the threshold almost entirely. In today's progressive classrooms, yesterday's rows of quiet listeners have given way to small groups of active learners, thoroughly engaged in discussions and explorations. And…

  2. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  3. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  4. Properties of the exotic metastable ST12 germanium allotrope

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Zhang, Haidong; Kim, Duck Young; ...

    2017-01-03

    The optical and electronic properties of semiconducting materials are of great importance to a vast range of contemporary technologies. Diamond-cubic germanium is a well-known semiconductor, although other ‘exotic’ forms may possess distinct properties. In particular, there is currently no consensus for the band gap and electronic structure of ST12-Ge (tP12, P43212) due to experimental limitations in sample preparation and varying theoretical predictions. Here we report clear experimental and theoretical evidence for the intrinsic properties of ST12-Ge, including the first optical measurements on bulk samples. Phase-pure bulk samples of ST12-Ge were synthesized, and the structure and purity were verified using powdermore » X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and wavelength/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Lastly, optical measurements indicate that ST12-Ge is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.59 eV and a direct optical transition at 0.74 eV, which is in good agreement with electrical transport measurements and our first-principles calculations.« less

  5. Defining Total Force Fitness for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Samueli Institute,Military Medical Research ,1737 King St # 600,Alexandria...Topic TBD, related to TFF • Will again target line leaders and NCOs Recent Samueli Institute activities in support of Total Force Fitness: an

  6. Energy acceptance of the St. George recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Z.; Moran, M. T.; Gilardy, G.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Couder, M.

    2017-04-01

    Radiative alpha-capture, (α , γ) , reactions play a critical role in nucleosynthesis and nuclear energy generation in a variety of astrophysical environments. The St. George recoil separator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory was developed to measure (α , γ) reactions in inverse kinematics via recoil detection in order to obtain nuclear reaction cross sections at the low energies of astrophysical interest, while avoiding the γ-background that plagues traditional measurement techniques. Due to the γ ray produced by the nuclear reaction at the target location, recoil nuclei are produced with a variety of energies and angles, all of which must be accepted by St. George in order to accurately determine the reaction cross section. We demonstrate the energy acceptance of the St. George recoil separator using primary beams of helium, hydrogen, neon, and oxygen, spanning the magnetic and electric rigidity phase space populated by recoils of anticipated (α , γ) reaction measurements. We find the performance of St. George meets the design specifications, demonstrating its suitability for (α , γ) reaction measurements of astrophysical interest.

  7. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered. 8 refs.

  8. Work-Study Program, Project STAY (St. Louis, Missouri).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.; And Others

    The work-study program at Soldan High School is part of St. Louis' Project Stay, an Elementary Secondary Education Act Title VIII funded dropout prevention program. The project, initiated, in the 1969-70 school year for a five year period has just completed its third year of operation. Three urban schools are involved in the project. The…

  9. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  10. The Hmong Resettlement Study Site Report: Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Bruce T.; And Others

    This document reports on the resettlement of Hmong refugees in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota: what their employment experiences have been, which resettlement efforts have been successful, and how current resettlement efforts could be altered to improve the Hmong's long-term adjustment. The report is part of a larger, national project on Hmong…

  11. Curriculum Development: Producing "Geographers" for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, W. Brian; Saunders, Angharad; Lewis, Robin A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Sutton, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We take a fresh look at geography curricula and their appropriateness to the demands of the 21st century. We reflect on the purpose, content and relevance of undergraduate geography curricula in an age of "supercomplexity". Geography curricula, by their nature, are varied and multiple, with different countries often privileging different…

  12. Invasion by stages in the St Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River estuary is recognized as an invasive species “hotspot” - the harbor ranks among the top locations in the Great Lakes reporting the first occurrence of new, aquatic non-native species. To date, 18 non-native benthic invertebrate, 4 non-native crusta...

  13. The 21st Century American Student: An Attempted Sighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Morris T.

    1998-01-01

    Portrays 21st-century American students as being more diverse in ethnicity, age, culture, prior education, and proficiency in computer and technology use. Asserts that future learners will take the lead in managing their own learning, unlike the traditional college students of the 20th century. (VWC)

  14. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    de Becker A, Lenaerts G, Spaepen A. Evaluation of the effect of backpack load and position during standing and walking using biomechanical ...14. ABSTRACT Data were collected over a 20 month period (770 tests) to identify suboptimal biomechanical , musculoskeletal, physiological, and...nutritional characteristics. Based on the results of initial testing included 101st-specific task and demand analyses and biomechanical

  15. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  16. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  17. Healing the Wounds: St. Augustine, Catechesis, and Religious Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…

  18. A Study of the St. Lawrence River Ecological Habitat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesires, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Save the River, a grassroots advocacy group established in 1978, lobbies for policies to preserve the upper St. Lawrence River and uses the community's help to keep an eye on the existing habitats. Recently, they procured the Fresh Sound Foundation grant to support the development of new K-12 ecology curricula by local area teachers to educate…

  19. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  20. Mount St. Helens related aerosol properties from solar extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Kleckner, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    The optical extinction due to the introduction of aerosols and aerosol-precursors into the troposphere and stratosphere during the major eruptive phase of Mount St. Helens, Washington, is quantified. The concentration is on the two-week period centered on the major eruption of 22 July 1980. (ACR)

  1. Mount st. Helens volcano: recent and future behavior.

    PubMed

    Crandell, D R; Mullineaux, D R; Rubin, M

    1975-02-07

    Mount St. Helens volcano in southern Washington has erupted many times during the last 4000 years, usually after brief dormant periods. This behavior pattern. suggests that the volcano, last active in 1857, will erupt again-perhaps within the next few decades. Potential volcanic hazards of several kinds should be considered in planning for land use near the volcano.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Gelman, A.; Conklin, A.; Adee, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution, clearance, translocation and pathobiology of intratracheally instilled (IT) Mount St. Helens volcanic ash samples are discussed and compared with NIOSH quartz and Ritzville sandy loam samples as positive controls and saline as a negative control. Comparisons are also made with similar studies in rats using chrysotile asbestos, beryllium oxide and cadmium oxide.

  3. The ST7-DRS Mission: Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Charles E.; Folkner, William; Barela, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    ST-7 is developing enabling drag-free control technology with low noise micro-thrusters and drag-free control algorithms. The flight computer & dynamic control software are complete, and colloid micro-newton thrusters are beginning ground-based performance testing.

  4. Shaping the Department’s S&T Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-21

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sea Tracker JCTD Nat’l Tech Nuclear Forensics JCTD MEDUSA JCTD July 12 Imperatives 1. Accelerate...21/2011 Page-11 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DoD S&T Funding By Budget Activity - President’s

  5. Museum of Historic St. Augustine--Government House. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanVleet, Susan; Spikes, Tracy

    This booklet is designed to assist teachers in guiding students through the Museum of Historic St. Augustine (Government House) exhibit, "The Dream, The Challenge, The City." The exhibit and learning activities explore cultural, economic, and architectural development from the 1565 Spanish settlement to the Flagler Era of the 1880s and…

  6. St. Augustine's Abbey Canterbury: A Resource Book for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoffham, Stephen

    This resource book is for teachers in England who would like to visit St. Augustine's Abbey with their students. The first part consists of background information, documents, and advice on how to plan and prepare for the visit. The second part is aimed at pupils aged 9 years and over. It includes a trail of the site, a set of classwork sheets and…

  7. An Institutional Autopsy of St. Augustine Junior College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Institutional autopsies can teach much about why learning centers fail the test of time. St. Augustine Junior College in north Florida, the brainchild of Dr. George Apel, was begun in 1942 and ended seven years later in 1949. The purposes of the short-lived college are identified for discussion in this paper. Also identified are the reasons for…

  8. A Nation of Opportunity: Building America's 21st Century Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Advances in information technology (IT) are reshaping the U.S. labor market. The demand for workers who can read and understand complex material, think analytically, and use technology efficiently will continue to increase. Congress established the 21st Century Workforce Commission to assess current and future demand for IT workers and the…

  9. Properties of the exotic metastable ST12 germanium allotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Zhang, Haidong; Kim, Duck Young; Hu, Wentao; Bullock, Emma S.; Strobel, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of semiconducting materials are of great importance to a vast range of contemporary technologies. Diamond-cubic germanium is a well-known semiconductor, although other `exotic' forms may possess distinct properties. In particular, there is currently no consensus for the band gap and electronic structure of ST12-Ge (tP12, P43212) due to experimental limitations in sample preparation and varying theoretical predictions. Here we report clear experimental and theoretical evidence for the intrinsic properties of ST12-Ge, including the first optical measurements on bulk samples. Phase-pure bulk samples of ST12-Ge were synthesized, and the structure and purity were verified using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and wavelength/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical measurements indicate that ST12-Ge is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.59 eV and a direct optical transition at 0.74 eV, which is in good agreement with electrical transport measurements and our first-principles calculations.

  10. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  11. Mapping ecosystem services in the St. Louis River estuary (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of ecosystems for sustainable provision of services beneficial to human communities requires reliable data about from where in the ecosystem services flow. Our objective is to map ecosystem services in the St. Louis River with the overarching EPA goal of community sust...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York City and Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Meera; Dumortier, Caroline; Taylor, Barbara S.; Miller, Maureen; Vasquez, Glenny; Yunen, Jose; Brudney, Karen; Rodriguez-Taveras, Carlos; Rojas, Rita; Leon, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains of ST398, an animal-associated strain, were identified in samples collected from humans in northern Manhattan, New York, NY, USA, and in the Dominican Republic. A large population in northern Manhattan has close ties to the Dominican Republic, suggesting international transmission. PMID:19193274

  13. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  14. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  15. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  16. Physics of Space: the 41st Annual Student Scientific Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, P. E.; Kuznetsov, E. D.; Ostrovskii, A. B.; Salii, S. V.; Sobolev, A. M.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Shustov, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The 41st annual student scientific conference "Physics of Space" aims to overcome the gap between modern scientific research and basic education in astronomy. The main purpose of the conference is to introduce the students to modern problems and directions of scientific research. The working languages of the conference are Russian and English.

  17. Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015

    PubMed Central

    White, Gregory S.; Symmes, Kelly; Sun, Pu; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Steiner, Cody; Smith, Kirk; Reisen, William K.

    2016-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after an 11-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance. PMID:27869600

  18. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  19. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  20. Chemistry of St. John's Wort: Hypericin and Hyperforin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, John J.; Rosenson, Jon

    2004-10-01

    St. John's wort is a common plant that has been used medicinally for over 20 centuries. This herb is currently used by millions of people, primarily as natural antidepressant; yet, its efficacy is still under constant debate. St. John's wort contains a large aromatic molecule, hypericin, twisted by steric interactions into the shape of a propeller. For use as antidepressant, St. John's wort is standardized to the content of hypericin, but this molecule was recently found not to be the active ingredient. A totally different bicyclic molecule with complex substitution pattern, hyperforin, was then studied as the causative agent. Both molecules are strongly active in biological systems. Hypericin has shown antiviral activity and is a potent natural photosensitizer that has been used in photodynamic therapy against cancer and against HIV in stored blood. Hyperforin was found to activate a particular receptor in the liver that induces the production of an enzyme used for the metabolism of medications. This effect causes more rapid breakdown of many prescription medications and can interfere with their effectiveness. This finding should prompt a reevaluation of regular use of St. John's wort.