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Sample records for stable borosilicate glass

  1. Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2017-02-01

    Glasses including have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of borosilicate glasses. Compared to soda-lime glasses, borosilicate glasses have improved coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and are widely used because of thermal shock resistance. In this work, borosilicate glass filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed glass as well as the residual stress trapped in the glass. The transparency of glass allows residual stress to be measured using a polariscope. The effect of the substrate as well and substrate temperature are analyzed. We show that if fracture due to thermal shock can be avoided during deposition, then the residual stress can be relieved with an annealing step, removing birefringence. When combined with progress toward avoiding bubble entrapment in printed glass, we show the AM approach has the potential to produce high quality optically transparent glass for optical applications.

  2. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiwei; Sun, Tao; Li, Xinping; Sun, Mian; Lu, Yani

    2016-08-01

    Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm-1 after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  3. Enhancement of thermal neutron shielding of cement mortar by using borosilicate glass powder.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo-Kil; Lee, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2017-05-01

    Concrete has been used as a traditional biological shielding material. High hydrogen content in concrete also effectively attenuates high-energy fast neutrons. However, concrete does not have strong protection against thermal neutrons because of the lack of boron compound. In this research, boron was added in the form of borosilicate glass powder to increase the neutron shielding property of cement mortar. Borosilicate glass powder was chosen in order to have beneficial pozzolanic activity and to avoid deleterious expansion caused by an alkali-silica reaction. According to the experimental results, borosilicate glass powder with an average particle size of 13µm showed pozzolanic activity. The replacement of borosilicate glass powder with cement caused a slight increase in the 28-day compressive strength. However, the incorporation of borosilicate glass powder resulted in higher thermal neutron shielding capability. Thus, borosilicate glass powder can be used as a good mineral additive for various radiation shielding purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Ferber, Mattison K; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials weremore » used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions

  5. Effect of barium on diffusion of sodium in borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Kumar, Sumit; Tomar, B S; Tyagi, A K; Kaushik, C P; Raj, Kanwar; Manchanda, V K

    2008-08-15

    Diffusion coefficients of sodium in barium borosilicate glasses having varying concentration of barium were determined by heterogeneous isotopic exchange method using (24)Na as the radiotracer for sodium. The measurements were carried out at various temperatures (748-798 K) to obtain the activation energy (E(a)) of diffusion. The E(a) values were found to increase with increasing barium content of the glass, indicating that introduction of barium in the borosilicate glass hinders the diffusion of alkali metal ions from the glass matrix. The results have been explained in terms of the electrostatic and structural factors, with the increasing barium concentration resulting in population of low energy sites by Na(+) ions and, plausibly, formation of more tight glass network. The leach rate measurements on the glass samples show similar trend.

  6. Characterization of Borosilicate Glass Through Confined Compression Testing with Numerical Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Characterization Data and Flyer-Plate Impact Data 7.1 Introduction Borosilicate and soda - lime glass have been the object of extensive plate impact...2 GPa as the strength of damaged soda - lime glass at pressures of 4 to 6 GPa. Bourne, et al. [9, 35], showed tests with strength values of 1.8 GPa...equation of state data for borosilicate and soda - lime glass . The flyer-plate impact data greatly extends the confining pressures that can be achieved with

  7. Understanding the structural drivers governing glass-water interactions in borosilicate based model bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Stone-Weiss, Nicholas; Pierce, Eric M; Youngman, Randall E; Gulbiten, Ozgur; Smith, Nicholas J; Du, Jincheng; Goel, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach. Therefore, a paradigm shift from the "trial-and-error" approach to "materials-by-design" approach is required to develop new-generations of bioactive glasses with controlled release of functional ions tailored for specific patients and disease states, whereby material functions and properties can be predicted from first principles. Realizing this goal, however, requires a thorough understanding of the complex sequence of reactions that control the dissolution kinetics of bioactive glasses and the structural drivers that govern them. While there is a considerable amount of literature published on chemical dissolution behavior and apatite-forming ability of potentially bioactive glasses, the majority of this literature has been produced on silicate glass chemistries using different experimental and measurement protocols. It follows that inter-comparison of different datasets reveals inconsistencies between experimental groups. There are also some major experimental challenges or choices that need to be carefully navigated to unearth the mechanisms governing the chemical degradation behavior and kinetics of boron-containing bioactive glasses, and to accurately determine the composition-structure-property relationships. In order to address these challenges, a simplified

  8. Impact Experiments into Borosilicate Glass at Three Scale Sizes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    DEDF and soda - lime glass during rod impact. Shock Compression in Condensed Matter–2005 (Furnish MD, Elert M, Russell TP, and White CT, Eds.) AIP Conf...in a float soda - lime silicate glass . Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci., to be submitted (2009). 18. Chocron S, Dannemann KA, Nicholls AE, and Anderson CE Jr...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Impact Experiments into Borosilicate Glass at Three Scale Sizes Charles E. Anderson, Jr. Carl E. Weiss Sidney Chocron

  9. Influence of zeolite precipitation on borosilicate glass alteration under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Fournier, M.; Gin, S.; Angeli, F.

    2017-08-01

    This study enables a better understanding of how nucleation-growth of zeolites affects glass dissolution kinetics in hyperalkaline solutions characteristic of cement waters. A 20-oxide borosilicate glass, an inactive surrogate of a typical intermediate level waste glass, was altered in static mode at 50 °C in a hyperalkaline solution rich in Na+, K+ and Ca2+ and at an initial pH50°C of 12.6. Experiments were performed at four glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume (S/V) ratios to investigate various reaction progresses. Two types of glass alteration kinetics were obtained: (i) at low S/V, a sharp alteration resumption occurred after a rate drop regime, (ii) at high S/V, a high dissolution rate was maintained throughout the test duration with a slight progressive slow-down. In all the experiments, zeolites precipitated but the time taken to form stable zeolite nuclei varied dramatically depending on the S/V. Resulting changes in pH affected zeolite composition, morphology, solubility and growth rate. A change in a critical parameter such as S/V affected all the processes controlling glass dissolution.

  10. Modelling the sulfate capacity of simulated radioactive waste borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P. A.; Vaishnav, S.; Forder, S. D.

    2017-02-01

    The capacity of simulated high-level radioactive waste borosilicate glasses to incorporate sulfate has been studied as a function of glass composition. Combined Raman, 57Fe Mössbauer and literature evidence supports the attribution of coordination numbers and oxidation states of constituent cations for the purposes of modelling, and results confirm the validity of correlating sulfate incorporation in multicomponent borosilicate radioactive waste glasses with different models. A strong compositional dependency is observed and this can be described by an inverse linear relationship between incorporated sulfate (mol% SO 4 2-) and total cation field strength index of the glass, Σ(z/a 2), with a highmore » goodness-of-fit (R 2 ≈ 0.950). Similar relationships are also obtained if theoretical optical basicity, Λ th (R 2 ≈ 0.930) or non-bridging oxygen per tetrahedron ratio, NBO/T (R 2 ≈ 0.919), are used. Results support the application of these models, and in particular Σ(z/a 2), as predictive tools to aid the development of new glass compositions with enhanced sulfate capacities.« less

  11. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste.

    PubMed

    Ponsot, Inès M M M; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-07-31

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900-1000 °C), whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C). The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  12. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    PubMed Central

    Ponsot, Inès M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C), whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C). The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests. PMID:28788146

  13. Modelling the sulfate capacity of simulated radioactive waste borosilicate glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Bingham, Paul A.; Vaishnav, Shuchi; Forder, Sue D.; ...

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, the capacity of simulated high-level radioactive waste borosilicate glasses to incorporate sulfate has been studied as a function of glass composition. Combined Raman, 57Fe Mössbauer and literature evidence supports the attribution of coordination numbers and oxidation states of constituent cations for the purposes of modelling, and results confirm the validity of correlating sulfate incorporation in multicomponent borosilicate radioactive waste glasses with different models. A strong compositional dependency is observed and this can be described by an inverse linear relationship between incorporated sulfate (mol% SO 4 2-) and total cation field strength index of the glass, Σ(z/a 2),more » with a high goodness-of-fit (R 2 ≈ 0.950). Similar relationships are also obtained if theoretical optical basicity, Λ th (R 2 ≈ 0.930) or non-bridging oxygen per tetrahedron ratio, NBO/T (R 2 ≈ 0.919), are used. Finally, results support the application of these models, and in particular Σ(z/a 2), as predictive tools to aid the development of new glass compositions with enhanced sulfate capacities.« less

  14. SEM and AFM Studies of Two-Phase Magnetic Alkali Borosilicate Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Tomkovich, M.; Nacke, B.; Filimonov, A.; Alekseeva, O.; Vanina, P.; Nizhankovskii, V.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and composition of four types of two-phase alkali borosilicate glasses with magnetic atoms prepared by inductive melting have been studied. The results of scanning electron microscopy point to uniform distribution of Na, Si, and O atoms in these samples while magnetic iron atoms form ball-shaped agglomerates. The magnetic properties of these agglomerates have been confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy had shown that in these samples two different morphological structures, drop-like and dendrite net, are formed. The formation of dendrite-like structure is a necessary condition for production of porous magnetic glasses. The obtained results allow us to optimize the melting and heat treatment processes leading to production of porous alkali borosilicate glasses with magnetic properties. The first results for nanocomposite materials on the basis of magnetic glasses containing the embedded ferroelectrics KH2PO4 demonstrate the effect of applied magnetic field on the ferroelectric phase transition. PMID:28428976

  15. Comparison of hardness variation of ion irradiated borosilicate glasses with different projected ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M. L.; Peng, H. B.; Duan, B. H.; Liu, F. F.; Du, X.; Yuan, W.; Zhang, B. T.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    Borosilicate glass has potential application for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste, which attracts extensive interest in studying its radiation durability. In this study, sodium borosilicate glass samples were irradiated with 4 MeV Kr17+ ion, 5 MeV Xe26+ ion and 0.3 MeV P+ ion, respectively. The hardness of irradiated borosilicate glass samples was measured with nanoindentation in continuous stiffness mode and quasi continuous stiffness mode, separately. Extrapolation method, mean value method, squared extrapolation method and selected point method are used to obtain hardness of irradiated glass and a comparison among these four methods is conducted. The extrapolation method is suggested to analyze the hardness of ion irradiated glass. With increasing irradiation dose, the values of hardness for samples irradiated with Kr, Xe and P ions dropped and then saturated at 0.02 dpa. Besides, both the maximum variations and decay constants for three kinds of ions with different energies are similar indicates the similarity behind the hardness variation in glasses after irradiation. Furthermore, the hardness variation of low energy P ion irradiated samples whose range is much smaller than those of high energy Kr and Xe ions, has the same trend as that of Kr and Xe ions. It suggested that electronic energy loss did not play a significant role in hardness decrease for irradiation of low energy ions.

  16. Alkali borosilicate glass by fly ash from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Soo; Taniguchi, Shoji; Park, Young Jun

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of using coal fly ash as a silica source for alkali borosilicate glass was investigated. Alkali borosilicate glasses were prepared from the coal fly ash mixed with 30 wt.% reagents composed of Na(2)O and B(2)O(3) by susceptor-induction heating. Their densities ranged from 2.24 to 2.55 g cm(-3) and decreased as the amount of B(2)O(3) addition increased. However, the Vickers microhardness showed a different tendency with the density since the glass network connectivity improved by boron anomaly, which was identified by a nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The Vickers microhardness of the glass product, with the addition of 15 wt.% B(2)O(3) and 15 wt.% Na(2)O, was about 4030 MPa. Furthermore, the changes in microstructure were consistent with those in the chemical stability by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP).

  17. Rhenium Solubility in Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glass: Implications for the Processing and Immobilization of Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Goel, Ashutosh

    2012-10-26

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved to be an arduous task for the researchers in nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State, the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is ~1300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility/retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of the similarity between theirmore » ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing Re (0 – 10,000 ppm by mass) were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules in order to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found to predominantly exist as Re (VII) in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of crystalline inclusions that were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The implications of these results on the immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses have been discussed.« less

  18. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon-calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass-cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon-calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass-cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  19. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.

    2013-03-01

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al wasmore » 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.« less

  20. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification processmore » utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.« less

  1. TiO2 induced structural modifications in Cs containing borosilicate glasses: Raman and infrared studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, M.; Banerjee, D.; Sudarsan, V.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    Effect of TiO2 addition in Cs containing Sodium-borosilicate glasses is studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopic techniques. As revealed from infrared and Raman studies, TiO2 does not form segregated phase, but instead enters into the borosilicate network. It is further observed that TiO2 addition results in modifications of the borate and silicate structural units by transforming into tetraborates and metasilicate structural units. These structural modifications are responsible for Cs immobilization, leach rate and chemical durability of these glasses.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of coupled diffusion and surface reactions during the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-09-19

    Borosilicate nuclear waste glasses develop complex altered layers as a result of coupled processes such as hydrolysis of network species, condensation of Si species, and diffusion. However, diffusion has often been overlooked in Monte Carlo models of the aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses. Therefore, in this paper three different models for dissolved Si diffusion in the altered layer were implemented in a Monte Carlo model and evaluated for glasses in the compositional range (75 - x) mol% SiO 2 (12.5 + x/2) mol% B 2O 3 and (12.5 + x/2) mol% Na 2O, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20%, andmore » corroded in static conditions at a surface-area-to-volume ratio of 1000 m -1. The three models considered instantaneous homogenization (M1), linear concentration gradients (M2), and concentration profiles determined by solving Fick's 2nd law using a finite difference method (M3). Model M3 revealed that concentration profiles in the altered layer are not linear and show changes in shape and magnitude as corrosion progresses, unlike those assumed in model M2. Furthermore, model M3 showed that, for borosilicate glasses with a high forward dissolution rate compared to the diffusion rate, the gradual polymerization and densification of the altered layer is significantly delayed compared to models M1 and M2. Finally, models M1 and M2 were found to be appropriate models only for glasses with high release rates such as simple borosilicate glasses with low ZrO 2 content.« less

  3. Effect of Loading Rate and Surface Conditions on Flexural Strength of Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, X; Chen, Wayne; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the loading rate and surface condition dependence of the flexural strength of a borosilicate glass. The glass specimens are subjected to three different surface treatments before four-point bending tests to study the effect of surface flaws. Quasistatic (Material Test System 810) and dynamic (Kolsky bar) experiments are performed at loading rates ranging from 0.7 to 4 x 10{sup 6} MPa/s. The results show that the flexural strength of the borosilicate glass has a strong dependence on the loading rate. A chemically etched surface produces an enhanced flexural strength by about an order of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopymore » images on fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is governed by different types of flaws under different surface treatment conditions. Edge failure is also identified for samples possessing high flexural strength.« less

  4. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  5. Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Ferriferous Two-Phase Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Naberezhnov, Alexander; Porechnaya, Nadezda; Nizhankovskii, Viktor; Filimonov, Alexey; Nacke, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the study of morphology and magnetic properties of sodium borosilicate glasses with different concentrations (15, 20, and 25 wt.%) of α-Fe2O3 in an initial furnace charge. These glasses were prepared by a melt-quenching method. For all glasses a coexistence of drop-like and two-phase interpenetrative structures is observed. The most part of a drop structure is formed by self-assembling iron oxides particles. All types of glasses demonstrate the magnetic properties and can be used for preparation of porous magnetic matrices with nanometer through dendrite channel structure. PMID:25162045

  6. A new potential for radiation studies of borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Amal F.; Jolley, Kenny; Smith, Roger; Archer, Andrew J.; Christie, Jamieson K.

    2017-02-01

    Borosilicate glass containing 70 mol% SiO2 and 30 mol% B2O3 is investigated theoretically using fixed charge potentials. An existing potential parameterisation for borosilicate glass is found to give good agreement for the bond angle and bond length distributions compared to experimental values but the optimal density is 30% higher than experiment. Therefore the potential parameters are refitted to give an optimal density of 2.1 g/cm3, in line with experiment. To determine the optimal density, a series of random initial structures are quenched at a rate of 5 × 1012 K/s using constant volume molecular dynamics. An average of 10 such quenches is carried out for each fixed volume. For each quenched structure, the bond angles, bond lengths, mechanical properties and melting points are determined. The new parameterisation is found to give the density, bond angles, bond lengths and Young's modulus comparable with experimental data, however, the melting points and Poisson's ratio are higher than the reported experimental values. The displacement energy thresholds are computed to be similar to those determined with the earlier parameterisation, which is lower than those for ionic crystalline materials.

  7. Failure kinetics in borosilicate glass during rod impact

    SciTech Connect

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Anderson, Charles E. Jr.; Behner, Thilo

    2007-12-12

    Failure front (FF) and penetration velocity have been measured for long gold rods impacting and penetrating borosilicate (BS) glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously FF propagation with a high speed camera and rod penetration with flash X-rays. Results for BS glass are qualitatively similar to those of DEDF (PbO) glass. FF velocity rapidly decreases from an initial value to a lower, approximately constant value. FF velocity increases with impact velocity, v{sub p}. The FF velocity remains significantly lower than the shear velocity, even at the highest impact velocity tested, about 2.5 km/s. The ratio of the FF velocity tomore » the rod penetration velocity, v{sub F}/u, decreases with increasing v{sub p} and appears to be approaching v{sub F}/u = 1 asymptotically, as observed previously for DEDF glass. The separation of the FF and the tip of the rod decreases with increasing impact velocity. Importantly, since v{sub F}/u{>=}1, the gold rod is always penetrating glass behind the FF.« less

  8. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-14

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Q n distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3 B and 4 B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  9. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3B and 4B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  10. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.

  11. Corrosion of inconel in high-temperature borosilicate glass melts containing simulant nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xianhe; Yuan, Xiaoning; Brigden, Clive T.; Tao, Jun; Hyatt, Neil C.; Miekina, Michal

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Inconel 601 in the borosilicate glass (MW glass) containing 25 wt.% of simulant Magnox waste, and in ZnO, Mn2O3 and Fe2O3 modified Mg/Ca borosilicate glasses (MZMF and CZMF glasses) containing 15 wt.% of simulant POCO waste, were evaluated by dimensional changes, the formation of internal defects and changes in alloy composition near corrosion surfaces. In all three kinds of glass melts, Cr at the inconel surface forms a protective Cr2O3 scale between the metal surface and the glass, and alumina precipitates penetrate from the metal surface or formed in-situ. The corrosion depths of inconel 601 in MW waste glass melt are greater than those in the other two glass melts. In MW glass, the Cr2O3 layer between inconel and glass is fragmented because of the reaction between MgO and Cr2O3, which forms the crystal phase MgCr2O4. In MZMF and CZMF waste glasses the layers are continuous and a thin (Zn, Fe, Ni, B)-containing layer forms on the surface of the chromium oxide layer and prevents Cr2O3 from reacting with MgO or other constituents. MgCr2O4 was observed in the XRD analysis of the bulk MW waste glass after the corrosion test, and ZrSiO4 in the MZMF waste glass, and ZrSiO4 and CaMoO4 in the CZMF waste glass.

  12. Nanoindentation of the pristine and irradiated forms of a sodium borosilicate glass: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kilymis, D. A.; Ispas, S., E-mail: simona.ispas-crouzet@umontpellier.fr; Delaye, J.-M.

    2016-07-28

    We have carried out classical molecular dynamics simulations in order to get insight into the atomistic mechanisms of the deformation during nanoindentation of the pristine and irradiated forms of a sodium borosilicate glass. In terms of the glass hardness, we have found that the primary factor affecting the decrease of hardness after irradiation is depolymerization rather than free volume, and we argue that this is a general trend applicable to other borosilicate glasses with similar compositions. We have analyzed the changes of the short- and medium-range structures under deformation and found that the creation of oxygen triclusters is an importantmore » mechanism in order to describe the deformation of highly polymerized borosilicate glasses and is essential in the understanding of the folding of large rings under stress. We have equally found that the less polymerized glasses present a higher amount of relative densification, while the analysis of bond-breaking during the nanoindentation has showed that shear flow is more likely to appear around sodium atoms. The results provided in this study can be proven to be useful in the interpretation of experimental results.« less

  13. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch modemore » frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.« less

  14. Optical and structural investigation on sodium borosilicate glasses doped with Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.; Rezvani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, Sodium borosilicate glasses with chemical composition of 60% SiO2-20% B2O3-20%Na2O doped with different contents of Cr2O3 were prepared by melting-quenching method. Physical, structural and optical properties of glasses were investigated by studying density and molar volume, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectra and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in density of glasses with the increase of Cr2O3 that can be due to addition of oxide with high molar mass. The optical absorption spectra of un-doped glass reveals UV absorption due to trace iron impurities with no visible band however Cr2O3 doped glasses shows absorption in visible range that are characteristic. Increasing of Cr3 + ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to Sodium borosilicate glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 3.79 to 2.59 (ev) and 3.36 to 2.09 (ev), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Cr3 + ions as the network former which asserts improvement of semiconducting behavior in presence of Cr2O3.

  15. Optical and structural investigation on sodium borosilicate glasses doped with Cr2O3.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, E; Rezvani, M

    2018-02-05

    In this work, Sodium borosilicate glasses with chemical composition of 60% SiO 2 -20% B 2 O 3 -20%Na 2 O doped with different contents of Cr 2 O 3 were prepared by melting-quenching method. Physical, structural and optical properties of glasses were investigated by studying density and molar volume, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectra and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in density of glasses with the increase of Cr 2 O 3 that can be due to addition of oxide with high molar mass. The optical absorption spectra of un-doped glass reveals UV absorption due to trace iron impurities with no visible band however Cr 2 O 3 doped glasses shows absorption in visible range that are characteristic. Increasing of Cr 3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to Sodium borosilicate glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 3.79 to 2.59 (ev) and 3.36 to 2.09 (ev), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Cr 3+ ions as the network former which asserts improvement of semiconducting behavior in presence of Cr 2 O 3 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. There Is Still Room for Improvement: Presentation of a Neutral Borosilicate Glass with Improved Chemical Stability for Parenteral Packaging.

    PubMed

    Boltres, Bettine; Tratzky, Stephan; Kass, Christof; Eichholz, Rainer; Naß, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For pharmaceutical parenteral packaging the glass compositions have always been either Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. As both the compositions and certain chemical and physical properties are mandated by international standards, there has not been room for any changes. However, by applying only minor adjustments, a borosilicate glass was developed that showed improved chemical stability. The chemical composition is still in the range of currently used borosilicate glasses, which makes it a Type I glass according to all current pharmacopeia. A study was performed on glass vials comparing the new glass with the standard FIOLAX(®) and two other publicly available glasses. In an extraction study with water at 121 °C the new glass showed the highest chemical stability with the lowest amount of extractables. In an accelerated ageing study, which was done with water, phosphate, and carbonate buffer at 40 °C for 12 months, the new glass also proved to have the lowest amount of leachables. In this article the new glass and the results from the studies are presented, showing the reader how much of an effect can be attained with only minor adjustments if the scientific fundamentals are clear. The pharmaceutical market has been quite constant and risk-oriented due to the high impact on the safety of the patient. As any change necessitates a complicated change process, this has, in consequence, lead the industry to resist changing the parenteral primary packaging material for decades. The main glasses have either been Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. On the other hand, a combination of improved inspection systems and the development of more sensitive biologically based drugs has elevated the standards for parental packaging materials. For example, the measurement of extractables and leachables from the packaging material steadily came into focus. In this article, a new glass is presented that still belongs to the group of Type I borosilicate

  17. The dissolution behavior of borosilicate glasses in far-from equilibrium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Asmussen, R. Matthew

    2018-04-01

    An area of agreement in the waste glass corrosion community is that, at far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this work is to study the effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate of three model nuclear waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). The dissolution rate data are then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on Transition State Theory that has been developed to model glass corrosion behavior in dilute conditions. To do this, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH (22 °C) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. Both the absolute dissolution rates and the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies though quantifiable differences exist. The glass dissolution rates were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), with which a robust uncertainty analysis is performed. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, a mathematical description of the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values should be possible. This would allow for the possibility of calculating the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition. In addition, the method of determination of parameter uncertainty and correlation provides a framework for other rate models that describe the dissolution rates of other amorphous and crystalline materials in a wide range of chemical conditions. The higher level of uncertainty analysis would provide

  18. The Dissolution Behavior of Borosilicate Glasses in Far-From Equilibrium Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin P.; ...

    2018-02-10

    An area of agreement in the waste glass corrosion community is that, at far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this work is to study the effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate of three model nuclear waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). The dissolution rate data are then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on Transition State Theory that has been developed to model glass corrosion behavior in dilute conditions. To do this, experiments were conducted atmore » temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH(22 °C) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. Both the absolute dissolution rates and the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies though quantifiable differences exist. The glass dissolution rates were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), with which a robust uncertainty analysis is performed. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, a mathematical description of the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values should be possible. This would allow for the possibility of calculating the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition. In addition, the method of determination of parameter uncertainty and correlation provides a framework for other rate models that describe the dissolution rates of other amorphous and crystalline materials in a wide range of chemical conditions. As a result, the higher level of uncertainty

  19. The Dissolution Behavior of Borosilicate Glasses in Far-From Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin P.

    An area of agreement in the waste glass corrosion community is that, at far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this work is to study the effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate of three model nuclear waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). The dissolution rate data are then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on Transition State Theory that has been developed to model glass corrosion behavior in dilute conditions. To do this, experiments were conducted atmore » temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH(22 °C) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. Both the absolute dissolution rates and the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies though quantifiable differences exist. The glass dissolution rates were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), with which a robust uncertainty analysis is performed. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, a mathematical description of the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values should be possible. This would allow for the possibility of calculating the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition. In addition, the method of determination of parameter uncertainty and correlation provides a framework for other rate models that describe the dissolution rates of other amorphous and crystalline materials in a wide range of chemical conditions. As a result, the higher level of uncertainty

  20. Electron irradiation induced phase separation in a sodium borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Weber, W. J.

    2004-06-01

    Electron irradiation induced phase separation in a sodium borosilicate glass was studied in situ by analytical electron microscopy. Distinctly separate phases that are rich in boron and silicon formed at electron doses higher than 4.0 × 10 11 Gy during irradiation. The separated phases are still in amorphous states even at a much high dose (2.1 × 10 12 Gy). It indicates that most silicon atoms remain tetrahedrally coordinated in the glass during the entire irradiation period, except some possible reduction to amorphous silicon. The particulate B-rich phase that formed at high dose was identified as amorphous boron that may contain some oxygen. Both ballistic and ionization processes may contribute to the phase separation.

  1. Rhenium solubility in borosilicate nuclear waste glass: implications for the processing and immobilization of technetium-99.

    PubMed

    McCloy, John S; Riley, Brian J; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Hrma, Pavel; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W; Kruger, Albert A

    2012-11-20

    The immobilization of technetium-99 ((99)Tc) in a suitable host matrix has proven to be a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. In this context, the present work reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, in a sodium borosilicate glass. Glasses containing target Re concentrations from 0 to 10,000 ppm [by mass, added as KReO(4) (Re(7+))] were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampules to minimize the loss of Re from volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found as Re(7+) in all of the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. At higher rhenium concentrations, additional rhenium was retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of alkali perrhenates detected with X-ray diffraction. Since (99)Tc concentrations in a glass waste form are predicted to be <10 ppm (by mass), these Re results implied that the solubility should not be a limiting factor in processing radioactive wastes, assuming Tc as Tc(7+) and similarities between Re(7+) and Tc(7+) behavior in this glass system.

  2. Investigating the effect of V2O5 addition on sodium barium borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Rumu; Sengupta, Pranesh; Sudarsan, V.; Kaushik, C. P.; Dey, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    V2O5 doped sodium barium borosilicate glasses were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The glass remains homogeneous for lower concentration of V2O5 but a phase separation is observed when V2O5 doping is increased beyond 5 mol%. Detailed microanalysis reveals that the phase separated glass consists of a phase containing V, Ba and Si and a separate Si rich phase within the glass matrix. The luminescence study demonstrated that at low concentration the vanadium mainly interacts with the structural units of B/Si while at higher concentrations, V-O-V/ V-O- Na+/Ba2+ linkages are formed.

  3. Effects of optical dopants and laser wavelength on atom probe tomography analyses of borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaonan; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a novel analytical microscopy method that provides three dimensional elemental mapping with sub-nanometer spatial resolution and has only recently been applied to insulating glass and ceramic samples. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the optical absorption in glass samples on APT characterization by introducing different transition metal optical dopants to a model borosilicate nuclear waste glass (international simple glass). A systematic comparison is presented of the glass optical properties and the resulting APT data quality in terms of compositional accuracy and the mass spectra quality for two APT systems: one with amore » green laser (532 nm, LEAP 3000X HR) and one with a UV laser (355 nm, LEAP 4000X HR). These data were also compared to the study of a more complex borosilicate glass (SON68). The results show that the analysis data quality such as compositional accuracy and total ions collected, was clearly linked to optical absorption when using a green laser, while for the UV laser optical doping aided in improving data yield but did not have a significant effect on compositional accuracy. Comparisons of data between the LEAP systems suggest that the smaller laser spot size of the LEAP 4000X HR played a more critical role for optimum performance than the optical dopants themselves. The smaller spot size resulted in more accurate composition measurements due to a reduced background level independent of the material’s optical properties.« less

  4. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion,more » and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.« less

  5. Physical and optical properties of lithium borosilicate glasses doped with Dy3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Gedam, R. S.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The borosilicate glasses with Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quench technique with varying concentration of Dy2O3. The glasses were characterized by the density calculation, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements. Density and molar volume of the glasses increases with increase in Dy3+ ions in the glass matrix. This behavior is correlated with the higher molecular weight and larger ionic radius of Dy3+ ion compared to the other constituents of glass matrix. Emission of Dy3+ doped glasses showed three bands at 482, 573 and at 665 nm which correspond to 6H15/2 (blue), 6H13/2 (yellow) and 6H11/2 (red) transitions. The emission spectra of glasses with different concentration of Dy3+ ions shows that, glasses with 0.5 mol% of Dy2O3 shows highest emission and decreases with further doping. CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showed that the emission of these glasses was in the white region. Photographs of these glasses under 349 nm Light emitting diode excitation also confirmed the white light emission from these glasses.

  6. RHENIUM SOLUBILITY IN BOROSILICATE NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROCESSING AND IMMOBILIZATION OF TECHNETIUM-99 (AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION WITH GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT)

    SciTech Connect

    AA KRUGER; A GOEL; CP RODRIGUEZ

    2012-08-13

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State in the U.S., the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is {approx} 1,300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW sodium borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant becausemore » of previously established similarities in ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing target Re concentrations varying from 0 to10,000 ppm by mass were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 DC. The rhenium was found to be present predominantly as Re7 + in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be {approx}3,000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of alkali perrhenate crystalline inclusions detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Assuming justifiably substantial similarities between Re7 + and Tc 7+ behavior in this glass system, these results implied that the processing and immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes should not be limited by the solubility of 99Tc in borosilicate LAW glasses.« less

  7. Deformation mechanisms during nanoindentation of sodium borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest.

    PubMed

    Kilymis, D A; Delaye, J-M

    2014-07-07

    In this paper we analyze results of Molecular Dynamics simulations of Vickers nanoindentation, performed for sodium borosilicate glasses of interest in the nuclear industry. Three glasses have been studied in their pristine form, as well as a disordered one that is analogous to the real irradiated glass. We focused in the behavior of the glass during the nanoindentation in order to reveal the mechanisms of deformation and how they are affected by microstructural characteristics. Results have shown a strong dependence on the SiO2 content of the glass, which promotes densification due to the open structure of SiO4 tetrahedra and also due to the strength of Si-O bonds. Densification for the glasses is primarily expressed by the relative decrease of the Si-O-Si and Si-O-B angles, indicating rotation of the structural units and decrease of free volume. The increase of alkali content on the other hand results to higher plasticity of the matrix and increased shear flow. The most important effect on the deformation mechanism of the disordered glasses is that of the highly depolymerized network that will also induce shear flow and, in combination with the increased free volume, will result in the decreased hardness of these glasses, as has been previously observed.

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion of silicate (45S5), borate, and borosilicate glasses to hydroxyapatite in dilute phosphate solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Kittiratanapiboon, Kanisa; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2006-07-01

    Bioactive glasses with controllable conversion rates to hydroxyapatite (HA) may provide a novel class of scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively characterize the conversion of a silicate bioactive glass (45S5), a borate glass, and two intermediate borosilicate glass compositions to HA in a dilute phosphate solution at 37 degrees Celsius. The borate glass and the borosilicate glasses were derived from the 45S5 glass by fully or partially replacing the SiO(2) with B(2)O(3). Higher B(2)O(3) content produced a more rapid conversion of the glass to HA and a lower pH value of the phosphate solution. Whereas the borate glass was fully converted to HA in less than 4 days, the silicate (45S5) and borosilicate compositions were only partially converted even after 70 days, and contained residual SiO(2) in a Na-depleted core. The concentration of Na(+) in the phosphate solution increased with reaction time whereas the PO(4) (3-) concentration decreased, both reaching final limiting values at a rate that increased with the B(2)O(3) content of the glass. However, the Ca(2+) concentration in the solution remained low, below the detection limit of atomic absorption, throughout the reaction. Immersion of the glasses in a mixed solution of K(2)HPO(4) and K(2)CO(3) produced a carbonate-substituted HA but the presence of the K(2)CO(3) had little effect on the kinetics of conversion to HA. The kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion process of the four glasses to HA are compared and used to develop a model for the process.

  9. Failure and penetration response of borosilicate glass during short-rod impact

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.

    2007-12-12

    The failure characterization of brittle materials like glass is of fundamental importance in describing the penetration resistance against projectiles. A critical question is whether this failure front remains 'steady' after the driving stress is removed. A test series with short gold rods (D = 1 mm, L/D{approx_equal}5-11) impacting borosilicate glass at {approx}1 to 2 km/s was carried out to investigate this question. The reverse ballistic method was used for the experiments, and the impact and penetration process was observed simultaneously with five flash X-rays and a 16-frame high-speed optical camera. Very high measurement accuracy was established to ensure reliable results.more » Results show that the failure front induced by rod impact and penetration does arrest (ceases to propagate) after the rod is totally eroded inside the glass. The impact of a second rod after a short time delay reinitiates the failure front at about the same speed.« less

  10. Surface nitridation improves bone cell response to melt-derived bioactive silicate/borosilicate glass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Orgaz, Felipe; Dzika, Alexandra; Szycht, Olga; Amat, Daniel; Barba, Flora; Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Novel bioactive amorphous glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) with interconnected porosity have been developed. Hierarchically interconnected porous glass scaffolds were prepared from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses: a ICIE16 bioactive glass that was previously developed by Wu et al. (2011) to prevent crystallization, and a borosilicate glass of composition 73.48 SiO2-11.35 B2O3-15.15 Na2O (wt%). The resulting melt derived glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) were subject to surface functionalization to further improve its interaction with biological systems. Surface functionalization was performed by a nitridation process with hot gas N2/ammonia at 550°C for 2h, obtaining the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Evaluation of the degradation rate and the conversion to hydroxyapatite after immersion in simulated body fluid predicted a good biological activity of all the scaffolds, but particularly of the nitrided ones. In vitro evaluation of osteoblastic cells cultured onto the nitrided and non-nitrided scaffolds showed cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on all scaffolds, but both proliferation and differentiation were improved in the nitrided ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Biomaterials are often required in the clinic to stimulate bone repair. We have developed a novel bioglass (ICIE16/SBG-NITRI) that can be sintered into highly porous 3D scaffolds, and we have further improved its bioactivity by nitridation. ICIE16/SBG-NITRI was synthesized from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses through combined gel casting and foam replication techniques, followed by nitridation. To mimic bone, it presents high-interconnected porosity while being mechanically stable. Nitridation improved its reactivity and bioactivity facilitating its resorption and the deposition of apatite (bone-like mineral) on its surface and increasing its degradation rate. The nitrided surface also improved the bioglass' interaction with bone cells, which were found to attach better to ICIE16

  11. A Raman spectroscopy study on the effects of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on water molecules absorbed by borosilicate glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fabing; Li, Zhanlong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Shenghan; Wang, Xiaojun; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2018-05-01

    The structural forms of water/deuterated water molecules located on the surface of borosilicate capillaries have been first investigated in this study on the basis of the Raman spectral data obtained at different temperatures and under atmospheric pressure for molecules in bulk and also for molecules absorbed by borosilicate glass surface. The strongest two fundamental bands locating at 3063 cm-1 (2438 cm-1) in the recorded Raman spectra are assigned here to the Osbnd H (Osbnd D) bond stretching vibrations and they are compared with the corresponding bands observed at 3124 cm-1 (2325 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum of ice Ih. Our spectroscopic observations have indicated that the structure of water and deuterated water molecules on borosilicate surface is similar to that of ice Ih (hexagonal phase of ice). These observations have also indicated that water molecules locate on the borosilicate surface so as to construct a bilayer structure and that strong and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds are formed between water/deuterated molecules and silanol groups on borosilicate surface. In accordance with these findings, water and deuterated water molecules at the interface of capillary have a higher melting temperature.

  12. Incorporation and distribution of rhenium in a borosilicate glass melt heat treated in a sealed ampoule

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2013-07-25

    We investigated a mass balance of rhenium (used as a surrogate for technetium-99) in a borosilicate glass that was mixed with excess Re source (KReO4) beyond its solubility and heat treated in a vacuum-sealed fused silica ampoule. Distribution of Re in the bulk of the glass, in a salt phase formed on the melt surface, and in condensate material deposited on the ampoule wall was evaluated to understand the Re migration into different phases during the reaction between the molten glass and KReO4. The information gained from this study will contribute to an effort to understand the mechanism of technetiummore » retention in or escape from glass melt during early stages of glass batch melting, which is a goal of the present series of studies.« less

  13. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form. [Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300{degrees}C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surfacemore » reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 {degrees}C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs.« less

  14. Investigating the effect of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition on sodium barium borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, Rumu, E-mail: rumuhalder24feb@gmail.com; Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G. K.

    2016-05-23

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped sodium barium borosilicate glasses were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The glass remains homogeneous for lower concentration of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} but a phase separation is observed when V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doping is increased beyond 5 mol%. Detailed microanalysis reveals that the phase separated glass consists of a phase containing V, Ba and Si and a separate Si rich phase within the glass matrix. The luminescence study demonstrated that at low concentration the vanadium mainly interacts with the structural units of B/Si while at higher concentrations, V-O-V/ V-O{sup −} Na{sup +}/Ba{sup 2+} linkagesmore » are formed.« less

  15. Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoule was heated at 1000 °C for 2 h and then air quenched. In samples with ≥12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixturesmore » of KI, NaI, and Na2SO4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6I2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen and were verified with micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.« less

  16. Structural investigations of bismuth lead borosilicate glasses under the influence of gamma irradiation through ultrasonic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bootjomchai, Cherdsak; Laopaiboon, Jintana; Laopaiboon, Raewat

    2012-04-01

    The ultrasonic velocity measurements for different compositions of irradiated bismuth lead borosilicate glasses xBi2O3-(50-x)PbO-20B2O3-30SiO2 (x=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mol.%) were performed at room temperature using pulse-echo technique. Densities of glass samples were measured by Archimedes' principle using n-hexane as the immersion liquid. The results from the studies show that ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, microhardness, and the Debye temperature increase with increasing bismuth oxide content and increasing gamma-radiation dose (3-12 Gy).

  17. Effect of temperature and thermal history on borosilicate glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Frédéric; Villain, Olivier; Schuller, Sophie; Charpentier, Thibault; de Ligny, Dominique; Bressel, Lena; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2012-02-01

    The influence of the temperature and quenching rate on the structure of a borosilicate glass was studied by high-resolution solid-state 11B, 23Na, 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Data were obtained for glass in the solid state after annealing and quenching at cooling rates covering four orders of magnitude as well as in the liquid state from Raman experiments and from calorimetry and rheological data. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were used to calibrate the Raman spectra in order to quantify the change in boron coordination with temperature. This result can then be used to determine the fictive temperature of the glass directly from the boron coordination. The fictive temperature, heat capacity, and configurational entropy are extracted from calorimetry and viscosity measurements. Changes in the boron coordination account for only 25% of the configurational heat capacity of the liquid. The structural parameters capable of accounting for the remaining quantity are discussed on the basis of structural data, both local (inhomogeneity of the sodium distribution) and medium-range (from NMR parameter distribution). It has thus been shown that, although the B-O-B angular distributions of the boroxol rings (and probably the Si-O-Si distributions) are not affected by temperature, a structural disorder is identified through the angular distributions of the bonds linking borate and silicate groups.

  18. Chemical durability of alkali-borosilicate glasses studied by analytical SEM, IBA, isotopic-tracing and SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Djanarthany, S.; Chêne, J.; Haddi, A.; Brass, A. M.; Poissonnet, S.; Farges, F.

    2005-10-01

    Simple and complex alkali-borosilicate glasses were submitted to aqueous corrosion at room temperature, 60 and 90 °C in solutions with pH ranging between 0 and 12. Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, isotopic tracing and secondary ion mass-depth profiling (SIMS) have been used to investigate the variations of the surface composition of glass. In acidic medium, the glass surface is generally covered by a thick hydrated silica layer, mobile elements like Li, Na and B and transition elements (Fe, Zr, Mo, etc.) are strongly depleted. Near pH 7, relative enrichments of aluminium, iron and rare earths are shown together with strong Li, Na and B depletions. In basic medium, the glass surface exhibits relative enrichments of the major part of transition metals (from Cr to U) whereas mobile elements seem to be kept close to their nominal concentration level at the glass surface and Si is severely impoverished. Hydrogen incorporated at the glass surface after leaching is much more immobile in neutral and basic media than in acid medium.

  19. Processing and optical characterization of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, C. R.; Das, Sangeeta; Gautam, S. S.; Madheshiya, Abhishek; Singh, Anod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, various compositions of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with a fixed amount of germanium were synthesized using the rapid melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the synthesized glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The structural and optical properties were deduced using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of borate groups in triangular and tetrahedral coordination. Infrared and Raman analyses detected the vibrational bonds of Gesbnd Osbnd Ge, Bsbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, and Pbsbnd Osbnd Ge. The energy band gaps were evaluated for the prepared glass samples based on Tauc plots of the UV-Vis spectra. The calculated values of the optical band gap decreased from 2.91 to 2.85 eV as the PbO content increased from x = 0.0 to x = 0.7. Furthermore, the Urbach energy was studied based on the UV-Vis results to confirm the disordered structure of the glass. The calculated densities of the glass samples (1.5835 g/cm3 to 3.9184 g/cm3) increased as the concentration of PbO increased, whereas they decreased with the molar volume.

  20. Wetting of single crystal mullite by borosilicate and yttrium-aluminosilicate glasses and wetting phenomena of steels containing aluminum and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Benjamin Todd

    This dissertation consists of two major sections. The first section concerns the wetting of single crystal mullite by borosilicate and yttrium-aluminosilicate glasses. The borosilicate glass showed poor wetting and interacted only moderately with the substrate. The yttrium-aluminosilicate glass interacted strongly with mullite and showed very good wetting. Balanced chemical equations between each glass and mullite were derived from EDS data. Wetting was found to be dependent on the crystallographic orientation of the substrate, in agreement with previous studies of the surface energy of mullite. The second section concerns the wetting phenomena of steels containing aluminum and titanium. A modified sessile drop technique was used to investigate the wetting of steels containing aluminum and/or titanium as a function of furnace atmosphere. It was found that the steel chemistry and furnace atmosphere had little effect on wetting except in the case of a particular ultra-low carbon steel containing both aluminum and titanium. This steel was found to show significantly lower contact angles than any other steel tested when it was in an atmosphere of pure hydrogen. As nitrogen was added to the atmosphere, the contact angle increased monotonically and irreversibly. The interaction between aluminum, titanium, and nitrogen is explained in terms of first-order interaction coefficients available in thermodynamic literature.

  1. Iodine solubility in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass at 1000°C

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; ...

    2014-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoules were heated at 1000 °C for 2h, and then air quenched. In samples with ≥12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixtures ofmore » KI, NaI, and Na 2SO 4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6I 2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen as determined by micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.« less

  2. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  3. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-07

    This paper describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the “ideal glass”. Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquidsmore » are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.« less

  4. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ediger, M. D.

    This paper describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the “ideal glass”. Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquidsmore » are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.« less

  5. Reinforcement of poly-l-lactic acid electrospun membranes with strontium borosilicate bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João S; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Martins, Margarida; Neves, Nuno M; Miller, Cheryl; Crawford, Aileen; Pires, Ricardo A; Hatton, Paul; Reis, Rui L

    2016-10-15

    Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (<45μm). Degradation studies (in phosphate buffered saline) demonstrated that the incorporation of BBG-Sr glass particles into the PLLA membranes increased their degradability and water uptake with a continuous release of cations. The addition of BBG-Sr glass particles enhanced the membrane's mechanical properties (69% higher Young modulus and 36% higher tensile strength). Furthermore, cellular in vitro evaluation using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) demonstrated that PLLA-BBG-Sr membranes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the cells as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic gene expression (Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap) in relation to PLLA alone. These results strongly suggest that the composite PLLA membranes reinforced with the BBG-Sr glass particles have potential as an effective biomaterial capable of promoting bone regeneration. PLLA membranes were reinforced with 10% (w/w) of strontium-bioactive borosilicate glass microparticles, and their capacity to induce the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was evaluated. These membranes presented an increased: degradability, water uptake, Young modulus and tensile strength. We also demonstrated that these membranes are non-cytotoxic and promote the attachment of BM-MSCs. The addition of the glass microparticles into the PLLA membranes promoted the increase of ALP activity (under osteogenic conditions

  6. A new glass option for parenteral packaging.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert A; Peanasky, John S; DeMartino, Steven E; Schiefelbein, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Glass is the ideal material for parenteral packaging because of its chemical durability, hermeticity, strength, cleanliness, and transparency. Alkali borosilicate glasses have been used successfully for a long time, but they do have some issues relating to breakage, delamination, and variation in hydrolytic performance. In this paper, alkali aluminosilicate glasses are introduced as a possible alternative to alkali borosilicate glasses. An example alkali aluminosilicate glass is shown to meet the compendial requirements, and to have similar thermal, optical, and mechanical attributes as the current alkali borosilicate glasses. In addition, the alkali aluminosilicate performed as well or better than the current alkali borosilicates in extractables tests and stability studies, which suggests that it would be suitable for use with the studied liquid product formulation. The physical, mechanical, and optical properties of glass make it an ideal material for packaging injectable drugs and biologics. Alkali borosilicate glasses have been used successfully for a long time for these applications, but there are some issues. In this paper, alkali aluminosilicate glasses are introduced as a possible alternative to alkali borosilicate glasses. An example alkali aluminosilicate glass is shown to meet the requirements for packaging injectable drugs and biologics, and to be suitable for use with a particular liquid drug. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  7. Investigation of gamma radiation induced changes in local structure of borosilicate glass by TDPAC and EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Nayak, C.; Rajput, P.; Mishra, R. K.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes in local structure around the probe atom (Hafnium) were investigated in sodium barium borosilicate (NBS) glass, used for immobilization of high level liquid waste generated from the reprocessing plant at Trombay, Mumbai. The (NBS) glass was doped with 181Hf as a probe for time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy studies, while for studies using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, the same was doped with 0.5 and 2 % (mole %) hafnium oxide. The irradiated as well as un-irradiated glass samples were studied by TDPAC and EXAFS techniques to obtain information about the changes (if any) around the probe atom due to gamma irradiation. TDPAC spectra of unirradiated and irradiated glasses were similar and reminescent of amorphous materials, indicating negligible effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure around Hafnium probe atom, though the quaqdrupole interaction frequency ( ω Q) and asymmetry parameter ( η) did show a marginal decrease in the irradiated glass compared to that in the unirradiated glass. EXAFS measurements showed a slight decrease in the Hf-O bond distance upon gamma irradiation of Hf doped NBS glass indicating densification of the glass matrix, while the cordination number around hafnium remains unchanged.

  8. In Vitro Degradation of Borosilicate Bioactive Glass and Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) Composite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Jenna; Paakinaho, Kaarlo; Ahola, Niina; Hannula, Markus; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Composite scaffolds were obtained by mixing various amounts (10, 30 and 50 weight % [wt %]) of borosilicate bioactive glass and poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) copolymer. The composites were foamed using supercritical CO2. An increase in the glass content led to a decrease in the pore size and density. In vitro dissolution/reaction test was performed in simulated body fluid. As a function of immersion time, the solution pH increased due to the glass dissolution. This was further supported by the increasing amount of Ca in the immersing solution with increasing immersion time and glass content. Furthermore, the change in scaffold mass was significantly greater with increasing the glass content in the scaffold. However, only the scaffolds containing 30 and 50 wt % of glasses exhibited significant hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at 72 h of immersion. The compression strength of the samples was also measured. The Young’s modulus was similar for the 10 and 30 wt % glass-containing scaffolds whereas it increased to 90 MPa for the 50 wt % glass containing scaffold. Upon immersion up to 72 h, the Young’s modulus increased and then remained constant for longer immersion times. The scaffold prepared could have great potential for bone and cartilage regeneration. PMID:29113141

  9. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-05-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass.

  10. Borosilicate Glass Fiber-Optic Biosensor for the Detection of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maas, Michael B; Maybery, Giles H C; Perold, Willem J; Neveling, Deon P; Dicks, Leon M T

    2018-02-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against Escherichia coli and fluorescent, secondary, antibodies were immobilized on borosilicate glass fibers pre-treated with 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPS). Light with an average wavelength of 627 nm, emitted by a diode placed at one end of the glass fiber, was detected by an ultrasensitive photodiode with peak sensitivity at 640 nm. Changes in fluorescence, caused by binding of E. coli to the antibodies, changed the net refractive index of the glass fiber and thus the internal reflection of light. These evanescent changes in photon energy were recorded by an ultrasensitive photodiode. Signals were amplified and changes in voltage recorded with a digital multimeter. A linear increase in voltage readings was recorded over 2 h when 3.0 × 10 7 CFU/ml and 2.77 × 10 9 CFU/ml E. coli were adhered to the antibodies. Voltage readings were recorded with E. coli cell numbers from 2 × 10 3 CFU/ml to 2 × 10 6 CFU/ml, but readings remained unchanged for 2 h, indicating that the limit of detection is 3.0 × 10 7 CFU/ml. This simple technology may be used to develop a low-cost, portable, fiber-optic biosensor to detect E. coli in infections and may have applications in the medical field. Research is in progress to optimize the sensitivity of the fiber-optic biosensor and determine its specificity.

  11. Release of Gd-ions from peralkaline borosilicate glass in pure water for neutrino detection in Water-Cherenkov Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, R.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The addition of Gadolinium (Gd)-based salt, specially GdCl3, in the Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) enhances the sensitivity to neutrino detection. However, the unwanted Cl-based byproducts, significantly reduces the transparency of water and sensitivity of WCDs. An alternative method, to introduce Gd-ions in the WCDs, is through Gd-release from a custom designed Gd-doped glass, when in contact with water. This can potentially eliminate the use of Gd-based salts and byproducts. In this work, we report the Gd-ions release for a Gd-doped peralkaline (Na/Al > 1) borosilicate glass, which closely represents photomultiplier tube (PMT) glass composition used in WCDs. The purpose of the paper is to show that the Gd-ion release from a custom designed glass in the form of beads or powders is feasible and could be used as a controlled Gd-source in future WCDs to enhance neutrino detection. In addition, we present our results of Gd-solubility in the base glass composition.

  12. Borosilicate glass structure: An investigation of high resolution B K-edge XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Henderson, G. S.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.

    2009-05-01

    The Alkali-borosilicate glasses in the systems Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 and K2O- B2O3-SiO2 have been prepared by melting/quenching in air and studied using synchrotron radiation B K-edge XANES to estimate the evolution of boron coordination as a function of composition. The ratio of alkali/B2O3 (R) and SiO2/B2O3 (K) in the glasses are respectively between 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.5 to 7.0. The edge features of trigonal B ([3]B) and tetrahedral B ([4]B) in B K-edge XANES spectra have been interpreted carefully from B standards such as (B2O3 and BPO4), as well as, a wide range of borate minerals. We find that the proportion of tetrahedral B in glass is increasing as a function of both R and K, similar to previous studies. Contributions of the [3]B and [4]B features to the B K-edge XANES is complex with 6-7 individual transitions contributing to the overall spectral envelope. Many of these transitions are common to both B coordination states making extraction of quantitative [4]B numbers difficult. However, we can calculate the proportion of tetrahedral B accurately by appropriate curve- fitting.

  13. Second-order non-linear optical studies on CdS microcrystallite-doped alkali borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiming; Wang, Mingliang; Zhao, Xiujian

    2007-05-01

    CdS microcrystal-doped alkali borosilicate glasses were prepared by conventional fusion and heat-treatment method. Utilizing Maker fringe method, second-harmonic generation (SHG) was both observed from CdS-doped glasses before and after certain thermal/electrical poling. While because the direction of polarization axes of CdS crystals formed in the samples is random or insufficient interferences of generated SH waves occur, the fringe patterns obtained in samples without poling treatments showed no fine structures. For the poled samples, larger SH intensity has been obtained than that of the samples without any poling treatments. It was considered that the increase of an amount of hexagonal CdS in the anode surface layer caused by the applied dc field increased the SH intensity. The second-order non-linearity χ(2) was estimated to be 1.23 pm/V for the sample poled with 2.5 kV at 360 °C for 30 min.

  14. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Jaidass, N; Krishna Moorthi, C; Mohan Babu, A; Reddi Babu, M

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of Dy 3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x) B 2 O 3 - 25 SiO 2 -10 Al 2 O 3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy 2 O 3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f) were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ω λ (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A R ), total transition probability rate (A T ), radiative lifetime (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for the excited 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Dissolution of Borosilicate and Aluminoborosilicate Glasses in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Pierce, Eric M.

    The aim of this study was to provide atomic-level insights into the dissolution behavior of borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses to complement and help interpret previous experimental work on the NeB glass series studied by Pierce et al. [Pierce E. M., Reed L. R., Shaw W. J., McGrail B. P., Icenhower J. P., Windisch C. F., Cordova E. A. and Broady J. (2010) Experimental determination of the effect of the ratio of B/Al on glass dissolution along the nepheline (NaAlSiO4) - Malinkoite (NaBSiO4) join. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 2634-2654]. The composition of these glasses was 50 mol% SiO2 - 25 mol%more » Na2O - (25-x) mol% Al2O3 - x mol% B2O3, with x varying from 0 to 20 mol%. In the first part of this work, the different structural features of these glasses (e.g., presence of non-bridging oxygens, partition of boron between trigonal and tetrahedral bonding environments, and formation of boroxol rings), identified in the study of Pierce et al., were implemented in the Monte Carlo program. Their effects on the dissolution of borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses were then evaluated individually and led to the following conclusions. (1) The dependence of the dissolution rate on the amount of non-bridging oxygens was found to be linear at all Si/B ratios and the accelerating effect of non-bridging oxygens was shown to increase with increasing Si/B ratio. (2) The formation of boroxol rings and of clusters of boroxol rings resulted in an increase of the dissolution rate at all Si/B ratios and, again, the extent of the rate increase was strongly dependent on the Si/B ratio. (3) For aluminosilicate glasses, the implementation of the aluminum avoidance rule was found to increase the rate of dissolution relative to that obtained for a random distribution. In the second part of this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the dissolution of the NeB glasses in dilute conditions. One of the conclusions that emerged from the study of Pierce et al. was

  16. X-ray absorption studies of chlorine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.; Stolte, W. C.; Demchenko, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a constituent of certain types of nuclear wastes and its presence can affect the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts and glasses developed for the immobilization of such wastes. Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were collected and analyzed to characterize the unknown Cl environments in borosilicate waste glass formulations, ranging in Cl-content from 0.23 to 0.94 wt.%. Both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data for the glasses show trends dependent on calcium (Ca) content. Near-edge data for the Ca-rich glasses are most similar to the Cl XANES of CaCl 2, where Cl - is coordinated to three Ca atoms, while the XANES for the Ca-poor glasses are more similar to the mineral davyne, where Cl is most commonly coordinated to two Ca in one site, as well as Cl and oxygen nearest-neighbors in other sites. With increasing Ca content in the glass, Cl XANES for the glasses approach that for CaCl 2, indicating more Ca nearest-neighbors around Cl. Reliable structural information obtained from the EXAFS data for the glasses is limited, however, to Cl sbnd Cl, Cl sbnd O, and Cl sbnd Na distances; Cl sbnd Ca contributions could not be fit to the glass data, due to the narrow k-space range available for analysis. Structural models that best fit the glass EXAFS data include Cl sbnd Cl, Cl sbnd O, and Cl sbnd Na correlations, where Cl sbnd O and Cl sbnd Na distances decrease by approximately 0.16 Å as glass Ca content increases. XAS for the glasses indicates Cl - is found in multiple sites where most Cl-sites have Ca neighbors, with oxygen, and possibly, Na second-nearest neighbors. EXAFS analyses suggest that Cl sbnd Cl environments may also exist in the glasses in minor amounts. These results are generally consistent with earlier findings for silicate glasses, where Cl - was associated with Ca 2+ and Na + in network modifier sites.

  17. Continuous-wave laser-induced glass fiber generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Nobuyasu; Hidai, Hirofumi; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Morita, Noboru

    2017-09-01

    Pulsed-laser-induced glass fiber generation has been reported. We demonstrate a novel glass fiber generation technique by continuous-wave laser illumination and reveal the generation mechanism. In this technique, borosilicate glass, metal foil, and a heat insulator are stacked and clamped by a jig as the sample. Glass fibers are ejected from the side surface of the borosilicate glass by laser illumination of the sample from the borosilicate glass side. SEM observation shows that nanoparticles are attached on the glass fibers. High-speed imaging reveals that small bubbles are formed at the side surface of the borosilicate glass and the bursting of the bubble ejects the fibers. The temperature at the fiber ejection point is estimated to be 1220 K. The mechanism of the fiber ejection includes the following steps: the metal thin foil heated by the laser increases the temperature of the surrounding glass by heat conduction. Since the absorption coefficient of the glass is increased by increasing the temperature, the glass starts to absorb the laser irradiation. The heated glass softens and bubbles form. When the bubble bursts, molten glass and gas inside the bubble scatter into the air to generate the glass fibers.

  18. Birefringent Stable Glass with Predominantly Isotropic Molecular Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyi; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Alguire, Ethan C.; Gao, Feng; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Cheng, Kevin; Jia, Tiezheng; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Kikkawa, James M.; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Birefringence in stable glasses produced by physical vapor deposition often implies molecular alignment similar to liquid crystals. As such, it remains unclear whether these glasses share the same energy landscape as liquid-quenched glasses that have been aged for millions of years. Here, we produce stable glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene molecules that retain three-dimensional shapes and do not preferentially align in a specific direction. Using a combination of angle- and polarization-dependent photoluminescence and ellipsometry experiments, we show that these stable glasses possess a predominantly isotropic molecular orientation while being optically birefringent. The intrinsic birefringence strongly correlates with increased density, showing that molecular ordering is not required to produce stable glasses or optical birefringence, and provides important insights into the process of stable glass formation via surface-mediated equilibration. To our knowledge, such novel amorphous packing has never been reported in the past.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  20. The influence of ZnO incorporation on the aqueous leaching characteristics of a borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Gregg, D. J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Griffiths, G. J.; Olufson, K.; Rees, Gregory J.; Hanna, John V.

    2017-10-01

    With increasing ZnO content, short term aqueous durability enhancement of all elements in borosilicate glasses containing 1.0 and 3.85 wt% ZnO was evident in 7-day PCT-B tests. In 14-day MCC-1 type leach tests conducted at 90 °C, surface alteration was very clear in the undoped glass via the formation of strongly altered amorphous material which tended to spall off the surface. No sign of crystallinity was detected by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction or electron microscopy of the surface layers and the surface material was very rich in silica. For the ZnO-bearing glasses, significant growth of particles following PCT leaching for 7 days was observed, due to a build-up of surface ZnO-containing Si-rich material and possible agglomeration. This alteration layer was also observed in MCC-1 type experiments in which cross-section SEM-EDS data were obtained. Raman, infrared and 11B and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy showed only slight changes in boron speciation on the addition of up to 9.1 wt% ZnO. Bulk positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PALS) of glasses containing 0-3.85 wt% ZnO could be analysed with three distinct lifetimes and also showed only slight differences. These results indicate that the basic glass structure was essentially not influenced by the ZnO content and that the passivation of the alteration layer is promoted by ZnO content.

  1. Experimental and computed results investigating time-dependent failure in a borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocron, Sidney; Barnette, Darrel; Holmquist, Timothy; Anderson, Charles E.; Bigger, Rory; Moore, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Symmetric plate-impact tests of borosilicate glass were performed from low (116 m/s) to higher (351 m/s) velocities. The tests were recorded with an ultra-high-speed camera to see the shock and failure propagation. The velocity of the back of the target was also recorded with a PDV (Photon Doppler Velocimeter). The images show failure nucleation sites that trail the shock wave. Interestingly, even though the failure wave is clearly seen, the PDV never detected the expected recompression wave. The reason might be that at these low impact velocities the recompression wave is too small to be seen and is lost in the noise. This work also presents a new way to interpret the signals from the PDV. By letting part of the signal travel through the target and reflect on the impact side, it is possible to see the PDV decrease in intensity with time, probably due to the damage growth behind the shock wave.

  2. Comprehensive studies of the Ag+ effect on borosilicate glass ceramics containing Ag nanoparticles and Er-doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanocrystals: morphology, structure, and 2.7 μm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qunhuo; Tian, Ying; Tang, Wenhua; Jing, Xufeng; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have performed a comprehensive investigation of the Ag+ concentration effect on the morphological, thermal, structural, and mid-infrared emission properties of novel oxyfluoride borosilicate glasses and glass ceramics containing both Ag nanoparticles and erbium-doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanocrystals. The effect of Ag+ ions on the glass forming and crystallization processes was discussed in detail by glass structural analysis. It was found that the Ag+ concentration can affect the distribution of Na+ ion and bridge oxygen in boron-rich and silicon-rich phases, which induced the transformation between BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra during crystallization process. In addition, there was a turning point when the doped Ag+ ion concentration reached its solubility in the borosilicate glass. Furthermore, the enhancement of the 2.7 μm emission and the reduction of the lifetime of the 4I13/2 level were observed both in glasses and in glass ceramics, and its origin was revealed by qualitative and quantitative analyses of the Er3+-Ag nanoparticles (localized electric field enhancement) and Er3+-Er3+ (nonradiative resonance energy transfer) interactions within glasses and glass ceramics. Moreover, the high lifetime of the 4I11/2 level (2.12 ms) and the peak emission cross section in 2.7 μm (6.8×10-21 cm2) suggested that the prepared glass ceramics have promising mid-infrared laser applications.

  3. Using polymerization, glass structure, and quasicrystalline theory to produce high level radioactive borosilicate glass remotely: a 20+ year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in borosilicate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt a highly variable waste with some glass forming additives such as SiO 2 and B 2O 3 in the form of a premelted frit and pour the molten mixture into a stainless steel canister. Seal the canister before moisture can enter themore » canister (10’ tall by 2’ in diameter) so the canister does not corrode from the inside out. Glass has also become widely used for HLW is that due to the fact that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in the structure of glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and hazardous species in the waste. The SRO and MRO have also been found to govern the melt properties such as viscosity and resistivity of the melt and the crystallization potential and solubility of certain species. Furthermore, the molecular structure of the glass also controls the glass durability, i.e. the contaminant/radionuclide release, by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to HLW waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150°C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as 99Tc, 137Cs, and 129I. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models were developed based on the molecular structure of glass, polymerization theory of glass, and quasicrystalline theory of glass crystallization. These models create a glass which is durable, pourable, and processable with 95% accuracy without knowing from batch to

  4. Using polymerization, glass structure, and quasicrystalline theory to produce high level radioactive borosilicate glass remotely: a 20+ year legacy

    DOE PAGES

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    2017-03-27

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in borosilicate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt a highly variable waste with some glass forming additives such as SiO 2 and B 2O 3 in the form of a premelted frit and pour the molten mixture into a stainless steel canister. Seal the canister before moisture can enter themore » canister (10’ tall by 2’ in diameter) so the canister does not corrode from the inside out. Glass has also become widely used for HLW is that due to the fact that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in the structure of glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and hazardous species in the waste. The SRO and MRO have also been found to govern the melt properties such as viscosity and resistivity of the melt and the crystallization potential and solubility of certain species. Furthermore, the molecular structure of the glass also controls the glass durability, i.e. the contaminant/radionuclide release, by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to HLW waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150°C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as 99Tc, 137Cs, and 129I. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models were developed based on the molecular structure of glass, polymerization theory of glass, and quasicrystalline theory of glass crystallization. These models create a glass which is durable, pourable, and processable with 95% accuracy without knowing from batch to

  5. Optical absorption and gamma-radiation-shielding parameter studies of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Sayyed, M. I.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Dong, M. G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations (0.1‒2.0 mol%) of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses with 10 mol% Li2O (alkali) or MgO (alkaline) have been synthesized and their optical absorption and radiation shielding features were studied. For both Li2O and MgO series 0.5 mol% Tm3+-doped glass samples, the evaluated Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4, and 6) Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from experimental oscillator strengths were used in estimating the radiative transition probabilities ( A R), branching ratios ( β R), and radiative lifetimes ( τ R) for several emission transitions. Using the XCOM software, the mass attenuation coefficients ( µ/ ρ) for all the fabricated glasses were evaluated within the 0.015‒10 MeV energy range. Also, the ( µ/ ρ) values were calculated at 0.356, 0.662, 1.173, and 1.33 MeV photon energies by MCNP5 simulation code and the results were compared with those obtained by XCOM. The ( µ/ ρ) values for Li2O, as well as MgO series glasses, increase with the addition of Tm2O3 and these values for MgO series glasses are slightly higher with respect to Li2O series glasses. From the ( µ/ ρ) values, effective atomic number ( Z eff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) were calculated and the HVL and MFP results revealed that high-energy photons have more penetration into a glass sample compared to low-energy photons. Further, geometric progression (GP) fitting method was utilized to calculate the exposure buildup factor (EBF) within the 0.015‒15 MeV energy range. The 2.0 mol% Tm2O3-doped glasses show a better ability to attenuate gamma-rays in comparison to other glass samples, so the addition of Tm2O3 content leads to improvement of the shielding efficiency of the prepared glasses.

  6. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. II. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Bonewald, Lynda F; Kuroki, Keiichi; Brown, Roger F

    2010-10-01

    In Part I, the in vitro degradation of bioactivAR52115e glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone, but with three different compositions, was investigated as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. This work is an extension of Part I, to investigate the effect of the glass composition on the in vitro response of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells to these scaffolds, and on the ability of the scaffolds to support tissue infiltration in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. The results of assays for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity showed that the slower degrading silicate 13-93 and borosilicate 13-93B1 scaffolds were far better than the borate 13-93B3 scaffolds in supporting cell proliferation and function. However, all three groups of scaffolds showed the ability to support tissue infiltration in vivo after implantation for 6 weeks. The results indicate that the required bioactivity and degradation rate may be achieved by substituting an appropriate amount of SiO2 in 13-93 glass with B2O3, and that these trabecular glass scaffolds could serve as substrates for the repair and regeneration of contained bone defects. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  7. Process Parameter Effects on Material Removal in Magnetorheological Finishing of Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, C.; Lambroopulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-04-14

    We investigate the effects of processing parameters on material removal for borosilicate glass. Data are collected on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot taking machine (STM) with a standard aqueous magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Normal and shear forces are measured simultaneously, in situ, with a dynamic dual load cell. Shear stress is found to be independent of nanodiamond concentration, penetration depth, magnetic field strength, and the relative velocity between the part and the rotating MR fluid ribbon. Shear stress, determined primarily by the material mechanical properties, dominates removal in MRF. The addition of nanodiamond abrasives greatly enhances the material removal efficiency, withmore » the removal rate saturating at a high abrasive concentration. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) increases with penetration depth but is insensitive to magnetic field strength. The VRR is strongly correlated with the relative velocity between the ribbon and the part, as expected by the Preston equation. A modified removal rate model for MRF offers a better estimation of MRF removal capability by including nanodiamond concentration and penetration depth.« less

  8. Process parameter effects on material removal in magnetorheological finishing of borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunlin; Lambropoulos, John C; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the effects of processing parameters on material removal for borosilicate glass. Data are collected on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot taking machine (STM) with a standard aqueous magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Normal and shear forces are measured simultaneously, in situ, with a dynamic dual load cell. Shear stress is found to be independent of nanodiamond concentration, penetration depth, magnetic field strength, and the relative velocity between the part and the rotating MR fluid ribbon. Shear stress, determined primarily by the material mechanical properties, dominates removal in MRF. The addition of nanodiamond abrasives greatly enhances the material removal efficiency, with the removal rate saturating at a high abrasive concentration. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) increases with penetration depth but is insensitive to magnetic field strength. The VRR is strongly correlated with the relative velocity between the ribbon and the part, as expected by the Preston equation. A modified removal rate model for MRF offers a better estimation of MRF removal capability by including nanodiamond concentration and penetration depth.

  9. Ce3+/Yb3+/Er3+ triply doped bismuth borosilicate glass: a potential fiber material for broadband near-infrared fiber amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yushi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Peng, Gangding; Yang, Jun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    Erbium doped bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glasses, possessing the broadest 1.55 μm near infrared (NIR) emission band among oxide glasses, stand out as excellent fiber material for optical fiber amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate that both broadened and enhanced NIR emission of Er3+ can be obtained by sensibly combining the effects such as mixed glass former effect, phonon-assisted energy transfer (PAET) and de-excitation effect induced by codopant. Specially, by codoping CeO2 in a controlled manner, it leads to not only much improved optical quality of the glasses, enhanced NIR emission, but also significantly suppressed energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) luminescence which is detrimental to the NIR emission. Cerium incorporated in the glasses exists overwhelmingly as the trivalent oxidation state Ce3+ and its effects on the luminescence properties of Er3+ are discussed. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to evaluate gain amplification of the glasses. The result indicates that Ce3+/Yb3+/Er3+ triply doped BBS glasses are promising candidate for erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The strategy described here can be readily extended to other rare-earth ions (REs) to improve the performance of REs doped fiber lasers and amplifiers. PMID:27646191

  10. Probing Toluene and Ethylbenzene Stable Glass Formation using Inert Gas Permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. Scott; May, Robert A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    Inert gas permeation is used to investigate the formation of stable glasses of toluene and ethylbenzene. The effect of deposition temperature (Tdep) on the kinetic stability of the vapor deposited glasses is determined using Kr desorption spectra from within sandwich layers of either toluene or ethylbenzene. The results for toluene show that the most stable glass is formed at Tdep = 0.92 Tg, although glasses with a kinetic stability within 50% of the most stable glass were found with deposition temperatures from 0.85 to 0.95 Tg. Similar results were found for ethylbenzene, which formed its most stable glass at 0.91more » Tg and formed stable glasses from 0.81 to 0.96 Tg. These results are consistent with recent calorimetric studies and demonstrate that the inert gas permeation technique provides a direct method to observe the onset of molecular translation motion that accompanies the glass to supercooled liquid transition.« less

  11. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-06-17

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400-800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained.

  12. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400–800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained. PMID:27322276

  13. Crystal growth in zinc borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullberg, Ana T. G.; Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Veiga, João P. B.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass samples with a molar composition (64+x)ZnO-(16-x)B2O3-20SiO2, where x=0 or 1, were successfully synthesized using a melt-quenching technique. Based on differential thermal analysis data, the produced glass samples were submitted to controlled heat-treatments at selected temperatures (610, 615 and 620 °C) during various times ranging from 8 to 30 h. The crystallization of willemite (Zn2SiO4) within the glass matrix was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under specific heat-treatment conditions, transparent nanocomposite glass-ceramics were obtained, as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, holding time and glass composition on crystal growth was investigated. The mean crystallite size was determined by image analysis on SEM micrographs. The results indicated an increase on the crystallite size and density with time and temperature. The change of crystallite size with time for the heat-treatments at 615 and 620 °C depended on the glass composition. Under fixed heat-treatment conditions, the crystallite density was comparatively higher for the glass composition with higher ZnO content.

  14. Three-dimensional zinc incorporated borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for rodent critical-sized calvarial defects repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2015-06-01

    The biomaterials with high osteogenic ability are being intensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivity and osteogenesis of BG-Zn scaffolds in vitro and in vivo with a rodent calvarial defects model. Zinc containing borosilicate bioactive glass was prepared by doping glass with 1.5, 5 and 10 wt.% ZnO (denoted as BG-1.5Zn, BG-5Zn and BG-10Zn, respectively). When immersed in simulated body fluid, dopant ZnO retarded the degradation process, but did not affect the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) after long-period soaking. BG-Zn scaffolds showed controlled release of Zn ions into the medium for over 8 weeks. Human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSCs) attached well on the BG-1.5Zn and BG-5Zn scaffolds, which exhibited no cytotoxicity to hBMSCs. In addition, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs increased with increasing dopant amount in the glass, while the BG-10Zn group showed over-dose of Zn. Furthermore, when implanted in rat calvarial defects for 8 weeks, the BG-5Zn scaffolds showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone tissue compared to the non-doping scaffolds. Generally, these results showed the BG-Zn scaffolds with high osteogenic capacity will be promising candidates using in bone tissue repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Emission analysis of Tb3+ -and Sm3+ -ion-doped (Li2 O/Na2 O/K2 O) and (Li2 O + Na2 O/Li2 O + K2 O/K2 O + Na2 O)-modified borosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Naveen Kumar Reddy, B; Sailaja, S; Thyagarajan, K; Jho, Young Dahl; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2018-05-01

    Four series of borosilicate glasses modified by alkali oxides and doped with Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ ions were prepared using the conventional melt quenching technique, with the chemical composition 74.5B 2 O 3 + 10SiO 2 + 5MgO + R + 0.5(Tb 2 O 3 /Sm 2 O 3 ) [where R = 10(Li 2 O /Na 2 O/K 2 O) for series A and C, and R = 5(Li 2 O + Na 2 O/Li 2 O + K 2 O/K 2 O + Na 2 O) for series B and D]. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the prepared glasses indicate their amorphous nature. The spectroscopic properties of the prepared glasses were studied by optical absorption analysis, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. A green emission corresponding to the 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 (543 nm) transition of the Tb 3+ ions was registered under excitation at 379 nm for series A and B glasses. The emission spectra of the Sm 3+ ions with the series C and D glasses showed strong reddish-orange emission at 600 nm ( 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 ) with an excitation wavelength λ exci = 404 nm ( 6 H 5/2 → 4 F 7/2 ). Furthermore, the change in the luminescence intensity with the addition of an alkali oxide and combinations of these alkali oxides to borosilicate glasses doped with Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ ions was studied to optimize the potential alkali-oxide-modified borosilicate glass. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. White-beam X-ray diffraction and radiography studies on high-boron-containing borosilicate glass at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Kathryn J.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Kono, Yoshio

    Multi-angle energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies and white-beam X-ray radiography were conducted with a cylindrically shaped (1 mm diameter and 0.7 mm high) high-boron-content borosilicate glass sample (17.6% B 2O 3) to a pressure of 13.7 GPa using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The measured structure factor S(q) to large q = 19 Å –1 is used to determine information about the internuclear bond distances between various species of atoms within the glass sample. Sample pressure was determined with gold as a pressure standard. The sample height as measured by radiography showed anmore » overall uniaxial compression of 22.5% at 13.7 GPa with 10.6% permanent compaction after decompression to ambient conditions. The reduced pair distribution function G(r) was extracted and Si–O, O–O and Si–Si bond distances were measured as a function of pressure. Lastly, Raman spectroscopy of the pressure recovered sample as compared to starting material showed blue-shift and changes in intensity and widths of Raman bands associated with silicate and four-coordinated boron.« less

  17. White-beam X-ray diffraction and radiography studies on high-boron-containing borosilicate glass at high pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Ham, Kathryn J.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Kono, Yoshio; ...

    2017-02-06

    Multi-angle energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies and white-beam X-ray radiography were conducted with a cylindrically shaped (1 mm diameter and 0.7 mm high) high-boron-content borosilicate glass sample (17.6% B 2O 3) to a pressure of 13.7 GPa using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The measured structure factor S(q) to large q = 19 Å –1 is used to determine information about the internuclear bond distances between various species of atoms within the glass sample. Sample pressure was determined with gold as a pressure standard. The sample height as measured by radiography showed anmore » overall uniaxial compression of 22.5% at 13.7 GPa with 10.6% permanent compaction after decompression to ambient conditions. The reduced pair distribution function G(r) was extracted and Si–O, O–O and Si–Si bond distances were measured as a function of pressure. Lastly, Raman spectroscopy of the pressure recovered sample as compared to starting material showed blue-shift and changes in intensity and widths of Raman bands associated with silicate and four-coordinated boron.« less

  18. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurementmore » and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.« less

  19. Atomic layer deposition of alternative glass microchannel plates

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mahony, Aileen, E-mail: aom@incomusa.com; Craven, Christopher A.; Minot, Michael J.

    The technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has enabled the development of alternative glass microchannel plates (MCPs) with independently tunable resistive and emissive layers, resulting in excellent thickness uniformity across the large area (20 × 20 cm), high aspect ratio (60:1 L/d) glass substrates. Furthermore, the use of ALD to deposit functional layers allows the optimal substrate material to be selected, such as borosilicate glass, which has many benefits compared to the lead-oxide glass used in conventional MCPs, including increased stability and lifetime, low background noise, mechanical robustness, and larger area (at present up to 400 cm{sup 2}). Resistively stable, high gain MCPs are demonstratedmore » due to the deposition of uniform ALD resistive and emissive layers on alternative glass microcapillary substrates. The MCP performance characteristics reported include increased stability and lifetime, low background noise (0.04 events cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}), and low gain variation (±5%)« less

  20. White-Beam X-ray Diffraction and Radiography Studies on High-Boron Containing Borosilicate Glass at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Kathryn; Vohra, Yogesh; Kono, Yoshio; Wereszczak, Andrew; Patel, Parimal

    Multi-angle energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction studies and white-beam x-ray radiography were conducted with a cylindrically shaped (1 mm diameter and 0.7 mm high) high-boron content borosilicate glass sample (17.6% B2O3) to a pressure of 13.7 GPa using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The measured structure factor S(q) to large q = 19 Å-1, is used to determine information about the internuclear bond distances between various species of atoms within the glass sample. Sample pressure was determined with gold as a pressure standard. The sample height as measured by radiography showed an overall uniaxial compression of 22.5 % at 13.7 GPa with 10.6% permanent compaction after decompression to ambient conditions. The reduced pair distribution function G(r) was extracted and Si-O, O-O, and Si-Si bond distances were measured as a function of pressure. Raman spectroscopy of pressure recovered sample as compared to starting material showed blue-shift and changes in intensity and widths of Raman bands associated with silicate and B3O6 boroxol rings. US Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0614.

  1. Reaction cured glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

  2. Interaction of water vapor with silicate glass surfaces: Mass-spectrometric investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu.; Asomoza-Palacio, R.; Manzanilla-Naim, L.

    2017-05-01

    The secondary ion mass-spectroscopy technique was used to study the results of hydration of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and soda-lime silicate glasses in 1H2 18O water vapor containing 97% of the isotope 18O. It is shown that hydration of the surface of the soda-lime silicate glass occurs as a result of the ion-exchange reaction with alkali metals. In the case of borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses, water molecules decompose on the glass surface, with the observed formation of hydrogenated layer in the glass being the result of a solid-state chemical reaction—presumably, with the formation of hydroxides from aluminum and boron oxides.

  3. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XV. Dynamical features of molecular liquids that form ultra-stable glasses by vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Richert, Ranko

    2011-09-01

    The dielectric relaxation behavior of ethylbenzene (EBZ) in its viscous regime is measured, and the glass transition temperature (Tg = 116 K) as well as fragility (m = 98) are determined. While the Tg of EBZ from this work is consistent with earlier results, the fragility is found much higher than what has been assumed previously. Literature data is supplemented by the present results on EBZ to compile the dynamic behavior of those glass formers that are known to form ultra-stable glasses by vapor deposition. These dynamics are contrasted with those of ethylcyclohexane, a glass former for which a comparable vapor deposition failed to produce an equally stable glassy state. In a graph that linearizes Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior, i.e., the derivative of -logτ with respect to T/Tg raised to the power of -1/2 versus T/Tg, all ultra-stable glass formers fall onto one master curve in a wide temperature range, while ethylcyclohexane deviates for T ≫ Tg. This result suggests that ultra-stable glass formers share common behavior regarding the dynamics of their supercooled liquid state if scaled to their respective Tg values, and that fragility and related features are linked to the ability to form ultra-stable materials.

  4. Wetspun poly-L-(lactic acid)-borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João S; Reis, Rui L; Pires, Ricardo A

    2017-02-01

    We developed a porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. Porous PLLA-BBG fibre mesh scaffolds were successfully prepared by the combination of wet spinning and fibre bonding techniques. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100μm. Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~1.7). Cellular in vitro studies with human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) showed that PLLA-BBGs are not cytotoxic to cells, while demonstrating their capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-10-01

    Pyroprocessing is are processing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the glass matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  6. Manufacture of large glass honeycomb mirrors. [for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of making very large glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes is examined, and the advantages of honeycomb mirrors made of borosilicate glass are discussed. Thermal gradients in the glass that degrade the figure of thick borosilicate mirrors during use can be largely eliminated in a honeycomb structure by internal ventilation (in air) or careful control of the radiation environment (in space). It is expected that ground-based telescopes with honeycomb mirrors will give better images than those with solid mirrors. Materials, techniques, and the experience that has been gained making trial mirrors and test castings as part of a program to develop 8-10-m-diameter lightweight mirrors are discussed.

  7. Erbium-doped borosilicate glasses containing various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Influence of the silica content on the structure and thermal, physical, optical and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, Kevin; Massera, Jonathan; BioMediTech, Tampere

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped borosilicate glasses were processed with different compositions and characterizations. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content decreases the Er{sup 3+} absorption cross-section at 980 nm. • Glasses with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2} exhibit a stronger emission intensity at 1530 nm than glasses with x = 50. • Highest 1.5 μm emission intensity was achieved for the Al and P containing glass with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: The influence of the silica contentmore » on several properties of Er-doped borosilicate glasses in the presence of various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated. The introduction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are responsible for structural modifications in the glass network through a charge-compensation mechanism related to the formation of negatively-charged PO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 4} groups or through the formation of AlPO{sub 4}-like structural units. In this paper, we show that an increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site, resulting in an increased dependence of the Er{sup 3+} ions optical and luminescence properties on the P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The highest emission intensity at 1.5 μm was achieved for the glass with an equal proportion of P and Al in the glass system with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}.« less

  8. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs inmore » waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.« less

  9. Crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics for immobilization of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Jizong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang; Liao, Qilong

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics with different content (0-30 wt %) of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste (HLLW) were evaluated. The sulfate phase segregation in vitrification process was also investigated. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0-20 wt% of HLLW possess mainly zirconolite phase along with a small amount baddeleyite phase. The amount of perovskite crystals increases while the amount of zirconolite crystals decreases when the HLLW content increases from 20 to 30 wt%. For the samples with 20-30 wt% HLLW, yellow phase was observed during the vitrification process and it disappeared after melting at 1150 °C for 2 h. The viscosity of the sample with 16 wt% HLLW (HLLW-16) is about 27 dPa·s at 1150 °C. The addition of a certain amount (≤20 wt %) of HLLW has no significant change on the aqueous stability of glass-ceramic waste forms. After 28 days, the 90 °C PCT-type normalized leaching rates of Na, B, Si, and La of the sample HLLW-16 are 7.23 × 10-3, 1.57 × 10-3, 8.06 × 10-4, and 1.23 × 10-4 g·m-2·d-1, respectively.

  10. Synthesis, electrical and magnetic properties of sodium borosilicate glasses containing Co-ferrites nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, H. A.; Eltabey, M. M.; Ibrahim, Samia. E.; El-Deen, L. M. Sharaf; Elkholy, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    Co-ferrites nanoparticles that have been prepared by the co-precipitation method were added to sodium borosilicate (Na2O-B2O3-SiO2) glass matrix by the solid solution method and they were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and magnetization measurements. (XRD) revealed the formation of the Co-ferrite magnetic crystalline phase embedded in an amorphous matrix in all the samples. The investigated samples by (TEM) showed the formation of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with a spherical shape and highly monodispersed with an average size about 13 nm. IR data revealed that the BO3 and BO4 are the main structural units of these samples network. IR spectra of the investigated samples showed the characteristic vibration bands of Co-ferrite. Composition and frequency dependent dielectric properties of the prepared samples were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100-100 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increasing cobalt ferrite content. The variations of conductivity and dielectric properties with frequency and composition were discussed. Magnetic hysteresis loops were traced at room temperature using VSM and values of saturation magnetization MS and coercive field HC were determined. The obtained results revealed that a ferrimagnetic behavior were observed and as Co-ferrite concentration increases the values of MS and HC increase from 2.84 to 8.79 (emu/g) and from 88.4 to 736.3 Oe, respectively.

  11. In-vitro bioactivity of zirconia doped borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Rajkumar; Azeem, P. Abdul, E-mail: rk.satyaswaroop@gmail.com, E-mail: drazeem2002@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    Glass composition 31B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20SiO{sub 2}-24.5Na{sub 2}O-(24.5-x) CaO-xZrO{sub 2} x=1,2,3,4,5 were prepared by melt-quenching Technique. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was explored through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses. In this report, we observed that hydroxyapatite formation for 5days of immersion time. Also observed that with increasing the immersion time up to 15days, higher amount of hydroxyapatite layer formation on the surface of glasses. The varying composition of zirconia in glass samples influences shown by XRD, FTIR studies. The present results indicate that,more » in-vitro bioactivity of glasses decreased with increasing zirconia incorporation.« less

  12. Cerium doped glasses: search for a new scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielty, Matthew William

    Single crystals have been the standard material when it comes to scintillators, but with the ability to easily be produced at a considerably lower cost and fabricated into tailored sizes and shapes there is increasing interest in the development of glass scintillators as an alternative. Ce-doped borosilicate and phosphate glasses were investigated focusing on the effect of different modifiers on their optical properties and luminescence. The borosilicate glasses were prepared aiming at the detection of thermal neutrons, utilizing B-10, while the phosphate glasses were targeting the detection of gamma-rays taking advantage of high Z elements such as, Ba, Bi, Ta, Pb and W. Structural characteristics determined by Raman spectroscopy were coupled with results from photoluminescence and UV-visible transmission measurements, while the index of refraction was estimated using the Gladstone-Dale relation using experimentally obtained density values. This work revealed barium, with its superior optical transmission and luminescent properties, to be the best high Z element for inclusion in the phosphate glasses studied.

  13. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. I. Preparation and in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Hailuo; Liu, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone but with three different compositions were evaluated for potential applications in bone repair. The preparation of the scaffolds and the effect of the glass composition on the degradation and conversion of the scaffolds to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) are reported here (Part I). The in vitro response of osteogenic cells to the scaffolds and the in vivo evaluation of the scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous implantation model are described in Part II. Scaffolds (porosity = 78-82%; pore size = 100-500 microm) were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. The conversion rate of the scaffolds to HA in the SBF increased markedly with the B2O3 content of the glass. Concurrently, the pH of the SBF also increased with the B2O3 content of the scaffolds. The compressive strengths of the as-prepared scaffolds (5-11 MPa) were in the upper range of values reported for trabecular bone, but they decreased markedly with immersion time in the SBF and with increasing B2O3 content of the glass. The results show that scaffolds with a wide range of bioactivity and degradation rate can be achieved by replacing varying amounts of SiO(2) in silicate bioactive glass with B2O3. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  14. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery ofmore » silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass

  15. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  16. Low-weight, low-cost, low-cycle time, replicated glass mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerman, Robert; De Smitt, Steven; Strafford, David

    2010-07-01

    ITT has patented and continues to develop processes to fabricate low-cost borosilicate mirrors that can be used for both ground and space-based optical telescopes. Borosilicate glass is a commodity and is the material of choice for today's flat-panel televisions and monitors. Supply and demand has kept its cost low compared to mirror substrate materials typically found in telescopes. The current technology development is on the path to having the ability to deliver imaging quality optics of up to 1m (scalable to 2m) in diameter in three weeks. For those applications that can accommodate the material properties of borosilicate glasses, this technology has the potential to revolutionize ground and space-based astronomy. ITT Corporation has demonstrated finishing a planar, 0.6m borosilicate, optic to <100 nm-rms. This paper will provide an historical overview of the development in this area with an emphasis on recent technology developments to fabricate a 0.6m parabolic mirror under NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) grant #NNX09AD61G.

  17. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    The alkali-borosilicate system was selected as the glass system for the preparation of ultrapure low loss glasses suitable for optical communication. The effect of different oxide contents on the absorption loss was critically reviewed. One composition was chosen to develop the gel preparation procedure in the alkali-borosilicate system. In addition, several procedures for the preparation of gels based on two different approaches were developed. The influence of different preparation parameters were investigated qualitatively. Several conclusions are drawn from the results.

  18. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    DOE PAGES

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-11

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m -2 d -1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10 -6 m s -1. The crystal phases (oxyapatitemore » and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).« less

  19. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m -2 d -1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10 -6 m s -1. The crystal phases (oxyapatitemore » and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).« less

  20. Extraction of heavy metal ions from waste colored glass through phase separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danping; Masui, Hirotsugu; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Akai, Tomoko; Yazawa, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    A new method utilizing phase separation phenomena for the extraction of heavy metal ions used as colorants in colored glass is proposed. Colored soda-lime-silica glass containing Co or Cr as a colorant was remelted with B2O3 to yield soda-lime-borosilicate glass. The soda-lime-borosilicate glass thus obtained was leached in 1M nitric acid at 90 degrees C to dissolve the borate phase. All cations (Na, Ca, Cr and Co) concentrated in the borate phase are successfully leached out with the dissolution of the borate phase, when the amount of the B2O3 added to the glass and heat treatment conditions are properly chosen. Porous silicate glass powders with high SiO2 purity are obtained as the result of the leaching. Porous glass can also be formed as bulk material by controlling the composition of additives during the remelting.

  1. Mesoscale Phase Field Modeling of Glass Strengthening Under Triaxial Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin

    2015-09-28

    Recent hydraulic bomb and confined sleeve tests on transparent armor glass materials such as borosilicate glass and soda-lime glass showed that the glass strength was a function of confinement pressure. The measured stress-strain relation is not a straight line as most brittle materials behave under little or no confinement. Moreover, borosilicate glass exhibited a stronger compressive strength when compared to soda-lime glass, even though soda-lime has higher bulk and shear moduli as well as apparent yield strength. To better understand these experimental findings, a mesoscale phase field model is developed to simulate the nonlinear stress versus strain behaviors under confinementmore » by considering heterogeneity formation under triaxial compression and the energy barrier of a micro shear banding event (referred to as pseudo-slip hereafter) in the amorphous glass. With calibrated modeling parameters, the simulation results demonstrate that the developed phase field model can quantitatively predict the pressure-dependent strength, and it can also explain the difference between the two types of glasses from the perspective of energy barrier associated with a pseudo-slip event.« less

  2. Surface roughness mediated adhesion forces between borosilicate glass and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily; Perni, Stefano; Nipiĉ, Damijan; Bohinc, Klemen; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-08-12

    It is well-known that a number of surface characteristics affect the extent of adhesion between two adjacent materials. One of such parameters is the surface roughness as surface asperities at the nanoscale level govern the overall adhesive forces. For example, the extent of bacterial adhesion is determined by the surface topography; also, once a bacteria colonizes a surface, proliferation of that species will take place and a biofilm may form, increasing the resistance of bacterial cells to removal. In this study, borosilicate glass was employed with varying surface roughness and coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in order to replicate the protein layer that covers orthopedic devices on implantation. As roughness is a scale-dependent process, relevant scan areas were analyzed using atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine Ra; furthermore, appropriate bacterial species were attached to the tip to measure the adhesion forces between cells and substrates. The bacterial species chosen (Staphylococci and Streptococci) are common pathogens associated with a number of implant related infections that are detrimental to the biomedical devices and patients. Correlation between adhesion forces and surface roughness (Ra) was generally better when the surface roughness was measured through scanned areas with size (2 × 2 μm) comparable to bacteria cells. Furthermore, the BSA coating altered the surface roughness without correlation with the initial values of such parameter; therefore, better correlations were found between adhesion forces and BSA-coated surfaces when actual surface roughness was used instead of the initial (nominal) values. It was also found that BSA induced a more hydrophilic and electron donor characteristic to the surfaces; in agreement with increasing adhesion forces of hydrophilic bacteria (as determined through microbial adhesion to solvents test) on BSA-coated substrates.

  3. Development of a High Ionization Efficiency Molten Glass Ion Emitter for TIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheversia, M. B.; Farmer, G.; Koval, C.; David, D.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) remains the method of choice for many high precision isotope ratio determinations but is handicapped by the use of low efficiency ion emitters. For example, ionization efficiencies from molten glass emitters (Si-gel) used for such elements as Pb, Cr, Ru, and Ag are in the range of 0.05-2%, which limits the sample size and the precision to which isotope ratio determinations for these elements can be made. Our aim is to improve the ionization efficiency of the molten glass ion emitter using electrochemical methods. This work builds on recent observations indicating that many metals doped in borosilicate glasses (eg. Bi, Ag), are emitted from the liquid glass (in vacuo) primarily as the neutral metal atom. Our goal is to increase the proportion of singly charged metal atoms in metal-doped molten glasses via oxidation induced by electrochemical methods and to assess whether such in situ oxidation of metal atoms leads to an increase in emitted metal ions. Our experiments are performed in a vacuum chamber that mimics conditions in the sample chamber of the TIMS. A borosilicate glass sample is placed in a miniature ceramic crucible. The crucible contains working and reference Pt electrodes, and a Pt thermocouple. The entire apparatus is wrapped with a resistively heated Ta wire until temperatures in the glass reach approximately 1400°C, to ensure that the glass is molten. By this method, we have produced simple cyclic voltammograms that suggest that over a 100°C temperature range, the borosilicate glass undergoes a transition from resistive behavior as a solid, to a conductive electrolyte, as a molten liquid glass, as expected. The change is evident as an order of magnitude decrease in resistivity of the glass, as interpreted from the voltammograms. The voltammograms produced for the pure borosilicate glasses represent the baseline against which we will compare the electrochemical characteristics of Pb doped glasses. These

  4. Atom-Probe Tomography, TEM and ToF-SIMS study of borosilicate glass alteration rim: A multiscale approach to investigating rate-limiting mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, S.; Jollivet, P.; Barba Rossa, G.; Tribet, M.; Mougnaud, S.; Collin, M.; Fournier, M.; Cadel, E.; Cabie, M.; Dupuy, L.

    2017-04-01

    Significant efforts have been made into understanding the dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals, but there is still debate about the formation processes and the properties of surface layers. Here, we investigate glass coupons of ISG glass - a 6 oxide borosilicate glass of nuclear interest - altered at 90 °C in conditions close to saturation and for durations ranging from 1 to 875 days. Altered glass coupons were characterized from atomic to macroscopic levels to better understand how surface layers become protective. With this approach, it was shown that a rough interface, whose physical characteristics have been modeled, formed in a few days and then propagated into the pristine material at a rate controlled by the reactive transport of water within the growing alteration layer. Several observations such as stiff interfacial B, Na, and Ca profiles and damped profiles within the rest of the alteration layer are not consistent with the classical inter-diffusion model, or with the interfacial dissolution-precipitation model. A new paradigm is proposed to explain these features. Inter-diffusion, a process based on water ingress into the glass and ion-exchange, may only explain the formation of the rough interface in the early stage of glass corrosion. A thin layer of altered glass is formed by this process, and as the layer grows, the accessibility of water to the reactive interface becomes rate-limiting. As a consequence, only the most easily accessible species are dissolved. The others remain undissolved in the alteration layer, probably fixed in highly hydrolysis resistant clusters. A new estimation of water diffusivity in the glass when covered by the passivating layer was determined from the shift between B and H profiles, and was 10-23 m2.s-1, i.e. approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower than water diffusivity in the pristine material. Overall, in the absence of secondary crystalline phases that could consume the major components of the alteration

  5. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wananuruksawong, R.; Jinawath, S.; Padipatvuthikul, P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si3N4 ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si3N4 was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si3N4 ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si3N4 specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (<150 micrometer, Pyrex) with 5 wt% of zirconia powder (3 wt% Y2O3 - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si3N4 specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200°C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100°C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98×10-6 °C-1, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  6. Phase Stability Determinations of DWPF Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, S.L.

    1999-10-22

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. To fulfill this requirement, glass samples were heat treated at various times and temperatures. These results will provide guidance to the repository program about conditions to be avoided during shipping, handling and storage of DWPF canistered waste forms.

  7. Enhancing Patient Safety through the Use of a Pharmaceutical Glass Designed To Prevent Cracked Containers.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert A; Hoff, Kyle C; Demartino, Steven E; Denson, William K; Verkleeren, Ronald L

    2017-01-01

    holding injectable medicines, the affected drug can pose serious risks to the patient receiving that medication. Specifically, the drug product may become less effective or even non-sterile, which could lead to bloodstream infections and, in some cases, death. This article presents a review of some previously documented cases of cracked glass containers that led to patient infections and deaths. Following a survey of common crack locations in glass vials, lab-based methods for replicating these cracks are presented. These methods are then used to compare the fracture response of vials made from conventional borosilicate glass and strengthened aluminosilicate glass. The results show that stable cracks are essentially prevented (at least 31 times less likely to occur) in the strengthened aluminosilicate glass containers (relative to conventional borosilicate glass). This improvement in safety is similar to improvements already engineered into other glass product designs by utilizing stored strain energy to mitigate certain failure modes. © PDA, Inc. 2017.

  8. Failure Behavior of Glass and Aluminum Oxynitride (AlON) Tiles Under Spherical Indenters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    soda - lime - silica glass are the result of intersections of shear flow lines...commercial glass manufacturers. The glasses were soda - lime - silica float glass (Starphire*), borosilicate float glass (BOROFLOAT†), and vitreous silica . The...ensued. For example, Swain and Hagan (47) observed plastic yielding and the formation of ring-cone, radial, and lateral cracks in soda - lime - silica

  9. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  10. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  11. Structure-composition trends in multicomponent borosilicate-based glasses deduced from molecular dynamics simulations with improved B-O and P-O force fields.

    PubMed

    Stevensson, Baltzar; Yu, Yang; Edén, Mattias

    2018-03-28

    We present a comprehensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of composition-structure trends in a set of 25 glasses of widely spanning compositions from the following four systems of increasing complexity: Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 , and Na 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 . The simulations involved new B-O and P-O potential parameters developed within the polarizable shell-model framework, thereby combining the beneficial features of an overall high accuracy and excellent transferability among different glass systems and compositions: this was confirmed by the good accordance with experimental data on the relative BO 3 /BO 4 populations in borate and boro(phospho)silicate networks, as well as with the orthophosphate fractions in bioactive (boro)phosphosilicate glasses, which is believed to strongly influence their bone-bonding properties. The bearing of the simulated melt-cooling rate on the borate/phosphate speciations is discussed. Each local {BO 3 , BO 4 , SiO 4 , PO 4 } coordination environment remained independent of the precise set of co-existing network formers, while all trends observed in bond-lengths/angles mainly reflected the glass-network polymerization, i.e., the relative amounts of bridging oxygen (BO) and non-bridging oxygen (NBO) species. The structural roles of the Na + /Ca 2+ cations were also probed, targeting their local coordination environments and their relative preferences to associate with the various borate, silicate, and phosphate moieties. We evaluate and discuss the common classification of alkali/alkaline-earth metal ions as charge-compensators of either BO 4 tetrahedra or NBO anions in borosilicate glasses, also encompassing the less explored NBO-rich regime: the Na + /Ca 2+ cations mainly associate with BO/NBO species of SiO 4 /BO 3 groups, with significant relative Na-BO 4 contacts only observed in B-rich glass networks devoid of NBO species, whereas NBO-rich glass networks also

  12. Optical waveguides in magneto-optical glasses fabricated by proton implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Yu-Wen; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Fu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Planar waveguides in magneto-optical glasses (Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses) have been produced by a 550-keV proton implantation at a dose of 4.0×1016 ions/cm2 for the first time to our knowledge. After annealing at 260 °C for 1.0 h, the dark-mode spectra and near-field intensity distributions are measured by the prism-coupling and end-face coupling methods. The damage profile, refractive index distribution and light propagation mode of the planar waveguide are numerically calculated by SRIM 2010, RCM and FD-BPM, respectively. The effects of implantation on the structural and optical properties are investigated by Raman and absorption spectra. It suggests that the proton-implanted Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glass waveguide is a good candidate for a waveguide isolator in optical fiber communication and all-optical communication.

  13. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  14. Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shahid; Khan, Younas; Iqbal, Yaseen; Hayat, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    A relatively easier and more accurate method for the determination of average size of metal nanoparticles/aggregates in silicate glasses based on ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectra fitted with the Mie and Mie-Gans models was reported. Gold ions were diffused into sodalime silicate and borosilicate glasses by field-assisted solid-state ion-exchange technique using the same experimental parameters for both glasses. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to directly investigate the morphology and distribution of the dopant nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectra of the doped glasses showed broad surface plasmon resonance peaks in their fingerprint regions, i.e., at 525 and 500 nm for sodalime silicate and borosilicate glass matrices, respectively. These spectra were fitted with the Mie model for spherical nanoparticles and the Mie-Gans model for spheroidal nanoparticles. Although both the models were developed for colloidal nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles/aggregates calculated was accurate to within ˜10% in both the glass matrices in comparison to the size measured directly from the transmission electron microscope images.

  15. Element speciation during nuclear glass alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Bergeron, B.; Jollivet, P.; Pelegrin, E.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses implies the prediction of their long-term performance. An important controlling parameter is their evolution during interaction with water under conditions simulating geological repositories. After briefly recalling the major characteristics of the local and medium-range structure of borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest, we will present some structural features of this evolution. Specific structural tools used to determine the local structure of glass surfaces include synchrotron-radiation x-ray absorption spectroscopy with total electron yield detection. The evolution of the structure of glass surface has been determined at the Zr-, Fe-, Si- and Al-K edges and U-LIII edge. During alteration in near- or under-saturated conditions, some elements such as Fe change coordination, as other elements such as Zr only suffer structural modifications in under-saturated conditions. Uranium exhibits a modification of its speciation from an hexa-coordinated U(VI) in the borosilicate glass to an uranyl group in the gel. These structural modifications may explain the chemical dependence of the initial alteration rate and the transition to the residual regime. They also illustrate the molecular-scale origin of the processes at the origin of the glass-to-gel transformation. Eventually, they explain the provisional trapping of U by the alteration gel: the uranium retention factors in the gel depend on the alteration conditions, and thus on the nature of the resulting gel and on the trapping conditions.

  16. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

  17. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  18. Gamma radiation induced changes in nuclear waste glass containing Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes were investigated in sodium-barium borosilicate glasses containing Eu. The glass composition was similar to that of nuclear waste glasses used for vitrifying Trombay research reactor nuclear waste at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to study the speciation of the rare earth (RE) ion in the matrix before and after gamma irradiation. Judd-Ofelt ( J- O) analyses of the emission spectra were done before and after irradiation. The spin counting technique was employed to quantify the number of defect centres formed in the glass at the highest gamma dose studied. PL data suggested the stabilisation of the trivalent RE ion in the borosilicate glass matrix both before and after irradiation. It was also observed that, the RE ion distributes itself in two different environments in the irradiated glass. From the EPR data it was observed that, boron oxygen hole centre based radicals are the predominant defect centres produced in the glass after irradiation along with small amount of E’ centres. From the spin counting studies the concentration of defect centres in the glass was calculated to be 350 ppm at 900 kGy. This indicated the fact that bulk of the glass remained unaffected after gamma irradiation up to 900 kGy.

  19. Dynamic Ring-on-Ring Equibiaxial Flexural Strength of Borosilicate Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Flexure Strength and Dynamic Fatigue of Soda – Lime – Silica Float Glass ,’’ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 [7] 1777–1782 (2002). 9. A. Borger, R. Danzer, and P...on the Strength and Fatigue Behavior of Indented Soda – Lime Glass ,’’ Glass Technol., 32 [2] 51– 54 (1991). 16. J. J. Jr. Mecholsky, S. W. Freiman, and... Soda – Lime Glass Rods by a Statistical Approach,’’ J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 11 341–346 (1993). 28. S. R. Choi and J. A. Salem, ‘‘Ultra-fast Fracture

  20. Medium-Range Structural Organization of Phosphorus-Bearing Borosilicate Glasses Revealed by Advanced Solid-State NMR Experiments and MD Simulations: Consequences of B/Si Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2017-10-19

    The short and intermediate range structures of a large series of bioactive borophosphosilicate (BPS) glasses were probed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two BPS glass series were designed by gradually substituting SiO 2 by B 2 O 3 in the respective phosphosilicate base compositions 24.1Na 2 O-23.3CaO-48.6SiO 2 -4.0P 2 O 5 ("S49") and 24.6Na 2 O-26.7CaO-46.1SiO 2 -2.6P 2 O 5 ("S46"), the latter constituting the "45S5 Bioglass" utilized for bone grafting applications. The BPS glass networks are built by interconnected SiO 4 , BO 4 , and BO 3 moieties, whereas P exists mainly as orthophosphate anions, except for a minor network-associated portion involving P-O-Si and P-O-B [4] motifs, whose populations were estimated by heteronuclear 31 P{ 11 B} NMR experimentation. The high Na + /Ca 2+ contents give fragmented glass networks with large amounts of nonbridging oxygen (NBO) anions. The MD-generated glass models reveal an increasing propensity for NBO accommodation among the network units according to BO 4 < SiO 4 < BO 3 ≪ PO 4 . The BO 4 /BO 3 intermixing was examined by double-quantum-single-quantum correlation 11 B NMR experiments, which evidenced the presence of all three BO 3 -BO 3 , BO 3 -BO 4 , and BO 4 -BO 4 connectivities, with B [3] -O-B [4] bridges dominating. Notwithstanding that B [4] -O-B [4] linkages are disfavored, both NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations established their presence in these modifier-rich BPS glasses, along with non-negligible B [4] -NBO contacts, at odds with the conventional structural view of borosilicate glasses. We discuss the relative propensities for intermixing of the Si/B/P network formers. Despite the absence of pronounced preferences for Si-O-Si bond formation, the glass models manifest subtle subnanometer-sized structural inhomogeneities, where SiO 4 tetrahedra tend to self-associate into small chain/ring motifs embedded in BO 3 /BO 4 -dominated

  1. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE PAGES

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2014-10-18

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantialmore » investments.« less

  2. A space imaging concept based on a 4m structured spun-cast borosilicate monolithic primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, S. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Bauman, S.; Cuerden, B.; Granger, Z.; Olbert, B. H.

    2010-07-01

    Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) tasked The University of Arizona Steward Observatory (UASO) to conduct an engineering study to examine the feasibility of creating a 4m space telescope based on mature borosilicate technology developed at the UASO for ground-based telescopes. UASO has completed this study and concluded that existing launch vehicles can deliver a 4m monolithic telescope system to a 500 km circular orbit and provide reliable imagery at NIIRS 7-8. An analysis of such an imager based on a lightweight, high-performance, structured 4m primary mirror cast from borosilicate glass is described. The relatively high CTE of this glass is used to advantage by maintaining mirror shape quality with a thermal figuring method. Placed in a 290 K thermal shroud (similar to the Hubble Space Telescope), the orbit averaged figure surface error is 6nm rms when earth-looking. Space-looking optical performance shows that a similar thermal conditioning scheme combined with a 270 K shroud achieves primary mirror distortion of 10 nm rms surface. Analysis shows that a 3-point bipod mount will provide launch survivability with ample margin. The primary mirror naturally maintains its shape at 1g allowing excellent end-to-end pre-launch testing with e.g. the LOTIS 6.5m Collimator. The telescope includes simple systems to measure and correct mirror shape and alignment errors incorporating technologies already proven on the LOTIS Collimator. We have sketched a notional earth-looking 4m telescope concept combined with a wide field TMA concept into a DELTA IV or ATLAS 552 EELV fairing. We have combined an initial analysis of launch and space performance of a special light-weighted honeycomb borosilicate mirror (areal density 95 kg/m2) with public domain information on the existing launch vehicles.

  3. Polyglycerol coatings of glass vials for protein resistance.

    PubMed

    Höger, Kerstin; Becherer, Tobias; Qiang, Wei; Haag, Rainer; Friess, Wolfgang; Küchler, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Proteins are surface active molecules which undergo non-specific adsorption when getting in contact with surfaces such as the primary packaging material. This process is critical as it may cause a loss of protein content or protein aggregation. To prevent unspecific adsorption, protein repellent coatings are of high interest. We describe the coating of industrial relevant borosilicate glass vials with linear methoxylated polyglycerol, hyperbranched polyglycerol, and hyperbranched methoxylated polyglycerol. All coatings provide excellent protein repellent effects. The hyperbranched, non-methoxylated coating performed best. The protein repellent properties were maintained also after applying industrial relevant sterilization methods (≥200 °C). Marginal differences in antibody stability between formulations stored in bare glass vials and coated vials were detected after 3 months storage; the protein repellent effect remained largely stable. Here, we describe a new material suitable for the coating of primary packaging material of proteins which significantly reduces the protein adsorption and thus could present an interesting new possibility for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of physical properties of strontium based alumino-borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Gurbinder; Kumar, V.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the influence of CaO/Mgo ratio (R) on different physical properties of (10+x)CaO-(10-x)-MgO-10SrO-10B2O3-20Al2O3-40SiO2 glasses. The novel glass series has been synthesized by melt quenching technique. The parameters like reflection loss and dielectric constant have been determined. Also, molar refraction, molar electronic polarizability and oxygen packing density have been calculated on the basis of measured values of density, molar volume and refractive index of the glasses.

  5. Method for making glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    A method for making better quality molten (borosilicate and other) glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the a ass constituents that are fed into the melterin accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter`s operating temperature until they meltmore » and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a ``non-bridging oxygen`` term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.« less

  6. Method for making glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method for making better quality molten (borosilicate and other) glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the a ass constituents that are fed into the melterin accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they meltmore » and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.« less

  7. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.

    2014-01-28

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffractionmore » (XRD) revealed that barium borate (β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (χ) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (χ) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(χ)) decreased from 554 to 458 kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831 kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.« less

  8. Dynamic fracture of inorganic glasses by hard spherical and conical projectiles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2015-03-28

    In this article, high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic crack initiation and propagation in several inorganic glasses by the impact of small spherical and conical projectiles are described. These were carried out at speeds of up to approximately 2×10(6) frames s(-1). The glasses were fused silica, 'Pyrex' (a borosilicate glass), soda lime and B(2)O(3). The projectiles were 0.8-2 mm diameter spheres of steel, glass, sapphire and tungsten carbide, and their velocities were up to 340 m s(-1). In fused silica and Pyrex, spherical projectiles' impact produced Hertzian cone cracks travelling at terminal crack velocities, whereas in soda-lime glass fast splinter cracks were generated. No crack bifurcation was observed, which has been explained by the nature of the stress intensity factor of the particle-impact-generated cracks, which leads to a stable crack growth. Crack bifurcation was, however, observed in thermally tempered glass; this bifurcation has been explained by the tensile residual stress and the associated unstable crack growth. A new explanation has been proposed for the decrease of the included angle of the Hertzian cone cracks with increasing impact velocity. B(2)O(3) glass showed dynamic compaction and plasticity owing to impact with steel spheres. Other observations, such as total contact time, crack lengths and response to oblique impacts, have also been explained. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Composition dependence of mechanical property changes in electron irradiated borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, P.; Chen, L.; Duan, B. H.; Zhang, D. F.; Wang, T. S.

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical properties evolution of three kinds of ternary Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 (labeled as NBS) glasses induced by 1.2 MeV electrons has been investigated by nano-indentation measurements. The glass samples were prepared with different values of the molar ratio R = [Na2O]/[B2O3] (0.4, 0.75 and 1.34), while the molar ratio K = [SiO2]/[B2O3] was kept constant as 4.04. The results indicated that both the mean hardness and the reduced Young modulus were decreased as a function of electron dose and the decrements are significantly related with the glass compositions. The toughness of all these three NBS glasses was slightly improved due to electron irradiation. The mechanical properties of glass samples with greater R value tend to be less affected under electron irradiation.

  10. Historical Review of Glasses Used for Parenteral Packaging.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert A; Weeks, W Porter

    2017-01-01

    Glass has long been used for packaging precious liquids, in particular pharmaceuticals. Its unique combination of hermeticity, transparency, strength, and chemical durability make it the optimal material for such an important role. Today's life-saving drugs are stored in borosilicate glasses, which evolved from applications in microscope optics and thermometers. As the glass compositions improved, so did the methods used to shape them and the tests used to characterize them. While all of these advances improved the quality of the glass container and its ability to protect the contents, problems still exist such as delamination, cracks, and glass particulates. In addition to these issues, we review new developments in glass composition development, performance, and testing in the 21 st century. © PDA, Inc. 2017.

  11. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  12. Effect of Gd2O3 doping on structure and boron volatility of borosilicate glass sealants in solid oxide fuel cells-A study on the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Shengwei; Ren, Mengyuan; Yang, Hsiwen; Tang, Dian; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-04-01

    Boron volatility is one of the most important properties of borosilicate-based glass sealants in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as boron contaminants react with lanthanum-containing cathodes, forming LaBO3 and degrading the activity of SOFCs. Here, we report that the reaction between the volatile boron and a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode during polarization can be significantly reduced by doping aluminoborosilicate glass with Gd2O3. Specifically, the Gd cations in glass with 2 mol.% Gd2O3 dissolve preferentially in the borate-rich environment to form more Gd-metaborate structures and promote the formation of calcium metaborate (CaB2O4); they also condense the B-O network after heat treatment, which suppresses poisoning by boron contaminants on the LSCF cathode. The results provide insights into design and development of a reliable sealing glass for SOFC applications.

  13. Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

    1997-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

  14. β-Irradiation Effects on the Formation and Stability of CaMoO4 in a Soda Lime Borosilicate Glass Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Storage.

    PubMed

    Patel, Karishma B; Boizot, Bruno; Facq, Sébastien P; Lampronti, Giulio I; Peuget, Sylvain; Schuller, Sophie; Farnan, Ian

    2017-02-06

    Molybdenum solubility is a limiting factor to actinide loading in nuclear waste glasses, as it initiates the formation of water-soluble crystalline phases such as alkali molybdates. To increase waste loading efficiency, alternative glass ceramic structures are sought that prove resistant to internal radiation resulting from radioisotope decay. In this study, selective formation of water-durable CaMoO 4 in a soda lime borosilicate is achieved by introducing up to 10 mol % MoO 3 in a 1:1 ratio to CaO using a sintering process. The resulting homogeneously dispersed spherical CaMoO 4 nanocrystallites were analyzed using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies prior to and post irradiation, which replicated internal β-irradiation damage on an accelerated scale. Following 0.77 to 1.34 GGy of 2.5 MeV electron radiation CaMoO 4 does not exhibit amorphization or significant transformation. Nor does irradiation induce glass-in-glass phase separation in the surrounding amorphous matrix, or the precipitation of other molybdates, thus proving that excess molybdenum can be successfully incorporated into a structure that it is resistant to β-irradiation proportional to 1000 years of storage without water-soluble byproducts. The CaMoO 4 crystallites do however exhibit a nonlinear Scherrer crystallite size pattern with dose, as determined by a Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns and an alteration in crystal quality as deduced by anisotropic peak changes in both XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Radiation-induced modifications in the CaMoO 4 tetragonal unit cell occurred primarily along the c-axis indicating relaxation of stacked calcium polyhedra. Concurrently, a strong reduction of Mo 6+ to Mo 5+ during irradiation is observed by EPR, which is believed to enhance Ca mobility. These combined results are used to hypothesize a crystallite size alteration model based on a combination of relaxation and diffusion

  15. Bioactive glass/polymer composites for bone and nerve repair and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadkhah, Ali

    Bioactive glasses have several attractive properties in hard and soft tissue repair but their brittleness limited their use, as scaffolding materials, for applications in load-bearing hard tissue repair. At the same time, because of their bioactive properties, they are being studied more often for soft tissue repair. In the present work, a new glass/polymer composite scaffold was developed for the repair of load-bearing bones with high flexural strength and without brittle behavior. The new composites have 2.5 times higher flexural strength and ˜100 times higher work of fracture (without catastrophic failure) compared to a similar bare glass scaffold. Also the use of two known bioactive glasses (13-93-B3 and 45S5) was investigated in developing glass/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) composite films for peripheral nerve repair. It was found that a layer of globular hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on both sides of the composites. The borate glass in the composites was fully reacted in SBF and different ions were released into the solution. The addition of bioactive glass particles to the PCL lowered its elastic modulus and yield strength, but the composites remained intact after the 14 day period in SBF at 37°C. Finally, in an effort to design a better bioactive glass, new borosilicate glass compositions were developed that possess advantages of borate and silicate bioactive glasses at the same time. It was found that replacing small amounts of B2O3 with SiO2 improved glass formation, resistance to nucleation and crystallization, and increased the release rate of boron and silicon in vitro. This new borosilicate glass could be a good alternative to existing silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

  16. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Timothy Andrew; Tucker, Dennis S.; Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 degrees C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 degrees C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed a significant increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 degrees C.

  17. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, T. a.; Tucker, D. S.; Herren, K. A.; Gregory, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed an increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 C.

  18. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  19. Complexing Agents and pH Influence on Chemical Durability of Type I Molded Glass Containers.

    PubMed

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents present in aqueous solution have the main role. Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue causing glass particles' appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed. The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on borosilicate glass chemical durability.Hydrolytic attack was performed in small-volume 23 mL type I glass containers autoclaved according to the European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopeia for 1 h at 121 °C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature, and the unfavorable surface/volume ratio. Solutions of 0.048 M or 0.024 M (M/L) of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), together with sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ±0.05 units at fixed values 5.5, 6.6, 7, 7.4, 8, and 9 by LiOH diluted solution.Because silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions of molded glass, soda lime type II glass, and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. LAY ABSTRACT: Glass, like every packaging material, can have some usage limits, mainly in basic pH solutions. The issue of glass surface degradation particles that appear in vials (delamination) has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years

  20. Symmetrical Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N. H.; Bourne, N. K.; Field, J. E.; Rosenberg, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass but limited their studies to relatively modest stresses (1). We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test in which two rods impact one upon the other. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the glass types (soda-lime and borosilicate)(2). These experiments identify the failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories are interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the glasses and the relation of the fracture to the failure wave in uniaxial strain are discussed.

  1. Calorimetric evidence for two distinct molecular packing arrangements in stable glasses of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Kenneth L; Swallen, Stephen F; Ediger, M D; Sun, Ye; Yu, Lian

    2009-02-12

    Indomethacin glasses of varying stabilities were prepared by physical vapor deposition onto substrates at 265 K. Enthalpy relaxation and the mobility onset temperature were assessed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Quasi-isothermal temperature-modulated DSC was used to measure the reversing heat capacity during annealing above the glass transition temperature Tg. At deposition rates near 8 A/s, scanning DSC shows two enthalpy relaxation peaks and quasi-isothermal DSC shows a two-step change in the reversing heat capacity. We attribute these features to two distinct local packing structures in the vapor-deposited glass, and this interpretation is supported by the strong correlation between the two calorimetric signatures of the glass to liquid transformation. At lower deposition rates, a larger fraction of the sample is prepared in the more stable local packing. The transformation of the vapor-deposited glasses into the supercooled liquid above Tg is exceedingly slow, as much as 4500 times slower than the structural relaxation time of the liquid.

  2. Influence of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on the structure of erbium-doped borosilicate glasses and on their physical, thermal, optical and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, Kevin, E-mail: k.bourhis@argolight.com; Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Reorganization of the glass structure induced by the addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Emission properties related to the presence of P or Al in the Er{sup 3+} coordination shell. • Declustering observed upon addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • No declustering upon addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The effect of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition in Er-doped borosilicate glasses on the physical, thermal, optical, and luminescence properties is investigated. The changes in these glass properties are related to the glass structure modifications induced by the addition of P{submore » 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which were probed by FTIR, {sup 11}B MAS NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Variations of the polymerization degree of the silicate tetrahedra and modifications in the {sup [3]}B/{sup [4]}B ratio are explained by a charge compensation mechanism due to the formation of AlO{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} groups and the formation of Al-O-P linkages in the glass network. From the absorption and luminescence properties of the Er{sup 3+} ions at 980 nm and 1530 nm, declustering is suspected for the highest P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations while for the highest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations no declustering is observed.« less

  3. Extended electron energy loss fine structure simulation of the local boron environment in sodium aluminoborosilicate glasses containing gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Morris; Li, Hong; Li, Liyu

    Gadolinium can be dissolved in sodium-alumino-borosilicate glasses up to 47 wt% in a baseline borosilicate glass (mol%) 20 B2O3, 5 Al2O3, 60 SiO2,and 20 Na2O. Understanding of Gd dissolution in borosilicate melts is important in glass formulation optimization. Electron energy loss fine structure (ELFS) spectroscopy is chosen, which provides well resolved local atomic structure information for both amorphous and crystalline materials with high sensitivity to low Z elements such as Al, B, Na, O, and Si where the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique faces experimental difficulty. In this study, we report our results of boron K-edge ELFS study. Twomore » borosilicate glass samples with 30 and 47 mass% Gd2O3, B20Gd30 and B20Gd47were chosen for B K-edge ELFS study. EEL spectra were acquired on a Philips 430 TEM equipped with Gatan PEELS system 666 and EL/P 2.1 software with Custom function AcqLong. The ELFS data analysis was performed using UWELFS, UWXAFS and FEFF software. From our Gd solubility study, the local structure of Gd in the borate environment possibly resembles double chain structure found in crystalline Gd(BO2)3 as proposed by Chakraborty et al. The B/Gd ratio's in both glasses are smaller then 3, which means the excess Gd atoms in the Si-sites would be 17 and 60 mol% of the total Gd atoms, respectively according to the model, yet the local environment of borate sites saturated with Gd should be remained. To verity above hypothesis, the double chain structure model was applied to fit boron K-edge. The model was shown to well fit experimental boron K-edge EELS spectra for both glasses with some degree of distance distortion which is understandable in amorphous structure. Therefore, it is very likely that Gd stabilized in borate sites has a local structure resembling the double chain Gd(BO2)3 structure as proposed by our solubility study and literature.« less

  4. Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and antibacterial studies of silver doped calcium borosilicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alesh; Mariappan, C. R.

    2018-04-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics 45.8 mol% SiO- 45.8 CaO - 8.4 B2O3 doped with Ag2O were synthesized by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic nature of samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra reveal the probable stretching and bending vibration modes of silicate and borate groups. UV-Visible spectra reveal the presence of Ag+ ions and metallic Ag in the glass matrix for Ag2O doped ceramic sample. Biocompatibility of the glass nature of samples was studied by soaking of samples in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with subsequent XRD studies. It was found that bone-like apatite formation on the glasses after soaked in DMEM. Antibacterial studies of glass ceramics powder against gram positive and negative microorganisms were carried out.

  5. Laser printed glass planar lightwave circuits with integrated fiber alignment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, A.; Radosavljevic, A.; Missinne, J.; Van Thourhout, D.; Van Steenberge, G.

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond laser inscription allows straightforward manufacturing of glass planar lightwave circuits such as waveguides, interferometers, directional couplers, resonators and more complex structures. Fiber alignment structures are needed to facilitate communication with the glass planar lightwave circuit. In this study, a technique is described to create optical waveguides and alignment structures in the same laser exposure step. Using an industrial ytterbium-doped 1030 nm fiber laser pulses of 400 fs were focused into glass with a 0.4 NA objective causing permanent alteration of the material. Depending on laser parameters this modification allows direct writing of waveguides or the creation of channels after exposing the irradiated volumes to an etchant such as KOH. Writing of channels and waveguides with different laser powers, frequencies, polarisations, stage translation speeds and scan densities were investigated in fused silica and borosilicate glass. Waveguides with controlled dimensions were created, as well as etched U-grooves with a diameter of 126 μm and a sidewall roughness Ra of 255 nm. Cut back measurements were performed giving a waveguide propagation loss of 1.1 dB/cm in borosilicate glass. A coupling loss of 0.7 dB was measured for a transition between the waveguide and standard single mode fiber at 1550 nm, using index matching liquid. The described technique eliminates active alignment requirements and is useful for many applications such as microfluidic sensing, PLCs, fan-out connectors for multicore fibers and quantum optical networks.

  6. New techniques for fusion bonding and replication for large glass reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Lightweight, space-deployable glass honeycomb telescope primary mirror structures are produced by a novel method which involves the heating to softening temperature of many borosilicate or silica glass tube sections that are packed to form a honeycomb matrix and filled with a high expansion coefficient refractory sand. The close packed tubes yield a hexagonal-cell honeycomb. Attention is given to the results of an experiment in which a highly refractory master was used to shape a honeycomb of less refractory glass, employing a 1-micron thick, vacuum-deposited gold coating as a parting layer between the two.

  7. Fabrication of Fresnel micro lens array in borosilicate glass by F2-laser ablation for glass interposer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning; Fricke-Begemann, Thomas; Ihlemann, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    The future need for more bandwidth forces the development of optical transmission solutions for rack-to-rack, boardto- board and chip-to-chip interconnects. The goals are significant reduction of power consumption, highest density and potential for bandwidth scalability to overcome the limitations of the systems today with mostly copper based interconnects. For system integration the enabling of thin glass as a substrate material for electro-optical components with integrated micro-optics for efficient light coupling to integrated optical waveguides or fibers is becoming important. Our glass based packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. This kind of packaging consists of a thin glass substrate with integrated micro lenses providing a platform for photonic component assembly and optical fiber or waveguide interconnection. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer size and characterizes excellent optical and high frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. A suitable micro lens approach has to be comparable with different commercial glasses and withstand post-processing like soldering. A benefit of using laser ablated Fresnel lenses is the planar integration capability in the substrate for highest integration density. In the paper we introduce our glass based packaging concept and the Fresnel lens design for different scenarios like chip-to-fiber, chip-to-optical-printed-circuit-board coupling. Based on the design the Fresnel lenses were fabricated by using a 157 nm fluorine laser ablation system.

  8. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility ofmore » rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.« less

  9. Fragile-to-fragile liquid transition at Tg and stable-glass phase nucleation rate maximum at the Kauzmann temperature TK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2014-12-01

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Δp accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm×Δp at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at T≤Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atom, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.

  10. Rationale for windshield glass system specification requirements for shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K.; King, G. L.; Tesinsiky, J.; Wittenburg, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary procurement specification for the space shuttle orbiter windshield pane, and some of the design considerations and rationale leading to its development are presented. The windshield designer is given the necessary methods and procedures for assuring glass pane structural integrity by proof test. These methods and procedures are fully developed for annealed and thermally tempered aluminosilicate, borosilicate, and soda lime glass and for annealed fused silica. Application of the method to chemically tempered glass is considered. Other considerations are vision requirements, protection against bird impact, hail, frost, rain, and meteoroids. The functional requirements of the windshield system during landing, ferrying, boost, space flight, and entry are included.

  11. Complexing agents and pH influence on chemical durability of type I moulded glass containers.

    PubMed

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-06-16

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents presence in aqueous solution have the main role (1). Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue with glass particles appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed (2,3). The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on the borosilicate glass chemical durability. Hydrolytic attack was performed in small volume 23 ml type I glass containers autoclaved according to EP or USP for 1 hour at 121°C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature and the unfavourable surface/volume ratio. 0,048 M or 0.024 M (moles/liter) solutions of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ± 0,05 units at fixed values 5,5-6,6-7-7,4-8-9 by LiOH diluted solution. Since silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by ICPAES. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions, of moulded glass, soda lime type II and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by SEM was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  12. X-ray tomography of feed-to-glass transition of simulated borosilicate waste glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Harris, William H.; Guillen, Donna P.; Klouzek, Jaroslav; ...

    2017-05-10

    The feed composition of a high level nuclear waste (HLW) glass melter affects the overall melting rate by influencing the chemical, thermophysical, and morphological properties of a relatively insulating cold cap layer over the molten phase where the primary feed vitrification reactions occur. Data from X ray computed tomography imaging of melting pellets comprised of a simulated high-aluminum HLW feed heated at a rate of 10°C/min reveal the distribution and morphology of bubbles, collectively known as primary foam, within this layer for various SiO 2/(Li 2CO 3+H 3BO 3+Na 2CO 3) mass fractions at temperatures between 600°C and 1040°C. Tomore » track melting dynamics, cross-sections obtained through the central profile of the pellet were digitally segmented into primary foam and a condensed phase. Pellet dimensions were extracted using Photoshop CS6 tools while the DREAM.3D software package was used to calculate pellet profile area, average and maximum bubble areas, and two-dimensional void fraction. The measured linear increase in the pellet area expansion rates – and therefore the increase in batch gas evolution rates – with SiO 2/(Li 2CO 3+H 3BO 3+Na 2CO 3) mass fraction despite an exponential increase in viscosity of the final waste glass at 1050°C and a lower total amount of gas-evolving species suggest that the retention of primary foam with large average bubble size at higher temperatures results from faster reaction kinetics rather than increased viscosity. However, viscosity does affect the initial foam collapse temperature by supporting the growth of larger bubbles. Because the maximum bubble size is limited by the pellet dimensions, larger scale studies are needed to understand primary foam morphology at high temperatures. This temperature-dependent morphological data can be used in future investigations to synthetically generate cold cap structures for use in models of heat transfer within a HLW glass melter.« less

  13. X-ray tomography of feed-to-glass transition of simulated borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William H.; Guillen, Donna P.; Klouzek, Jaroslav

    The feed composition of a high level nuclear waste (HLW) glass melter affects the overall melting rate by influencing the chemical, thermophysical, and morphological properties of a relatively insulating cold cap layer over the molten phase where the primary feed vitrification reactions occur. Data from X ray computed tomography imaging of melting pellets comprised of a simulated high-aluminum HLW feed heated at a rate of 10°C/min reveal the distribution and morphology of bubbles, collectively known as primary foam, within this layer for various SiO 2/(Li 2CO 3+H 3BO 3+Na 2CO 3) mass fractions at temperatures between 600°C and 1040°C. Tomore » track melting dynamics, cross-sections obtained through the central profile of the pellet were digitally segmented into primary foam and a condensed phase. Pellet dimensions were extracted using Photoshop CS6 tools while the DREAM.3D software package was used to calculate pellet profile area, average and maximum bubble areas, and two-dimensional void fraction. The measured linear increase in the pellet area expansion rates – and therefore the increase in batch gas evolution rates – with SiO 2/(Li 2CO 3+H 3BO 3+Na 2CO 3) mass fraction despite an exponential increase in viscosity of the final waste glass at 1050°C and a lower total amount of gas-evolving species suggest that the retention of primary foam with large average bubble size at higher temperatures results from faster reaction kinetics rather than increased viscosity. However, viscosity does affect the initial foam collapse temperature by supporting the growth of larger bubbles. Because the maximum bubble size is limited by the pellet dimensions, larger scale studies are needed to understand primary foam morphology at high temperatures. This temperature-dependent morphological data can be used in future investigations to synthetically generate cold cap structures for use in models of heat transfer within a HLW glass melter.« less

  14. Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, V. R.; Simova, E.; Corkum, P. B.; Rayner, D. M.; Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R. S.; Schreder, B.; Kluge, M.; Zimmer, J.

    2005-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study on femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in a wide variety of multicomponent glasses grouped as borosilicate, aluminum-silicate, and heavy-metal oxide glasses along with lanthanum-borate and sodium-phosphate glasses. By using high-spatial resolution refractive index profiling techniques, we demonstrate that under a wide range of writing conditions the refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses can be positive, negative, or nonuniform, and exhibits a strong dependence on the glass composition. With the exception of some aluminum-silicate glasses all other glasses exhibited a negative/nonuniform index change. We also demonstrate direct writing of waveguides in photosensitive Foturan® glass with a femtosecond laser without initiating crystallization by thermal treatment. Upon ceramization of lithium-aluminum-silicate glasses such as Foturan®, Zerodur®, and Robax® we observe switching of laser-induced refractive index change from being positive to negative. The measured transmission losses in the waveguides at 1550nm agree with the index profile measurements in alkali-free aluminum-silicate glasses.

  15. Glasses for immobilization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for recovery of fissionable elements is a precondition of long-term development of nuclear energetics. Solution of this problem is hindered by the production of a great amount of liquid waste; 99% of its volume is low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW). The volume of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is characterized by high heat release, does not exceed a fraction of a percent. Solubility of glasses at an elevated temperature makes them unfit for immobilization of HLW, the insulation of which is ensured only by mineral-like matrices. At the same time, glasses are a perfect matrix for LILW, which are distinguished by low heat release. The solubility of borosilicate glass at a low temperature is so low that even a glass with relatively low resistance enables them to retain safety of under-ground LILW depositories without additional engineering barriers. The optimal technology of liquid confinement is their concentration and immobilization in borosilicate glasses, which are disposed in shallow-seated geological repositories. The vitrification of 1 m3 liquid LILW with a salt concentration of ˜300 kg/m3 leaves behind only 0.2 m3 waste, that is, 4-6 times less than by bitumen impregnation and 10 times less than by cementation. Environmental and economic advantages of LILW vitrification result from (1) low solubility of the vitrified LILW in natural water; (2) significant reduction of LILW volume; (3) possibility to dispose the vitrified waste without additional engineering barriers under shallow conditions and in diverse geological media; (4) the strength of glass makes its transportation and storage possible; and finally (5) reliable longterm safety of repositories. When the composition of the glass matrix for LILW is being chosen, attention should be paid to the factors that ensure high technological and economic efficiency of vitrification. The study of vitrified LILW from the Kursk nuclear power plant

  16. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R; See, Clem A; Lam, Oanh P

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa∙s to 750 Pa∙s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, andmore » Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pas.« less

  17. Using neutrons, X-rays and nuclear magnetism to determine the role of transition metal oxide inclusions on both glass structure and stability in automotive glass enamels.

    PubMed

    Bowron, Daniel T; Booth, Jonathan; Barrow, Nathan S; Sutton, Patricia; Johnson, Simon R

    2018-05-23

    Low levels of transition metal oxides in alkali borosilicate glass systems can drastically influence crystallisation and phase separation properties. We investigated the non-monotonic effect of manganese doping on suppressing crystallisation, and the influence on optical properties by iron oxide doping, in terms of local atomic structure. Structural models based on empirical potential structure refinement were generated from neutron and X-ray scattering data, and compared against multinuclear solid-state NMR. This revealed that a 2.5% manganese doping had a disruptive effect on the entire glass network, supressing crystallisation of an undesired bismuth silicate phase, and that iron species preferentially locate near borate tetrahedra. Preventing phase separation and controlling crystallisation behaviour of glass are critical to the ultimate properties of automotive glass enamels.

  18. Ferric oxide quantum dots in stable phosphate glass system and their magneto-optical study

    SciTech Connect

    Garaje, Sunil N.; Apte, Sanjay K.; Kumar, Ganpathy

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: We report synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles (NCs) content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in Verdet constant with concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and there is a threefold enhancement in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite. Highlights: ► We synthesize ferric oxide embedded low melting stable phosphate glass nanocomposite. ► Glasses doped with 0.25 and 2%more » ferric oxide show particle size in the range of 4–12 nm. ► The host phosphate glass itself shows fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm). ► Glasses doped with 0.25% ferric oxide show high Verdet constant (30.525°/T cm). ► The as synthesis glasses may have potential application in magneto optical devices. -- Abstract: Herein, we report the synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. The optical study clearly showed red shift in optical cut off with increasing ferric oxide concentration. The band gap of the host glass was observed to be 3.48 eV and it shifted to 3.14 eV after doping with ferric oxide. The glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide showed particle size of 4–6 nm and 8–12 nm, respectively. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in the Verdet constant as per increasing concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and threefold enhancement was observed in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite.« less

  19. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGsmore » are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.« less

  20. Radiological analysis of plutonium glass batches with natural/enriched boron

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    2000-06-22

    The disposition of surplus plutonium inventories by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes the immobilization of certain plutonium materials in a borosilicate glass matrix, also referred to as vitrification. This paper addresses source terms of plutonium masses immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix where the glass components include both natural boron and enriched boron. The calculated source terms pertain to neutron and gamma source strength (particles per second), and source spectrum changes. The calculated source terms corresponding to natural boron and enriched boron are compared to determine the benefits (decrease in radiation source terms) for to the use ofmore » enriched boron. The analysis of plutonium glass source terms shows that a large component of the neutron source terms is due to (a, n) reactions. The Americium-241 and plutonium present in the glass emit alpha particles (a). These alpha particles interact with low-Z nuclides like B-11, B-10, and O-17 in the glass to produce neutrons. The low-Z nuclides are referred to as target particles. The reference glass contains 9.4 wt percent B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Boron-11 was found to strongly support the (a, n) reactions in the glass matrix. B-11 has a natural abundance of over 80 percent. The (a, n) reaction rates for B-10 are lower than for B-11 and the analysis shows that the plutonium glass neutron source terms can be reduced by artificially enriching natural boron with B-10. The natural abundance of B-10 is 19.9 percent. Boron enriched to 96-wt percent B-10 or above can be obtained commercially. Since lower source terms imply lower dose rates to radiation workers handling the plutonium glass materials, it is important to know the achievable decrease in source terms as a result of boron enrichment. Plutonium materials are normally handled in glove boxes with shielded glass windows and the work entails both extremity and whole-body exposures. Lowering the source terms of the plutonium batches will

  1. Effect of Loading Rates and Surface Conditions on the Flexural Strength of Borosilicate Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    strength of etched soda - lime glass rods.32 According to this model, an idealized surface crack is uniformly attacked by acid at every point so that this...R. Lin, ‘‘Effect of Polymer Coatings on the Strength and Fatigue Behavior of Indented Soda - Lime Glass ,’’ Glass Technol., 32 [2] 51–4 (1991). 10J. J...Scott Glaesemann, K. Jakus, and J. E. Ritter Jr., ‘‘Strength Variability of Indented Soda - Lime Glass ,’’ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 70 [6] 441–4 (1987). 12C

  2. Nb-doped SrTiO3 glass-ceramics as high temperature stable n-type oxide thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingner, Julian; Jakob, Gerhard; Letz, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Niobium doped SrTiO3 is known for its high potential as an oxide thermoelectric material and is one of the possible candidates for the n-type site in an oxidic thermoelectric module. The high thermal conductivity [1] and the lack of high-temperature stability of the oxygen vacancies [2] limit its properties in the ceramic systems. Glass-ceramics are intrinsic nano-structured systems and provide crystal phases densely embedded in a glass matrix which prevents the material from detoriation at high temperatures. In particular, the glass-matrix prevents an uncontrolled reoxidization as well as an uncontrolled grain growth therefore retaining the nano-structure even at high temperatures. Here, measurements and results of first glass-ceramic systems are presented, which show a low thermal conductivity due to the residue glass phase. Furthermore a stable thermal cycling up to 650 °C is demonstrated.

  3. Free volume of mixed cation borosilicate glass sealants elucidated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and its correlation with glass properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Prasanta K.; Rath, Sangram K.; Sharma, Sandeep K.; Sudarshan, Kathi; Pujari, Pradeep K.; Chongdar, Tapas K.; Gokhale, Nitin M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of La+3/Sr+2 ratios, which is varied from 0.08 to 5.09, on density, molar volume, packing fraction, free volume, thermal and electrical properties in strontium lanthanum aluminoborosilicate based glass sealants intended for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications is evaluated. The studies reveal expansion of the glass network evident from increasing molar volume and decreasing packing fraction of glasses with progressive La+3 substitutions. The molecular origin of these macroscopic structural features can be accounted for by the free volume parameters measured from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The La+3 induced expanded glass networks show increased number of subnanoscopic voids with larger sizes, as revealed from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity. A remarkably direct correspondence between the molar volume and fractional free volume trend is established with progressive La2O3 substitution in the glasses. The effect of these structural changes on the glass transition temperature, softening temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stability as well as electrical conductivity has been studied.

  4. Thermal and physicochemical properties important for the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Hj.; Vernaz, E.

    High level nuclear waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has to be solidified in a stable matrix for safe long-time storage. Vitrification in borosilicate glasses is the technique accepted worldwide as the best combination of engineering constraints from fabrication and physicochemical properties of the matrix. A number of different glasses was developed in different national programs. The criteria and the reasons for selecting the final compositions are described briefly. Emphasis is placed on the French product R7T7 and on thermal and physicochemical properties though glasses developed in other national projects (e.g., the German product GP 98/12, etc.) are also treated. The basic physical and mechanical properties and the chemical durability of the glass in contact with water are described. The basic mechanisms of aqueous corrosion are discussed and the evolving modelling of the leaching process is dealt with, as well as effects of container material, backfill, etc. The thermal behavior has also been studied and extensive data exist on diffusion of glass constituents (Na) and of interesting elements of the waste such as the alkalis Rb and Cs or the actinides U and Pu, as well as on crystallization processes in the glass during storage at elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on the radiation stability of the glasses, based on extensive studies using short-lived actinides (e.g., 244Cm) or ion implantation to produce the damage expected during long storage at an accelerated rate. The radiation stability is shown to be very good, if realistic damage conditions are used. The knowledge accumulated in the past years is used to evaluate and predict the long-term evolution of the glass under storage conditions.

  5. Thermal history-based etching

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, John T.

    A method for adjusting an etchability of a first borosilicate glass by heating the first borosilicate glass; combining the first borosilicate glass with a second borosilicate glass to form a composite; and etching the composite with an etchant. A material having a protrusive phase and a recessive phase, where the protrusive phase protrudes from the recessive phase to form a plurality of nanoscale surface features, and where the protrusive phase and the recessive phase have the same composition.

  6. Modelling the local atomic structure of molybdenum in nuclear waste glasses with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Peter V; Duffy, Dorothy M

    2016-09-21

    The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO 2 ) 57.5 -(B 2 O 3 ) 10 -(Na 2 O) 15 -(CaO) 15 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 and (SiO 2 ) 57.3 -(B 2 O 3 ) 20 -(Na 2 O) 6.8 -(Li 2 O) 13.4 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na 2 MoO 4 and CaMoO 4 ). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shell reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations.

  7. (W7860)Monte Carlo Simulations of the Dissolution of Borosilicate and Aluminoborosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Pierce, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide atomic-level insights into the dissolution behavior of borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses in dilute aqueous solutions. In the first part of this work, the effects of different structural features, such as the presence of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) or the formation of boroxol rings, on glass dissolution were evaluated separately and led to the following conclusions. (1) The dependence of the dissolution rate on the amount of NBO was found to be linear at all Si/B ratios and the accelerating effect of NBO was shown to increase with increasing Si/B ratio. (2) The formationmore » of boroxol rings and of clusters of boroxol rings resulted in an increase of the dissolution rate at all Si/B ratios and, again, the extent of the rate increase was strongly dependent on the Si/B ratio. (3) For aluminosilicate glasses, the implementation of the aluminum avoidance rule was found to increase the rate of dissolution relative to that obtained for a random distribution. In the second part of this work, the dissolution of the NeB glasses studied by Pierce et al. [Pierce E. M., Reed L. R., Shaw W. J., McGrail B. P., Icenhower J. P., Windisch C. F., Cordova E. A. and Broady J. (2010) Experimental determination of the effect of the ratio of B/Al on glass dissolution along the nepheline (NaAlSiO4) - Malinkoite (NaBSiO4) join. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 2634-2654] was modeled in dilute aqueous solutions. Pierce et al. concluded from their study that either the rupture of the Al-O bonds or that of the Si O bonds was the rate-limiting step controlling the dissolution of the NeB glasses. The simulations refined this conclusion and showed that, at low B/Al ratios, the rupture of both Al O Si and Si O Si linkages contributed to the dissolution rate whereas, at high B/Al ratios, the dissolution rate was independent of the rupture of Al-O-Si linkages and was controlled by S1 sites (silicon sites at the glass-water interface with one connection

  8. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown,D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinkedmore » Sn4+O6 units.« less

  9. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  10. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in contextmore » to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.« less

  11. Understanding of the mechanical and structural changes induced by alpha particles and heavy ions in the French simulated nuclear waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt, G.; Abdelouas, A.; Guin, J.-P.; Nivard, M.; Sauvage, T.; Paris, M.; Bardeau, J.-F.

    2016-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses are considered for the long-term confinement of high-level nuclear wastes. External irradiations with 1 MeV He+ ions and 7 MeV Au5+ ions were performed to simulate effects produced by alpha particles and by recoil nuclei in the simulated SON68 nuclear waste glass. To better understand the structural modifications, irradiations were also carried out on a 6-oxides borosilicate glass, a simplified version of the SON68 glass (ISG glass). The mechanical and macroscopic properties of the glasses were studied as function of the deposited electronic and nuclear energies. Alpha particles and gold ions induced a volume change up to -0.7% and -2.7%, respectively, depending on the glass composition. Nano-indentations tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated glasses. A decrease of about -22% to -38% of the hardness and a decrease of the reduced Young's modulus by -8% were measured after irradiations. The evolution of the glass structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy, and also 11B and 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) on a 20 MeV Kr irradiated ISG glass powder. A decrease of the silica network connectivity after irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions is deduced from the structural changes observations. NMR spectra revealed a partial conversion of BO4 to BO3 units but also a formation of AlO5 and AlO6 species after irradiation with Kr ions. The relationships between the mechanical and structural changes are also discussed.

  12. Component effects on crystallization of RE-containing aluminoborosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanide-aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass is one option for immobilizing rare earth (RE) oxide fission products generated during reprocessing of pyroprocessed fuel. This glass system can accommodate a high loading of RE oxides and has excellent chemical durability. The present study describes efforts to model equilibrium crystallinity as a function of glass composition and temperature as well as liquidus temperature (TL) as a function of glass composition. The experimental method for determining TL was ASTM C1720-11. Typically, three crystalline phases were formed in each glass: Ce-borosilicate (Ce3BSi2O10), mullite (Al10Si2O19), and corundum (Al2O3). Cerianite (CeO2) was a common minor crystalline phase and Nd-silicate (Nd2Si2O7) occurred in some of the glasses. In the composition region studied, TL decreased as SiO2 and B2O3 fractions increased and strongly increased with increasing fractions of RE oxides; Al2O3 had a moderate effect on the TL but, as expected, it strongly affected the precipitation of Al-containing crystals.

  13. Corrosion Behavior and Microstructure Influence of Glass-Ceramic Nuclear Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Asmussen, R.; Neeway, James J.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.

    Glass ceramic waste forms present a potentially viable technology for the long term immobilization and disposal of liquid nuclear wastes. Through control of chemistry during fabrication, such waste forms can have designed secondary crystalline phases within a borosilicate glass matrix. In this work, a glass ceramic containing powellite and oxyapatite secondary phases was tested for its corrosion properties in dilute conditions using single pass flow through testing (SPFT). Three glass ceramic samples were prepared using different cooling rates to produce samples with varying microstructure sizes. In testing at 90 °C in buffered pH 7 and pH 9 solutions, it wasmore » found that increasing pH and decreasing microstructure size (resulting from rapid cooling during fabrication) both led to a reduction in overall corrosion rate. The phases of the glass ceramic were found, using a combination of solutions analysis, SEM and AFM, to corrode preferably in the order of powellite > bulk glass matrix > oxyapatite.« less

  14. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  15. Optical properties modification induced by laser radiation in noble-metal-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, N.; Stankova, N. E.; Koleva, M. E.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P.; Grozeva, M.; Iordanova, E.; Yankov, G.; Aleksandrov, L.; Iordanova, R.; Karashanova, D.

    2018-03-01

    We present results on laser-induced color changes in gold- and silver-doped glass. The doped borosilicate glass was prepared by conventional melt quenching. The study was focused on the change of the optical properties after irradiation of the glass by femtosecond laser pulses. Under certain conditions, the laser radiation induces defects associated with formation of color centers in the material. We studied this process in a broad range of laser radiation wavelengths – from UV to IR, and observed changes in the color of the irradiated areas after annealing of the processed glass samples, the color being red for the gold-doped glass red and yellow for the silver-doped glass. The structural and morphological analyses performed indicated that this effect is related to formation of metal nanoparticles inside the material. The results obtained show that femtosecond laser processing of noble-metal-doped glasses can be used for fabrication of 3D-nanoparticles systems in transparent materials with application as novel optical components.

  16. Quantum-dot temperature profiles during laser irradiation for semiconductor-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Swati

    2002-12-01

    Temperature profiles around laser irradiated CdX (X=S, Se, and Te) quantum dots in borosilicate glasses were theoretically modeled. Initially the quantum dots heat up rapidly, followed by a gradual increase of temperature. Also it is found that larger dots reach higher temperatures for the same pulse characteristics. After the pulse is turned off, the dots initially cool rapidly, followed by a gradual decrease in temperature.

  17. New laser media based on microporous glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Altshuler, G.B.; Bakanov, V.A.; Dulneva, E.G.

    The results of the investigation of new class of the laser media based on dye solutions impregnated microporous glasses are presented. Based on such media highly effective active elements of tunable dye lasers and passive modulators for solid-state lasers are created. This article is devoted to laser media of the new type - the heterogenous solid-liquid media on the basis of the impregnated by the solutions of the dyes of the microporous glasses. The microporous glasses represent themselves the products of the leaching of heat - treated sodium borosilicate glasses of a certain composition range. As a result of heatmore » treatment is realized the phase separated glass. It consists of two interconnected phases: the silica rich phase and the chemical unstable sodium - borate - rich phase. If we place this glass in the acid then the ions of sodium and borate will be transfered to the solution. As a result we obtain the porous glass and this process produces the continuous claster. Therefore it could be easily impregnated by liquids and gases. We now have the technology that permits us to obtain the samples with the volume porosity from ten to fifty percent and the size of this poroses could be varied from twenty angstroms up to one thousand angstroms.« less

  18. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to developmore » a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the

  19. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod; Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt

    2014-02-01

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd2O3-22.7CeO2-11.7La2O3-10.9PrO2-1.3Eu2O3-1.3Gd2O3-8.1Sm2O3-4.8Y2O3 with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO2-16.0B2O3-12.6Na2O-3.8Al2O3-5.7CaO-1.7ZrO2. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La2O3 and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO5) and oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26) were found in glasses containing La2O3, while oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26 and NaNd9Si6O26) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (TL) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La2O3 were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while TL was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients TB2O3, TSiO2, TCaO, and TRE2O3 were also evaluated using a recently published study.

  20. Direct laser writing of topographic features in semiconductor-doped glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei Y.

    2000-11-01

    Patterning of glass and silica surfaces is important for a number of modern technologies, which depend on these materials for manufacturing of both final products, such as optics, and prototypes for casting and molding. Among the fields that require glass processing on microscopic scale are optics (lenses and arrays, diffractive/holographic elements, waveguides), biotechnology (capillary electrophoresis chips and biochemical libraries) and magnetic media (landing zones for magnetic heads). Currently, standard non-laser techniques for glass surface patterning require complex multi-step processes, such as photolithography. Work carried out at Brown has shown that semiconductor- doped glasses (SDG) allow a single-step patterning process using low power continuous-wave visible lasers. SDG are composite materials, which consist of semiconductor crystallites embedded into glass matrix. In this study, borosilicate glasses doped with CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals were used. Exposure of these materials to a low-power above- the-energy gap laser beam leads to local softening, and subsequent expansion and rapid solidification of the exposed volume, resulting in a nearly spherical topographic feature on the surface. The effects of the incident power, beam configuration, and the exposure time on the formation and final parameters of the microlens were studied. Based on the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution produced by the absorbed Gaussian beam, and the ideas of viscous flow at the temperatures around the glass transition point, a model of lens formation is suggested. The light intensity distribution in the near-field of the growing lens is shown to have a significant effect on the final lens height. Fabrication of dense arrays of microlenses is shown, and the thermal and structural interactions between the neighboring lenses were also studied. Two-dimensional continuous-profile topographic features are achieved by exposure of the moving substrates to the writing

  1. Nanoscale surface modification of glass using a 1064 nm pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theppakuttai, Senthil; Chen, Shaochen

    2003-07-01

    We report a method to produce nanopatterns on borosilicate glass by a Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (10 ns, 1064 nm), using silica nanospheres. Nonlinear absorption of the enhanced optical field between the spheres and glass sample is believed to be the primary reason for the creation of nanofeatures on the glass substrate. By shining the laser beam from the backside of the glass sample, the scattering effects are minimized and only the direct field enhancement due to the spheres is utilized for surface patterning. To confirm this, calculations based on the Mie scattering theory were performed, and the resulting intensity as a function of scattering angles are presented. The nanofeatures thus obtained by this method are 350 nm in diameter and the distance between them is around 640 nm, which is same as the size of spheres used.

  2. Borofloat and Starphire Float Glasses: A Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Anderson Jr., Charles E.

    2014-10-28

    Borofloat ® borosilicate float glass and Starphire ® soda-lime silicate float glass are used in transparent protective systems. They are known to respond differently in some ballistic and triaxial loading conditions, and efforts are underway to understand the causes of those differences. Toward that, a suite of test and material characterizations were completed in the present study on both glasses so to identify what differences exist among them. Compositional, physical properties, elastic properties, flaw size distributions and concentrations, tensile/flexure strength, fracture toughness, spherical indentation and hardness, transmission electron microscopy, striae, high pressure responses via diamond anvil cell testing, laser shockmore » differences, and internal porosity were examined. Differences between these two float glasses were identified for many of these properties and characteristics, and the role of three (striae, high pressures where permanent densification can initiate, and sub-micron-sized porosity) lack understanding and deserve further attention. Lastly, the contributing roles of any of those properties or characteristics to triaxial or ballistic loading responses are not definitive; however, they provide potential correlations that may lead to improved understanding and management of loading responses in glasses used in transparent protective systems.« less

  3. Extraction of heavy metal (Ba, Sr) and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT panel glasses by phase separation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingfei; Wang, Jingyu; Fu, Zegang; Zhang, Donghui; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2018-04-05

    In this study, a novel process for the extraction of heavy metal Ba and Sr from waste CRT panel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by glass phase separation. CRT panel glass was first remelted with B 2 O 3 under air atmosphere to produce alkali borosilicate glass. During the phase separation process, the glass separated into two interconnected phases which were B 2 O 3 -rich phase and SiO 2 -rich phase. Most of BaO, SrO and other metal oxides including Na 2 O, K 2 O, Al 2 O 3 and CaO were mainly concentrated in the B 2 O 3 -rich phase. The interconnected B 2 O 3 -rich phase can be completely leached out by 5mol/L HNO 3 at 90 ℃. The remaining SiO 2 -rich phase was porous glasses consisting almost entirely of silica. The maximum Ba and Sr removal rates were 98.84% and 99.38% and high silica glass powder (SiO 2 purity > 90 wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B 2 O 3 added amount and holding time at 1000-1100 ℃, 20-30% and 30 min, respectively. Thus this study developed an potential economical process for detoxification and reclamation of waste heavy metal glasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposiummore » papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.« less

  5. LASER DESORPTION-IONIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM GLASS SURFACES WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS. (R826769)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed as adsorbates on borosilicate glass at levels from 40 pg (5.5 pg mm-2) to 7 small mu, Greekg (1 

  6. Radiation response of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, Ayelén; Alurralde, Martín; Luca, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    The radiation response has been studied of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films having different boron contents prepared using the block copolymer template Brij 58 and the dip coating technique. The degree of pore ordering of the films was analysed using low-angle X-ray diffraction and film thickness measured by X-ray reflectivity. For films calcined at 350 °C, the incorporation of boron resulted in a reproducible oscillatory variation in the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflection as a function of boron content. A clear peak was observed in the d-spacing at 5-10 mol% boron incorporation. For borosilicate films of a given composition an overall suppression of d-spacing was observed as a function of aging time relative to films that did not contain boron. This was ascribed to a slow condensation process. The films were irradiated in pile with neutrons and with iodine ions at energies of 180 keV and 70 MeV. Neutron irradiation of the silicate thin films for periods up to 30 days and aged for 400 days resulted in little reduction in either d-spacing or intensity of the primary low-angle X-ray reflection indicating that the films retained their mesopore ordering. In contrast borosilicate films for which the B (n, α) reaction was expected to result in enhanced displacement damage showed much larger variations in X-ray parameters. For these films short irradiation times resulted in a reduction of the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflections considerably beyond that observed through aging. It is concluded that prolonged neutron irradiation and internal α irradiation have only a small, although measurable, impact on mesoporous borosilicate thin films increasing the degree of condensation and increasing unit cell contraction. When these borosilicate films were irradiated with iodine ions, more profound changes occurred. The pore ordering of the films was significantly degraded when low energy ions were used. In some cases the degree

  7. Effect of X-ray irradiation on the optical absorption of СdSe1-xTex nanocrystals embedded in borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prymak, M. V.; Azhniuk, Yu. M.; Solomon, A. M.; Krasilinets, V. M.; Lopushansky, V. V.; Bodnar, I. V.; Gomonnai, A. V.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of X-ray irradiation on the optical absorption spectra of CdSe1-xTex nanocrystals embedded in a borosilicate matrix is studied. The observed blue shift of the absorption edge and bleaching of the confinement-related features in the spectra are related to X-ray induced negative ionization of the nanocrystals with charge transfer across the nanocrystal/matrix interface. The radiation-induced changes are observed to recover after longer post-irradiation storage at room temperature.

  8. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pan, H. B.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, K. B.; Li, L. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Lam, W. M.; Lu, W. W.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, W. H.; Lin, K. L.; Chang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones. PMID:20031984

  9. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pan, H B; Zhao, X L; Zhang, X; Zhang, K B; Li, L C; Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Lu, W W; Wang, D P; Huang, W H; Lin, K L; Chang, J

    2010-07-06

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.

  10. Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.

    2013-08-05

    The wettability of silicon and glass surfaces can be modified by silanization. However, similar treatments of glass and silica surfaces using the same silane do not necessarily yield the same wettability as determined by the oil-water contact angle. In this technical note, surface cleaning pretreatments were investigated to determine conditions that would yield oil-wet surfaces on glass with similar wettability to silica surfaces treated with the same silane, and both air-water and oil-water contact angles were determined. Air-water contact angles were less sensitive to differences between silanized silica and glass surfaces, often yielding similar values while the oil-water contact anglesmore » were quite different. Borosilicate glass surfaces cleaned with standard cleaning solution 1 (SC1) yield intermediate-wet surfaces when silanized with hexamethyldisilazane, while the same cleaning and silanization yields oil-wet surfaces on silica. However, cleaning glass in boiling concentrated nitric acid creates a surface that can be silanized to obtain oil-wet surfaces using HDMS. Moreover, this method is effective on glass with prior thermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 400oC. In this way, silica and glass can be silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces using HMDS. It is demonstrated that pretreatment and silanization is feasible in silicon-silica/glass micromodels previously assembled by anodic bonding, and that the change in wettability has a significant observable effect on immiscisble fluid displacements in the pore network.« less

  11. Formation and Properties of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Different Glasses.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Stephan; Kunz, Clemens; Müller, Frank A

    2017-08-10

    The formation and properties of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was investigated on different technically relevant glasses including fused silica, borosilicate glass, and soda-lime-silicate glass under irradiation of fs-laser pulses characterized by a pulse duration τ = 300 fs and a laser wavelength λ = 1025 nm. For this purpose, LIPSS were fabricated in an air environment at normal incidence with different laser peak fluence, pulse number, and repetition frequency. The generated structures were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam preparation and Fast-Fourier transformation. The results reveal the formation of LIPSS on all investigated glasses. LIPSS formation on soda-lime-silicate glass is determined by remarkable melt-formation as an intra-pulse effect. Differences between the different glasses concerning the appearing structures, their spatial period and their morphology were discussed based on the non-linear absorption behavior and the temperature-dependent viscosity. The findings facilitate the fabrication of tailored LIPSS-based surface structures on different technically relevant glasses that could be of particular interest for various applications.

  12. Formation and Properties of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Different Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Clemens; Müller, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    The formation and properties of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was investigated on different technically relevant glasses including fused silica, borosilicate glass, and soda-lime-silicate glass under irradiation of fs-laser pulses characterized by a pulse duration τ = 300 fs and a laser wavelength λ = 1025 nm. For this purpose, LIPSS were fabricated in an air environment at normal incidence with different laser peak fluence, pulse number, and repetition frequency. The generated structures were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam preparation and Fast-Fourier transformation. The results reveal the formation of LIPSS on all investigated glasses. LIPSS formation on soda-lime-silicate glass is determined by remarkable melt-formation as an intra-pulse effect. Differences between the different glasses concerning the appearing structures, their spatial period and their morphology were discussed based on the non-linear absorption behavior and the temperature-dependent viscosity. The findings facilitate the fabrication of tailored LIPSS-based surface structures on different technically relevant glasses that could be of particular interest for various applications. PMID:28796180

  13. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Rice, Jarrett A.; ...

    2016-05-23

    The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification. Here, to investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700°C before the emerging glass-forming melt was completely connected. Above 700°C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles gradually dissolved in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded with transient foam. Finally, knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion willmore » help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.« less

  14. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.; Ellison, A.J.G.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will preventmore » criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.« less

  15. An Experimental Investigation of the Long-Term Stability of Triple-Point-of-Water Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. D.

    2014-04-01

    Contamination of triple-point-of-water (TPW) cells by the chemical components of the borosilicate glass that contains the water is now widely recognized as the principal contributor to long-term drift of the cell temperature. To add to the available experimental data, a comparison of 24 TPW cells of various ages (from 10 years to 59 years), manufacturers (NRC, Jarrett, Isotech), and materials (borosilicate glass and fused quartz) was undertaken in 2013. Twelve cells from this group were compared to one another in 1997. By comparing the current inter-cell temperature differences to those determined 16 years earlier, it was found that some cells have remained stable, others have become colder (as might be expected from ongoing dissolution of the glass), and one or two show an apparent increase in temperature that seems anomalous. Also included among the 24 cells are five cells of borosilicate glass and five of fused quartz that were purchased 10 years ago. By comparing the relative temperature differences among this group of borosilcate and fused-quartz-encapsulated cells to the values obtained when they were last compared 6 years ago, it was found that the average temperature of the borosilcate group of cells decreases by , in reasonable agreement with an average drift of suggested 12 years ago. It was concluded that fused quartz is the superior container for TPW cells.

  16. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gomez, Jaritza [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Gujral, Ankit [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Huang, Chengbin [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Bishop, Camille [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Yu, Lian [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Ediger, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

    2017-02-01

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition.Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ~105 times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  17. Optoelectronic properties and interfacial durability of CNT and ITO on boro-silicate glass and PET substrates with nano- and heterostructural aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; DeVries, Lawrence

    2011-02-01

    Nano- and hetero-structures of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) can control significantly piezoelectric and optoelectronic properties in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) as sensing and actuator under cyclic loading. Optimized preparing conditions were obtained for multi-functional purpose of the specimen by obtaining the best dispersion and turbidity in the solution. Optical transmittance and electrical properties were investigated for CNT and ITO dipping and spraying coating on boro-silicate glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by electrical resistance measurement under cyclic loading and wettability test. Uniform dip-coating was performed using Wilhelmy plate method due to its simple and convenience. Spraying coating was applied to the specimen additionally. The change in the electrical resistance and optical properties of coated layer were mainly dependent upon the number of dip-coating, the concentration of CNT and ITO solutions, and the surface treatment condition. Electric properties of coating layers were measured using four-point probe method, and surface resistance was calculated using a dual configuration method. Optical transmittance of CNT and ITO coated PET film was also evaluated using UV spectrum. Surface energy and their hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of CNT and ITO coated substrates were investigated by wettability test via static and dynamic contact angle measurements. As the elapsing time of cyclic loading passed, the stability of surface resistance and thus comparative interfacial adhesion between coated layer and substrates was evaluated to compare the thermodynamic work of adhesion, Wa. As dip-coating number increased, surface resistance of coated CNT decreased, whereas the transmittance decreased step-by-step due to the thicker CNT and ITO networked layer. Nano- and heterostructural effects of CNT and ITO solution on the optical and electrical effects have been studied continuously.

  18. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    quartz, Starphire soda lime silicate glass, hydrated Starphire, BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass, an iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated... Opal (hydrated amorphous silica). .............................................................................. 10 2.7. ROBAX glass ceramic...spectrum as a function of stress for BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass. .......... 29 4.8. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated

  19. Failure waves in glass and ceramics under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, N. S.

    2000-04-01

    The response of various types of glasses (fused silica, borosilicates, soda-lime, and lead filled) to shock wave loading, especially the failure of glass behind the shock wave through the "so called" failure wave or front, has been the subject of intense research among a number of investigators. The variations in material properties across this front include complete loss of tensile (spall) strength, loss in shear strength, reduction in acoustic impedance and opacity to light. Both the Stress and velocity history from VISAR measurements have shown that the failure front propagates at a speed of 1.5 to 2.5 mm/s, depending on the peak shock stress. The shear strength [τ=1/2(σ1-σ2)] behind the failure front, determined using embedded transverse gauges, is found to decrease to about 1 GPa for soda-lime, borosilicate, and filled glasses. Optical (high-speed photography) observations also confirm formation of this failure front. There is a general agreement among various researchers on these failure observations. However, three proposed mechanisms for the formation of failure front are based on totally different formulations. The first, due to Clifton, is based on the hypothesis of densification of glass under shock compression. Densification is followed by shear failure around inhomogeneities resulting in a phase boundary between the comminuted and the intact material. The second, proposed by Grady, involves the transfer of elastic shear strain energy to dilatant strain energy as a result of severe micro-cracking originating from impact. The third, by Espinosa and Brar, proposes that the front is created through shear micro-cracks, which nucleate and propagate from the impact face; as originally suggested by Kanel. This later mechanism is supported by the observed loss of shear strength of glass by Clifton et al. at shock stress above the threshold level. Espinosa has incorporated this mechanism in multiple-plane model and simulations predict the increase in lateral

  20. Boron environments in Pyrex® glass--a high resolution, Double-Rotation NMR and thermodynamic modelling study.

    PubMed

    Howes, A P; Vedishcheva, N M; Samoson, A; Hanna, J V; Smith, M E; Holland, D; Dupree, R

    2011-07-07

    It is shown, using the important technological glass Pyrex® as an example, that 1D and 2D (11)B Double-Rotation (DOR) NMR experiments, in combination with thermodynamic modelling, are able to provide unique structural information about complex glasses. (11)B DOR NMR has been applied to Pyrex® glass in order to remove both dipolar and quadrupolar broadening of the NMR lines, leading to high resolution spectra that allow unambiguous, accurate peak fitting to be carried out, of particular importance in the case of the 3-coordinated [BO(3)] (B3) trigonal planar environments. The data obtained are of sufficient quality that they can be used to test the distributions of borate and borosilicate superstructural units predicted by the thermodynamics-based Model of Associated Solutions. The model predicts the dominant boron-containing chemical groupings in Pyrex® glass to be those associated with B(2)O(3) and sodium tetraborate (with smaller amounts of sodium triborate, sodium diborate, sodium pentaborate, danburite and reedmergnerite). Excellent agreement is found between model and experiment provided the (11)B peaks with isotropic chemical shifts of -1.4 ppm and 0.5 ppm are assigned to B4 species from borosilicate units ([B(OSi)(4)] and [B(OSi)(3)(OB)]) and borate superstructural units (mainly triborate rings with some pentaborate and diborate) respectively. The peaks with isotropic shifts of 14 ppm and 18.1 ppm are then assigned to B3 in borate superstructural units (mainly triborate and pentaborate along with connecting B3) and boroxol rings respectively. The assignments of the DOR NMR peaks, are supported by the presence of cross-peaks in (11)B spin-diffusion DOR NMR spectra which can be used to develop a structural model in which B(2)O(3)-like regions are linked, via borate and borosilicate superstructural units, to the majority silica network. Pyrex® is thus shown to have a heterogeneous structure, with distinct molecular groupings that are far removed from a

  1. Structure, crystallization and dielectric resonances in 2-13 GHz of waste-derived glass-ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Chen, XiaoYu; Wang, GuangRong; Zheng, Feng

    2016-12-01

    Structure, kinetics of crystallization, and dielectric resonances of waste-derived glass-ceramic prepared via quench-heating route were studied as a function of dosage of iron ore tailing (IOT) within 20-40 wt% using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements. The glass-ceramic mainly consisted of ferrite crystals embedded in borosilicate glass matrix. Crystallization kinetics and morphologies of ferrite crystals as well as coordination transformation of boron between [BO4] and [BO3] in glass network were adjustable by changing the amount of IOT. Dielectric resonances in 6-13 GHz were found to be dominated by oscillations of Ca2+ cations in glass network with [SiO4] units on their neighboring sites. Ni2+ ions made a small contribution to those resonances. Diopside formed when IOT exceeded 35 wt%, which led to weakening of the resonances.

  2. A review of bioactive glasses: Their structure, properties, fabrication and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pandey, Om P; Singh, Kulvir; Homa, Dan; Scott, Brian; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass and glass-ceramics are used in bone repair applications and are being developed for tissue engineering applications. Bioactive glasses/Bioglass are very attractive materials for producing scaffolds devoted to bone regeneration due to their versatile properties, which can be properly designed depending on their composition. An important feature of bioactive glasses, which enables them to work for applications in bone tissue engineering, is their ability to enhance revascularization, osteoblast adhesion, enzyme activity and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as osteoprogenitor cells. An extensive amount of research work has been carried out to develop silicate, borate/borosilicate bioactive glasses and phosphate glasses. Along with this, some metallic glasses have also been investigated for biomedical and technological applications in tissue engineering. Many trace elements have also been incorporated in the glass network to obtain the desired properties, which have beneficial effects on bone remodeling and/or associated angiogenesis. The motivation of this review is to provide an overview of the general requirements, composition, structure-property relationship with hydroxyapatite formation and future perspectives of bioglasses.Attention has also been given to developments of metallic glasses and doped bioglasses along with the techniques used for their fabrication. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  3. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–22.7CeO{sub 2}–11.7La{submore » 2}O{sub 3}–10.9PrO{sub 2}–1.3Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1.3Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–8.1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–4.8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO{sub 2}–16.0B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–12.6Na{sub 2}O–3.8Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–5.7CaO–1.7ZrO{sub 2}. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO{sub 5}) and oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) were found in glasses containing La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} and NaNd{sub 9}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while T{sub L} was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for

  4. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Riley, W.

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for severalmore » samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B 2O 3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.« less

  5. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Rice, Jarrett A.

    2016-05-23

    The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold-cap zone during nuclear waste vitrification. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate. To investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis – wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700 °C before the emerging glass-forming melt wasmore » completely connected. Above 800 °C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles were gradually dissolving in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded into transient foam. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.« less

  6. The fate of silicon during glass corrosion under alkaline conditions: A mechanistic and kinetic study with the International Simple Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Berthon, Claude; Wang, Zhaoying; Mitroshkov, Alexandre; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-02-01

    International Simple Glass - a six oxide borosilicate glass selected by the international nuclear glass community to improve the understanding of glass corrosion mechanisms and kinetics - was altered at 90 °C in a solution initially saturated with respect to amorphous 29SiO2. The pH90°C, was fixed at 9 at the start of the experiment and raised to 11.5 after 209 d by the addition of KOH. Isotope sensitive analytical techniques were used to analyze the solution and altered glass samples, helping to understand the driving forces and rate limiting processes controlling long-term glass alteration. At pH 9, the corrosion rate continuously drops and the glass slowly transforms into a uniform, homogeneous amorphous alteration layer. The mechanisms responsible for this transformation are water penetration through the growing alteration layer and ion exchange. We demonstrate that this amorphous alteration layer is not a precipitate resulting from the hydrolysis of the silicate network; it is mostly inherited from the glass structure from which the most weakly bonded cations (Na, Ca and B) have been released. At pH 11.5, the alteration process is very different: the high solubility of glass network formers (Si, Al, Zr) triggers the rapid and complete dissolution of the glass (dissolution becomes congruent) and precipitation of amorphous and crystalline phases. Unlike at pH 9 where glass corrosion rate decreased by 3 orders of magnitude likely due to the retroaction of the alteration layer on water dynamics/reactivity at the reaction front, the rate at pH 11.5 is maintained at a value close to the forward rate due to both the hydrolysis of the silicate network promoted by OH- and the precipitation of CSH and zeolites. This study provides key information for a unified model for glass dissolution.

  7. MAS-NMR studies of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses and glass-ceramics having different Li 2O/Al 2O 3 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of phases in lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses of composition (wt%) xLi 2O-71.7SiO 2-(17.7- x)Al 2O 3-4.9K 2O-3.2B 2O 3-2.5P 2O 5 (5.1≤ x≤12.6) upon heat treatment were studied. 29Si, 27Al, 31P and 11B MAS-NMR were employed for structural characterization of both LAS glasses and glass-ceramics. In glass samples, Al is found in tetrahedral coordination, while P exists mainly in the form of orthophosphate units. B exists as BO 3 and BO 4 units. 27Al NMR spectra show no change with crystallization, ruling out the presence of any Al containing phase. Contrary to X-ray diffraction studies carried out, 11B (high field 18.8 T) and 29Si NMR spectra clearly indicate the unexpected crystallization of a borosilicate phase (Li,K)BSi 2O 6, whose structure is similar to the aluminosilicate virgilite. Also, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) and quartz (SiO 2) were identified in the 29Si NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics. 31P NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics revealed the presence of Li 3PO 4 and a mixed phase (Li,K) 3PO 4 at low alkali concentrations.

  8. Optical and structural investigation of Dy3+-Nd3+ co-doped in magnesium lead borosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rao, T G V M; Rupesh Kumar, A; Neeraja, K; Veeraiah, N; Rami Reddy, M

    2014-01-24

    MgO-PbO-B2O3-SiO2-Nd2O3-Dy2O3 glasses are prepared by melt-quenching technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, luminescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral studied. XRD analysis evidently indicates that the prepared samples are fully amorphous nature. From the optical absorption spectra, the bonding environment surrounding the Dy(3+) and their energy level scheme in glass network is analyzed. Enhancement of Dy(3+) emission by non-radiative energy transfers from Nd(3+) has been observed here. The samples emits intensive bluish yellow color from the (4)F9/2→(6)H15/2, (6)H13/2 transition of Dy(3+) ions in these glasses which are nearer to white light and it is also supported by the chromaticity color coordinates. The FT-IR spectra reveal that network connectivity is increased with replacement of bonds B-O-B, Si-O-Si by more resistant B-O-Si bonds with gradually increasing the content of Dy(3+) ions in the glass network. Along with spectroscopic parameters some physical parameters like density, refractive index etc. are measured for the glasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An optical fiber glass containing PbSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Jiang, Huilü; Ma, Dewei; Cheng, Xiaoyu

    2011-09-01

    An optical fiber material, sodium-aluminum-borosilicate glass doped with PbSe quantum dots (QDs) is synthesized by a high-temperature melting method. Crystallization, size distribution and absorption-photoluminescence (PL) of this material are observed by XRD, TEM, and spectrometer respectively. The obtained results indicate that the glass contains QDs in diameter of 6-13 nm depending on the heat-treatment temperature and with a higher doped concentration than those available. It shows an enhanced PL, widened FWHM (275-808 nm), obvious Stokes shift (20-110 nm), with the PL peak wavelength located within 1676-2757 nm depending on the size of QD. The glass is fabricated into an optical fiber in diameter of 10-70 μm and length of 1 m, with pliability and ductility similar to usual SiO 2 fibers. It can be easily fused and spliced with SiO 2 fibers due to a small difference of melting point between them. Characterized by high doped concentration and broad FWHM, this study suggests that the glass can be applied to designing novel broadband fiber amplifiers working in C-L waveband.

  10. Stress Wave and Damage Propagation in Transparent Laminates at Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    materials like Starphire (a registered trademark of PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA) soda - lime glass , borosilicate glass , fused silica , and the...in transparent armor materials like Starphire soda - lime glass , borosilicate glass , fused silica , and the transparent ceramic AlON.1 Since...transparent ceramic AlON. Since transparent armor consists of glass laminates with polymer interlayer and backing, the influence of interlayer type and

  11. Functionally graded bioactive glass coating on magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) for enhanced biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Li, Yadong; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2008-06-01

    The coating of magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) with a bioactive glass was investigated for enhancing the bioactivity and bone-bonding ability of Mg-PSZ orthopedic implants. Individual coatings of three different bioactive glasses were prepared by depositing a concentrated suspension of the glass particles on Mg-PSZ substrates, followed by sintering at temperatures between 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C. Two silicate-based glass compositions (designated 13-93 and 6P68), and a borosilicate glass composition (H12) were investigated. The microstructure and adhesive strength of the coatings were characterized, and the in vitro bioactivity of the glasses was compared by measuring their conversion kinetics to hydroxyapatite in an aqueous phosphate solution at 37 degrees C. The 6P68 glass provided the highest adhesive strength (40 +/- 2 MPa) but showed very limited bioactivity, whereas the H12 glass had lower adhesive strength (18 +/- 2 MPa) but the highest bioactivity. A functionally graded coating, consisting of a 6P68 interfacial layer and an H12 surface layer, was developed to provide a coating with high adhesive strength coupled with rapid in vitro bioactivity.

  12. A Space Imaging Concept Based on a 4-meter Spun-Cast Borosilicate Monolithic Primary Mirror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    borosilicate monolithic primary mirror 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steve West, S.H... Mirror Technology Days, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 7-9 June 2010. 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this effort is to produce the largest monolithic telescope...capable of being lifted by a Delta IV or Atlas V EELV to 500 km. A strategy using a 4 m borosilicate mirror is proposed. A preliminary architecture was

  13. Preparation and Dynamic Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures of a Tungsten/Glass Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chong; Wang, Yingchun; Ma, Xueya; Liu, Keyi; Wang, Yubing; Li, Shukui; Cheng, Xingwang

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to prepare a borosilicate glass matrix composite containing 50 vol.% tungsten and examine its dynamic compressive behavior at elevated temperatures in the range of 450-775 °C. The results show that the homogenous microstructure of the tungsten/glass composite with relative density of 97% can be obtained by hot-pressing sintering at 800 °C for 1 h under pressure of 30 MPa. Dynamic compressive testing was carried out by a separate Hopkinson pressure bar system with a synchronous device. The results show that the peak stress decreases and the composite transforms from brittle to ductile in nature with testing temperature increasing from 450 to 750 °C. The brittle-ductile transition temperature is about 500 °C. Over 775 °C, the composite loses load-bearing capacity totally because of the excessive softening of the glass phase. In addition, the deformation and failure mechanism were analyzed.

  14. [INVITED] Laser welding of glasses at high repetition rates - Fundamentals and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Sören; Zimmermann, Felix; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    We report on the welding of various glasses with ultrashort laser pulses. Femtosecond laser pulses at repetition rates in the MHz range are focused at the interface between two substrates, resulting in multiphoton absorption and heat accumulation from successive pulses. This leads to local melting and subsequent resolidification which can be used to weld the glasses. The fundamental interaction process was studied using an in-situ micro Raman setup to measure the laser induced temperature distribution and its temporal decay. The induced network changes were analyzed by Raman spectrocopy identifying an increase of three and four membered silicon rings within the laser irradiated area. In order to determine the stability of the laser welded samples a three point bending test was used. Thereby, we identified that the maximal achievable breaking strength is limited by laser induced stress surrounding the modified material. To minimize the amount of stress bursts of laser pulses or an post processing annealing step can be applied. Besides fused silica, we welded borosilicate glasses and glasses with a low thermal expansion coefficient. Even the welding of different glass combinations is possible demonstrating the versatility of ultrashort pulse induced laser welding.

  15. Enthalpy and high temperature relaxation kinetics of stable vapor-deposited glasses of toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad, E-mail: vlad@gwu.edu

    Stable non-crystalline toluene films of micrometer and nanometer thicknesses were grown by vapor deposition at distinct rates and probed by fast scanning calorimetry. Fast scanning calorimetry is shown to be extremely sensitive to the structure of the vapor-deposited phase and was used to characterize simultaneously its kinetic stability and its thermodynamic properties. According to our analysis, transformation of vapor-deposited samples of toluene during heating with rates in excess 10{sup 5} K s{sup −1} follows the zero-order kinetics. The transformation rate correlates strongly with the initial enthalpy of the sample, which increases with the deposition rate according to sub-linear law. Analysismore » of the transformation kinetics of vapor-deposited toluene films of various thicknesses reveal a sudden increase in the transformation rate for films thinner than 250 nm. The change in kinetics seems to correlate with the surface roughness scale of the substrate. The implications of these findings for the formation mechanism and structure of vapor-deposited stable glasses are discussed.« less

  16. Method for repair of thin glass coatings. [on space shuttle orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Helman, D. D.; Smiser, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of repairing cracks or damaged areas in glass, in particular, glass coatings provided on tile. The method includes removing the damaged area using a high speed diamond burr drilling out a cavity that extends slightly into the base material of the tile. All loose material is then cleaned from the drilled out cavity and the cavity is filled adjacent the upper surface of the coating with a filler material including chopped silica fibers mixed with a binder. The filler material is packed into the cavity and a repair coating is applied by means of a brush or sprayed thereover. The repair includes borosilicate suspended in solution. Heat is applied at approximately 2100 F. for approximately five minutes for curing the coating, causing boron silicide particles of the coating to oxidize forming a very fluid boron-oxide rich glass which reacts with the other frits to form an impervious, highly refractory layer.

  17. Failure Waves in Glass and Ceramics under Shock Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Brar, N.

    1999-06-01

    The response of various types of glasses (fused silica, borosilicates, soda-lime, and lead filled) to shock wave loading, especially the failure of glass behind the shock wave through the ``so called" failure wave or front has been the subject of intense research among a number of investigators. The variations in material properties across this front include complete loss of tensile (spall) strength, loss in shear strength, reduction in acoustic impedance, and opacity to light. Both the Stress and velocity history from VISAR measurements have shown that the failure front propagates at a speed of 1.5 to 2.5 mm/s, depending on the peak shock stress level. The shear strength [τ = 1/2(σ_x-σ_y)] behind the failure front, determined using embedded transverse gauges, is found to decrease to about 2 GPa for soda-lime, borosilicate, and filled glasses. The optical (high-speed photography) observations also confirm the formation of failure front. There is a general agreement among various researchers on these observations. However, three proposed mechanisms for the formation of failure front are based on totally different formulations. The first, due to Clifton is based on the process of nucleation of local densification due to shock compression followed by shear failure around inhomogeneities resulting in phase boundary between the comminuted from the intact material. The second, proposed by Grady involves the transfer of elastic shear strain energy to dilatant strain energy as a result of severe microcracking originating from impact face. The third, by Espinosa and Brar proposes that the front is created through shear microcracks, which nucleate and propagate from the impact face, as originally suggested by Kanel. This mechanism is incorporated in multiple-plane model and simulations predict the increase in lateral stress and an observed reduction in spall strength behind the failure front. Failure front studies, in terms of loss of shear strength, have been recently

  18. Immobilized TiO2 on glass spheres applied to heterogeneous photocatalysis: photoactivity, leaching and regeneration process.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Deivisson Lopes; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Achete, Carlos Alberto; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora; Marques, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titanium dioxide as catalyst is an attractive advanced oxidation process due to its high chemical stability, good performance and low cost. When immobilized in a supporting material, additional benefits are achieved in the treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple protocol for impregnation of TiO 2 -P25 on borosilicate glass spheres and evaluate its efficiency in the photocatalytic degradation using an oxidizable substrate (methylene blue), in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) reactor. The assays were conducted at lab-scale using radiation, which simulated the solar spectrum. TiO 2 leaching from the glass and the catalyst regeneration were both demonstrated. A very low leaching ratio (0.03%) was observed after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that deposition of TiO 2 resulted in good adhesion and stability of the photocatalyst on the surface of borosilicate. This deposition was successfully achieved after calcination of the photocatalyst at 400 °C (TiO 2 -400 °C). The TiO 2 film was immobilized on glass spheres and the powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and BET. This characterization suggested that thermal treatment did not introduce substantial changes in the measured microstructural characteristics of the photocatalyst. The immobilized photocatalyst degraded more than 96% of the MB in up to 90 min of reaction. The photocatalytic activity decreased after four photocatalytic cycles, but it was recovered by the removal of contaminants adsorbed on the active sites after washing in water under UV-Vis irradiation. Based on these results, the TiO 2 -400 °C coated on glass spheres is potentially a very attractive option for removal of persistent contaminants present in the environment.

  19. Immobilized TiO2 on glass spheres applied to heterogeneous photocatalysis: photoactivity, leaching and regeneration process

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Alexei; Achete, Carlos Alberto; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora; Marques, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titanium dioxide as catalyst is an attractive advanced oxidation process due to its high chemical stability, good performance and low cost. When immobilized in a supporting material, additional benefits are achieved in the treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple protocol for impregnation of TiO2-P25 on borosilicate glass spheres and evaluate its efficiency in the photocatalytic degradation using an oxidizable substrate (methylene blue), in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) reactor. The assays were conducted at lab-scale using radiation, which simulated the solar spectrum. TiO2 leaching from the glass and the catalyst regeneration were both demonstrated. A very low leaching ratio (0.03%) was observed after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that deposition of TiO2 resulted in good adhesion and stability of the photocatalyst on the surface of borosilicate. This deposition was successfully achieved after calcination of the photocatalyst at 400 °C (TiO2-400 °C). The TiO2 film was immobilized on glass spheres and the powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and BET. This characterization suggested that thermal treatment did not introduce substantial changes in the measured microstructural characteristics of the photocatalyst. The immobilized photocatalyst degraded more than 96% of the MB in up to 90 min of reaction. The photocatalytic activity decreased after four photocatalytic cycles, but it was recovered by the removal of contaminants adsorbed on the active sites after washing in water under UV-Vis irradiation. Based on these results, the TiO2-400 °C coated on glass spheres is potentially a very attractive option for removal of persistent contaminants present in the environment. PMID:29527416

  20. New down-converter for UV-stable perovskite solar cells: Phosphor-in-glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee-Suk; Han, Gill Sang; Lee, Seongha; Kim, Sanghyun; Choi, Sungwoo; Yoon, Chulsoo; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2018-06-01

    Degradation of hybrid lead halide perovskite by UV light is a crucial issue that limits the commercialization of lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). To address this problem, phosphor-in-glass (PiG) is used to convert UV to visible light. Down-conversion of UV light by PiG dramatically increases UV-stability of PSCs and enables PSCs to harvest UV light that is currently wasted. Performance of PSCs with PiG layer does not change significantly during 100 h-long UV-irradiation, while conventional PSCs degrade quickly by 1 h-long UV-irradiation. After 100 h long UV-irradiation, power conversion efficiency of PSCs with PiG is 440% larger than that of conventional PSCs. This result points a direction toward PSCs which are very stable and highly efficient under UV light.

  1. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramsson, Eric S.; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants. PMID:26505195

  2. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications.

    PubMed

    Ramsson, Eric S; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants.

  3. Localized chemistry of 99Tc in simulated low activity waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Jamie L.

    A priority of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is to dispose of the nuclear waste accumulated in the underground tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Richland, WA. Incorporation and stabilization of technetium (99Tc) from these tanks into vitrified waste forms is a concern to the waste glass community and DOE due to 99Tc's long half-life ( 2.13˙105 y), and its high mobility in the subsurface environment under oxidizing conditions. Working in collaboration with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and other national laboratories, plans were formulated to obtain first-of-a-kind chemical structure determination of poorly understood and environmentally relevant technetium compounds that relate to the chemistry of the Tc in nuclear waste glasses. Knowledge of the structure and spectral signature of these compounds aid in refining the understanding of 99Tc incorporation into and release from oxide based waste glass. In this research a first-of-its kind mechanism for the behavior of 99Tc during vitrification is presented, and the structural role of Tc(VII) and (IV) in borosilicate waste glasses is readdressed.

  4. Degradation of partially immersed glass: A new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnam, R. K.; Fossati, P. C. M.; Lee, W. E.

    2018-05-01

    The International Simple Glass (ISG) is a six-component borosilicate glass which was developed as a reference for international collaborative studies on high level nuclear waste encapsulation. Its corrosion behaviour is typically examined when it is immersed in a leaching solution, or when it is exposed to water vapour. In this study, an alternative situation is considered in which the glass is only partially immersed for 7 weeks at a temperature of 90 °C. In this case, half of the glass sample is directly in the solution itself, and the other half is in contact with a water film formed by condensation of water vapour that evaporated from the solution. This results in a different degradation behaviour compared to standard tests in which the material is fully immersed. In particular, whilst in standard tests the system reaches a steady state with a very low alteration rate thanks to the formation of a protective gel layer, in partially-immersed tests this steady state could not be reached because of the continuous alteration from the condensate water film. The constant input of ions from the emerged part of the sample caused a supersaturation of the solution, which resulted in early precipitation of secondary crystalline phases. This setup mimics storage conditions once small amounts of water have entered a glass waste form containing canister. It offers a more realistic outlook of corrosion mechanisms happening in such situations than standard fully-immersed corrosion tests.

  5. Note: Production of stable colloidal probes for high-temperature atomic force microscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditscherlein, L.; Peuker, U. A.

    2017-04-01

    For the application of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy at high temperatures (>500 K), stable colloidal probe cantilevers are essential. In this study, two new methods for gluing alumina particles onto temperature stable cantilevers are presented and compared with an existing method for borosilicate particles at elevated temperatures as well as with cp-cantilevers prepared with epoxy resin at room temperature. The durability of the fixing of the particle is quantified with a test method applying high shear forces. The force is calculated with a mechanical model considering both the bending as well as the torsion on the colloidal probe.

  6. A laser-engraved glass duplicating the structure, mechanics and performance of natural nacre.

    PubMed

    Valashani, Seyed Mohammad Mirkhalaf; Barthelat, Francois

    2015-03-30

    Highly mineralized biological materials such as nacre (mother of pearl), tooth enamel or conch shell boast unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness. The structures of these biological materials and their associated mechanisms are now inspiring new types of advanced structural materials. However, despite significant efforts, no bottom up fabrication method could so far match biological materials in terms of microstructural organization and mechanical performance. Here we present a new 'top down' strategy to tackling this fabrication problem, which consists in carving weak interfaces within a brittle material using a laser engraving technique. We demonstrate the method by fabricating and testing borosilicate glasses containing nacre-like microstructures infiltrated with polyurethane. When deformed, these materials properly duplicate the mechanisms of natural nacre: combination of controlled sliding of the tablets, accompanied with geometric hardening, strain hardening and strain rate hardening. The nacre-like glass is composed of 93 volume % (vol%) glass, yet 700 times tougher and breaks at strains as high as 20%.

  7. Controlling the reaction between boron-containing sealing glass and a lanthanum-containing cathode by adding Nb2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dandan; Fang, Lihua; Tang, Dian; Zhang, Teng

    2016-09-01

    In solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, the volatile boron species present in the sealing glass often react with the lanthanum-containing cathode, degrading the activity of the cathode (this phenomenon is known as boron poisoning). In this work, we report that this detrimental reaction can be effectively reduced by doping bismuth-containing borosilicate sealing glass-ceramic with a niobium dopant. The addition of Nb2O5 not only condenses the [SiO4] structural units in the glass network, but also promotes the conversion of [BO3] to [BO4]. Moreover, the Nb2O5 dopant enhances the formation of boron-containing phases (Ca3B2O6 and CaB2Si2O8), which significantly reduces the volatility of boron compounds in the sealing glass, suppressing the formation of LaBO3 in the reaction couple between the glass and the cathode. The reported results provide a new approach to solve the problem of boron poisoning.

  8. Glass-water interaction: Effect of high-valence cations on glass structure and chemical durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, J.; Kerisit, S. N.; Angeli, F.; Charpentier, T.; Icenhower, J. P.; McGrail, B. P.; Windisch, C. F.; Burton, S. D.; Pierce, E. M.

    2016-05-01

    Borosilicate glass is a durable solid, but it dissolves when in contact with aqueous fluids. The dissolution mechanism, which involves a variety of sequential reactions that occur at the solid-fluid interface, has important implications for the corrosion resistance of industrial and nuclear waste glasses. In this study, spectroscopic measurements, dissolution experiments, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the effect of high-valence cations (HVC) on the mechanisms of glass dissolution under dilute and near-saturated conditions. Raman and NMR spectroscopy were used to determine the structural changes that occur in glass, specifically network formers (e.g., Al, Si, and B), with the addition of the HVC element hafnium in the Na2O-Al2O3-B2O3-HfO2-SiO2 system (e.g., Na/[Al + B] = 1.0 and HfO2/SiO2 from 0.0 to 0.42). Spectroscopic measurements revealed that increasing hafnium content decreases N4 (tetrahedral boron/total boron) and increases the amount of Si-O-Hf moieties in the glass. Results from flow-through experiments conducted under dilute and near-saturated conditions show a decrease of approximately 100× or more in the dissolution rate over the series from 0 to 20 mol% HfO2. Comparing the average steady-state rates obtained under dilute conditions to the rates obtained for near-saturated conditions reveals a divergence in the magnitude between the average steady state rates measured in these different conditions. The reason for this divergence was investigated more thoroughly using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations indicate that the divergence in glass dissolution behavior under dilute and near-saturated conditions result from the stronger binding of Si sites that deposit on the surface from the influent when Hf is present in the glass. As a result, the residence time at the glass surface of these newly-formed Si sites is longer in the presence of Hf, which increases the density of anchor sites from which altered layers with higher Si

  9. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed.

  10. Refractive index change mechanisms in different glasses induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerbach, A.; Gross, S.; Little, D.; Arriola, A.; Ams, M.; Dekker, P.; Withford, M.

    2016-07-01

    Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses can be used to alter the refractive index of virtually all optical glasses. As the laser-induced modification is spatially limited to the focal volume of the writing beam, this technique enables the fabrication of fully three-dimensional photonic structures and devices that are automatically embedded within the host material. While it is well understood that the laser-material interaction process is initiated by nonlinear, typically multiphoton absorption, the actual mechanism that results in an increase or sometimes decrease of the refractive index of the glass strongly depends on the composition of the material and the process parameters and is still subject to scientific studies. In this paper, we present an overview of our recent work aimed at uncovering the physical and chemical processes that contribute to the observed material modification. Raman microscopy and electron microprobe analysis was used to study the induced modifications that occur within the glass matrix and the influence of atomic species migration forced by the femtosecond laser writing beam. In particular, we concentrate on borosilicate, heavy metal fluoride and phosphate glasses. We believe that our results represent an important step towards the development of engineered glass types that are ideally suited for the fabrication of photonic devices via the femtosecond laser direct write technique.

  11. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary glass formulation work has been initiated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to support immobilization efforts of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high activity waste (HAW). Based on current pretreatment flow sheet assumptions, several glasses were fabricated and tested using an average `All Blend` waste stream composition which is dominated by the presence of ZrO{sub 2} (i.e., approximately 80 wt percent). The results of this initial work show that immobilization via vitrification is a viable option for a specific INEEL HAW waste stream. Waste loadings of at least 19 wtmore » percent can be achieved for the `All Blend` stream while maintaining targeted processing and product performance criteria. This waste loading translates into a ZrO{sub 2} content in excess of 15 wt percent in the final glass waste form. Frits developed for this work are based in the alkali borosilicate system. Although the results indicate that vitrification can be used to immobilize the `All Blend` waste stream, the glass compositions are by no means optimized.« less

  12. Modelling the local atomic structure of molybdenum in nuclear waste glasses with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-01-01

    The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO2)57.5 – (B2O3)10 – (Na2O)15 – (CaO)15 – (MoO3)2.5 and (SiO2)57.3 – (B2O3)20 – (Na2O)6.8 – (Li2O)13.4 – (MoO3)2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na2MoO4 and CaMoO4). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shellmore » reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations. K.K. was supported through the Impact Studentship scheme at UCL co-funded by the IHI Corporation and UCL. P.V.S. thanks the Royal Society, which supported preliminary work on this project, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at PNNL, a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. Via our membership of the UK's HEC Materials Chemistry Consortium, which is funded by EPSRC (EP/L000202), this work used the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service (http://www.archer.ac.uk).« less

  13. Contribution of first-principles calculations to multinuclear NMR analysis of borosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Soleilhavoup, Anne; Delaye, Jean-Marc; Angeli, Frédéric; Caurant, Daniel; Charpentier, Thibault

    2010-12-01

    Boron-11 and silicon-29 NMR spectra of xSiO(2)-(1-x)B(2)O(3) glasses (x=0.40, 0.80 and 0.83) have been calculated using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of NMR parameters. Structure models of 200 atoms have been generated using classical force fields and subsequently relaxed at the PBE-GGAlevel of DFT theory. The gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) method is then employed for computing the shielding and electric field gradient tensors for each silicon and boron atom. Silicon-29 MAS and boron-11 MQMAS NMR spectra of two glasses (x=0.40 and 0.80) have been acquired and theoretical spectra are found to well agree with the experimental data. For boron-11, the NMR parameter distributions have been analysed using a Kernel density estimation (KDE) approach which is shown to highlight its main features. Accordingly, a new analytical model that incorporates the observed correlations between the NMR parameters is introduced. It significantly improves the fit of the (11)B MQMAS spectra and yields, therefore, more reliable NMR parameter distributions. A new analytical model for a quantitative description of the dependence of the silicon-29 and boron-11 isotropic chemical shift upon the bond angles is proposed, which incorporates possibly the effect of SiO(2)-B(2)O(3) intermixing. Combining all the above procedures, we show how distributions of Si-O-T and B-O-T (T=Si, B) bond angles can be estimated from the distribution of isotropic chemical shift of silicon-29 and boron-11, respectively. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of B2O3 content and sintering temperature on crystallization and microstructure of CBS glass-ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengyang; Wang, Shubin; Liu, Jianggao; Feng, Mengjie; Yang, Xinwang

    2015-11-01

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics precursors with varying compositional ratios in the CaO-SiO2-B2O3 (CBS) system were synthesized by sol-gel method. The precursors were calcined at 1200 °C for 2 h to form glass powders. The glass-ceramics were prepared by overlaying glass slurries on the substrates before sintering at different temperatures. The as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization activation energies (Ec) were calculated using the Kissinger method from DSC results. The morphology and crystallization behavior of the glass-ceramics were monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Both glass transition and crystallization temperatures decreased, however, the metastable zone increased. The Ec values of CBS glasses and glass-ceramics were 254.1, 173.2 and 164.4 kJ/mol with increasing B2O3 content, whereas that of the calcined G3 glass was 104.9 kJ/mol. Finally, the coatings were prepared at a low temperature (700 °C). The crystals that grew on the surface of multilayer coatings demonstrated heterogeneous surface nucleation and crystallization after heat-treatment from 700 °C to 850 °C for 4 h.

  15. Time-resolved microscopy of fs-laser-induced heat flows in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, Jörn; Seuthe, Thomas; Grehn, Moritz; Eberstein, Markus; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved phase-contrast microscopy is employed to visualize spatio-temporal thermal transients induced by tight focusing of a single Ti:sapphire fs-laser pulse into a solid dielectric sample. This method relies on the coupling of the refractive index change and the sample temperature through the thermo-optic coefficient d n/d T. The thermal transients are studied on a timescale ranging from 10 ns up to 0.1 ms after laser excitation. Beyond providing direct insights into the laser-matter interaction, analyzing the results obtained also enables quantifying the local thermal diffusivity of the sample on a micrometer scale. Studies conducted in different solid dielectrics, namely amorphous fused silica (a-SiO2), a commercial borosilicate glass (BO33, Schott), and a custom alkaline earth silicate glass (NaSi66), illustrate the applicability of this approach to the investigation of various glassy materials.

  16. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H 4SiO 4) with higher [H 4SiO 4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H 4SiO 4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alterationmore » products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi 2O 6)∙H 2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH) 3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. From the simulations we conclude, firstly, that the rate of glass dissolution is dependent on the kinetics of formation of the zeolitic phase. Therefore, the kinetics of secondary phase formation is an

  17. Development and Characterization of Sr-Containing Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuda, Oleksii; Pinchuk, Nataliia; Bykov, Oleksandr; Tomila, Tamara; Olifan, Olena; Golovkova, Maryna

    2018-05-01

    Composite materials based on hydroxyapatite are widely used for bone tissue engineering. There is evidence of a positive effect of the presence of strontium in osteoplastic materials in the case of a Ca/Sr certain ratio. To examine the effect of the addition of Sr2+, a study was made by introducing it into the material composition based on biogenic hydroxyapatite and sodium borosilicate glass (50/50% wt.). The strontium was introduced into the composition in an amount of 1% wt. Composite materials were obtained at final sintering temperatures of 780 °C and a sintering time of 1 h. The effect of additions of glass phase and strontium affect changes in the crystal lattice of biogenic hydroxyapatite was investigated with the help of X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy. Also the behavior of composites in vitro in physiological solution was studied.

  18. Elastic properties and short-range structural order in mixed network former glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Christensen, Randilynn; Curtis, Brittany; Hynek, David; Keizer, Sydney; Wang, James; Feller, Steve; Martin, Steve W; Kieffer, John

    2017-06-21

    Elastic properties of alkali containing glasses are of great interest not only because they provide information about overall structural integrity but also they are related to other properties such as thermal conductivity and ion mobility. In this study, we investigate two mixed-network former glass systems, sodium borosilicate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)SiO 2 ] and sodium borogermanate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)GeO 2 ] glasses. By mixing network formers, the network topology can be changed while keeping the network modifier concentration constant, which allows for the effect of network structure on elastic properties to be analyzed over a wide parametric range. In addition to non-linear, non-additive mixed-glass former effects, maxima are observed in longitudinal, shear and Young's moduli with increasing atomic number density. By combining results from NMR spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering with a newly developed statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model, it is possible to determine the relative proportions of all network structural units. This new analysis reveals that the structural characteristic predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission in these glasses is a high density of network cations coordinated by four or more bridging oxygens, as it provides for establishing a network of covalent bonds among these cations with connectivity in three dimensions.

  19. Environmental Testing of Tritium-Phosphor Glass Vials for Use in Long-Life Radioisotope Power Conversion Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemcov, Michael; Cardona, Pedro; Parkus, James; Patru, Dorin; Yost, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Power generation in extreme environments, such as the outer solar system, the night side of planets, or other low-illumination environments, currently presents a technology gap that challenges NASA's ambitious scientific goals. We are developing a radioisotope power cell (RPC) that utilizes commercially available tritium light sources and standard 1.85 eV InGaP2 photovoltaic cells to convert beta particle energy to electric energy. In the test program described here, we perform environmental tests on commercially available borosilicate glass vials internally coated with a ZnS luminescent phosphor that are designed to contain gaseous tritium in our proposed power source. Such testing is necessary to ensure that the glass containing the radioactive tritium is capable of withstanding the extreme environments of launch and space for extended periods of time.

  20. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  1. Defense waste processing facility (DWPF) liquids model: revisions for processing higher TIO 2 containing glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Trivelpiece, C. L.

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-compositionmore » models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. This report documents the development of revised TiO 2, Na 2O, Li 2O and Fe 2O 3 coefficients in the SWPF liquidus model and revised coefficients (a, b, c, and d).« less

  2. Evaluation of alloy 690 process pot at the contact with borosilicate melt pool during vitrification of high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Kaushik, C. P.; Kale, G. B.; Das, D.; Raj, K.; Sharma, B. P.

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the material behaviour under service conditions is essential to enhance the life span of alloy 690 process pot used in vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. During vitrification process, interaction of alloy 690 with borosilicate melt takes place for substantial time period. Present experimental studies show that such interactions may result in Cr carbide precipitation along grain boundaries, Cr depletion in austenitic matrix and intergranular attack close to alloy 690/borosilicate melt pool interfaces. Widths of Cr depleted zone within alloy 690 is found to follow kinetics of the type x = 10.9 × 10 -6 + 1 × 10 -8t1/2 m. Based on the experimental results it is recommended that compositional modification of alloy 690 process pot adjacent to borosilicate melt pool need to be considered seriously for any efforts towards reduction and/or prevention of process pot failures.

  3. Medical imaging scintillators from glass-ceramics using mixed rare-earth halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckert, M. Brooke; Gallego, Sabrina; Ding, Yong; Elder, Eric; Nadler, Jason H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen greater interest in developing new luminescent materials to replace scintillator panels currently used in medical X-ray imaging systems. The primary areas targeted for improvement are cost and image resolution. Cost reduction is somewhat straightforward in that less expensive raw materials and processing methods will yield a less expensive product. The path to improving image resolution is more complex because it depends on several properties of the scintillator material including density, transparency, and composition, among others. The present study focused on improving image resolution using composite materials, known as glass-ceramics that contain nanoscale scintillating crystallites formed within a transparent host glass matrix. The small size of the particles and in-situ precipitation from the host glass are key to maintaining transparency of the composite scintillator, which ensures that a majority of the light produced from absorbed X-rays can actually be used to create an image of the patient. Because light output is the dominating property that determines the image resolution achievable with a given scintillator, it was used as the primary metric to evaluate performance of the glass-ceramics relative to current scintillators. Several glass compositions were formulated and then heat treated in a step known as "ceramization" to grow the scintillating nanocrystals, whose light output was measured in response to a 65 kV X-ray source. Performance was found to depend heavily on the thermal history of the glass and glass-ceramic, and so additional studies are required to more precisely determine optimal process temperatures. Of the compositions investigated, an alumino-borosilicate host glass containing 56mol% scintillating rare-earth halides (BaF2, GdF3, GdBr3, TbF3) produced the highest recorded light output at nearly 80% of the value recorded using a commercially-available GOS:Tb panel as a reference.

  4. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    PubMed

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  5. Recent progress to understand stress corrosion cracking in sodium borosilicate glasses: linking the chemical composition to structural, physical and fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Cindy L.

    2017-08-01

    This topical review is dedicated to understanding stress corrosion cracking in oxide glasses and specifically the SiO_2{\\text-B_2O_3{\\text-}Na_2O} (SBN) ternary glass systems. Many review papers already exist on the topic of stress corrosion cracking in complex oxide glasses or overly simplified glasses (pure silica). These papers look at how systematically controlling environmental factors (pH, temperature...) alter stress corrosion cracking, while maintaining the same type of glass sample. Many questions still exist, including: What sets the environmental limit? What sets the velocity versus stress intensity factor in the slow stress corrosion regime (Region I)? Can researchers optimize these two effects to enhance a glass’ resistance to failure? To help answer these questions, this review takes a different approach. It looks at how systemically controlling the glass’ chemical composition alters the structure and physical properties. These changes are then compared and contrasted to the fracture toughness and the stress corrosion cracking properties. By taking this holistic approach, researchers can begin to understand the controlling factors in stress corrosion cracking and how to optimize glasses via the initial chemical composition.

  6. Crystallization of heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Bruce, Allan J.; Doremus, R. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystallization of a number of fluorozirconate glasses were studied using isothermal and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The addition of the fluorides LiF, NaF, AlF3, LaF3 to a base glass composition of ZrF4-BaF2 reduced the tendency to crystallize, probably by modifying the viscosity-temperature relation. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass was the most stable against devitrification and perhaps is the best composition for optical fibers with low scattering loss. Some glasses first crystallize out into metastable beta-BaZr2F10 and beta-BaZrF6 phases, which transform into the most stable alpha-phases when heated to higher temperatures. The size of the crystallites was estimated to be about 600 A from X-ray diffraction.

  7. Optical thermometry based on green upconversion emission in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting; Zhao, Shilong; Lei, Ruoshan; Huang, Lihui; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-02-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics have been prepared and used to develop a portable all-fiber temperature sensor based on fluorescence intensity ratio technique. XRD and TEM results affirm the generation of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the borosilicate glass. Eu3+ ions are used as spectral probe to investigate external environment around rare earth (RE) ions. Intense green upconversion emissions from Er3+ ions are detected in the BaGdF5 glass ceramics and their intensity are enhanced about three orders of magnitude after heat treatment, which is attributed to the enrichment of RE ions in the BaGdF5 phase. Based on green upconversion emission from Er3+ ions, the temperature sensing property of the portable all-fiber temperature sensor is studied. The maximum absolute sensitivity is 15.5 × 10-4 K-1 at 567 K and the relative sensitivity is 1.28% K-1 at 298 K, respectively.

  8. Calcium titanium silicate based glass-ceramic for nuclear waste immobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.; Srivastav, A. P.; Goswami, M.; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Titanate based ceramics (synroc) have been studied for immobilisation of nuclear wastes due to their high radiation and thermal stability. The aim of this study is to synthesis glass-ceramic with stable phases from alumino silicate glass composition and study the loading behavior of actinides in glass-ceramics. The effects of CaO and TiO2 addition on phase evolution and structural properties of alumino silicate based glasses with nominal composition x(10CaO-9TiO2)-y(10Na2O-5 Al2O3-56SiO2-10B2O3); where z = x/y = 1.4-1.8 are reported. The glasses are prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and structural properties using DTA and Raman Spectroscopy. Glass transition and peak crystallization temperatures decrease with increase of CaO and TiO2 content, which implies the weakening of glass network and increased tendency of glasses towards crystallization. Sphene (CaTiSiO5) and perovskite (CaTiO3) crystalline phases are confirmed from XRD which are well known stable phase for conditioning of actinides. The microsturcture and elemental analysis indicate the presence of actinide in stable crystalline phases.

  9. The behavior of silicon and boron in the surface of corroded nuclear waste glasses : an EFTEM study.

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E. C.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.

    1999-11-23

    Using electron energy-loss filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have observed the formation of silicon-rich zones on the corroded surface of a West Valley (WV6) glass. This layer is approximately 100-200 nm thick and is directly underneath a precipitated smectite clay layer. Under conventional (C)TEM illumination, this layer is invisible; indeed, more commonly used analytical techniques, such as x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have failed to describe fully the localized changes in the boron and silicon contents across this region. Similar silicon-rich and boron-depleted zones were not found on corroded Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) borosilicate glasses, including SRL-EA and SRL-51,more » although they possessed similar-looking clay layers. This study demonstrates a new tool for examining the corroded surfaces of materials.« less

  10. Novel online security system based on rare-earth-doped glass microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Officer, Simon; Prabhu, G. R.; Pollard, Pat; Hunter, Catherine; Ross, Gary A.

    2004-06-01

    A novel fluorescent security label has been produced that could replace numerous conventional fluorescent dyes in document security. This label utilizes rare earth ions doped in a borosilicate glass matrix to produce sharp spectral fluorescence peaks with characteristic long lifetimes due to the rare earth ions. These are subsequently detected by an online detection system based on fluorescence and the long lifetimes to avoid any interference from other fluorophores present in the background. Security is further enhanced by the interaction of the rare earth ions with each other and the effect of the host on the emission spectra and therefore the number of permutations that could be produced. This creates a very secure label with various applications for the security market.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Behaviour of Five Dense Glass Materials Under Shock Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Darren D.; Proud, William G.; Field, John E.

    2001-06-01

    Previous work at the Cavendish Laboratory on the properties of glasses under shock loading has demonstrated that the material response is highly dependent upon the composition of the glass. The shock response of glass materials with an open structure, such as borosilicate, exhibits a ramping behaviour in the longitudinal stress histories due to structural collapse. Glass materials with a “filled” microstructure, as in the case of Type-D, Extra Dense Flint (DEDF) do not exhibit a ramping behaviour and behave in a manner similar to polycrystalline ceramics [1]. The current investigation compares the behaviour of five such glasses (SF15, DEDF, LACA, SF57 and DEDF-927210) under shock loading conditions. It is observed that slight changes in material composition can have a large affect on the inelastic behaviour. Principal Hugoniot and shear strength data are presented for all of the materials for pressures ranging from 2 to 14 GPa. Evidence of the so-called failure-front [2] is presented via lateral stress histories measured using manganin stress gauges and confirmed with high-speed photography. 1. Bourne, N.K., Millett, J.C.F., and Field, J.E., “On the strength of shocked glasses” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 455 (1999) 1275-1282 2. Brar, N.S., “Failure Waves in Glass and Ceramics Under Shock Compression”, in "Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 1999", ed. M.D. Furnish, L.C. Chhabildas, and R.S. Hixson, American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, New York, (1999) 601-606

  12. The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2016-11-28

    Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a "perfect glass". A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite.

  13. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, Richard M.; Tuthill, Clinton D.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

  14. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, L.; Crimi, G.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; D'Este, A.; Dall'Igna, R.; Silvestri, M.; Parodi, G.; Martelli, F.

    2013-09-01

    The Hot Slumping Technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of X-ray segmented mirrors, based on thin glass plates: during the process of slumping, a glass foil is shaped over a mould at temperatures above its transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength characteristics of the glass, with consequences on the structural design of the elemental optical module and consecutively on the whole X-ray telescope. No reference technical literature exists for this particular aspect since the strength of glass depends on several parameters connected to any of the manufacturing and glass history stages, such as the distribution of surface flaws or the residual internal stresses. It is therefore extremely important to test the mechanical strength of the glass plates after they underwent the slumping process. The Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAFOAB, Merate - Italy) started a deep analysis of this aspect, with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (SSV, Murano - Italy) and BCV Progetti (Milano - Italy). The entire study has been realized on borosilicate glass D263 by Schott, largely considered for the realization of next-generation IXO-like X-ray telescope. More than 200 slumped plates of dimension 100 mm x 100 mm and thickness 0.4 mm, both flat and curved, have been produced and tested; the collected experimental data have been compared to non-linear FEM analyses and treated with Weibull statistics, giving the strength data necessary to assess the current IXO glass X-ray telescope design, in terms of survival probability, when subject to static and acoustic load characteristic of the launch phase. The paper describes the activities performed and presents the obtained results.

  15. Thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced polyimide-, epoxy-, and glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of three epoxy-matrix composites, a polyimide-matrix composite and a borosilicate glass-matrix composite, each reinforced with continuous carbon fibers, has been measured and compared. The expansion of a composite with a rubber toughened epoxy-matrix and P75S carbon fibers was very different from the expansion of two different single phase epoxy-matrix composites with P75S fibers although all three had the same stacking sequence. Reasonable agreement was obtained between measured thermal-expansion data and results from classical laminate theory. The thermal expansion of a material may change markedly as a result of thermal cycling. Microdamage, induced by 250 cycles between -156 C and 121 C in the graphite/polyimide laminate, caused a 53 percent decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of the graphite/glass laminate was not changed by 100 thermal cycles from -129 C to 38 C; however, a residual strain of about 10 x 10 to the minus 6 power was measured for the laminate tested.

  16. The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a “perfect glass”. A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite.

  17. The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a “perfect glass”. A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite. PMID:27892452

  18. Second generation large area microchannel plate flat panel phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertley, C. D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Tedesco, J.; Minot, M. J.; O'Mahony, A.; Craven, C. A.; Popecki, M.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Foley, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Very large (20 cm × 20 cm) flat panel phototubes are being developed which employ novel microchannel plates (MCPs). The MCPs are manufactured using borosilicate microcapillary arrays which are functionalized by the application of resistive and secondary emissive layers using atomic layer deposition (ALD). This allows the operational parameters to be set by tailoring sequential ALD deposition processes. The borosilicate substrates are robust, including the ability to be produced in large formats (20 cm square). ALD MCPs have performance characteristics (gain, pulse amplitude distributions, and imaging) that are equivalent or better than conventional MCPs. They have low intrinsic background (0.045 events cm-2 sec-1)., high open area ratios (74% for the latest generation of borosilicate substrates), and stable gain during >7 C cm-2 charge extraction after preconditioning (vacuum bake and burn-in). The tube assemblies use a pair of 20 cm × 20 cm ALD MCPs comprised of a borosilicate entrance window, a proximity focused bialkali photocathode, and a strip-line readout anode. The second generation design employs an all glass body with a hot indium seal and a transfer photocathode. We have achieved >20% quantum efficiency and good gain uniformity over the 400 cm2 field of view, spatial resolution of <1 cm and obtained event timing accuracy of close to 100 ps FWHM.

  19. Free-solution electrophoretic separations of DNA–drag-tag conjugates on glass microchips with no polymer network and no loss of resolution at increased electric field strength

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kerby, Matthew B.; Niedringhaus, Thomas P.; Lin, Jennifer S.; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Barron, Annelise E.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the potential for high-resolution electrophoretic separations of ssDNA-protein conjugates in borosilicate glass microfluidic chips, with no sieving media and excellent repeatability. Using polynucleotides of two different lengths conjugated to moderately cationic protein polymer drag-tags, we measured separation efficiency as a function of applied electric field. In excellent agreement with prior theoretical predictions of Slater et al., resolution is found to remain constant as applied field is increased up to 700 V/cm, the highest field we were able to apply. This remarkable result illustrates the fundamentally different physical limitations of Free-Solution Conjugate Electrophoresis (FSCE)-based DNA separations relative to matrix-based DNA electrophoresis. Single-stranded DNA separations in “gels” have always shown rapidly declining resolution as the field strength is increased; this is especially true for ssDNA > 400 bases in length. FSCE’s ability to decouple DNA peak resolution from applied electric field suggests the future possibility of ultra-rapid FSCE sequencing on chips. We investigated sources of peak broadening for FSCE separations on borosilicate glass microchips, using six different protein polymer drag-tags. For drag-tags with four or more positive charges, electrostatic and adsorptive interactions with pHEA-coated microchannel walls led to appreciable band-broadening, while much sharper peaks were seen for bioconjugates with nearly charge-neutral protein drag-tags. PMID:21500207

  20. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., g/kg. cs=concentration of particulate matter, g/dsm. Qsd=volumetric flow rate, dscm/hr. A=zero... (borosilicate) glass, wool fiberglass, and flat glass. P=glass production rate, kg/hr. (2) Method 5 shall be...

  1. Glasses of three alkyl phosphates show a range of kinetic stabilities when prepared by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, M. S.; Tylinski, M.; Chua, Y. Z.; Schick, C.; Ediger, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    In situ AC nanocalorimetry was used to characterize vapor-deposited glasses of three phosphates with increasing lengths of alkyl side chains: trimethyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. The as-deposited glasses were assessed in terms of their reversing heat capacity, onset temperature, and isothermal transformation time. Glasses with a range of kinetic stabilities were prepared, including kinetically stable glasses, as indicated by high onset temperatures and long transformation times. Trimethyl phosphate forms kinetically stable glasses, similar to many other organic molecules, while triethyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate do not. Triethyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate present the first examples of non-hydrogen bonding systems that are unable to form stable glasses via vapor deposition at 0.2 nm/s. Based on experiments utilizing different deposition rates, we conclude that triethyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate lack the surface mobility required for stable glass formation. This may be related to their high enthalpies of vaporization and the internal structure of the liquid state.

  2. Contribution of atom-probe tomography to a better understanding of glass alteration mechanisms: Application to a nuclear glass specimen altered 25 years in a granitic environment

    DOE PAGES

    Gin, Stephane; Ryan, Joseph V.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; ...

    2013-04-08

    Here, we report and discuss results of atom probe tomography (APT) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) applied to a borosilicate glass sample of nuclear interest altered for nearly 26 years at 90°C in a confined granitic medium in order to better understand the rate-limiting mechanisms under conditions representative of a deep geological repository for vitrified radioactive waste. The APT technique allows the 3D reconstruction of the elemental distribution at the reactive interphase with sub-nanometer precision. Profiles of the B distribution at pristine glass/hydrated glass interface obtained by different techniques are compared to show the challenge of accurate measurements ofmore » diffusion profiles at this buried interface on the nanometer length scale. Our results show that 1) Alkali from the glass and hydrogen from the solution exhibit anti-correlated 15 ± 3 nm wide gradients located between the pristine glass and the hydrated glass layer, 2) boron exhibits an unexpectedly sharp profile located just at the outside of the alkali/H interdiffusion layer; this sharp profile is more consistent with a dissolution front than a diffusion-controlled release of boron. The resulting apparent diffusion coefficients derived from the Li and H profiles are D Li = 1.5 × 10 -22 m 2.s -1 and D H = 6.8 × 10 -23 m 2.s -1. These values are around two orders of magnitude lower than those observed at the very beginning of the alteration process, which suggests that interdiffusion is slowed at high reaction progress by local conditions that could be related to the porous structure of the interphase. As a result, the accessibility of water to the pristine glass could be the rate-limiting step in these conditions. More generally, these findings strongly support the importance of interdiffusion coupled with hydrolysis reactions of the silicate network on the long-term dissolution rate, contrary to what has been suggested by recent interfacial dissolution

  3. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T.; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  4. The melting of stable glasses is governed by nucleation-and-growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, Robert L.; Berthier, Ludovic

    2016-06-28

    We discuss the microscopic mechanisms by which low-temperature amorphous states, such as ultrastable glasses, transform into equilibrium fluids, after a sudden temperature increase. Experiments suggest that this process is similar to the melting of crystals, thus differing from the behaviour found in ordinary glasses. We rationalize these observations using the physical idea that the transformation process takes place close to a “hidden” equilibrium first-order phase transition, which is observed in systems of coupled replicas. We illustrate our views using simulation results for a simple two-dimensional plaquette spin model, which is known to exhibit a range of glassy behaviour. Our resultsmore » suggest that nucleation-and-growth dynamics, as found near ordinary first-order transitions, is also the correct theoretical framework to analyse the melting of ultrastable glasses. Our approach provides a unified understanding of multiple experimental observations, such as propagating melting fronts, large kinetic stability ratios, and “giant” dynamic length scales. We also provide a comprehensive discussion of available theoretical pictures proposed in the context of ultrastable glass melting.« less

  5. The effects of glass doping, temperature and time on the morphology, composition, and iron redox of spinel crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Amonette, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.

    2014-10-31

    Precipitation of large crystals/agglomerates of spinel and their accumulation in the pour spout riser of a Joule-heated ceramic melter during idling can plug the melter and prevent pouring of molten glass into canisters. Thus, there is a need to understand the effects of spinel-forming components, temperature, and time on the growth of crystals in connection with an accumulation rate. In our study, crystals of spinel [Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Sn][Fe, Cr]₂O₄ were precipitated from simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses containing different concentrations of Ni, Fe, and Cr by heat treating at 850 and 900°C for different times. These crystals weremore » extracted from the glasses and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and image analysis for size and shape, with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and atom probe tomography for concentration of spinel-forming components, and with wet colorimetry and Mössbauer spectroscopy for Fe²⁺/Fe total ratio. High concentrations of Ni, Fe, and Cr in glasses resulted in the precipitation of crystals larger than 100 µm in just two days. Crystals were a solid solution of NiFe₂O₄, NiCr₂O₄, and -Fe₂O₃ (identified only in the high-Ni-Fe glass) and also contained small concentrations of less than 1 at% of Li, Mg, Mn, and Al.« less

  6. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, R.M.; Tuthill, C.D.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-04-23

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals. 2 figures.

  7. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories.

    PubMed

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald

    2007-10-21

    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  8. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1992-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  9. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  10. Low-temperature bonding process for the fabrication of hybrid glass-membrane organ-on-a-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organs-on-a-chip," which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass-based devices have long been utilized in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multilayered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimized on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650°C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050°C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150°C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 h, indicating sufficient bond strength for long-term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  11. Temperature profiles for laser-induced heating of nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Promod K.; Nagpal, Swati

    2001-05-01

    Quantum confined nanostructures are very important because of their application towards optoelectronic devices. Commercial colored glass filters, which have large semiconductor particles, are being used to manufacture nanocrystals by suitable heat treatments. The progress in this area has been hampered by high size dispersion of these dots in the glass matrix which leads to reduction in higher order susceptibility thereby reducing non-linearity. In the present paper attempt has been made to theoretically model the temperature profiles of a laser irradiated CdS doped Borosilicate sample. Laser being used has a beam diameter of 1.5 mm and energy for 10 nsec pulse is 10 mJ. Two different particle radii of 5 nm and 10 nm have been considered. It is found that larger particles reach higher temperatures for the same pulse characteristics. This is because smaller particles have larger surface to volume ratio and hence dissipates out heat faster to the surrounding. Hence bigger particles will reach dissolution temperature faster than smaller particle and particle beyond a certain size should dissolve in the glass matrix when a sample is heat treated by laser. This could lead to a reduction in size dispersion of the nanocrystals. Also photodarkening effect found in semiconductor doped glasses is a big handicap for practical application of these materials in fast optical switching and non-linear optical devices. Photodarkening effect has been established to be a photochemical effect and it is important to study the temperature profiles around a particle since it will effect the impurity migration.

  12. Lithium/water battery with lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Takashi; Inda, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kousuke; Ye, Rongbin; Baba, Mamoru

    Lithium/water batteries have attracted considerable attention as high power supply devices because they use high energy density lithium metal as an anode and water as a cathode. In this study, we investigate the use of lithium/water batteries that use a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte. A lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics plate has no through-holes and does not exhibit moisture permeation. Such a plate has stable ionic conductivity in water. Lithium/water batteries that used a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte had a long and stable discharge for 50 days at room temperature when the lithium metal was prevented from coming into contact with water. Lithium/seawater batteries using a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte also operated well in the 10-70 °C temperature range.

  13. Interactions of bioactive glasses with osteoblasts in vitro: effects of 45S5 Bioglass, and 58S and 77S bioactive glasses on metabolism, intracellular ion concentrations and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Silver, I A; Deas, J; Erecińska, M

    2001-01-01

    In a cell culture model of murine osteoblasts three particulate bioactive glasses were evaluated and compared to glass (either borosilicate or soda-lime-silica) particles with respect to their effect on metabolic activity, cell viability, changes in intracellular ion concentrations, proliferation and differentiation. 45S5 Bioglass caused extra- and intracellular alkalinization, a rise in [Ca2+]i and [K+]i, a small plasma membrane hyperpolarization, and an increase in lactate production. Glycolytic activity was also stimulated when cells were not in direct contact with 45S5 Bioglass particles but communicated with them only through the medium. Similarly, raising the pH of culture medium enhanced lactate synthesis. 45S5 Bioglass had no effect on osteoblast viability and, under most conditions, did not affect either proliferation or differentiation. Bioactive glasses 58S and 77S altered neither the ion levels nor enhanced metabolic activity. It is concluded that: (1) some bioactive glasses exhibit well-defined effects in osteoblasts in culture which are accessible to experimentation; (2) 45S5 Bioglass causes marked external and internal alkalinization which is, most likely, responsible for enhanced glycolysis and, hence, cellular ATP production; (3) changes in [H+] could contribute to alternations in concentrations of other intracellular ions; and (4) the rise in [Ca2+]i may influence activities of a number of intracellular enzymes and pathways. It is postulated that the beneficial effect of 45S5 on in vivo bone growth and repair may be due to some extent to alkalinization, which in turn increases collagen synthesis and crosslinking, and hydroxyapatite formation.

  14. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  15. IgG1 adsorption to siliconized glass vials-influence of pH, ionic strength, and nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Höger, Kerstin; Mathes, Johannes; Frieß, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of an IgG1 antibody to siliconized vials was investigated with focus on the formulation parameters pH, ionic strength, and nonionic surfactants. Electrophoretic mobility measurements were performed to investigate the charge characteristics of protein and siliconized glass particles at different pH values. Calculation of the electrokinetic charge density allowed further insight into the energetic conditions in the protein-sorbent interface. Maximum adsorption of IgG1 was found at acidic pH values and could be correlated with energetically favorable minimal ion incorporation into the interface. The importance of electrostatic interactions for IgG1 adsorption at acidic pH values was also confirmed by the efficient adsorption reduction at decreased solution ionic strength. A second adsorption maximum around the pI of the protein was assigned to hydrophobic interactions with the siliconized surface. Addition of the nonionic surfactants poloxamer 188 or polysorbate 80 resulted in almost complete suppression of adsorption at pH 7.2, and a strong but less efficient effect at pH 4 on siliconized glass vials. This adsorption suppression was much less pronounced on borosilicate glass vials. From these results, it can be concluded that electrostatic interactions contribute substantially to IgG1 adsorption to siliconized glass vials especially at acidic formulation pH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  17. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  18. A new model linking elastic properties and ionic conductivity of mixed network former glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Christensen, Randilynn; Curtis, Brittany; Martin, Steve W; Kieffer, John

    2018-01-17

    Glasses are promising candidate materials for all-solid-state electrolytes for rechargeable batteries due to their outstanding mechanical stability, wide electrochemical stability range, and open structure for potentially high conductivity. Mechanical stiffness and ionic conductivity are two key parameters for solid-state electrolytes. In this study, we investigate two mixed-network former glass systems, sodium borosilicate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)SiO 2 ] and sodium borogermanate 0.2Na 2 O + 0.8[xBO 1.5 + (1 - x)GeO 2 ] glasses. With mixed-network formers, the structure of the network changes while the network modifier mole fraction is kept constant, i.e., x = 0.2, which allows us to analyze the effect of the network structure on various properties, including ionic conductivity and elastic properties. Besides the non-linear, non-additive mixed glass former effect, we find that the longitudinal, shear and Young's moduli depend on the combined number density of tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated network former elements. These units provide connectivity in three dimensions, which is required for the networks to exhibit restoring forces in response to isotropic and shear deformations. Moreover, the activation energy for modifier cation, Na + , migration is strongly correlated with the bulk modulus, suggesting that the elastic strain energy associated with the passageway dilation for the sodium ions is governed by the bulk modulus of the glass. The detailed analysis provided here gives an estimate for the number of atoms in the vicinity of the migrating cation that are affected by elastic deformation during the activated process. The larger this number and the more compliant the glass network, the lower is the activation energy for the cation jump.

  19. Photolithography-free laser-patterned HF acid-resistant chromium-polyimide mask for rapid fabrication of microfluidic systems in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Davis, Cristina E.

    2017-01-01

    Excellent chemical and physical properties of glass, over a range of operating conditions, make it a preferred material for chemical detection systems in analytical chemistry, biology, and the environmental sciences. However, it is often compromised with SU8, PDMS, or Parylene materials due to the sophisticated mask preparation requirements for wet etching of glass. Here, we report our efforts toward developing a photolithography-free laser-patterned hydrofluoric acid-resistant chromium-polyimide tape mask for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass. The patterns are defined in masking layer with a diode-pumped solid-state laser. Minimum feature size is limited to the diameter of the laser beam, 30 µm minimum spacing between features is limited by the thermal shrinkage and adhesive contact of the polyimide tape to 40 µm. The patterned glass substrates are etched in 49% hydrofluoric acid at ambient temperature with soft agitation (in time increments, up to 60 min duration). In spite of the simplicity, our method demonstrates comparable results to the other current more sophisticated masking methods in terms of the etched depth (up to 300 µm in borosilicate glass), feature under etch ratio in isotropic etch (~1.36), and low mask hole density. The method demonstrates high yield and reliability. To our knowledge, this method is the first proposed technique for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass with such high performance parameters. The proposed method of fabrication can potentially be implemented in research institutions without access to a standard clean-room facility.

  20. High temperature glass coatings for superalloys and refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. W.; Grekila, R. B.; Hirayama, C.; Mattox, D. M.

    1970-01-01

    New glasses are used as protective coatings on metals and alloys susceptible to oxidation at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres. Glasses are stable and solid at temperatures up to 1000 deg C, adhere well to metal surfaces, and are usable for metals with broad range of expansion coefficients.

  1. Extreme Precision Antenna Reflector Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. R.; Gilger, L. D.; Ard, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical distortion degrade the RF performance of antennas. The complexity of future communications antennas requires accurate, dimensionally stable antenna reflectors and structures built from materials other than those currently used. The advantages and disadvantages of using carbon fibers in an epoxy matrix are reviewed as well as current reflector fabrications technology and adjustment. The manufacturing sequence and coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon fiber/borosilicate glass composites is described. The construction of a parabolic reflector from this material and the assembling of both reflector and antenna are described. A 3M-aperture-diameter carbon/glass reflector that can be used as a subassembly for large reflectors is depicted. The deployment sequence for a 10.5M-aperture-diameter antenna, final reflector adjustment, and the deployment sequence for large reflectors are also illustrated.

  2. Glass-bonded iodosodalite waste form for immobilization of 129I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Saehwa; Peterson, Jacob A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tabada, Diana; Wall, Donald; Corkhill, Claire L.; McCloy, John S.

    2018-06-01

    Immobilization of radioiodine is an important requirement for current and future nuclear fuel cycles. Iodosodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6I2] was synthesized hydrothermally from metakaolin, NaI, and NaOH. Dried unwashed sodalite powders were used to synthesize glass-bonded iodosodalite waste forms (glass composite materials) by heating pressed pellets at 650, 750, or 850 °C with two types of sodium borosilicate glass binders. These heat-treated specimens were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermal analysis, porosity and density measurements, neutron activation analysis, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the best waste form produced (pellets mixed with 10 mass% of glass binder and heat-treated at 750 °C), the maximum possible elemental iodine loading was 19.8 mass%, but only ∼8-9 mass% waste loading of iodine was retained in the waste form after thermal processing. Other pellets with higher iodine retention either contained higher porosity or were incompletely sintered. ASTM C1308 and C1285 (product consistency test, PCT) experiments were performed to understand chemical durability under diffusive and static conditions. The C1308 test resulted in significantly higher normalized loss compared to the C1285 test, most likely because of the strong effect of neutral pH solution renewal and prevention of ion saturation in solution. Both experiments indicated that release rates of Na and Si were higher than for Al and I, probably due to a poorly durable Na-Si-O phase from the glass bonding matrix or from initial sodalite synthesis; however the C1308 test result indicated that congruent dissolution of iodosodalite occurred. The average release rates of iodine obtained from C1308 were 0.17 and 1.29 g m-2 d-1 for 80 or 8 m-1, respectively, and the C1285 analysis gave a value of 2 × 10-5 g m-2 d-1, which is comparable to or better than the durability of

  3. 75 FR 41850 - Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... immobilization). Also, DOE had identified a glass can-in-canister immobilization approach as its preferred... allow immobilization of some or all of the surplus plutonium in glass or ceramic material for disposal... in canisters to be filled with borosilicate glass containing intensely radioactive high-level waste...

  4. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES TO SUPPORT SULFATE SOLUBILITY MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2014-08-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms both within the DOE complex and to some extent at U.K. sites. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerated cleanup missions. Much of the previous work on improving sulfate retention in waste glasses has been done on an empirical basis, making itmore » difficult to apply the findings to future waste compositions despite the large number of glass systems studied. A more fundamental, rather than empirical, model of sulfate solubility in glass, under development at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), could provide a solution to the issues of sulfate solubility. The model uses the normalized cation field strength index as a function of glass composition to predict sulfate capacity, and has shown early success for some glass systems. The objective of the current scope is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DOE waste vitrification efforts, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the current model. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for simulated waste glasses fabricated SHU in support of sulfate solubility model development. A review of the measured compositions revealed that there are issues with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  5. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; ...

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr 50Cu 35Al 15 and Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr 50Cu 35Al 15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, T g, than in Zr 50Cu 45Al 5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr 50Cu 35Al 15more » on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clusters grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.« less

  6. Evaluations of candidate encapsulation designs and materials for low-cost silicon photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.; Sliemers, F. A.; Brockway, M. C.; Bunk, A. R.; Nance, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    Three encapsulation designs for silicon photovoltaic arrays based on cells with silk-screened Ag metallization have been evaluated: transparent polymeric coatings over cells laminated between two films or sheets of polymeric materials; cells adhesively bonded to a glass cover with a polymer pottant and a glass or other substrate component. Silicone and acrylic coatings were assessed, together with acrylic sheet, 0.635 mm fiberglass-reinforced polyester sheet, 0.102 mm polycarbonate/acrylic dual-layer film, 0.127 mm fluorocarbon film, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, low-iron glass, and several adhesives. The encapsulation materials were characterized by light transmittance measurements, determination of moisture barrier properties and bond strengths, and by the performance of cells before and after encapsulation. Silicon and acrylic coatings provided inadequate protection. Acrylic and fluorocarbon films displayed good weatherability and acceptable optical transmittance. Borosilicate, low-iron and soda-lime-float glasses were found to be acceptable candidate encapsulants for most environments.

  7. Thermally Stable White Emitting Eu3+ Complex@Nanozeolite@Luminescent Glass Composite with High CRI for Organic-Resin-Free Warm White LEDs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Gong, Shuming; Yu, Jinbo; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xuejie; He, Yuwei; Zhou, Jianbang; Shi, Rui; Li, Huanrong; Peng, Aiyun; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, it is still a great challenge for lanthanide complexes to be applied in solid state lighting, especially for high-power LEDs because they will suffer severe thermal-induced luminescence quenching and transmittance loss when LEDs are operated at high current. In this paper, we have not only obtained high efficient and thermally chemical stable red emitting hybrid material by introducing europium complex into nanozeolite (NZ) functionalized with the imidazolium-based stopper but also abated its thermal-induced transmittance loss and luminescence quenching behavior via coating it onto a heat-resistant luminescent glass (LG) with high thermal conductivity (1.07 W/mK). The results show that the intensity at 400 K for Eu(PPO) n -C 4 Si@NZ@LG remains 21.48% of the initial intensity at 300 K, which is virtually 153 and 13 times the intensity of Eu(PPO) 3 ·2H 2 O and Eu(PPO) n -C 4 Si@NZ, respectively. Moreover, an organic-resin-free warm white LEDs device with a low CCT of 3994K, a high Ra of 90.2 and R9 of 57.9 was successfully fabricated simply by combining NUV-Chip-On-Board with a warm white emitting glass-film composite (i.e., yellowish-green emitting luminescent glass coated with red emitting hybrid film). Our method and results provide a feasible and promising way for lanthanide complexes to be used for general illumination in the future.

  8. Surface characterization of polydimethylsiloxane treated pharmaceutical glass containers by X-ray-excited photo- and Auger electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mundry, T; Surmann, P; Schurreit, T

    2000-12-01

    The siliconization of pharmaceutical glass containers is an industrially frequently applied procedure. It is done by spreading an aqueous silicone oil emulsion film on the inner surface and successive heat curing treatment at temperatures above 300 degrees C for 10-30 min. It was often proposed that a covalent bonding of PDMS to the glass or branching of the linear PDMS occurs during heat treatment. The present study was performed for a detailed investigation of the glass and silicone (polydimethylsiloxane = PDMS) chemical state before and after heat-curing treatment and analysis of the bond nature. Combined X-ray excited photoelectron (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy as well as angle resolved XPS-measurements were used for analysis of the glass samples. The silicon surface atoms of the borosilicate container glass were transformed to a quartz-like compound whereas the former linear PDMS had a branched, two-dimensional structure after the heat curing treatment. It was concluded that the branching indicates the formation of new siloxane bonds to the glass surface via hydroxyl groups. Further evidence for the presence of bonded PDMS at the glass surface can be found in the valence band spectra of the siliconized and untreated samples. However, this bond could not be detected directly due to its very similar nature to the siloxane bonds of the glass matrix and the organosilicon backbone of PDMS. Due to the high variation of data from the siliconized samples it was concluded, that the silicone film is not homogeneous. Previously raised theories of reactions during heat-curing glass siliconization are supported by the XPS data of this investigation. Yet, the postulation of fixing or baking the silicone on the glass surface is only partially true since the bonded layer is very thin and most of the silicone originally on the surface after heat curing can be removed by suitable solvents. This fraction can therefore still interact with drug products being in contact to

  9. Facilitated giga-seal formation with a just originated glass surface.

    PubMed

    Böhle, T; Benndorf, K

    1994-07-01

    A simple technique of tip preparation in patch pipettes is described, which facilitates giga-seal formation. The pipettes were fabricated from thick-walled borosilicate glass tubing (external diameter 2.0 mm, internal diameter 0.5 mm) and the tips could be repeatedly broken in the bath. The pipette resistance correspondingly fell in steps of 3-20 M omega from about 80 M omega to about 2 M omega (double concentrated Tyrode). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the tip obtained after breaking was fairly plain. These broken tips were especially appropriate for patch-clamping. In cardiac myocytes in 11 out of 26 patches with Na+ channel activity, giga-seals developed spontaneously, i.e. without suction. In these patches the amplitude of the mean current with depolarizing pulses to -40 mV was significantly higher in comparison with patches formed under negative pressure. It is concluded that spontaneously sealed patches are most likely of planar configuration and the Na+ channel activity exceeds that in suction-induced patches.

  10. Damage and cracking of synthetic and natural glasses subjected to triaxial deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Fortin, Jérôme; Guéguen, Yves; Schubnel, Alexandre; Bouyer, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Glass is an ideal elastic-brittle material. Although cracking in glass has been much investigated, going back to the pioneer work of Griffith, investigations under confining pressure have not been done so far. Besides, as glass results of the solidification of variable fused silicate mix, the impact of thermal cracking in this material cannot be neglected. Our study aims at investigating thermo-mechanical cracking effects on elastic wave velocities and mechanical strength, both under pressure, to document damage evolution on glass. We performed the experiments on a triaxial cell at room temperature, with and without pore fluid pressure, on borosilicate glass. The crack evolution has been monitored with: (i) elastic wave velocity measurements and (ii) acoustic emissions (MiniRichter system). We also measured the global mechanical behavior of our synthetic glass samples with strain gages. The original glass, produced in ideal conditions of slow cooling that prevent from any crack formation, exhibits a linear and reversible mechanical behavior and isotropic elastic velocities, as expected. It also presents a high strength as it fails at about 700 MPa of deviatoric stress for a confining pressure of 15 MPa. The damage develops progressively, with increasing acoustic emission rate, parallel to the deviatoric stress orientation and probably starts on the rare air bubbles trapped in the amorphous matrix. We choose to apply to some original glass samples a reproducible method (thermal treatment with a thermal shock of ?T = 100, 200 and 300°C) which creates cracks with a homogeneous distribution. The impact of the thermal treatment is clearly visible through the elastic wave velocity measurements as we observe crack closure under hydrostatic conditions (at about 30 MPa). Anisotropy is also observed for increasing deviatoric stress. For ?T higher than 200°C, the glass mechanical behavior becomes non linear and records an irreversible damage. The total damage observed with

  11. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  12. High-efficiency organic glass scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Patrick L.; Carlson, Joseph S.

    A new family of neutron/gamma discriminating scintillators is disclosed that comprises stable organic glasses that may be melt-cast into transparent monoliths. These materials have been shown to provide light yields greater than solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals and efficient PSD capabilities when combined with 0.01 to 0.05% by weight of the total composition of a wavelength-shifting fluorophore. Photoluminescence measurements reveal fluorescence quantum yields that are 2 to 5 times greater than conventional plastic or liquid scintillator matrices, which accounts for the superior light yield of these glasses. The unique combination of high scintillation light-yields, efficient neutron/gamma PSD, and straightforward scale-up via melt-castingmore » distinguishes the developed organic glasses from existing scintillators.« less

  13. Comparative risk assessments for the production and interim storage of glass and ceramic waste forms: Defense waste processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. C.; Wright, W. V.

    1982-04-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing nuclear high level waste (HLW) is scheduled to be built. High level waste is produced when reactor components are subjected to chemical separation operations. Two candidates for immobilizing this HLW are borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, either being contained in weld sealed stainless steel canisters. A number of technical analyses are being conducted to support a selection between these two waste forms. The risks associated with the manufacture and interim storage of these two forms in the DWPF are compared. Process information used in the risk analysis was taken primarily from a DWPF processibility analysis. The DWPF environmental analysis provided much of the necessary environmental information.

  14. Stabilization of gold nanoparticle films on glass by thermal embedding.

    PubMed

    Karakouz, Tanya; Maoz, Ben M; Lando, Gilad; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2011-04-01

    The poor adhesion of gold nanoparticles (NPs) to glass has been a known obstacle to studies and applications of NP-based systems, such as glass/Au-NP optical devices. Here we present a simple scheme for obtaining stable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) transducers based on Au NP films immobilized on silanized glass and annealed. The procedure includes high-temperature annealing of the Au NP film, leading to partial embedding in the glass substrate and stabilization of the morphology and optical properties. The method is demonstrated using citrate-stabilized Au NPs, 20 and 63 nm mean diameter, immobilized electrostatically on glass microscope cover slides precoated with an aminosilane monolayer. Partial thermal embedding of the Au NPs in the glass occurs at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of the substrate. Upon annealing in air the Au NPs gradually settle into the glass and become encircled by a glass rim. In situ transmission UV-vis spectroscopy carried out during the annealing in a specially designed optical oven shows three regions: The most pronounced change of the surface plasmon (SP) band shape occurs in the first ca. 15 min of annealing; this is followed by a blue-shift of the SP band maximum (up to ca. 5 h), after which a steady red-shift of the SP band is observed (up to ca. 70 h, when the experiment was terminated). The development of the SP extinction spectrum was correlated to changes in the system structure, including thermal modification of the NP film morphology and embedding in the glass. The partially embedded Au NP films pass successfully the adhesive-tape test, while their morphology and optical response are stable toward immersion in solvents, drying, and thiol self-assembly. The enhanced adhesion is attributed to the metal NP embedding and rim formation. The stabilized NP films display a refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of 34-48 nm/RIU and 0.1-0.4 abs.u./RIU in SP band shift and extinction change

  15. Picosecond laser welding of similar and dissimilar materials.

    PubMed

    Carter, Richard M; Chen, Jianyong; Shephard, Jonathan D; Thomson, Robert R; Hand, Duncan P

    2014-07-01

    We report picosecond laser welding of similar and dissimilar materials based on plasma formation induced by a tightly focused beam from a 1030 nm, 10 ps, 400 kHz laser system. Specifically, we demonstrate the welding of fused silica, borosilicate, and sapphire to a range of materials including borosilicate, fused silica, silicon, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Dissimilar material welding of glass to aluminum and stainless steel has not been previously reported. Analysis of the borosilicate-to-borosilicate weld strength compares well to those obtained using similar welding systems based on femtosecond lasers. There is, however, a strong requirement to prepare surfaces to a high (10-60 nm Ra) flatness to ensure a successful weld.

  16. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  17. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E; Morrissey, Timothy G

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted inmore » context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.« less

  18. Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Adhesive-Free Joints for Encapsulation of Biomedical Implant Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    excitation sources should be helpful in overcoming this problem. CONCLUSIONS Biocompatible joints between polyimide and titanium-coated borosilicate...Technology, 46025 Port St., Plymouth, MI 48170, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Laser-fabricated joints of sub-millimeter widths between biocompatible , dissimilar materials...method of a very promising system, polyimide /titanium-coated borosilicate glass, and present and discuss results from characterization of such laser

  19. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Laws, K. J.; Miracle, D. B.; Ferry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, ‘bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26370667

  20. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issuesmore » associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.« less

  1. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  2. Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on the Kinetic Stability of Vapor Deposited Glasses of Triazine Derivatives

    DOE Data Explorer

    Laventure, Audrey [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada] (ORCID:0000000208670231); Gujral, Ankit [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States] (ORCID:0000000250652694); Lebel, Olivier [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4] (ORCID:0000000217376843); Ediger, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States] (ORCID:0000000347158473); Pellerin, Christian [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada] (ORCID:0000000161441318)

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been established that physical vapor deposition (PVD) can produce organic glasses with enhanced kinetic stability, high density, and anisotropic packing, with the substrate temperature during deposition (Tsubstrate) as the key control parameter. The influence of hydrogen bonding on the formation of PVD glasses has not been fully explored. Herein, we use a high-throughput preparation method to vapor-deposit three triazine derivatives over a wide range of Tsubstrate, from 0.69 to 1.08Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature. These model systems are structural analogues containing a functional group with different H-bonding capability at the 2-position of a triazine ring: (1) 2-methylamino-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (NHMe) (H-bond donor), (2) 2-methoxy-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (OMe) (H-bond acceptor), and (3) 2-ethyl-4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (Et) (none). Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we find that the Et and OMe compounds form PVD glasses with relatively high kinetic stability, with the transformation time (scaled by the α-relaxation time) on the order of 103, comparable to other highly stable glasses formed by PVD. In contrast, PVD glasses of NHMe are only slightly more stable than the corresponding liquid-cooled glass. Using IR spectroscopy, we find that both the supercooled liquid and the PVD glasses of the NHMe derivative show a higher average number of bonded NH per molecule than that in the other two compounds. These results suggest that H-bonds hinder the formation of stable glasses, perhaps by limiting the surface mobility. Interestingly, despite this difference in kinetic stability, all three compounds show properties typically observed in highly stable glasses prepared by PVD, including a higher density and anisotropic molecular packing (as characterized by IR and wide-angle X-ray scattering).

  3. Investigation of the stability of glass-ceramic composites containing CeTi 2 O 6 and CaZrTi 2 O 7 after ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Paknahad, Elham; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    Glass-ceramic composite materials have been investigated for nuclear waste sequestration applications due to their ability to incorporate large amounts of radioactive waste elements. A key property that needs to be understood when developing nuclear waste sequestration materials is how the structure of the material responds to radioactive decay of nuclear waste elements, which can be simulated by high energy ion implantation. Borosilicate glass-ceramic composites containing brannerite-type (CeTi2O6) or zirconolite-type (CaZrTi2O7) oxides were synthesized at different annealing temperatures and investigated after being implanted with high-energy Au ions to mimic radiation induced structural damage. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were collected to investigatemore » the interaction of the brannerite crystallites with the glass matrix before and after implantation and showed that the morphology of the crystallites in the composite materials were not affected by radiation damage. Surface sensitive Ti K-edge glancing angle XANES spectra collected from the implanted composite materials showed that the structures of the CeTi2O6 and CaZrTi2O7 ceramics were damaged as a result of implantation; however, analysis of Si L2,3-edge XANES spectra indicated that the glass matrix was not affected by ion implantation.« less

  4. Investigation of the stability of glass-ceramic composites containing CeTi2O6 and CaZrTi2O7 after ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknahad, Elham; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2017-12-01

    Glass-ceramic composite materials have been investigated for nuclear waste sequestration applications due to their ability to incorporate large amounts of radioactive waste elements. A key property that needs to be understood when developing nuclear waste sequestration materials is how the structure of the material responds to radioactive decay of nuclear waste elements, which can be simulated by high energy ion implantation. Borosilicate glass-ceramic composites containing brannerite-type (CeTi2O6) or zirconolite-type (CaZrTi2O7) oxides were synthesized at different annealing temperatures and investigated after being implanted with high-energy Au ions to mimic radiation induced structural damage. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were collected to investigate the interaction of the brannerite crystallites with the glass matrix before and after implantation and showed that the morphology of the crystallites in the composite materials were not affected by radiation damage. Surface sensitive Ti K-edge glancing angle XANES spectra collected from the implanted composite materials showed that the structures of the CeTi2O6 and CaZrTi2O7 ceramics were damaged as a result of implantation; however, analysis of Si L2,3-edge XANES spectra indicated that the glass matrix was not affected by ion implantation.

  5. Fabrication of Solid-State Multilayer Glass Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Casias, Adrian L.

    Alkali-free glasses show immense promise for the development of high-energy density capacitors. The high breakdown strengths on single-layer sheets of glass suggest the potential for improved energy densities over existing state-of-the art polymer capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to package thin glass to make solid-state capacitors. Individual layers are bonded using epoxy, leading to capacitors that exhibit stable operation over the temperature range -55 °C to +65 °C. Here, this fabrication approach is scalable and allows for proof testing individual layers prior to incorporation of the stack, providing a blueprint for the fabrication of high-energy density capacitors.

  6. Fabrication of Solid-State Multilayer Glass Capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Casias, Adrian L.; ...

    2017-07-31

    Alkali-free glasses show immense promise for the development of high-energy density capacitors. The high breakdown strengths on single-layer sheets of glass suggest the potential for improved energy densities over existing state-of-the art polymer capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to package thin glass to make solid-state capacitors. Individual layers are bonded using epoxy, leading to capacitors that exhibit stable operation over the temperature range -55 °C to +65 °C. Here, this fabrication approach is scalable and allows for proof testing individual layers prior to incorporation of the stack, providing a blueprint for the fabrication of high-energy density capacitors.

  7. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility thatmore » houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS

  8. Evidence of thermal transport anisotropy in stable glasses of vapor deposited organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols-Ribé, Joan; Dettori, Riccardo; Ferrando-Villalba, Pablo; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Abad, Llibertat; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Colombo, Luciano; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Vapor deposited organic glasses are currently in use in many optoelectronic devices. Their operation temperature is limited by the glass transition temperature of the organic layers and thermal management strategies become increasingly important to improve the lifetime of the device. Here we report the unusual finding that molecular orientation heavily influences heat flow propagation in glassy films of small molecule organic semiconductors. The thermal conductivity of vapor deposited thin-film semiconductor glasses is anisotropic and controlled by the deposition temperature. We compare our data with extensive molecular dynamics simulations to disentangle the role of density and molecular orientation on heat propagation. Simulations do support the view that thermal transport along the backbone of the organic molecule is strongly preferred with respect to the perpendicular direction. This is due to the anisotropy of the molecular interaction strength that limits the transport of atomic vibrations. This approach could be used in future developments to implement small molecule glassy films in thermoelectric or other organic electronic devices.

  9. Thermal Predictions of the Cooling of Waste Glass Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2014-11-01

    Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal. Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Canister centerline temperatures and the total amount of heat transfer from the canisters to themore » surrounding air are reported.« less

  10. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Jones, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs. PMID:26649290

  11. Glass–water interaction: Effect of high-valence cations on glass structure and chemical durability

    SciTech Connect

    Hopf, J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Angeli, F.

    2016-05-15

    Borosilicate glass is a durable solid, but it dissolves when in contact with aqueous fluids. The dissolution mechanism, which involves a variety of sequential reactions that occur at the solid-fluid interface, has important implications for the corrosion resistance of industrial and nuclear waste glasses. In this study, spectroscopic measurements, dissolution experiments, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the effect of high–valence cations (HVC) on the mechanisms of glass dissolution under dilute and near-saturated conditions. Raman and NMR spectroscopy were used to determine the structural changes that occur in glass, specifically network formers (e.g., Al, Si, and B), withmore » the addition of the HVC element hafnium in the Na2O–Al2O3–B2O3–HfO2–SiO2 system (e.g., Na/[Al+B] = 1.0 and HfO2/SiO2 from 0.0 to 0.42). Spectroscopic measurements revealed that increasing hafnium content decreases N4 (tetrahedral boron/total boron) and increases the amount of Si—O—Hf moieties in the glass. Results from flow–through experiments conducted under dilute and near–saturated conditions show a decrease of approximately 100× or more in the dissolution rate over the series from 0 to 20 mol% HfO2. Comparing the average steady-state rates obtained under dilute conditions to the rates obtained for near-saturated conditions reveals a divergence in the magnitude between the average steady state rates measured in these different conditions. The reason for this divergence was investigated more thoroughly using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations indicate that the divergence in glass dissolution behavior under dilute and near-saturated conditions result from the stronger binding of Si sites that deposit on the surface from the influent when Hf is present in the glass. As a result, the residence time at the glass surface of these newly-formed Si sites is longer in the presence of Hf, which increases the density of anchor sites from which altered

  12. The thermal degradation of 5 alpha (H)-cholestane during closed-system pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Bennett, Barry; Stuart Fetch, G.

    1995-06-01

    Involatile hydrocarbons were identified following the heating of 5α(H)-cholestane in water with reaction vessel walls composed of 316 grade stainless steel and borosilicate glass. These analyses were compared with the hydrocarbon product compositions from closed-system pyrolysis experiments with no added water. Unsaturated hydrocarbons dominate their saturated counterparts following hydrous pyrolysis in both stainless steel-316 and borosilicate glass. In the absence of added water the converse is true in that saturated components dominate the hydrocarbon mixture. Backbone rearrangement in the steroid nucleus leading to spirosterene formation was only observed under aqueous conditions in both borosilicate glass and stainless steel-316 vessels. These comparisons demonstrate that water, as opposed to reaction vessel surface catalytic effects, plays a central role in mediating hydrocarbon degradation during closed-system hydrous pyrolysis. 5α(H)-cholestane degradation under aqueous conditions is a complex composite of dissociative and rearrangement processes. These include (I) carbon-carbon bond cleavage in the sidechains as well as the ring system, (2) dehydrogenation, and (3) backbone rearrangement. These laboratory experiments provide a product description of the involatile hydrocarbons which will be the basis for a mechanistic study of 5α(H)-cholestane degradation in hot water.

  13. Estimating rock and slag wool fiber dissolution rate from composition.

    PubMed

    Eastes, W; Potter, R M; Hadley, J G

    2000-12-01

    A method was tested for calculating the dissolution rate constant in the lung for a wide variety of synthetic vitreous silicate fibers from the oxide composition in weight percent. It is based upon expressing the logarithm of the dissolution rate as a linear function of the composition and using a different set of coefficients for different types of fibers. The method was applied to 29 fiber compositions including rock and slag fibers as well as refractory ceramic and special-purpose, thin E-glass fibers and borosilicate glass fibers for which in vivo measurements have been carried out. These fibers had dissolution rates that ranged over a factor of about 400, and the calculated dissolution rates agreed with the in vivo values typically within a factor of 4. The method presented here is similar to one developed previously for borosilicate glass fibers that was accurate to a factor of 1.25. The present coefficients work over a much broader range of composition than the borosilicate ones but with less accuracy. The dissolution rate constant of a fiber may be used to estimate whether disease would occur in animal inhalation or intraperitoneal injection studies of that fiber.

  14. Displacement cascades in a borosilicate glass: Influence of the level of polymerization on the cascade morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, J. M.; Ghaleb, D.

    1998-02-01

    We have performed some molecular dynamics calculations of displacement cascades in a simplified nuclear glass (SiO 2 + B 2O 3 + Na 2O + Al 2O 3 + ZrO 2). We have observed that the damaged volume at the end of the collision sequence can be divided into a so called highly damaged volume and lightly damaged volume. The aim of this paper is to propose an explanation of this phenomenon by considering that some regions are easy to cross by the projectile and others are difficult to cross by the projectile. Regions which are easy to cross correspond to those containing Na atoms with a low level of polymerisation, and regions which are difficult to cross are areas no containing Na atoms with a high level of polymerisation.

  15. Effects of SnO2 on spectroscopic properties of borosilicate glasses before and after plasma treatment and its mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Wahab, E. A.; Shaaban, Kh S.

    2018-02-01

    B2O3-SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-TiO2 glasses modified by SnO2 have prepared and characterized by UV-spectroscopy before and after plasma treatment and by ultrasonic techniques. Makishima-Mackenzie Model has been applied to determine the elastic moduli of glasses. The density and the elastic moduli either determined from the ultrasonic or that computed according to the Makishima-Mackenzie model increase as the SnO2 concentration increases. The values of the optical band gap E g before and after plasma treatment, and refractive index have been determined. It was found that these parameters are sensitive to the increase of SnO2 content. The vibration temperature of nitrogen glow discharge has been calculated using Boltzmann plots of second positive system N2 (C3Πu) → (B3 Πg). The obtained results of vibration temperature decrease with increasing of gas pressure at different discharge currents.

  16. Statistical study of single and multiple pulse laser-induced damage in glasses.

    PubMed

    Gallais, L; Natoli, J; Amra, C

    2002-12-16

    Single and multiple pulse laser damage studies are performed in Suprasil silica and BK-7 borosilicate glasses. Experiments are made in the bulk of materials at 1.064microm with nanosecond pulses, using an accurate and reliable measurement system. By means of a statistical study on laser damage probabilities, we demonstrate that the same nano-precursors could be involved in the multiple shot and single shot damage process. A damage mechanism with two stages is then proposed to explain the results. Firstly, a pre-damage process, corresponding to material changes at a microscopic level, leads the precursor to a state that can induce a one-pulse damage. And secondly a final damage occurs, with a mechanism identical to the single shot case. For each material, a law is found to predict the precursor life-time. We can then deduce the long term life of optical elements in high-power laser systems submitted to multipulse irradiation.

  17. Glass-bonded iodosodalite waste form for immobilization of 129 I

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Saehwa; Peterson, Jacob A.; Riley, Brian J.

    Immobilization of radioiodine (e.g., 129I, 131I) is an important need for current and future nuclear fuel cycles. For the current work, iodosodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6I2] was synthesized hydrothermally from metakaolin, NaI, and NaOH. Following hydrothermal treatment, dried unwashed powders were used to make glass-bonded iodosodalite waste forms by heating pressed pellets at 650, 750, or 850 °C with two different types of sodium borosilicate glass binders, i.e., NBS-4 and SA-800. These heat-treated specimens were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermal analysis, porosity and density measurements, neutron activation analysis, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Themore » pellets mixed with 10 mass% of NBS-4 or SA-800 and heat-treated at 750 °C contained relatively high percentage iodine retention (~44-47 % of the maximum iodine loading) with relatively low porosities, while other pellets with higher percentages iodine retention either contained higher porosity or were not completely sintered. ASTM C1308 chemical durability tests of monolithic specimens showed a large initial release of Na, Al, Si, and I on the first day, possibly from water-soluble salt crystals or non-durable amorphous phases. Release rates of Na and Si were higher than for Al and I, probably due to a poorly durable Na-Si-O phase from the glass bonding matrix. The cumulative normalized release of iodine was 12.5 g m-2 for the first 10 1-d exchanges, suggestive of coherent dissolution. The average release rate from 10-24 days during the 7-d exchange intervals was 0.2336 g m-2 d-1.« less

  18. Alteration layer formation of Ca- and Zn-oxide bearing alkali borosilicate glasses for immobilisation of UK high level waste: A vapour hydration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassingham, N. J.; Corkhill, C. L.; Stennett, M. C.; Hand, R. J.; Hyatt, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The UK high level nuclear waste glass modified with CaO/ZnO was investigated using the vapour phase hydration test, performed at 200 °C, with the aim of understanding the impact of the modification on the chemical composition and microstructure of the alteration layer. Experiments were undertaken on non-modified and CaO/ZnO-modified base glass, with or without 25 wt% of simulant Magnox waste calcine. The modification resulted in a dramatic reduction in gel layer thickness and also a reduction in the reaction rate, from 3.4 ± 0.3 g m-2 d-1 without CaO/ZnO modification to 0.9 ± 0.1 g m-2 d-1 with CaO/ZnO. The precipitated phase assemblage for the CaO/ZnO-modified compositions was identified as hydrated Ca- and Zn-bearing silicate phases, which were absent from the non-modified counterpart. These results are in agreement with other recent studies showing the beneficial effects of ZnO additions on glass durability.

  19. Permeability and elastic properties of cracked glass under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ougier-Simonin, A.; GuéGuen, Y.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Bouyer, F.

    2011-07-01

    Fluid flow in rocks is allowed through networks of cracks and fractures at all scales. In fact, cracks are of high importance in various applications ranging from rock elastic and transport properties to nuclear waste disposal. The present work aims at investigating thermomechanical cracking effects on elastic wave velocities, mechanical strength, and permeability of cracked glass under pressure. We performed the experiments on a triaxial cell at room temperature which allows for independent controls of the confining pressure, the axial stress, and pore pressure. We produced cracks in original borosilicate glass samples with a reproducible method (thermal treatment with a thermal shock of 300°C). The evolution of the elastic and transport properties have been monitored using elastic wave velocity sensors, strain gage, and flow measurements. The results obtained evidence for (1) a crack family with identified average aspect ratio and crack aperture, (2) a very small permeability which decreases as a power (exponential) function of pressure, and depends on (3) the crack aperture cube. We also show that permeability behavior of a cracked elastic brittle solid is reversible and independent of the fluid nature. Two independent methods (permeability and elastic wave velocity measurements) give these consistent results. This study provides data on the mechanical and transport properties of an almost ideal elastic brittle solid in which a crack population has been introduced. Comparisons with similar data on rocks allow for drawing interesting conclusions. Over the timescale of our experiments, our results do not provide any data on stress corrosion, which should be considered in further study.

  20. Tetrahedrally Coordinated Fe3+ in Silicate Glasses: A Mossbauer, Iron K-edge XANES and Raman Spectroscopies Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochain, B.; Neuville, D. R.; McCammon, C.; Henderson, G. S.; de Ligny, D.; Pinet, O.; Richet, P.

    2009-05-01

    evolution leads us to establish a calibration procedure for a given composition. Calibration curves can be followed to investigate in situ kinetics of redox reactions. We present here results on the role of iron and its interactions with the silicate network for several compositions as pyroxene based glasses and iron bearing alkali alumino-borosilicate glasses.

  1. Localization and Symmetry Breaking in the Quantum Quasiperiodic Ising Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, A.; Laumann, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Quasiperiodic modulation can prevent isolated quantum systems from equilibrating by localizing their degrees of freedom. In this article, we show that such systems can exhibit dynamically stable long-range orders forbidden in equilibrium. Specifically, we show that the interplay of symmetry breaking and localization in the quasiperiodic quantum Ising chain produces a quasiperiodic Ising glass stable at all energy densities. The glass order parameter vanishes with an essential singularity at the melting transition with no signatures in the equilibrium properties. The zero-temperature phase diagram is also surprisingly rich, consisting of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and quasiperiodically alternating ground-state phases with extended, localized, and critically delocalized low-energy excitations. The system exhibits an unusual quantum Ising transition whose properties are intermediate between those of the clean and infinite randomness Ising transitions. Many of these results follow from a geometric generalization of the Aubry-André duality that we develop. The quasiperiodic Ising glass may be realized in near-term quantum optical experiments.

  2. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme

    2013-01-01

    Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

  3. Entirely screen printed CdS/CdTe solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Uda, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Nakano, A.; Kuribayashi, K.

    An entirely screen printed CdS/CdTe solar cell has been manufactured on a borosilicate glass substrate by successively repeating screen printing and heating in a belt furnace of each paste of CdS, Cd+Te, C, Ag+In and Ag. In a small cell with 0.78 sq cm area, the intrinsic conversion efficiency of 12.8 percent has been obtained; this value is the highest in the thin film type solar cells. On a large glass substrate of 30 x 30 sq cm, 28 unit solar cells connected in series have been constructed by this printing technique, their intrinsic efficiency being 8.5 percent. Under the roof top condition, no change in output power is observed in the present solar cells encapsulated over 206 days. Thus, the entirely screen printed CdS/CdTe solar cells can be expected as low cost, highly efficient, and stable solar cells.

  4. Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setina, Janina; Auzans, Juris J.; Zolotarjova, J. J.

    1994-09-01

    The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate glass as optical glue. The process of structure formation within temperature range 20-1000 degree(s)C has been investigated in details. It has been determined by IR and X-ray methods that the development of glass network begins with decomposition of components at 500 degree(s)C with further formation of glass elements within temperature range 625-675 degree(s)C. The stable glassforming area is determined by P-O-B groups. The role of fluorine in structure development depends on its depolymerizator behavior, on the other hand it has some glassforming ability. Latter is based on ability of fluorine to move from boron to phosphorus coordination sphere. For the compositions under research the formation of monofluorophosphate groups at higher temperatures have been determined. The ratio P:B equals 1, 2:2 defines obtaining of stable glass without devitrification within the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree(s)C. The interfacial processes between fluorine containing melts and quartz fiber have been investigated.

  5. Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters.

    PubMed

    Da, Ning; Peng, Mingying; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2010-02-01

    We report on intense red fluorescence from Mn(2+)-doped sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics of the type ZnO-Na(2)O-SO(3)-P(2)O(5). As a hypothesis, controlled internal crystallization of as-melted glasses is achieved on the basis of thermally-induced bimodal separation of an SO(3)-rich phase. Crystal formation is then confined to the relict structure of phase separation. The whole synthesis procedure is performed in air at glasses, increasing MnO content results in decreasing network polymerization. Stable glasses and continuously increasing emission intensity are observed for relatively high dopant concentration of up to 3 mol.%. Recrystallization of the glass results in strongly increasing emission intensity. Dynamic emission spectroscopy reveals only on type of emission centers in the glassy material, whereas three different centers are observed in the glass ceramic. These are attributed to octahedrally coordinated Mn(2+) in the residual glass phase and in crystalline phosphate and sulfate lattices, respectively. Relatively low crystal field strength results in almost ideal red emission, peaking around 625 nm. Excitation bands lie in the blue-to-green spectral range and exhibit strong overlap. The optimum excitation range matches the emission properties of GaN- and InGaN-based light emitting devices.

  6. High-impact resistance optical sensor windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Ceccorulli, Mark L.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-06-01

    Recent field experience with optical sensor windows on both ground and airborne platforms has shown a significant increase in window fracturing from foreign object debris (FOD) impacts and as a by-product of asymmetrical warfare. Common optical sensor window materials such as borosilicate glass do not typically have high impact resistance. Emerging advanced optical window materials such as aluminum oxynitride offer the potential for a significant improvement in FOD impact resistance due to their superior surface hardness, fracture toughness and strength properties. To confirm the potential impact resistance improvement achievable with these emerging materials, Goodrich ISR Systems in collaboration with Surmet Corporation undertook a set of comparative FOD impact tests of optical sensor windows made from borosilicate glass and from aluminum oxynitride. It was demonstrated that the aluminum oxynitride windows could withstand up to three times the FOD impact velocity (as compared with borosilicate glass) before fracture would occur. These highly encouraging test results confirm the utility of this new highly viable window solution for use on new ground and airborne window multispectral applications as well as a retrofit to current production windows. We believe that this solution can go a long way to significantly reducing the frequency and life cycle cost of window replacement.

  7. Let the substrate flow, not the enzyme: Practical immobilization of d-amino acid oxidase in a glass microreactor for effective biocatalytic conversions.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan M; Tribulato, Marco A; Petrasek, Zdenek; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Exploiting enzymes for chemical synthesis in flow microreactors necessitates their reuse for multiple rounds of conversion. To achieve this goal, immobilizing the enzymes on microchannel walls is a promising approach, but practical methods for it are lacking. Using fusion to a silica-binding module to engineer enzyme adsorption to glass surfaces, we show convenient immobilization of d-amino acid oxidase on borosilicate microchannel plates. In confocal laser scanning microscopy, channel walls appeared uniformly coated with target protein. The immobilized enzyme activity was in the range expected for monolayer coverage of the plain surface with oxidase (2.37 × 10(-5)  nmol/mm(2) ). Surface attachment of the enzyme was completely stable under flow. The operational half-life of the immobilized oxidase (25°C, pH 8.0; soluble catalase added) was 40 h. Enzymatic oxidation of d-Met into α-keto-γ-(methylthio)butyric acid was characterized in single-pass and recycle reactor configurations, employing in-line measurement of dissolved O2 , and off-line determination of the keto-acid product. Reaction-diffusion time-scale analysis for different flow conditions showed that the heterogeneously catalyzed reaction was always slower than diffusion of O2 to the solid surface (DaII  ≤ 0.3). Potential of the microreactor for intensifying O2 -dependent biotransformations restricted by mass transfer in conventional reactors is thus revealed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2342-2349. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gold nanoparticles deposited on glass: physicochemical characterization and cytocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Properties of gold films sputtered under different conditions onto borosilicate glass substrate were studied. Mean thickness of sputtered gold film was measured by gravimetry, and film contact angle was determined by goniometry. Surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy, and electrical sheet resistance was determined by two-point technique. The samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells, and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Gold depositions lead to dramatical changes in the surface morphology and roughness in comparison to pristine substrate. For sputtered gold structures, the rapid decline of the sheet resistance appears on structures deposited for the times above 100 s. The thickness of deposited gold nanoparticles/layer is an increasing function of sputtering time and current. AFM images prove the creation of separated gold islands in the initial deposition phase and a continuous gold coverage for longer deposition times. Gold deposition has a positive effect on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Largest number of cells was observed on sample sputtered with gold for 20 s and at the discharge current of 40 mA. This sample exhibits lowest contact angle, low relative roughness, and only mild increase of electrical conductivity. PMID:23705782

  9. Visualization and Analysis of Impact Damage in Sapphire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    transparent armor materials like Starphire soda - lime and borosilicate glass [8], fused silica [9] and the transparent polycrystalline ceramic AlON...conventional glass -based armor when a transparent ceramic is used as strike face on a glass -polymer laminate [1, 2, 3]. Sapphire, i.e. single crystal aluminum...materials. Since part of transparent armor consists of brittle materials, the fragmentation of the ceramic and glass layers plays a key role in the

  10. Luminescence and energy transfer of Tb3+-doped BaO-Gd2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chenggang; Huang, Jinze; Liu, Shaoyou; Xiao, Anguo; Shen, Youming; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhou, Zhihua; Zhu, Ligang

    2017-12-05

    Transparent Tb 3+ -doped BaO-Gd 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glasses with the greater than 4g/cm 3 were prepared by high temperature melting method and its luminescent properties have been investigated by measured UV-vis transmission, excitation, emission and luminescence decay spectra. The transmission spectrum shows there are three weak absorption bands locate at about 312, 378 and 484nm in the glasses and it has good transmittance in the visible spectrum region. Intense green emission can be observed under UV excitation. The effective energy transfer from Gd 3+ ion to Tb 3+ ion could occur and sensitize the luminescence of Tb 3+ ion. The green emission intensity of Tb 3+ ion could change with the increasing SiO 2 /B 2 O 3 ratio in the borosilicate glass matrix. With the increasing concentration of Tb 3+ ion, 5 D 4 → 7 F J transitions could be enhanced through the cross relaxation between the two nearby Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay time of 2.12ms from 546nm emission is obtained. The results indicate that Tb 3+ -doped BaO-Gd 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glasses would be potential scintillating material for applications in X-ray imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamic, crystallographic, and dielectric study of the nature of glass transitions in cyclo-octanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, Ricardo; Rute, Maria A.; Salud, Josep; López, David O.; Diez, Sergio; van Miltenburg, J. Kees; Pardo, Luis C.; Tamarit, Josep Ll.; Barrio, Maria; Pérez-Jubindo, Miguel A.; de La Fuente, Maria R.

    2004-06-01

    The stable solid polymorphism of cyclooctanol (C8H16O, for short C8 OH) is revealed to be a complex problem and only two stable solid phases, denoted on cooling from the liquid as phases I and II, are found using static (thermodynamic and x-ray diffraction) as well as dynamic (dielectric spectroscopy) experimental techniques. Both solid phases are known to exhibit glass transitions if they are cooled down fast enough to prevent transition to ordered crystalline states. Although glass transitions corresponding to both phases had been well documented by means of specific heat measurements, x-ray measurements constitute, as far as we know, the first evidence from the structural point of view. In addition, a great amount of dielectric works devoted to phase I and its glass transition, were published in the past but next to nothing relating to the dielectric properties of phase II and its glass transition. The nature of the disorder of phase II will be discussed.

  12. Vapor-deposited organic glasses exhibit enhanced stability against photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yue; Dalal, Shakeel S; Ediger, M D

    2018-04-18

    Photochemically stable solids are in demand for applications in organic electronics. Previous work has established the importance of the molecular packing environment by demonstrating that different crystal polymorphs of the same compound react at different rates when illuminated. Here we show, for the first time, that different amorphous packing arrangements of the same compound photodegrade at different rates. For these experiments, we utilize the ability of physical vapor deposition to prepare glasses with an unprecedented range of densities and kinetic stabilities. Indomethacin, a pharmaceutical molecule that can undergo photodecarboxylation when irradiated by UV light, is studied as a model system. Photodegradation is assessed through light-induced changes in the mass of glassy thin films due to the loss of CO2, as measured by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition degraded more slowly under UV illumination than did the liquid-cooled glass, with the difference as large as a factor of 2. Resistance to photodegradation correlated with glass density, with the vapor-deposited glasses being up to 1.3% more dense than the liquid-cooled glass. High density glasses apparently limit the local structural changes required for photodegradation.

  13. Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Transformation Front Velocities That Determine Thermal Stability of Vapor-Deposited Glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Dalal, Shakeel S.; Ediger, M. D.

    2015-02-09

    Stable organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition transform into the supercooled liquid via propagating fronts of molecular mobility, a mechanism different from that exhibited by glasses prepared by cooling the liquid. In this paper, we show that spectroscopic ellipsometry can directly observe this front-based mechanism in real time and explore how the velocity of the front depends upon the substrate temperature during deposition. For the model glass former indomethacin, we detect surface-initiated mobility fronts in glasses formed at substrate temperatures between 0.68T g and 0.94T g. At each of two annealing temperatures, the substrate temperature during deposition can changemore » the transformation front velocity by a factor of 6, and these changes are imperfectly correlated with the density of the glass. We also observe substrate-initiated fronts at some substrate temperatures. By connecting with theoretical work, we are able to infer the relative mobilities of stable glasses prepared at different substrate temperatures. Finally, an understanding of the transformation behavior of vapor-deposited glasses may be relevant for extending the lifetime of organic semiconducting devices.« less

  14. Nepheline structural and chemical dependence on melt composition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, José; Crum, Jarrod; Neill, Owen

    Nepheline crystallizes upon slow-cooling in some melts concentrated in Na2O and Al2O3, which can result in a residual glass phase of low chemical durability. Nepheline can incorporate many components often found in high-level waste radioactive borosilicate glass, including glass network ions (e.g., Si, Al, Fe), alkali metals (e.g., Cs, K, Na, and possibly Li), alkaline-earth metals (e.g., Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg), and transition metals (e.g., Mn, and possibly Cr, Zn, Ni). When crystallized from melts of different compositions, nepheline chemistry varies as a function of starting glass composition. Five simulated high level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses shown to crystallize largemore » fractions of nepheline on slow cooling, were selected for study. These melts constituted a range of Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, and SiO2 compositions. Compositional analyses of nepheline crystals in glass by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) indicate that boron is unlikely to be present in any significant concentration, if at all, in nepheline. Also, several models are presented for calculating the fraction of vacancies in the nepheline structure.« less

  15. Wettability measurement under high P-T conditions using X-ray imaging with application to the brine-supercritical CO2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Kuldeep; Guiltinan, Eric J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Maisano, Jessica A.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method for measuring wettability or contact angle of minerals at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) and radiography. In this method, a capillary or a narrow slot is constructed from a mineral or a rock sample of interest wherein two fluids are allowed to form an interface that is imaged using X-rays. After some validation measurements at room pressure-temperature conditions, we illustrate this method by measuring the contact angle of CO2-brine on quartz, muscovite, shale, borosilicate glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon), and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) surfaces at 60-71°C and 13.8-22.8 MPa. At reservoir conditions, PTFE and PEEK surfaces were found to be CO2-wet with contact angles of 140° and 127°, respectively. Quartz and muscovite were found to be water-wet with contact angles of 26° and 58°, respectively, under similar conditions. Borosilicate glass-air-brine at room conditions showed strong water-wet characteristics with a contact angle of 9°, whereas borosilicate glass-CO2-brine at 13.8 MPa and 60°C showed a decrease in its water-wetness with contact angle of 54°. This method provides a new application for X-ray imaging and an alternative to other methods.

  16. Wettability measurement under high P-T conditions using X-ray imaging with application to the brine-supercritical CO 2 system: WETTABILITY MEASUREMENT USING X-RAY

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Kuldeep; Guiltinan, Eric J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-08-30

    We present a new method for measuring wettability or contact angle of minerals at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) and radiography. In this method, a capillary or a narrow slot is constructed from a mineral or a rock sample of interest wherein two fluids are allowed to form an interface that is imaged using X-rays. After some validation measurements at room pressure-temperature conditions, we illustrate this method by measuring the contact angle of CO 2-brine on quartz, muscovite, shale, borosilicate glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon), and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) surfaces at 60–71°C and 13.8–22.8 MPa.more » At reservoir conditions, PTFE and PEEK surfaces were found to be CO 2-wet with contact angles of 140° and 127°, respectively. Quartz and muscovite were found to be water-wet with contact angles of 26° and 58°, respectively, under similar conditions. Borosilicate glass-air-brine at room conditions showed strong water-wet characteristics with a contact angle of 9°, whereas borosilicate glass-CO 2-brine at 13.8 MPa and 60°C showed a decrease in its water-wetness with contact angle of 54°. This method provides a new application for X-ray imaging and an alternative to other methods.« less

  17. Structural study of Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glasses from molecular simulations using a polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, Fabien; Delaye, Jean-Marc; Charpentier, Thibault; Cormier, Laurent; Salanne, Mathieu

    2017-10-28

    Sodium borosilicate glasses Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) are complex systems from a structural point of view. Three main building units are present: tetrahedral SiO 4 and BO 4 (B IV ) and triangular BO 3 (B III ). One of the salient features of these compounds is the change of the B III /B IV ratio with the alkali concentration, which is very difficult to capture in force fields-based molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we develop a polarizable force field that is able to reproduce the boron coordination and more generally the structure of several NBS systems in the glass and in the melt. The parameters of the potential are fitted from density functional theory calculations only, in contrast with the existing empirical potentials for NBS systems. This ensures a strong improvement on the transferability of the parameters from one composition to another. Using this new force field, the structure of NBS systems is validated against neutron diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A special focus is given to the distribution of B III /B IV with respect to the composition and the temperature.

  18. Development of Tc(IV)-Incorporated Fe Minerals to Enhance 99Tc Retention in Glass Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui

    Iron minerals have been considered to be good hosts for Tc immobilization because the Tc(IV) ion substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure of the Fe oxide due to similarities in (1) cation size [Tc(IV) = 78.5 pm ; Fe(III) = 69 or 78.5 pm], (2) metal-oxygen interatomic distance (Tc—O = 0.199 nm, Fe—O = 0.203 nm), (3) number of coordinating oxygen atoms (both 6-fold coordinated), and (4) the redox potential (Eh=ca. +20 mV at pH = 7) for a redox couple between Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) and Fe(III)/Fe(II). Magnetite, maghemite, and trevorite are iron oxide minerals and all belong to spinel mineralmore » group. Laboratory testing shows that Tc can be removed from aqueous waste solutions by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation with iron oxide minerals during recrystallization of Fe(OH)2(s) used as an initial solid precursor. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed that Tc was in the +4 oxidation state in final Tc-Fe minerals. The Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were also tested for Tc retention in glass melts at different temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC in a furnace. After being cooled in air, the solid glass specimens collected at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using XANES and Tc retention using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Even though Tc(IV) started to reoxidize at 600 oC, Tc retention in the final glass specimen prepared with Tc-incorporated Fe mineral even at high temperatures was at least two times higher than glass prepared with KTcO4 salt. Higher Tc retention in glass is considered to result from limited and delayed Tc volatilization process due to Fe mineral encapsulation for Tc. Therefore, the results showing the presence of Tc(IV) in the Fe mineral structure indicate strong possibility to enhance Tc retention in borosilicate glass as well as to reduce the remediation costs at the Hanford Site.« less

  19. Inhibiting the oxidation of diamond during preparing the vitrified dental grinding tools by depositing a ZnO coating using direct urea precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Yuan, Yungang; Cheng, Xiaozhe; Li, Xiaohu; Zang, Jianbing; Lu, Jing; Yu, Yiqing; Xu, Xipeng

    2015-08-01

    Oxidation of diamond during the manufacturing of vitrified dental grinding tools would reduce the strength and sharpness of tools. Zinc oxide (ZnO) coating was deposited on diamond particles by urea precipitation method to protect diamond in borosilicate glass. The FESEM results showed that the ZnO coating was formed by plate-shaped particles. According to the TG results, the onset oxidation temperature of the ZnO-coated diamond was about 70 °C higher than the pristine diamond. The EDS results showed that ZnO diffused into the borosilicate glass during sintering. As the result, the bending strength of the composites containing ZnO-coated diamond was increased by 24% compared to that of the composites containing pristine diamond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant. PMID:26658671

  1. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-12-14

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant.

  2. Use of PIXE-PIGE under variable incident angle for ancient glass corrosion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Strivay, D.; Martinot, L.; Garnir, H. P.

    2002-04-01

    Although glass is usually considered as a very stable archaeological material, it can undergo severe degradation. Soda-lime glass, the most common glass throughout ancient times, is particularly sensitive to this problem. The glass surface absorbs moisture from its environment and the contact with CO 2 causes Na 2O and NaOH to convert to Na 2CO 3, which is extremely hygroscopic. The subsequent unstable glass layer can be leached out and causes decomposition of the glass. The non-destructive PIGE-PIXE method of investigation allows detection of this phenomenon even if no visible effect appears. The variable incident angle method is able to discern the depth of the degradation. One aim of such studies is the possible dating or at least fake detecting of archaeological materials. Furthermore, even objects of large size can be investigated with the atmospheric PIGE-PIXE set-up. Some examples of measurements on ancient glass are given.

  3. Innovative hybrid optics: combining the thermal stability of glass with low manufacturing cost of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doushkina, Valentina

    2010-08-01

    Innovative hybrid glass-polymer optical solutions on a component, module, or system level offer thermal stability of glass with low manufacturing cost of polymers reducing component weight, enhancing the safety and appeal of the products. Narrow choice of polymer materials is compensated by utilizing sophisticated optical surfaces such as refractive, reflective, and diffractive substrates with spherical, aspherical, cylindrical, and freeform prescriptions. Current advancements in polymer technology and injection molding capabilities placed polymer optics in the heart of many high tech devices and applications including Automotive Industry, Defense & Aerospace; Medical/Bio Science; Projection Displays, Sensors, Information Technology, Commercial and Industrial. This paper is about integration of polymer and glass optics for enhanced optical performance with reduced number of components, thermal stability, and low manufacturing cost. The listed advantages are not achievable when polymers or glass optics are used as stand-alone. The author demonstrates that integration of polymer and glass on component or optical system level on one hand offers high resolution and diffraction limited image quality, similar to the glass optics with stable refractive index and stable thermal performance when design is athermalized within the temperature range. On the other hand, the integrated hybrid solution significantly reduces cost, weight, and complexity, just like the polymer optics. The author will describe the design and analyzes process of combining glass and polymer optics for variety of challenging applications such as fast optics with low F/#, wide field of view lenses or systems, free form optics, etc.

  4. Delamination propensity of pharmaceutical glass containers by accelerated testing with different extraction media.

    PubMed

    Guadagnino, Emanuel; Zuccato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    can cause glass particles to appear in vials, a problem that has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. To combat this, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturers need to understand the reasons for glass delamination. The most recent cases of product recall due to the presence of particles in the filling liquid have involved borosilicate glass containers carrying drugs made of active components with known ability to corrode glass and to dissolve the silica matrix. Sometimes these ingredients are dissolved in an alkaline medium that dramatically increases the glass corrosion and potentially causes the issue. As this action is strongly affected by time and temperature, flaking may become visible only after a long incubation during storage and requires systematic monitoring to be detected at its early stage. If the nature of the filling liquid is the driving force of the phenomenon, other factors are of primary importance. The surface morphology created during vial forming is a key issue, being a function of the forming temperature that is higher in the cutting step and the forming of the bottom. Delamination occurs generally on the vial's bottom and shoulder, where extensive flaming can favor a strong evaporation of alkali and borate species and the formation of heavily enriched silica layers. When these layers are in contact with a solution, they are subject to a differential re-hydration that may result in cracking and detachment of scales. The purpose of this investigation is to identify testing conditions and parameters that can be used as indicators of an incipient delamination process. Extractions with 0.9% KCl solution for 1 h at 121 °C can be used to simulate a long-term contact with aggressive pharmaceutical preparations, while SiO(2) concentration in the extract solution can be taken as an index of glass dissolution. The conclusions developed by this study can provide pharmaceutical manufacturers with information needed to help

  5. ULTRASONIC NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Truell, R.; de Klerk, J.; Levy, P.W.

    1960-02-23

    A neutron dosimeter is described which utilizes ultrasonic waves in the megacycle region for determination of the extent of neutron damage in a borosilicate glass through ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation measurements before and after damage.

  6. Experimental evidences of the Gardner phase in a granular glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauchot, Olivier; Seguin, Antoine

    The constituent particles of a glass are caged by their neighbors and thus cannot relax density fluctuations. This is also true for hard particles under compression. The associated slowing down of the dynamics is related to a complex free energy landscape. It was recently shown theoretically that the hard sphere glass in infinite dimension undergoes a Gardner transition, at which the glass basin breaks into a hierarchy of marginally stable sub-basins. This was very recently confirmed in simulations of 2d and 3d hard sphere (HS) glasses. We present the first direct experimental evidences of the Gardner phase, taking advantage of a well controlled granular experiment, which has already proven to successfully probe the vicinity of the jamming transition in a bi-dimensional granular glass former. More precisely, we perform independent compressions of a carefully prepared granular glass and show that for large enough compression, the final state differs from one compression to another. To do so we compare the average cage size within one state, and the average distance separating the cages of the same particles across successive compression cycles. The latter plateaus to a constant value, when entering the Gardner phase.

  7. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilonmore » metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000°C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).« less

  8. Epsilon metal waste form for immobilization of noble metals from used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ɛ-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass, thus the processing problems related to their insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high alloying temperatures, expected to be 1500-2000 °C, making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  9. Li corrosion resistant glasses for headers in ambient temperature Li batteries

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.; Watkins, R.D.

    1985-10-11

    Glass compositions containing 10 to 50 mol% CaO, 10 to 50 mol% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 30 to 60 mol% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0 to 30 mol% MgO are provided. These compositions are capable of forming a stable glass-to-metal seal possessing electrical insulating properties for use in a lithium battery. Also provided are lithium cells containing a stainless steel body and molybdenum center pin electrically insulated by means of a seal produced according to the invention.

  10. Application of atomic layer deposited microchannel plates to imaging photodetectors with high time resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.

    Novel microchannel plates have been constructed using borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 mu m and 10 mu m pores and coated with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition. Microchannel plates in 33 mm, 50 mm and 20 cm square formats have been made and tested. Although their amplification, imaging, and timing properties are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates, the background rates and lifetime characteristics are considerably improved. Sealed tube detectors based on the Planacon tube, and a 25 mm cross delay line readout tube with a GaN(Mg) opaque photocathode deposited on borosilicate microchannelmore » plates have been fabricated. Considerable progress has also been made with 20 cm microchannel plates for a 20 cm format sealed tube sensor with strip-line readout that is being developed for Cherenkov light detection.« less

  11. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO 2 Containing Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition modelsmore » form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The DWPF will soon be receiving wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) containing increased concentrations of TiO 2, Na 2O, and Cs 2O . The SWPF is being built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to process TiO 2 concentrations >2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new viscosity data were developed over the range of 1.90 to 6.09 wt% TiO 2 and evaluated against the 2005 viscosity model. An alternate viscosity model is also derived for potential future use, should the DWPF ever need to process other titanate-containing ion exchange materials. The ultimate limit on the amount of TiO 2 that can be accommodated from SWPF will be determined by the three PCCS models, the waste composition of a given sludge batch, the waste loading of the sludge batch, and

  12. Stability of total nutrient admixtures with lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F; Silvestri, Anthony P; Bistrian, Bruce R; Mikrut, Bernard A

    2007-02-15

    The physical stability of two emulsions compounded as part of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) was studied in lipids packaged in either glass or plastic containers. Five weight-based adult TNA formulations that were designed to meet the full nutritional needs of adults with body weights between 40 and 80 kg were studied. Triplicate preparations of each TNA were assessed over 30 hours at room temperature by applying currently proposed United States Pharmacopeia (USP) criteria for mean droplet diameter, large-diameter tail, and globule-size distribution (GSD) for lipid injectable emulsions. In accordance with conditions set forth in USP chapter 729, the higher levels of volume-weighted percent of fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)) should not exceed 0.05% of the total lipid concentration. Significant differences were noted among TNA admixtures based on whether the lipid emulsion product was manufactured in glass or plastic. The plastic-contained TNAs failed the proposed USP methods for large-diameter fat globules in all formulations from the outset, and 60% had significant growth in large-diameter fat globules over time. In contrast, glass-contained TNAs were stable throughout and in all cases would have passed proposed USP limits. Certain lipid injectable emulsions packaged in plastic containers have baseline abnormal GSD profiles compared with those packaged in glass containers. When used to compound TNAs, the abnormal profile worsens and produces less stable TNAs than those compounded with lipid injectable emulsions packaged in glass containers.

  13. Direct hot slumping and accurate integration process to manufacture prototypal x-ray optical units made of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Proserpio, L.; Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G.; Menz, B.; Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.

    2013-09-01

    X-ray telescopes with very large collecting area, like the proposed International X-ray Observatory (IXO, with around 3 m2 at 1 keV), need to be composed of a large number high quality mirror segments, aiming at achieving an angular resolution better than 5 arcsec HEW (Half-Energy-Width). A possible technology to manufacture the modular elements that will compose the entire optical module, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs), consists of stacking in Wolter-I configuration several layers of thin foils of borosilicate glass, previously formed by hot slumping. The XOUs are subsequently assembled to form complete multi-shell optics with Wolter-I geometry. The achievable global angular resolution of the optic relies on the required surface shape accuracy of slumped foils, on the smoothness of the mirror surfaces and on the correct integration and co-alignment of the mirror segments. The Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB) is leading a study, supported by ESA, concerning the implementation of the IXO telescopes based on thin slumped glass foils. In addition to the opto-mechanical design, the study foresees the development of a direct hot slumping thin glass foils production technology. Moreover, an innovative assembly concept making use of Wolter-I counter-form moulds and glass reinforcing ribs is under development. The ribs connect pairs of consecutive foils in an XOU stack, playing a structural and a functional role. In fact, as the ribs constrain the foil profile to the correct shape during the bonding, they damp the low-frequency profile errors still present on the foil after slumping. A dedicated semirobotic Integration MAchine (IMA) has been realized to this scope and used to build a few integrated prototypes made of several layers of slumped plates. In this paper we provide an overview of the project, we report the results achieved so far, including full illumination intra-focus X-ray tests of the last integrated prototype that are compliant with a HEW of

  14. A new approach for the calculation of falling droplets from a cylindrical glass capillary based on force balance and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Sebastian; Bogner, Martin; Haub, Michael; Saegebarth, Joachim; Sandmaier, Hermann

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new simple analytical method to estimate the properties of falling droplets without solving complex differential equations. The derivation starts from the balance of forces and uses Newton’s second law and the equations of motion to calculate the volume of growing and detaching droplets and the time between two successive droplets falling out of a thin cylindrical capillary of borosilicate glass. In this specific case the reservoir is located above the capillary and the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid level leads to drop formation times about one second. In the second part of this paper experimental results are presented to validate the introduced calculation method. It is shown that the new approach describes the measuring results within a deviation of ±6.2%. The third part of the paper sums up the advantages of the new approach and an outlook is given on how the research on this topic will be continued.

  15. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  16. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Technetium (Tc) retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased if the volatility can be controlled. Incorporating Tc into a thermally stable mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve increased retention. Here, rhenium (Re)-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4-), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass simulants. After melting HLW and LAW simulant feeds, the retention of Re in the glass was measured and compared with the Re retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re2O7. Phase analysis of sodalite in both these glasses across a profile of temperatures describes the durability of Re-sodalite during the feed-to-glass transition. The use of Re sodalite improved the Re retention by 21% for HLW glass and 85% for LAW glass, demonstrating the potential improvement in Tc-retention if TcO4- were to be encapsulated in a Tc-sodalite prior to vitrification.

  17. Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Rémy; Marot, Laurent; Sadeghi, Ali; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Reimann, Peter; Goedecker, Stefan; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The structure of metallic glasses is a long-standing question because the lack of long-range order makes diffraction based techniques difficult to be applied. Here, we used scanning tunneling microscopy with large tunneling resistance of 6 GΩ at low temperature in order to minimize forces between probe and sample and reduce thermal fluctuations of metastable structures. Under these extremely gentle conditions, atomic structures of Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses are revealed with unprecedented lateral resolution. In agreement with previous models and experiments, icosahedral-like clusters are observed. The clusters show a high degree of mobility, which explains the need of low temperatures for stable imaging. In addition to icosahedrons, chain-like structures are resolved and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that these structures are meta-stable. The co-existence of icosahedral and chain-like structures might be an key ingredient for the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic glasses. PMID:26268430

  18. Selective accumulation of harmful compounds by the DNA-inorganic hybrid-immobilized glass bead.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masanori; Hamai, Akari

    2009-08-11

    Previously, we reported the DNA-inorganic hybrid material including double-stranded DNA by mixing the aqueous DNA solution and silane coupling reagents. Here, we immobilized the DNA-inorganic hybrid material onto the glass bead and prepared the DNA-immobilized glass bead column. The DNA-immobilized glass beads were stable in water and the amount of eluted DNA from the DNA-glass beads did not change for more than 1 week. Additionally, this DNA-immobilized column selectively accumulated the harmful compounds with the planar structure, such as dioxin- and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-derivatives, and these accumulation percentages were 50-70%. Furthermore, the DNA-immobilized glass bead was recycled nine times by the application of ethanol solution and the accumulative ratio was maintained at more than 60% and did not appear to be decreasing. Therefore, these DNA-columns might have a potential for the selective removal and separation of DNA-intercalating molecules and harmful compounds with the planar structure from experimental or industrial drainages.

  19. Glassy nature and glass-to-crystal transition in the binary metallic glass CuZr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zi-Yang; Shang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2017-06-01

    The prediction for the stability of glassy material is a key challenge in physical science. Here, we report a theoretical framework to predict the glass stability based on stochastic surface walking global optimization and reaction pathway sampling. This is demonstrated by revealing for the first time the global potential energy surface (PES) of two systems, CuZr binary metallic glass and nonglassy pure Cu systems, and establishing the lowest energy pathways linking glassy/amorphous structures with crystalline structures. The CuZr system has a significant number of glassy structures on PES that are ˜0.045 eV /atom above the crystal structure. Two clear trends are identified from global PES in the glass-to-crystal transition of the CuZr system: (i) the local Zr-Cu coordination (nearest neighbor) increases, and (ii) the local Zr bonding environment becomes homogeneous. This allows us to introduce quantitative structural and energetics conditions to distinguish the glassy structures from the crystalline structures. Because of the local Zr-Cu exchange in the glass-to-crystal transition, a high reaction barrier (>0.048 eV /atom ) is present to separate the glassy structures and the crystals in CuZr. By contrast, the Cu system, although it does possess amorphous structures that appear at much higher energy (˜0.075 eV /atom ) with respect to the crystal structure, has very low reaction barriers for the crystallization of amorphous structures, i.e. <0.011 eV /atom . The quantitative data on PES now available from global optimization techniques deepens our understanding on the microscopic nature of glassy material and might eventually facilitate the design of stable glassy materials.

  20. Particulate Study on NeoProfen, a Neonatal Injectable Product.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Aravind; Rice, Michael; Kester, Tom; Waters, Michael; Wilson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    NeoProfen or sterile ibuprofen L-lysine at 10 mg/mL ibuprofen, in 2 mL single-use Type I glass vials is often a first choice medication used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in neonatal patients from 500 to 1500 g body weight. Visible particulate matter was found in vials that were placed on a commercial stability program prior to the approved expiration date of 2 years. A combination of instrumental techniques including inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Raman and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy was used to evaluate stability, pilot batch and packaging samples in a root cause investigation. The particulate matter was shown to consist largely of ibuprofen aluminum salts of various stoichiometries. It developed over time by a substitution mechanism, in which the ibuprofen anion in solution reacts with the aluminum oxide network of the borosilicate glass giving the ibuprofen aluminum salt with =Al-OH remaining in the network. For corrective action an alternate Type I borosilicate glass vial with interior coating, not found in the original vial, was chosen for the product to prevent this occurrence. NeoProfen (sterile preservative-free ibuprofin L-lysine at 17 mg/mL in a single-use glass vial) is used to close a clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants no more than 32 weeks gestational age. The neonatal population is especially sensitive to outside chemical, physical and environmental conditions because of incompletely developed organ systems, low birth weight and other underlying conditions. Two batches of this product were voluntarily recalled by the manufacturer, Lundbeck, and investigated for the source of particulate matter observed during a commercial stability testing program. This was found to result from an interaction between the product and the Type I borosilicate glass vial where ibuprofen

  1. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges: results of FY 1996 studies. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Wagner, M.J.

    During the past few years, the primary mission at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has changed from producing plutonium to restoring the environment. Large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), generated during past Pu production and other operations, are stored in underground tanks on site. The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix and then disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implementedmore » to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass produced in disposing of the tank wastes. On this basis, a pretreatment plan is being developed. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching test conducted to create a Hanford tank sludge pretreatment flowsheet.« less

  2. Water-assisted femtosecond laser machining of electrospray nozzles on glass microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    An, Ran; Hoffman, Michelle D; Donoghue, Margaret A; Hunt, Alan J; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2008-09-15

    Using water-assisted femtosecond laser machining, we fabricated electrospray nozzles on glass coverslips and on assembled microfluidic devices. Machining the nozzles after device assembly facilitated alignment of the nozzles over the microchannels. The basic nozzle design is a through-hole in the coverslip to pass liquids and a trough machined around the through-hole to confine the electrospray and prevent liquid from wicking across the glass surface. Electrospray from the nozzles was stable with and without pressure-driven flow applied and was evaluated using mass spectra of the peptide bradykinin.

  3. Preparation and characterization of novel foamed porous glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmal, Nibedita; Garai, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in

    2015-05-15

    Foamed glass-ceramics without using foaming agent have been synthesized in a novel glass system of SrO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-M{sub x}O{sub y} (where M = Ba, Mg, La, Ce and Ni) by a simple process of powder sintering. The glass and glass-ceramics are characterized by dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), heating stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), optical microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All the glasses formed are amorphous and the glass transition temperature and dilatometric softening temperature of these glasses are found to be in the rangemore » 673–678 °C and 706–728 °C respectively. The glasses are highly stable as indicated by the DSC evaluated glass stability parameters of the range 195–240 °C. Quantitative sintering study of glass powder compacts revealed swelling in the samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} corresponding to a geometry change of 75 and 108% around 900 °C respectively. With reference to this finding the glass powder compacts are heated to 900 °C and the foamed glass-ceramics are obtained. Characteristic crystalline silicate phases have been identified in the XRD studies and their microstructures are recorded by FESEM. Optical microscope study of the foamed samples revealed formation of bigger foamed cavity with residual pores in samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} in comparison to samples with BaO, MgO and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The mean pore diameters of the samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} are determined to be 43 and 32 μm, and their respective porosities are 2.34 and 1.82 cm{sup 3}/g respectively. Thus NiO and CeO{sub 2} are found to be very effective to obtain foamed glass-ceramics without using foaming agent by the viscous flow sintering of fine glass powder compacts along with the reduction of the respective polyvalent ions. - Highlights: • Synthesis of foamed porous

  4. Hydrogen stable isotopes from hydrated volcanic glass record orogenic growth and climate change at the eastern Puna Plateau margin, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingel, H.; Mulch, A.; Rohrmann, A.; Alonso, R. N.; Strecker, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Intermontane basin strata along the E flanks of the Puna Plateau in NW Argentina are ideal archives to investigate the interaction between tectonics, topography, and changes in climate. In particular, these strata record the fragmentation of a formerly contiguous foreland by range uplifts, ensuing intra-basin deformation, and surface uplift. These changes were often accompanied by a transition from humid to semiarid conditions as windward range uplift exceeded orographic threshold elevations. The E Andean flanks comprise steep gradients in topography, rainfall, and surface-process rates. Rainfall is focused along the E flanks of the plateau, while the orogen interior is arid. These gradients are mirrored by the stable isotope ratios of modern rainfall, and therefore, in the stable isotope composition of proxy materials that incorporate this water. We present D/H ratios of volcanic glass (δDg) from dated tuffs in Mio-Pleistocene sediments of intermontane basins in the Eastern Cordillera between ~23 and 26°S (Humahuaca, Toro, and Angastaco basins). We document a strong co-varying relationship between tectono-sedimentary events in the basins and corresponding δDg values. Initial D-depletion trends in the Toro and Angastaco basins constrains the onset of surface uplift to 6.5 and 7 Ma, respectively. Strong positive δDg shifts of >15‰ in Humahuaca at ~3 Ma and <2 Ma in the Toro basin are apparently caused by enhanced evaporation. In this tectonic setting the observed relationships may be related to the attainment of orographic threshold conditions and ensuing hinterland aridification. δDg values in Angastaco, additionally, appear to be episodically influenced by enhanced convective rainfall during the Plio-Pleistocene, similar to modern conditions.

  5. Calorimetric study of tellurium rich Se-Te-Sn glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Heera, Pawan, E-mail: pawanheera@yahoo.com; Govt. College Amb, Himachal Pradesh 177203; Kumar, Anup

    2016-05-23

    We report the calorimetric study of amorphous Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} alloys for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5 in terms of kinetic parameters. The DSC curves recorded at four different heating rates are analyzed to determine the transition temperatures, activation energy, thermal stability, glass forming ability. The crystallization process has been investigated using Kissinger, Matusita, Augis and Bennett, and Gao and Wang models. Various kinetic parameters have been calculated for a better understanding of the growth mechanism. The glass transition temperatures T{sub g}, onset crystallization T{sub c}, peak crystallization T{sub p}, and melting temperature T{sub m} are found tomore » increase with the increase in Sn content. The system under investigation is found to be thermally stable for at lower at% of Sn. The values of parameters H{sub R}, H{sub w}, and S indicate that Glass forming ability (GFA) decays with an increase in Sn content.« less

  6. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of ZnO Containing Glasses.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Sanz, Jesús; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2015-01-01

    A new family of non-toxic biocides based on low melting point (1250°C) transparent glasses with high content of ZnO (15-40wt%) belonging to the miscibility region of the B2O3-SiO2-Na2O-ZnO system has been developed. These glasses have shown an excellent biocide activity (logarithmic reduction >3) against Gram- (E. coli), Gram+ (S. aureus) and yeast (C. krusei); they are chemically stable in different media (distilled water, sea-like water, LB and DMEN media) as well as biocompatible. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the Neutral Red Uptake using NIH-3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cells) and the cell viability was >80%. These new glasses can be considered in several and important applications in the field of inorganic non-toxic biocide agents such as medical implants, surgical equipment, protective apparels in hospitals, water purifications systems, food packaging, food storages or textiles.

  7. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of ZnO Containing Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Sanz, Jesús; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2015-01-01

    A new family of non-toxic biocides based on low melting point (1250°C) transparent glasses with high content of ZnO (15–40wt%) belonging to the miscibility region of the B2O3-SiO2-Na2O-ZnO system has been developed. These glasses have shown an excellent biocide activity (logarithmic reduction >3) against Gram- (E. coli), Gram+ (S. aureus) and yeast (C. krusei); they are chemically stable in different media (distilled water, sea-like water, LB and DMEN media) as well as biocompatible. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the Neutral Red Uptake using NIH-3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cells) and the cell viability was >80%. These new glasses can be considered in several and important applications in the field of inorganic non-toxic biocide agents such as medical implants, surgical equipment, protective apparels in hospitals, water purifications systems, food packaging, food storages or textiles. PMID:26230940

  8. Bioactive calcium pyrophosphate glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    Calcium phosphate glass-based materials in the pyrophosphate region are briefly reviewed. Calcium pyrophosphate glasses can be prepared by including a small amount of TiO(2) (glasses in simulated body fluid. By heating powder-compacts of the glasses, they are crystallized and subsequently are sintered, resulting in fabrication of high-strength glass-ceramics with machinability; they are easier to be machined using conventional tools in comparison with conventional calcium phosphate ceramics. beta-Ca(2)P(2)O(7) crystal formed in the glass-ceramics plays an important role in the machinability. Their apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid is drastically enhanced after autoclaving in distilled water. The glass-ceramics can be easily coated on a new beta-type titanium alloy using a conventional glazing technique.

  9. SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin P.

    In far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this paper is to study effects of these variables on three model waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). To do this, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH(RT) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. The results from these tests were then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on transition state theory. Both the absolute dissolution rates andmore » the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Discrepancies in the absolute dissolution rates as compared to those obtained using other test methods are discussed. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies. The results were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), which is capable of providing a robust uncertainty analysis. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values could possibly be obtained. This would allow for the possibility of predicting the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition« less

  10. An in vivo study of the biocompatibility of classic and novel device materials on the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboro, Claudine

    2007-12-01

    Investigation of novel biomaterials is an essential part of the development of electrical stimulation and chemical drug delivery for biomedical applications. In evaluating biocompatibility, the material's surface and the tissue should both be analyzed to determine their interaction during neural exposure. This includes a material investigation of bulk sapphire substrate, platinum (Pt) deposited on sapphire substrate using magnetron sputtering and aluminum nitride (AlN) which was deposited on sapphire substrate using plasma source molecular beam epitaxy (PSMBE). Zinc titania coverslip glass and borosilicate glass were used as control materials. The materials were implanted for periods of 10, 28 and 90 days on the cortical surface of the brain in a rat animal model. The chronic implants were analyzed both pre- and post- implantation for device structure/tissue interactions down to the atomic level. The characterization techniques used to explore structural and chemical changes on or within the material included optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histology were used to determine the effects of the implants in vivo. Biocompatibility is the ability of a material or device to be exposed to the dynamic environment of the body and elicit little or no adverse effects. The data suggests that the biocompatibility of a material may be directly associated with structure and topology. The sapphire, zinc titania coverslip glass and platinum all had signs of bio-incompatibility. The aluminum nitride and borosilicate glass materials were both biocompatible based on our studies. The borosilicate glass elicited no response from the tissue while the aluminum nitride had a positive affect on the tissue encouraging the attachment of proteins and tissue without glial scars instigation. The material characterization, MR imaging and histological data show that surface features such as roughness

  11. Energy landscapes in proteins and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sadanand

    Soft materials are ubiquitous in our day-to-day life. They include liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, granular systems, and a number of biological materials. While these materials exhibit a wide range of textures and morphologies, many of their properties have common physicochemical origins. A better understanding of such origins would lead to rational design and engineering of functional soft materials. A common feature of soft materials is the wide range of time and length scales that characterizes their behavior. Unfortunately, available molecular modeling techniques are often ill-suited for problems that exhibit multiple length and time scales. In this thesis, we introduce and implement new simulation methods that have enabled molecular-level studies of soft materials. Such methods permit calculation of free energy surfaces, and we demonstrate their usefulness in the context of proteins and glasses, both of which exhibit rugged free energy landscapes. A first application is concerned with human amylin, a protein associated with Type II diabetes. Patients with Type II diabetes exhibit fibrillar deposits of human amylin protein in the pancreas. By applying the advanced simulation methods and algorithms developed in this work, we investigate the structure and folding dynamics of human amylin. A detailed mechanism is presented at the atomic-level for the nucleation and aggregation of the peptide. The results presented in this work could help in development of therapeutic strategies for Type II diabetes. The second application is concerned with the study of vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses. These stable glasses have, far below the conventional glass transition temperature, the properties expected from the equilibrium supercooled liquid state. Our results indicate that optimal stability is attained when deposition occurs near the Kauzmann temperature. We also show that the extraordinary stability of model vapor deposited glasses is associated with distinct

  12. Development, characterisation and biocompatibility testing of a cobalt-containing titanium phosphate-based glass for engineering of vascularized hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Ho; Yu, Hye-sun; Lakhkar, Nilay J; Kim, Hae-Won; Gong, Myoung-Seon; Knowles, Jonathan C; Wall, Ivan B

    2013-05-01

    There is a continuing need to develop scaffold materials that can promote vascularisation throughout the tissue engineered construct. This study investigated the effect of cobalt oxide (CoO) doped into titanium phosphate glasses on material properties, biocompatibility and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by osteoblastic MG63 cells. Glasses composed of (P2O5)45(Na2O)20(TiO2)05(CaO)30-x(CoO)x(x=0, 5, 10, and 15 mol%) were fabricated and the effect of Co on physicochemical properties including density, glass transition temperature (Tg), degradation rate, ion release, and pH changes was assessed. The results showed that incorporation of CoO into the glass system produced an increase in density with little change in Tg. It was then confirmed that the pH did not change significantly when CoO was incorporated in the glass, and stayed constant at around 6.5-7.0 throughout the dissolution study period of 336 h. Ion release results followed a specific pattern with increasing amounts of CoO. In general, although incorporation of CoO into a titanium phosphate glass increased its density, other bulk and surface properties of the glass did not show any significant changes. Cell culture studies performed using MG63 cells over a 7-day period indicated that the glasses provide a stable surface for cell attachment and are biocompatible. Furthermore, VEGF secretion was significantly enhanced on all glasses compared with standard tissue culture plastic and Co doping enhanced this effect further. In conclusion, the developed Co-doped glasses are stable and biocompatible and thus offer enhanced potential for engineering vascularized tissue. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability of levothyroxine injection in glass, polyvinyl chloride, and polyolefin containers.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Anne Julie; MacLean, Robert D; Williamson, David; Marsolais, Pierre; Donnelly, Ronald F

    2011-09-15

    The 24-hour stability of a levothyroxine solution admixed and stored in three common infusion containers and infused through polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing was evaluated. Levothyroxine sodium 1-μg/mL injection prepared in glass bottles and PVC and polyolefin bags were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours; samples drawn directly from the containers, as well as from the distal end of attached PVC tubing, were assayed. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) for predicted and delivered doses was calculated; analysis of variance was used for comparison of the percentages of predicted and actual AUC values. The levothyroxine concentration was stable in glass bottles and polyolefin bags through 24 hours (mean ± S.D. percentage of initial concentration remaining, 103.5% ± 2.5% and 100.0% ± 2.9%, respectively). In the PVC infusion bags, the amount of drug decreased to 90% of the initial concentration within 1 hour and then rose and remained within acceptability limits. The levothyroxine concentration of the samples infused through PVC line from glass and polyolefin containers decreased after 1 hour by about 13%; the loss of the drug from the samples infused from PVC bags was higher (18%), presumably due to additive adsorptive effects. In all samples tested, the drug concentration rebounded and remained above 90% to the end of the study. Levothyroxine sodium 1-μg/mL solution was stable for 24 hours in glass bottles and polyolefin bags but when stored in PVC bags, the concentration decreased by 10% after 1 hour.

  14. Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sultana, T; Georgiev, G L; Baird, R J; Auner, G W; Newaz, G; Patwa, R; Herfurth, H J

    2009-07-01

    Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film can have neural electrode application. The improvement of the joint quality will be essential for robust performance of the device. Low power fiber laser (wave length = 1100 nm) was used for transmission laser micro-joining of thin titanium (Ti) film (approximately 200 nm) coated Pyrex borosilicate 7740 glass wafer (0.5 mm thick) and polyimide (Imidex) film (0.2 mm thick). Ti film acts as the coupling agent in the joining process. The Ti film deposition rate in the CA-PVD was 5-10 A/s and in the EB-PVD 1.5 A/s. The laser joint strength was measured by a lap shear test, the Ti film surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the lap shear tested joints were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film properties and the failure modes of the joints were correlated to joint strength. The CA-PVD produced around 4 times stronger laser joints than EB-PVD. The adhesion of the Ti film on glass by CA-PVD is better than that of the EB-PVD method. This is likely to be due to a higher film deposition rate and consequently higher adhesion or sticking coefficient for the CA-PVD particles arriving on the substrate compared to that of the EB-PVD film. EB-PVD shows poor laser bonding properties due to the development of thermal hotspots which occurs from film decohesion.

  15. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  16. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  17. An improved method for constructing and selectively silanizing double-barreled, neutral liquid-carrier, ion-selective microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Deveau, Jason S.T.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    We describe an improved, efficient and reliable method for the vapour-phase silanization of multi-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes of which the silanized barrel(s) are to be filled with neutral liquid ion-exchanger (LIX). The technique employs a metal manifold to exclusively and simultaneously deliver dimethyldichlorosilane to only the ion-selective barrels of several multi-barreled microelectrodes. Compared to previously published methods the technique requires fewer procedural steps, less handling of individual microelectrodes, improved reproducibility of silanization of the selected microelectrode barrels and employs standard borosilicate tubing rather than the less-conventional theta-type glass. The electrodes remain stable for up to 3 weeks after the silanization procedure. The efficacy of a double-barreled electrode containing a proton ionophore in the ion-selective barrel is demonstrated in situ in the leaf apoplasm of pea (Pisum) and sunflower (Helianthus). Individual leaves were penetrated to depth of ~150 μm through the abaxial surface. Microelectrode readings remained stable after multiple impalements without the need for a stabilizing PVC matrix. PMID:16136222

  18. Onset of Cooperative Dynamics in an Equilibrium Glass-Forming Metallic Liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; O’Keeffe, Stephanie; Mills, Rebecca; ...

    2016-01-22

    Onset of cooperative dynamics has been observed in many molecular liquids, colloids, and granular materials in the metastable regime on approaching their respective glass or jamming transition points, and is considered to play a significant role in the emergence of the slow dynamics. However, the nature of such dynamical cooperativity remains elusive in multicomponent metallic liquids characterized by complex many-body interactions and high mixing entropy. Herein, we report evidence of onset of cooperative dynamics in an equilibrium glass-forming metallic liquid (LM601: Zr 51Cu 36Ni 4Al 9). This is revealed by deviation of the mean effective diffusion coefficient from its high-temperaturemore » Arrhenius behavior below T A ≈ 1300 K, i.e., a crossover from uncorrelated dynamics above T A to landscape-influenced correlated dynamics below T A. Moreover, the onset/ crossover temperature T A in such a multicomponent bulk metallic glass-forming liquid is observed at approximately twice of its calorimetric glass transition temperature (T g ≈ 697 K) and in its stable liquid phase, unlike many molecular liquids.« less

  19. Electrochromic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  20. Glass Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Research efforts span three general areas of glass science: glass refining, gel-derived glasses, and nucleation and crystallization of glasses. Gas bubbles which are present in a glass product are defects which may render the glass totally useless for the end application. For example, optical glasses, laser host glasses, and a variety of other specialty glasses must be prepared virtually defect free to be employable. Since a major mechanism of bubble removal, buoyant rise, is virtually inoperative in microgravity, glass fining will be especially difficult in space. On the other hand, the suppression of buoyant rise and the ability to perform containerless melting experiments in space allows the opportunity to carry out several unique bubble experiments in space. Gas bubble dissolution studies may be performed at elevated temperatures for large bubbles with negligible bubble motion. Also, bubble nucleation studies may be performed without the disturbing feature of heterogeneous bubble nucleation at the platinum walls. Ground based research efforts are being performed in support of these potential flight experiments.

  1. High-performance organic light-emitting diodes comprising ultrastable glass layers

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are one of the key solid-state light sources for various applications including small and large displays, automotive lighting, solid-state lighting, and signage. For any given commercial application, OLEDs need to perform at their best, which is judged by their device efficiency and operational stability. We present OLEDs that comprise functional layers fabricated as ultrastable glasses, which represent the thermodynamically most favorable and, thus, stable molecular conformation achievable nowadays in disordered solids. For both external quantum efficiencies and LT70 lifetimes, OLEDs with four different phosphorescent emitters show >15% enhancements over their respective reference devices. The only difference to the latter is the growth condition used for ultrastable glass layers that is optimal at about 85% of the materials’ glass transition temperature. These improvements are achieved through neither material refinements nor device architecture optimization, suggesting a general applicability of this concept to maximize the OLED performance, no matter which specific materials are used. PMID:29806029

  2. GlassForm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT).

  3. Glass and glass-ceramic photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zur, Lidia; Thi Ngoc Tran, Lam; Meneghetti, Marcello; Varas, Stefano; Armellini, Cristina; Ristic, Davor; Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Pelli, Stefano; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Boulard, Brigitte; Zonta, Daniele; Dorosz, Dominik; Lukowiak, Anna; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    The development of optically confined structure is a major topic in both basic and applied physics not solely ICT oriented but also concerning lighting, laser, sensing, energy, environment, biological and medical sciences, and quantum optics. Glasses and glass-ceramics activated by rare earth ions are the bricks of such structures. Glass-ceramics are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing developing new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. The dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the fabrication protocol still remain an important task of the research in material science. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters. This paper presents some results obtained by our consortium regarding glass-based photonics systems. We will comment the energy transfer mechanism in transparent glass ceramics taking as examples the up and down conversion systems and the role of SnO2 nanocrystals as sensitizers. Coating of spherical resonators by glass ceramics, 1D-Photonic Crystals for luminescence enhancement, laser action and disordered 1-D photonic structures will be also discussed. Finally, RF-Sputtered rare earth doped P2O5- SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Er2O3 planar waveguides, will be presented.

  4. Lead recovery from waste CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a novel and effective process for waste CRT funnel glass treatment was developed. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process. Sodium carbonate powder was used as a fusion agent, sodium sulfide serves as a catalytic agent and carbon powder acts as reducing agent. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time initially, and then reached a stable value. The maximum lead recovery rate was approximately 94%, when the optimum adding amount of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time were 25%, 8%, 3.6%, 1200°C and 120min, respectively. In the high-temperature melting process, lead silicate in the funnel glass was firstly reduced, and then removed. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis process. This study proposed a practical and economical process for recovery of lead and utilization of waste glass slag. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glass composite waste forms for iodine confined in bismuth-embedded SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to stabilize bismuth-embedded SBA-15 that captured iodine gas by fabrication of monolithic waste forms. The iodine containing waste was mixed with Bi2O3 (a stabilizing additive) and low-temperature sintering glass followed by pelletizing and the sintering process to produce glass composite materials. Iodine volatility during the sintering process was significantly affected by the ratio of Bi2O3 and the glass composition. It was confirmed that BiI3, the main iodine phase within bismuth-embedded SBA-15, was effectively transformed to the mixed phases of Bi5O7I and BiOI. The initial leaching rates of iodine from the glass composite waste forms ranged 10-3-10-2 g/m2 day, showing the stability of the iodine phases encapsulated by the glassy networks. It was also observed that common groundwater anions (e.g., chloride, carbonate, sulfite, and fluoride) elevated the iodine leaching rate by anion exchange reactions. The present results suggest that the glass composite waste form of bismuth-embedded SBA-15 could be a candidate material for stable storage of 129I.

  6. Effect of nanosecond UV laser irradiation on luminescence and absorption in silver- and copper-containing phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashov, A. A.; Sidorov, A. I.; Stoliarchuk, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Experimental evidence is presented that nanosecond UV laser irradiation of silver- and copper-containing barium phosphate glasses leads to luminescence quenching in the visible range. Subsequent heat treatment induces an absorption in the range 350–500 nm. These effects are due to the ionisation and fragmentation of subnanometre molecular clusters by laser radiation and subsequent (heat treatment-induced) formation of nanoparticles possessing plasmon resonance. Our numerical modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of producing stable AgnCum hybrid molecular clusters in glass. Local modification of the optical properties of glass by laser light can be used for optical information recording.

  7. Toughened uni-piece fibrous insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Katvala, Victor W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A porous body of fibrous, low density silica-based insulation material is at least in part impregnated with a reactive boron oxide containing borosilicate glass frit, a silicon tetraboride fluxing agent and a molybdenum silicide emittance agent. The glass frit, fluxing agent and emittance agent are separately milled to reduce their particle size, then mixed together to produce a slurry in ethanol. The slurry is then applied to the insulation material and sintered to produce the porous body.

  8. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  9. 2.7 μm emission of high thermally and chemically durable glasses based on AlF3

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feifei; Ma, Yaoyao; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Xueqiang; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2014-01-01

    AlF3-based glasses (AlF3-YF3-CaF2-BaF2-SrF2-MgF2) with enhanced thermal and chemical stability were synthesized and compared with the well-known fluorozirconate glass (ZBLAN). The 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission in the AlF3-based glasses was also investigated through the absorption and emission spectra. Both the temperature of glass transition and the characteristic temperatures (ΔT, Hr, kgl) of the fluoroaluminate glasses were much larger than those of the ZBLAN glasses. The corrosion phenomenon can be observed by naked-eye, and the transmittance dropped dramatically (0% at 3 μm) when the ZBLAN glass was placed into distilled water. However, the AlF3-based glass was relatively stable. The fluoroaluminate glasses possessed large branching ratio (20%) along with the emission cross section (9.4×10−21 cm−2) of the Er3+:4I11/2→4I13/2 transition. Meanwhile, the enhanced 2.7 μm emission in highly Er3+-doped AYF glass was obtained. Therefore, these results showed that this kind of fluoride glass has a promising application for solid state lasers at 3 μm. PMID:24402172

  10. SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been amore » limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.« less

  11. Numerical detection of the Gardner transition in a mean-field glass former.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Patrick; Jin, Yuliang; Parisi, Giorgio; Rainone, Corrado; Seoane, Beatriz; Zamponi, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Recent theoretical advances predict the existence, deep into the glass phase, of a novel phase transition, the so-called Gardner transition. This transition is associated with the emergence of a complex free energy landscape composed of many marginally stable sub-basins within a glass metabasin. In this study, we explore several methods to detect numerically the Gardner transition in a simple structural glass former, the infinite-range Mari-Kurchan model. The transition point is robustly located from three independent approaches: (i) the divergence of the characteristic relaxation time, (ii) the divergence of the caging susceptibility, and (iii) the abnormal tail in the probability distribution function of cage order parameters. We show that the numerical results are fully consistent with the theoretical expectation. The methods we propose may also be generalized to more realistic numerical models as well as to experimental systems.

  12. Effect of erbium(III) oxide addition on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of some zinc-borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodi, G.; Bolundut, L. C.; Pascuta, P.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of replacing B2O3 with Er2O3 on the thermal properties and crystallization behaviour of B2O3-ZnO glasses were investigated by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) measurements. DTA measurements reveal that the temperature of vitreous transition and the glass stability increase with the increasing in concentration the erbium ions added in the samples. The fragility index of the glasses increases also, when the dopant concentration from the studied samples increases. The glass was obtained from kinetically strong-glass-forming liquid (KS type glass). The most stable sample from the thermal point of view seems to be the sample that contains 10 mol% of Er2O3. The XRD patterns of the heat-treated samples at 860°C show new crystalline phases that contain erbium when the concentration of Er2O3 in the samples is higher than 3 mol%.

  13. Nd-glass laser for deep-penetration welding and hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayukov, Serguei V.; Yaresko, Sergey I.; Mikheyev, Pavel A.

    2000-04-01

    Pulsed Nd-glass lasers usually have low beam quality (200 - 300 mm-mrad), and are used only for surface hardening of metals. However, high pulse energy make them feasible for deep penetration welding if their beam quality could be improved. We investigated beam properties of Nd-glass laser with unstable resonator with semitransparent output coupler (URSOC). We had found that beam divergence of the laser with URSOC was an order of magnitude smaller than that of the laser with stable resonator. The achieved beam quality (40 - 50 mm-mrad) permitted to perform deep penetration welding with the aspect ratio of approximately 8. For beam divergence of 3 mrad melt depth of 6.3 mm was achieved with the ratio of depth to pulse energy of 0.27 mm/J.

  14. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; ...

    2015-11-10

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model hasmore » been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.« less

  15. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×10 4 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×10 6 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent themore » majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that

  16. Long-term product consistency test of simulated 90-19/Nd HLW glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, X. Y.; Zhang, Z. T.; Yuan, W. Y.; Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Ma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical durability of 90-19/Nd glass, a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass in contact with the groundwater was investigated with a long-term product consistency test (PCT). Generally, it is difficult to observe the long term property of HLW glass due to the slow corrosion rate in a mild condition. In order to overcome this problem, increased contacting surface ( S/ V = 6000 m -1) and elevated temperature (150 °C) were employed to accelerate the glass corrosion evolution. The micro-morphological characteristics of the glass surface and the secondary minerals formed after the glass alteration were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD, and concentrations of elements in the leaching solution were determined by ICP-AES. In our experiments, two types of minerals, which have great impact on glass dissolution, were found to form on 90-19/Nd HLW glass surface when it was subjected to a long-term leaching in the groundwater. One is Mg-Fe-rich phyllosilicates with honeycomb structure; the other is aluminosilicates (zeolites). Mg and Fe in the leaching solution participated in the formation of phyllosilicates. The main components of phyllosilicates in alteration products of 90-19/Nd HLW glass are nontronite (Na 0.3Fe 2Si 4O 10(OH) 2·4H 2O) and montmorillonite (Ca 0.2(Al,Mg) 2Si 4O 10(OH) 2·4H 2O), and those of aluminosilicates are mordenite ((Na 2,K 2,Ca)Al 2Si 10O 24·7H 2O)) and clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca) 5Al 6Si 30O 72·18H 2O). Minerals like Ca(Mg)SO 4 and CaCO 3 with low solubility limits are prone to form precipitant on the glass surface. Appearance of the phyllosilicates and aluminosilicates result in the dissolution rate of 90-19/Nd HLW glass resumed, which is increased by several times over the stable rate. As further dissolution of the glass, both B and Na in the glass were found to leach out in borax form.

  17. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  18. U-based metallic glasses with superior glass forming ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyang; Ke, Haibo; Huang, Huogen; Zhang, Pengguo; Pu, Zhen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Tianwei

    2018-02-01

    By using Al as the third and B as the fourth but minor alloying elements for the U66.7Co33.3 basic metallic glass, a series of U-Co-Al(-B) alloys were designed. The quaternary U-Co-Al-B alloys exhibit significantly improved glass-forming ability (GFA) than previously reported U-based metallic glasses. Low fragility (∼24) is found for these new U-based metallic glasses. The improvement in GFA would result from denser atomic packing in the undercooled liquids due to the presence of small B atoms. Some U-Co-Al(-B) glasses showed corrosion resistance comparable to that of U64Co34Al2 glass, known for premium anti-corrosive performance among the unveiled U-based glasses.

  19. Electrodeless discharge lamp is easily started, has high stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, W. E.; Bloom, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Electrodeless discharge borosilicate glass lamp is used in various high-resolution optical systems. It is partially charged with krypton, contains small amounts of rubidium, and is enclosed in a hermetically sealed envelope that maintains the lamp at an optimum temperature during discharge. The lamp is quickly started by its excitation coil.

  20. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  1. Thermoluminescent properties of Dy doped calcium borate based glass for dose measurement subjected to photon irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajuddin, H. A.; WanHassan, W. M. S.; Abdul Sani, S. F..; Shaharin, Nurul Syazlin

    2017-10-01

    This study presents the thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetric properties of calcium borate glass with various dopant concentration of dysprosium (Dy). Calcium borate glass is a new potential material to be used in radiation measurement with absorption coefficient that is close to human bone. A series of glasses based on chemical equation xCaO-(100-x) B2O3 system, x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 (0< x <100) % weight have been prepared by melt quenching method. The X-ray diffraction analysis of glass samples were carried out and the result showed a broad peak, which confirmed the amorphous nature of the glass. The 70B2O3-30CaO glass sample was found as the most stable among other glass samples studied. Present work focuses on 70B2O3-30CaO glass of (0.01-0.4) mol% Dy-doped in order to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) properties, in particular, dose-response and fading. The glass samples were irradiated to dose range of 0.5-4.0 Gy subjected to 6MV photon irradiations of LINAC Primus MLC 3339. TL response of 0.3 mol% Dy-doped 70B2O3-30CaO glass was found to produce highest response, with good linear dose- response relationship.

  2. The glass transition, crystallization and melting in Au-Pb-Sb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Allen, J. L.; Fecht, H. J.; Perepezko, J. H.; Ohsaka, K.

    1988-01-01

    The glass transition, crystallization and melting of Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5) alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Crystallization on heating above the glass transition temperature Tg (45 C) begins at 64 C. Further crystallization events are observed at 172 C and 205 C. These events were found to correspond to the formation of the intermetallic compounds AuSb2, Au2Pb, and possibly AuPb2, respectively. Isothermal DSC scans of the glassy alloy above Tg were used to monitor the kinetics of crystallization. The solidification behavior and heat capacity in the glass-forming composition range were determined with droplet samples. An undercooling level of 0.3T(L) below the liquidus temperature T(L) was achieved, resulting in crystallization of different stable and metastable phases. The heat capacity C(P) of the undercooled liquid was measured over an undercooling range of 145 C.

  3. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-basedmore » white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.« less

  4. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminatedmore » ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.« less

  5. SEPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM FROM THORIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE OR BY ADSORPTION ON PULVERIZED UNFIRED VYCOR GLASS OR SILICA GEL

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Rainey, R.H.

    1963-04-01

    Two methods were investigated for the separation and recovery of Pa from short-decayed Th fuel in HNO/sub 3/ solutions. The Pa/sub 233/, Th, and U may be coextracted from highly acidic feed solutions with 30% tributyl phosphate, or the Pa may be preferentially adsorbed on pulverized unfired Vycor glass or silica gel. Major effort has been on the adsorption method. Adsorption experiments with tracer concentrations of Pa/sup 233/ in HNO/sub 3/ solutions showed distribution coefficient maxima for Pa of about 1000, 325, and 175 from 6 to 10 M HNO/sub 3/ for laboratory-prepared silica gel, unfired Vycor, and commercial silicamore » gel, respectively. Unfired Vycor, a commercial, leached borosilicate glass containing 96% SiO/sub 2/ and about 3% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, was used for most of the studies. Fired Vycor glass adsorbed little or no Pa. The adsorption coefficient of Pa by unfired Vycor glass from HNO/sub 3/ solutions increased as the contact time increased or as the particle size of the glass decreased and was dependent on the concentration of salt or HNO/sub 3/ in the solution. The adsorbed Pa may be eluted with oxalic or tartaric acids. Although optimum conditions for column operations were not determined, decontamination factors of Pa from Th, U, Ru, Zr- Nb and total rare earths of 6x 10/sup 3/, 1.6 x 101,4 x 10/sup 3/, 3, and 5.8 x 10/sup 5/, respectively, were obtained in tracer experiments. Batch countercurrent scouting experiments with tracer Pa showed that about 90% of the Pa was extracted with the Th and U from 5 M HNO/sub 3/-1 M Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ solutions, with a decontamination factor of 70 from Ru and about 10/sup 5/ from rare earths. (P.C.H.)« less

  6. Optical Super-Resolution by High-Index Liquid-Immersed Microspheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the BD without liquid can be achieved using microspheres with small-to-moderate index of refraction such as borosilicate glass (n 1.47), soda lime ...titanate glass microspheres with diameters (D) in the range 2–220 lm and with high refractive index (n 1.9–2.1) can be used for super-resolution...achieving optical super-resolution. It has been demonstrated10 that silica spheres with refractive index (n) about 1.46 and with diame- ters (D) in the

  7. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  8. Thermochemical characterization of some thermally stable thermoplastic and thermoset polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated include polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated include epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic, and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass-reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented, and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  9. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  10. Detachable glass microelectrodes for recording action potentials in active moving organs.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Moreno, Angel; Harris, Tim D; Kay, Matthew W

    2017-06-01

    Here, we describe new detachable floating glass micropipette electrode devices that provide targeted action potential recordings in active moving organs without requiring constant mechanical constraint or pharmacological inhibition of tissue motion. The technology is based on the concept of a glass micropipette electrode that is held firmly during cell targeting and intracellular insertion, after which a 100-µg glass microelectrode, a "microdevice," is gently released to remain within the moving organ. The microdevices provide long-term recordings of action potentials, even during millimeter-scale movement of tissue in which the device is embedded. We demonstrate two different glass micropipette electrode holding and detachment designs appropriate for the heart (sharp glass microdevices for cardiac myocytes in rats, guinea pigs, and humans) and the brain (patch glass microdevices for neurons in rats). We explain how microdevices enable measurements of multiple cells within a moving organ that are typically difficult with other technologies. Using sharp microdevices, action potential duration was monitored continuously for 15 min in unconstrained perfused hearts during global ischemia-reperfusion, providing beat-to-beat measurements of changes in action potential duration. Action potentials from neurons in the hippocampus of anesthetized rats were measured with patch microdevices, which provided stable base potentials during long-term recordings. Our results demonstrate that detachable microdevices are an elegant and robust tool to record electrical activity with high temporal resolution and cellular level localization without disturbing the physiological working conditions of the organ. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cellular action potential measurements within tissue using glass micropipette electrodes usually require tissue immobilization, potentially influencing the physiological relevance of the measurement. Here, we addressed this limitation with novel 100-µg detachable

  11. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, W; Gierlotka, S; Wang, Z; Yokoyama, Y; Palosz, B; Egami, T

    2017-07-26

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids, but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.

  12. Analysis of early medieval glass beads - Glass in the transition period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Žiga; Knific, Timotej; Jezeršek, David; Istenič, Janka

    2012-05-01

    Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin.

  13. Glass Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA technologies have played part in growth and cost containment of studio glass art, among them a foam type insulation developed to meet a need for lightweight material that would reduce flame spread in aircraft fire. Foam comes in several forms and is widely used by glass artists, chiefly as an insulator for the various types of ovens used in glass working. Another Spinoff is alumina crucibles to contain molten glass. Before alumina crucibles were used, glass tanks were made of firebrick which tended to erode under high temperatures and cause impurities; this not only improved quality but made the process more cost effective. One more NASA technology that found its way into glass art working is a material known as graphite board, a special form of graphite originally developed for rocket motor applications. This graphite is used to exact compound angles and creates molds for poured glass artworks of dramatic design.

  14. Improved Blackbody Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    28 - ABS Resins ................... 012 0.02 Carbon & Free-Cutting Steels%,. . . . . 27 - Acrylics ......................... 0.12 0.10 Alloy...Borosilicate Glasses................. 0.7 - Zinc At Its Alloys ................. 65.3 60.5 Alkyds .... .... .............. 010 0.20 Tungsten Carbide Cermet...cast).............47.6 25 ABS Resins ............ .. IS 3 FlowbnFie ........... 7 - Cellulose Acetate ............ &. 1.9 Pajadafi CW

  15. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; Kroll, Jared O.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Zhu, Zihua; Zhang, Jiandong; Kruska, Karen; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. Here, five new glasses with ∼20 mass% Na2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. These improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.

  16. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.

    This paper discusses work to develop Na 2O-B 2O 3-SiO 2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. In this paper, five new glasses with ~20 mass% Na 2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion formore » the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. Finally, these improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.« less

  17. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; ...

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na 2O-B 2O 3-SiO 2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. In this paper, five new glasses with ~20 mass% Na 2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion formore » the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. Finally, these improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.« less

  18. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  19. Oxynitride glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

  20. Highly sensitive pseudo-differential ac-nanocalorimeter for the study of the glass transition

    SciTech Connect

    Laarraj, Mohcine; University Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble; Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et des Matériaux

    2015-11-15

    We present a nanocalorimeter designed for the measurement of the dynamic heat capacity of thin films. The microfabricated sensor, the thermal conditioning of the sensor, as well as the highly stable and low noise electronic chain allow measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the complex specific heat with a resolution Δ C/C of about 10{sup −5}. The performances of this quasi-differential nanocalorimeter were tested on a model of polymeric glass-former, the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). The high stability and low noise of the device are essential for accurate studies on non-equilibrium slow relaxing systems such as glasses.

  1. Water diffusion in silicate glasses: the effect of glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, M.; Tachibana, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water diffusion in silicate melts (glasses) is one of the main controlling factors of magmatism in a volcanic system. Water diffusivity in silicate glasses depends on its own concentration. However, the mechanism causing those dependences has not been fully understood yet. In order to construct a general model for water diffusion in various silicate glasses, we performed water diffusion experiments in silica glass and proposed a new water diffusion model [Kuroda et al., 2015]. In the model, water diffusivity is controlled by the concentration of both main diffusion species (i.e. molecular water) and diffusion pathways, which are determined by the concentrations of hydroxyl groups and network modifier cations. The model well explains the water diffusivity in various silicate glasses from silica glass to basalt glass. However, pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in various glasses show five orders of magnitude variations although the pre-exponential factor should ideally represent the jump frequency and the jump distance of molecular water and show a much smaller variation. Here, we attribute the large variation of pre-exponential factors to a glass structure dependence of activation energy for molecular water diffusion. It has been known that the activation energy depends on the water concentration [Nowak and Behrens, 1997]. The concentration of hydroxyls, which cut Si-O-Si network in the glass structure, increases with water concentration, resulting in lowering the activation energy for water diffusion probably due to more fragmented structure. Network modifier cations are likely to play the same role as water. With taking the effect of glass structure into account, we found that the variation of pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in silicate glasses can be much smaller than the five orders of magnitude, implying that the diffusion of molecular water in silicate glasses is controlled by the same atomic process.

  2. Improving Hydrophobicity of Glass Surface Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Qiu, Yuchang; Wang, Hui; E, Kuffel

    2007-10-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in industrial applications, especially in material surface treatment. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBD treatment are studied by using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and wet flashover voltage tests. The effects of the applied voltage and time duration of DBD on the surface modification are studied, and the optimal conditions for the treatment are obtained. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface after spraying a thin layer of silicone oil and undergoing the DBD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on DBD voltage and treating time. It seems that there exists an optimum treating time for a certain applied voltage of DBD during the surface treatment. The test results of thermal aging and chemical aging show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics. The interaction mechanism between the DBD plasma and the glass surface is discussed. It is concluded that CH3 and large molecule radicals can react with the radicals in the glass surface to replace OH, and the hydrophobicity of the glass surface is improved accordingly.

  3. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.

    This paper discusses work to develop Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. Here, five new glasses with high Na2O contents were designed to generate waste forms having higher sodalite contents and fewer stress fractures. The structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the new glasses were measured using variety of analytical techniques. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with surrogate salt waste. The materials made using the glasses developed during this study were formulated to generate more sodalite than materialsmore » made with previous baseline glasses used. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature. These improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability. Additionally, a model generated during this study for predicting softening temperature of silicate binder glasses is presented.« less

  4. Ultras-stable Physical Vapor Deposited Amorphous Teflon Films with Extreme Fictive Temperature Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Gregory; Yoon, Heedong; Koh, Yung; Simon, Sindee

    In the present work, we have produced highly stable amorphous fluoropolymer (Teflon AF® 1600) films to study the calorimetric and relaxation behavior in the deep in the glassy regime. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) was used to produce 110 to 700 nm PVD films with substrate temperature ranging from 0.70 Tg to 0.90 Tg. Fictive temperature (Tf) was measured using Flash DSC with 600 K/s heating and cooling rates. Consistent with prior observations for small molecular weight glasses, large enthalpy overshoots were observed in the stable amorphous Teflon films. The Tf reduction for the stable Teflon films deposited in the vicinity of 0.85 Tg was approximately 70 K compared to the Tgof the rejuvenated system. The relaxation behavior of stable Teflon films was measured using the TTU bubble inflation technique and following Struik's protocol in the temperature range from Tf to Tg. The results show that the relaxation time decreases with increasing aging time implying that devitrification is occurring in this regime.

  5. Does the presence of bacteria effect basaltic glass dissolution rates? 1: Dead Pseudomonas reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Benezeth, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    Basaltic glass and crystalline basalt formations in Iceland have been suggested for industrial CO2 storage due to their porous and permeable properties and high reactivity. Acid CO2-saturated waters in contact with basaltic glass will lead to rapid dissolution of the glass and release of divalent cations, (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) that can react to form stable carbonates and thereby trap the CO2. However, the basalt formations in Iceland not only contains glass and mineral assemblages, but also host microbiological communities that either by their presence or by active involvement in chemical reactions could affect the amount of basaltic glass being dissolved and CO2 being trapped. Samples of natural bacteria communities from the CO2 storage grounds in Iceland were collected, separated, and purified using agar plate technique and cultured under laboratory conditions in nutrient broth-rich media. Heterotrophic aerobic Gram-negative strain of Pseudomonas reactants was selected for a series of flow-through experiments aimed at evaluation of basaltic glass dissolution rate in the presense of increasing amounts of dead bacteria and their lysis products. The experiments were carried out using mixed-flow reactors at pH 4, 6, 8 and 10 at 25 °C. Each of the four reactors contained 1 gram of basaltic glass of the size fraction 45-125 μm. This glass was dissolved in ~ 0.01 M buffer solutions (acetate, MES, bicarbonate and carbonate+bicarbonate mixture) of the desired pH. All experiments ran 2 months, keeping the flowrate and temperature stable and only changing the concentration of dead bacteria in the inlet solutions (from 0 to 430 mg/L). Experiments were performed in sterile conditions, and bacterial growth was prevented by adding NaN3 to the inlet solutions. Routine culturing of bacteria on the agar plates confirmed the sterility of experiments. Samples of outlet solutions were analyzed for major cations and trace elements by ICP-MS. Results demonstrate a slight decrease in the

  6. Understanding glass formation and ion transport in polymeric ionic liquids using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Tarak; Yang, Junhong; Cheng, Yiz; Simmons, David

    Polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) are very promising materials to enable more environmentally stable high density energy storage devices. Realization of PILs providing high environmental and mechanical stability while maximizing ion conductivity would be accelerated by an improved molecular level understanding of their structure and dynamics. Extensive evidence suggests that both mechanical properties and ion conductivity in anhydrous PILs are intimately related to the PIL's glass formation behavior. This represents a major challenge to the rational design of these materials, given that the basic nature of glass formation and its connection to molecular properties remains a substantial open question in polymer and condensed matter physics. Here we describe coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations probing the relationship between PIL architecture and interactions, glass formation behavior, and ion transport characteristics. These studies provide guidance towards the design of PILs with improved stability and ion conductivity for future energy applications.

  7. Comparison of a model vapor deposited glass films to equilibrium glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flenner, Elijah; Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Zamponi, Francesco

    Vapor deposition of particles onto a substrate held at around 85% of the glass transition temperature can create glasses with increased density, enthalpy, kinetic stability, and mechanical stability compared to an ordinary glass created by cooling. It is estimated that an ordinary glass would need to age thousands of years to reach the kinetic stability of a vapor deposited glass, and a natural question is how close to the equilibrium is the vapor deposited glass. To understand the process, algorithms akin to vapor deposition are used to create simulated glasses that have a higher kinetic stability than their annealed counterpart, although these glasses may not be well equilibrated either. Here we use novel models optimized for a swap Monte Carlo algorithm in order to create equilibrium glass films and compare their properties with those of glasses obtained from vapor deposition algorithms. This approach allows us to directly assess the non-equilibrium nature of vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses. Simons Collaboration on Cracking the Glass Problem and NSF Grant No. DMR 1608086.

  8. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Gierlotka, S.; Wang, Z.

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids,more » but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.« less

  9. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  10. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  11. Diopside-Fluorapatite-Wollastonite Based Bioactive Glasses and Glass-ceramics =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansal, Ishu

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are a class of biomaterials which elicit special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissue. This particular trait along with good sintering ability and high mechanical strength make them ideal materials for scaffold fabrication. The work presented in this thesis is directed towards understanding the composition-structure-property relationships in potentially bioactive glasses designed in CaO-MgO-P2O5-SiO2-F system, in some cases with added Na2O. The main emphasis has been on unearthing the influence of glass composition on molecular structure, sintering ability and bioactivity of phosphosilicate glasses. The parent glass compositions have been designed in the primary crystallization field of the pseudo-ternary system of diopside (CaO•MgO•2SiO2) - fluorapatite (9CaO•3P2O5•CaF2) - wollastonite (CaO•SiO2), followed by studying the impact of compositional variations on the structure-property relationships and sintering ability of these glasses. All the glasses investigated in this work have been synthesized via melt-quenching route and have been characterized for their molecular structure, sintering ability, chemical degradation and bioactivity using wide array of experimental tools and techniques. It has been shown that in all investigated glass compositions the silicate network was mainly dominated by Q2 units while phosphate in all the glasses was found to be coordinated in orthophosphate environment. The glass compositions designed in alkali-free region of diopside - fluorapatite system demonstrated excellent sintering ability and good bioactivity in order to qualify them as potential materials for scaffold fabrication while alkali-rich bioactive glasses not only hinder the densification during sintering but also induce cytotoxicity in vitro, thus, are not ideal candidates for in vitro tissue engineering. One of our bioglass compositions with low sodium

  12. Gamma-ray shielding effect of Gd3+ doped lead barium borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummathi, Harshitha; Naveen Kumar, P.; Vedavathi T., C.; Abhiram, J.; Rajaramakrishna, R.

    2018-05-01

    The glasses of the batch xPbO: 10BaO: (90-x)B2O3: 0.2Gd2O3 (x = 40,45,50 mol %) were prepared by melt-quench technique. The work emphasizes on gamma ray shielding effect on doped lead glasses. The role of Boron is significant as it acts as better neutron attenuator as compared with any other materials, as the thermal neutron cross-sections are high for Gadolinium, 0.2 mol% is chosen as the optimum concentration for this matrix, as higher the concentration may lead to further increase as it produces secondary γ rays due to inelastic neutron scattering. Shielding effects were studied using Sodium Iodide (NaI) - Scintillation Gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that at higher concentration of lead oxide (PbO) in the matrix, higher the attenuation which can be co-related with density. Infra-red (I.R.) spectra reveals that the conversion of Lose triangles to tight tetrahedral structure results in enhancement of shielding properties. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (D.S.C.) study also reveals that the increase in glass forming range increases the stability which in-turn results in inter-conversion of BO3 to BO4 units such that the density of glass increases with increase in PbO content, resulting in much stable and efficient gamma ray shielding glasses.

  13. Characterization and in vitro bioactivity of zinc-containing bioactive glass and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui Lin; Chang, Jiang; Ni, Si Yu; Zhai, Wan Yin; Wang, Jun Ying

    2006-04-01

    Zinc-containing glass is prepared by the substitution of CaO in 58S bioactive glass with 0.5 and 4 wt% ZnO, and glass-ceramics are obtained by heat-treating the glass at 1,200 C. The bending strength and in vitro bioactivity of the glass and glass-ceramics are evaluated. The results indicate that Zn promotes the crystallization of SiO(2) and wollastonite in glass-ceramics, and proper crystallization can enhance the bending strength of the glass-ceramic. The in vitro results show that ZnO in glass retards the hydroxyapatite (HA) nucleation at the initial stage of simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking, but does not affect the growth of HA after long periods of soaking, and the ionic products of 58S4Z glass can stimulate the proliferation of osteoblast at certain concentrations. Osteoblasts attach well on both glass samples and glass-ceramic samples, but the high Si ion concentration released from glass samples restrains the proliferation of osteoblasts after 3 days of culture. In contrast, osteoblasts show good proliferation on glass-ceramic samples, and ZnO in glass-ceramics promotes the proliferation rate. The results in this study suggest that the glass and glass-ceramics with different ZnO content might be used as bioactive bone implant materials in different applications.

  14. Damage behavior of Nd:glass of high-power disk amplifier medium in ICF Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shaobo; Chen, Lin; Yuan, Xiaodong; Chen, Yuanbin; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Xie, Xudong; Wang, Wenyi; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-12-01

    Large aperture Nd:glass disk is often used as the amplifier medium in the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. The typical size of Nd:glass is up to 810mm×460mm×40mm and more than 3,000 Nd:glass components are needed in the ICF facility. At present, the 3ω fused silica glass and DKDP crystal are mainly responsible for the damage of driver used for ICF. However, with the enlargement of the facility and increase of laser shot number, the laser damage of Nd:glass at 1ω waveband is still an important problem to limit the stable operation of facility and improvement of laser beam quality. In this work, the influence of Nd:glass material itself, mechanical processing, service environment, and laser beam quality on its damage behavior is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The results and conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) It is very important to control the concentration of platinum impurity particles during melting and the sputtering effect of the cladding materials. (2) The number and length of fractural and brittle scratches should be strictly suppressed during mechanical processing of Nd:glass. (3) The B-integral of high power laser beam should be rigorously controlled. Particularly, the top shape of pulses must be well controlled when operating at high peak laser power. (4) The service environment should be well managed to make sure the cleanness of the surface of Nd:glass better than 100/A level during mounting and running. (5) The service environment and beam quality should be monitored during operation.

  15. Stability of extemporaneously compounded dexamethasone in glass and plastic bottles and plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Ensom, Mary H H; Décarie, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used to treat rheumatic and endocrine disorders and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. A palatable, alcohol-free liquid formulation, with a suitable concentration to allow reasonable administration volume, is available only via extemporaneous compounding. To evaluate the stability of dexamethasone suspensions in commercially available vehicles (Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF) in various types of containers after storage at 25°C and 4°C for up to 91 days. Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) were prepared in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF and then transferred to amber glass and plastic prescription bottles and plastic oral syringes. Suspensions in all 3 types of containers were stored at 25°C; suspensions in glass and plastic bottles were also stored at 4°C. Samples were collected weekly from each container up to 28 days and then every 2 weeks up to 91 days. The samples were analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial dexamethasone concentration. Changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation (and ease of resuspension), and pH were used to assess physical compatibility. All suspensions maintained at least 96% of the original concentration for up to 91 days with storage at 25°C or at 4°C. No notable changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation, or pH were observed over the 91-day period. Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF, stored in amber glass or plastic bottles or plastic syringes at 25°C or in amber glass or plastic bottles at 4°C can be expected to remain stable for up to 91 days.

  16. Stability of Extemporaneously Compounded Dexamethasone in Glass and Plastic Bottles and Plastic Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Ensom, Mary H H; Décarie, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone is widely used to treat rheumatic and endocrine disorders and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. A palatable, alcohol-free liquid formulation, with a suitable concentration to allow reasonable administration volume, is available only via extemporaneous compounding. Objective: To evaluate the stability of dexamethasone suspensions in commercially available vehicles (Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF) in various types of containers after storage at 25°C and 4°C for up to 91 days. Methods: Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) were prepared in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF and then transferred to amber glass and plastic prescription bottles and plastic oral syringes. Suspensions in all 3 types of containers were stored at 25°C; suspensions in glass and plastic bottles were also stored at 4°C. Samples were collected weekly from each container up to 28 days and then every 2 weeks up to 91 days. The samples were analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography − ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial dexamethasone concentration. Changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation (and ease of resuspension), and pH were used to assess physical compatibility. Results: All suspensions maintained at least 96% of the original concentration for up to 91 days with storage at 25°C or at 4°C. No notable changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation, or pH were observed over the 91-day period. Conclusion: Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF, stored in amber glass or plastic bottles or plastic syringes at 25°C or in amber glass or plastic bottles at 4°C can be expected to remain stable for up to 91 days. PMID:25214658

  17. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  18. Nanoparticle Solutions for Printed Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-19

    the printed semiconductor materials and their nanoparticle and colloidal precursors. Without this basic knowledge, further development and the...titania, silica ) were investigated in the production of complementary inks for complex devices. These were either obtained commercially in...layers were also deposited on borosilicate glass and silicon wafers. In the photovoltaic program, hybrid inorganic-organic semiconductor combinations

  19. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.

    1983-08-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing task to specify tests that may be used to verify that engineered waste package/repository systems comply with NRC radionuclide containment and controlled release performance objectives. Work covered in this report analyzes verification tests for borosilicate glass waste forms and bentonite- and zeolite-based packing mateials (discrete backfills). 76 references.

  20. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  1. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Janet; Starr, Francis W; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2014-03-21

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T "phase diagram" for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  2. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Janet; Starr, Francis W.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T "phase diagram" for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  3. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Fibrous glass fillers Binders used in the glass plastic industry Method of manufacturing glass plastics and glass plastic articles Properties of fiberglass Primary areas for use of glass fibre reinforced plastics

  4. Stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobson, P.F.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from the island of Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan, confirm that a large amount (1.6-2.4 wt.%) of primary water was present in these unusual magmas. An enrichment of 0.6??? in 18O during differentiation is explained by crystallization of 18O-depleted mafic phases. Silicic glasses have elevated ??18O values and relatively low ??D values indicating that they were modified by low-temperature alteration and hydration processes. Mafic glasses, on the other hand, have for the most part retained their primary isotopic signatures since Eocene time. Primary ??D values of -53 for boninite glasses are higher than those of MORB and suggest that the water was derived from subducted oceanic lithosphere. ?? 1987.

  5. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  6. Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

    2004-08-01

    Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs.

  7. Chemical composition and mineralogy of borate from Rio Grande deposit, Uyuni (Bolivia) as raw materials for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillen Vargas, Julio; Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Parcerisa, David; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Bolivia has large tailings as a result of the historic and present-day Sn mining activity developed extensively in that country. Tailings produced in these mining activities have an appropriate composition to reprocess them and make silicate glass and glass-ceramics, obtaining the valorization of wastes and reducing the visual and chemical impact. Reprocessing the wastes to make glass and glass-ceramics prevents the leaching of heavy metals from those wastes because they are retained in the structure of the glass. Furthermore, an option to increase the economic value of these glasses is the introduction of boron and other additives to produce borosilicate glass. In this study a characterization of the Rio Grande borate deposit for its use in the manufacture of borosilicate glass is presented. Mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Rio Grande borate deposit is located in an area of about 50 km2 close to the south of the Salar of Uyuni, in the Río Grande de Lípez Delta. Borates occur in the contact between fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine sediments from water raising the surface by capillarity. The borates crop out in an extent area but towards the west they are covered by fluvio-deltaic sediments, which can be up to 2 m thick. These borates occur as lenses 50-100 m in diameter and layers up to 1 m thick. They usually form brittle nodules with a cotton-ball texture. Chemical composition of the Rio Grande borates is CaO, 11.82-13.83 wt%; Na2O, 13.50-19.35 wt%; K2O, 0.05- 1.04 wt%; MgO, 0.42-1.46 wt%; B2O3, 36.21-42.60 wt%; SiO2, up to 0.53 wt% and SO2, up to 0.60 wt%. Trace elements are low: Sr content is between 151-786 ppm, Al 12-676 ppm, Mn between 1-17 ppm, As 2-10 ppm and Fe between 9-376 ppm. The most abundant borate mineral in this

  8. A Bragg glass phase in the vortex lattice of a type II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Klein, T; Joumard, I; Blanchard, S; Marcus, J; Cubitt, R; Giamarchi, T; Le Doussal, P

    2001-09-27

    Although crystals are usually quite stable, they are sensitive to a disordered environment: even an infinitesimal amount of impurities can lead to the destruction of crystalline order. The resulting state of matter has been a long-standing puzzle. Until recently it was believed to be an amorphous state in which the crystal would break into 'crystallites'. But a different theory predicts the existence of a novel phase of matter: the so-called Bragg glass, which is a glass and yet nearly as ordered as a perfect crystal. The 'lattice' of vortices that contain magnetic flux in type II superconductors provide a good system to investigate these ideas. Here we show that neutron-diffraction data of the vortex lattice provides unambiguous evidence for a weak, power-law decay of the crystalline order characteristic of a Bragg glass. The theory also predicts accurately the electrical transport properties of superconductors; it naturally explains the observed phase transitions and the dramatic jumps in the critical current associated with the melting of the Bragg glass. Moreover, the model explains experiments as diverse as X-ray scattering in disordered liquid crystals and the conductivity of electronic crystals.

  9. Picture Wall (Glass Structures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.

  10. Bioactivity of Sodium Free Fluoride Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojing; Chen, Xiaohui; Brauer, Delia S.; Wilson, Rory M.; Hill, Robert G.; Karpukhina, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity of a series of fluoride-containing sodium-free calcium and strontium phosphosilicate glasses has been tested in vitro. Glasses with high fluoride content were partially crystallised to apatite and other fluoride-containing phases. The bioactivity study was carried out in Tris and SBF buffers, and apatite formation was monitored by XRD, FTIR and solid state NMR. Ion release in solutions has been measured using ICP-OES and fluoride-ion selective electrode. The results show that glasses with low amounts of fluoride that were initially amorphous degraded rapidly in Tris buffer and formed apatite as early as 3 h after immersion. The apatite was identified as fluorapatite by 19F MAS-NMR after 6 h of immersion. Glass degradation and apatite formation was significantly slower in SBF solution compared to Tris. On immersion of the partially crystallised glasses, the fraction of apatite increased at 3 h compared to the amount of apatite prior to the treatment. Thus, partial crystallisation of the glasses has not affected bioactivity significantly. Fast dissolution of the amorphous phase was also indicated. There was no difference in kinetics between Tris and SBF studies when the glass was partially crystallised to apatite before immersion. Two different mechanisms of apatite formation for amorphous or partially crystallised glasses are discussed. PMID:28788139

  11. SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Gray, Kimberly D.

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy has chartered an effort to develop technologies to enable safe and cost effective recycle of commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the U.S. Part of this effort includes the evaluation of exiting waste management technologies for effective treatment of wastes in the context of current U.S. regulations and development of waste forms and processes with significant cost and/or performance benefits over those existing. This study summarizes the results of these ongoing efforts with a focus on the highly radioactive primary waste streams. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste formsmore » include: •Tritium separated from either a low volume gas stream or a high volume water stream. The recommended waste form is low-water cement in high integrity containers. •Iodine-129 separated from off-gas streams in aqueous processing. There are a range of potentially suitable waste forms. As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form with encapsulated nano-sized AgI crystals. •Carbon-14 separated from LWR fuel treatment off-gases and immobilized as a CaCO3 in a cement waste form. •Krypton-85 separated from LWR and SFR fuel treatment off-gases and stored as a compressed gas. •An aqueous reprocessing high-level waste (HLW) raffinate waste which is immobilized by the vitrification process in one of three forms: a single phase borosilicate glass, a borosilicate based glass ceramic, or a multi-phased titanate ceramic [e.g., synthetic rock (Synroc)]. •An undissolved solids (UDS) fraction from aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel that is either included in the borosilicate HLW glass or is immobilized in the form of a metal alloy in the case of glass ceramics or titanate ceramics.

  12. Analytical and regression models of glass rod drawing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, L. B.

    2018-03-01

    The process of drawing glass rods (light guides) is being studied. The parameters of the process affecting the quality of the light guide have been determined. To solve the problem, mathematical models based on general equations of continuum mechanics are used. The conditions for the stable flow of the drawing process have been found, which are determined by the stability of the motion of the glass mass in the formation zone to small uncontrolled perturbations. The sensitivity of the formation zone to perturbations of the drawing speed and viscosity is estimated. Experimental models of the drawing process, based on the regression analysis methods, have been obtained. These models make it possible to customize a specific production process to obtain light guides of the required quality. They allow one to find the optimum combination of process parameters in the chosen area and to determine the required accuracy of maintaining them at a specified level.

  13. Analytic implementation of the GRAAL model: Application to a R7T7-type glass package in a geological disposal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minet, Y.; Bonin, B.; Gin, S.; Frugier, P.

    2010-09-01

    The Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer Model (GRAAL) was proposed in 2008 to describe borosilicate nuclear glass alteration based on coupling an affinity law with the formation and dissolution of a passivating reactive interface. It is examined here in a simplified form in which only the affinity with respect to silicon is taken into account with a concentration at saturation Csat, and the precipitation of neoformed phases is described by an affine relation for silicon above a precipitation threshold Csat'. This simplified "analytical GRAAL" model is capable of predicting the quantities of altered glass and the silicon and boron concentration variations in analytical or semi-analytical form, and thereby identify the main characteristic quantities of the system. The model was tested against a series of laboratory experiments lasting from a few days to a few years; its sensitivity to the parameter values was examined, and the model was validated with respect to SON68 glass alteration in initially pure water. It was then applied to the alteration of a glass package in a repository over periods of up to a million years, by means of exploratory calculations comprising a sensitivity study of the internal model parameters and extrapolation to the temperatures expected in a geological repository in order to identify the parameters and mechanisms having the greatest impact on the residual alteration rate. Alteration is controlled by the precipitation of neoformed phases in every case. The transient conditions are of very limited duration with respect to either silicon or boron (no more than a 100 years, with less than 0.01% alteration of the package). In the precipitation law used in the model, the residual alteration rate and total package lifetime are determined primarily by two parameters: k' (the precipitation kinetics) and σ' (the precipitate surface area per unit volume in the geological barrier). The package lifetime is about 3 × 10 5 years at

  14. Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

    2013-09-28

    Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model.

  15. Dissimilar behavior of technetium and rhenium in borosilicatewaste glass as determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Wayne W.; McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.

    2006-11-09

    Technetium-99 is an abundant, long-lived (t1/2 = 213,000 yr)fission product that creates challenges for the safe, long-term disposalof nuclear waste. While 99Tc receives attention largely due to its highenvironmental mobility, it also causes problems during its incorporationinto nuclear waste glass due to the volatility of Tc(VII) compounds. Thisvolatility decreases the amount of 99Tc stabilized in the waste glass andcauses contamination of the waste glass melter and off-gas system. Theapproach to decrease the volatility of 99Tc that has received the mostattention is reduction of the volatile Tc(VII) species to less volatileTc(IV) species in the glass melt. On engineering scale experiments,rhenium ismore » often used as a non-radioactive surrogate for 99Tc to avoidthe radioactive contamination problems caused by volatile 99Tc compounds.However, Re(VII) is more stable towards reduction than Tc(VII), so morereducing conditions would be required in the glass melt to produceRe(IV). To better understand the redox behavior of Tc and Re in nuclearwaste glass, a series of glasses were prepared under different redoxconditions. The speciation of Tc and Re in the resulting glasses wasdetermined by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Surprisingly,Re and Tc do not behave similarly in the glass melt. Although Tc(0),Tc(IV), and Tc(VII) were observed in these samples, only Re(0) andRe(VII) were found. In no case was Re(IV) (or Re(VI))observed.« less

  16. Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Study of Hydrous Species in Soda Lime Silica Float Glass.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiawei; Banerjee, Joy; Pantano, Carlo G; Kim, Seong H

    2016-06-21

    It is generally accepted that the mechanical properties of soda lime silica (SLS) glass can be affected by the interaction between sodium ions and hydrous species (silanol groups and water molecules) in its surface region. While the amount of these hydrous species can be estimated from hydrogen profiles and infrared spectroscopy, their chemical environment in the glass network is still not well understood. This work employed vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical environment of hydrous species in the surface region of SLS float glass. SLS float glass shows sharp peaks in the OH stretching vibration region in SFG spectra, while the OH stretch peaks of glasses that do not have leachable sodium ions and the OH peaks of water molecules in condensed phases are normally broad due to fast hydrogen bonding dynamics. The hydrous species responsible for the sharp SFG peaks for the SLS float glass were found to be thermodynamically more stable than physisorbed water molecules, did not exchange with D2O, and were associated with the sodium concentration gradient in the dealkalized subsurface region. These results suggested that the hydrous species reside in static solvation shells defined by the silicate network with relatively slow hydrogen bonding dynamics, compared to physisorbed water layers on top of the glass surface. A putative radial distribution of the hydrous species within the SLS glass network was estimated based on the OH SFG spectral features, which could be compared with theoretical distributions calculated from computational simulations.

  17. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an am