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Sample records for stadius rami ahola

  1. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Devi, Dipali; Kalita, Dhaneswar; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-05-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  2. [Vascular complications after pelvic rami fracture].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lombardía, J; Paz-Aparicio, A; Hernández-Vaquero, D

    2014-01-01

    The case is presented of a 78 year-old patient who suffered a right ileo- and ischiopubic rami fracture after a casual fall. A few hours later, she presented with sudden abdominal pain and hypotension. Imaging test showed extraperitoneal hemorrhage with active bleeding and hemodynamic compromise. The progressive worsening, with anemia and hemodynamic instability, required her being sent to the reference hospital for selective embolization of the bleeding point. After embolization, the patient́s situation stabilized, and she was then able to sit down one week later. The fracture consolidated 3 months later. Although low-energy pelvic fractures by lateral compression do not usually present with complications, sometimes they require a strict control due to the potential risk of vascular injuries.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud.) in Response to Ramie Moth (Cocytodes coerulea Guenée) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liangbin; Shen, Airong; Chen, Jia; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Xue, Zhaodong

    2016-01-01

    The ramie moth Cocytodes coerulea Guenée (RM) is an economically important pest that seriously impairs the yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the ramie-pest interactions are unclear up to date. Therefore, a transcriptome profiling analysis would aid in understanding the ramie defense mechanisms against RM. In this study, we first constructed two cDNA libraries derived from RM-challenged (CH) and unchallenged (CK) ramie leaves. The subsequent sequencing of the CH and CK libraries yielded 40.2 and 62.8 million reads, respectively. Furthermore, de novo assembling of these reads generated 26,759 and 29,988 unigenes, respectively. An integrated assembly of data from these two libraries resulted in 46,533 unigenes, with an average length of 845 bp per unigene. Among these genes, 24,327 (52.28%) were functionally annotated by predicted protein function. A comparative analysis of the CK and CH transcriptome profiles revealed 1,980 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 750 were upregulated and 1,230 were downregulated. A quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 13 random selected genes confirmed the gene expression patterns that were determined by Illumina sequencing. Among the DEGs, the expression patterns of transcription factors, protease inhibitors, and antioxidant enzymes were studied. Overall, these results provide useful insights into the defense mechanism of ramie against RM. PMID:27034936

  4. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-12-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers. PMID:26383541

  5. Progress in the RAMI analysis of a conceptual LHCD system for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirizzi, F.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) concepts and techniques, that acquired great importance during the first manned space missions, have been progressively extended to industrial, scientific and consumer equipments to assure them satisfactory performances and lifetimes. In the design of experimental facilities, like tokamaks, mainly aimed at demonstrating validity and feasibility of scientific theories, RAMI analysis has been often left aside. DEMO, the future prototype fusion reactors, will be instead designed for steadily delivering electrical energy to commercial grids, so that the RAMI aspects will assume an absolute relevance since their initial design phases. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the LHCD system for the conceptual EU DEMO reactor is given in the paper.

  6. Tensile strength of ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE thermoplastic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banowati, Lies; Hadi, Bambang K.; Suratman, Rochim; Faza, Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Technological developments should be trooped to prevent a gap between technology and environmental sustainability, then it needs to be developed "Green technology". In this research is making of green composites which use natural fiber ramie as reinforcement. Whereas the matrix used was HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) thermoplastic polymer which could be recycled and had a good formability and flexibility. The ramie yarns and fibers for unidirectional (0°) direction respectively were mixed with HDPE powder and processed using hot compression molding. The surface morphology was observed by SEM (Scanning Electrone Microscopy). Results showed that both tensile strength of the ramie fiber/HDPE composites increased in comparison with the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites. However, the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites have a good producibility for wider application. Analysis of the test results using the Weibull distribution as approaches to modeling the reliability of the specimens.

  7. Easy alignment and effective nucleation activity of ramie fibers in injection-molded poly(lactic acid) biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Liu, Chun-Yan; Chen, Chen; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ramie fiber biocomposites were fabricated, which exhibited considerable reinforcement effect comparable to the glass fiber at the same loading. The attempts were made to understand the flow-induced morphology of ramie fibers and PLA crystals in the injection-molded PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, thus revealing its relationship to biocomposite mechanical properties. The polarized optical microscopy (POM) and two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D-WAXD) were for the first time used to determine the distribution of nature fibers, which interestingly showed the ramie fibers aligned well along the flow direction over the whole thickness of injection-molded parts, instead of skin-core structure. This easy alignment of ramie fibers during the common processing was ascribed to the intrinsically high flexibility of ramie fibers and strong interfacial interaction between PLA chains and cellulose molecules of ramie fibers. Both 2D-WAXD and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements suggested that the PLA matrix in its ramie biocomposites had rather high orientation degree and crystallinity, which was attributed to effective heterogeneous nucleation induced by ramie fibers and local shearing field in the vicinity of fiber surface. Remarkable improvement of mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties was achieved for PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, without sacrifice of toughness and ductility. Addition of 30wt% ramie fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus of PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites from 65.6 and 1468 MPa for pure PLA to 91.3 and 2977 MPa, respectively. These superior mechanical properties were ascribed to easy alignment of ramie fibers, high crystallinity of PLA, and favorable interfacial adhesion as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and theoretical analysis based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data.

  8. Identification of Ramie Genes in Response to Pratylenchus coffeae Infection Challenge by Digital Gene Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongting; Zeng, Liangbin; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Taotao; Zhu, Aiguo

    2015-09-11

    Root lesion disease, caused by Pratylenchus coffeae, seriously impairs the growth and yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The ramie defense mechanism against P. coffeae infection is poorly understood, which hinders efforts to improve resistance via breeding programs. In this study, the transcriptome of the resistant ramie cultivar Qingdaye was characterized using Illumina sequence technology. About 46.3 million clean pair end (PE) reads were generated and assembled into 40,826 unigenes with a mean length of 830 bp. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed on both the control roots (CK) and P. coffeae-challenged roots (CH), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Approximately 10.16 and 8.07 million cDNA reads in the CK and CH cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively. A total of 137 genes exhibited different transcript abundances between the two libraries. Among them, the expressions of 117 and 20 DEGs were up- and down-regulated in P. coffeae-challenged ramie, respectively. The expression patterns of 15 candidate genes determined by qRT-PCR confirmed the results of DGE analysis. Time-course expression profiles of eight defense-related genes in susceptible and resistant ramie cultivars were different after P. coffeae inoculation. The differential expression of protease inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), and transcription factors in resistant and susceptible ramie during P. coffeae infection indicated that cystatin likely plays an important role in nematode resistance.

  9. Identification of Ramie Genes in Response to Pratylenchus coffeae Infection Challenge by Digital Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongting; Zeng, Liangbin; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Taotao; Zhu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Root lesion disease, caused by Pratylenchus coffeae, seriously impairs the growth and yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The ramie defense mechanism against P. coffeae infection is poorly understood, which hinders efforts to improve resistance via breeding programs. In this study, the transcriptome of the resistant ramie cultivar Qingdaye was characterized using Illumina sequence technology. About 46.3 million clean pair end (PE) reads were generated and assembled into 40,826 unigenes with a mean length of 830 bp. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed on both the control roots (CK) and P. coffeae-challenged roots (CH), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Approximately 10.16 and 8.07 million cDNA reads in the CK and CH cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively. A total of 137 genes exhibited different transcript abundances between the two libraries. Among them, the expressions of 117 and 20 DEGs were up- and down-regulated in P. coffeae-challenged ramie, respectively. The expression patterns of 15 candidate genes determined by qRT-PCR confirmed the results of DGE analysis. Time-course expression profiles of eight defense-related genes in susceptible and resistant ramie cultivars were different after P. coffeae inoculation. The differential expression of protease inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), and transcription factors in resistant and susceptible ramie during P. coffeae infection indicated that cystatin likely plays an important role in nematode resistance. PMID:26378527

  10. Cloning of expansin genes in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) based on universal fast walking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Peng, Dingxiang

    2015-09-10

    Gene cloning is the first step to study the expression profiles and functions of a particular gene; considerable cloning methods have been developed. Expansin, thought to involve in the cell-wall modification events, was not cloned in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), which is one of the most important bast fiber crops with little conducted molecular research, especially on its fiber development. Studying the expansin gene family will uncover its possible relationship with ramie fiber development and other growth events. As a result, five expansin genes were cloned with full-length and their sequence information was investigated. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis was conducted, which suggested that the cloned genes belong to the α-subfamily, and these genes expressed differently during ramie fiber developmental process. In this study, we aimed to apply a strategy for cloning novel full-length genes from genomic DNA of ramie, based on using degenerate primers, touchdown polymerase chain reaction and universal fast walking protocols. By cloning five full-length expansin genes, we believe the polymerase chain reaction-based gene cloning strategy could be applied to general gene studies in ramie and other crops.

  11. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment condition on adhesion of ramie fibers to polypropylene for composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Manolache, Sorin; Qiu, Yiping; Sarmadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between hydrophilic ramie fibers and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) matrices, ramie fibers are modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with our continuous ethanol flow technique in helium environment. A central composite design of experiments with different plasma processing parameter combinations (treatment current, treatment time and ethanol flow rate) is applied to find the most influential parameter and to obtain the best modification effect. Field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the roughened surfaces of ramie fibers from the treated groups due to plasma etching effect. Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) demonstrates that the wettability of the treated fibers drastically decreases. Microbond pullout test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between treated ramie fibers and PP matrices increases significantly. Residual gas analysis (RGA) confirms the creation of ethyl groups during plasma treatment. This study shows that our continuous ethanol flow technique is effective in the plasma modification process, during which the ethanol flow rate is the most influential parameter but all parameters have simultaneous influence on plasma modification effect of ramie fibers.

  12. The RAMI On-line Model Checker (ROMC): A tool for the automated evaluation of canopy reflectance models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Robustelli, M.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Rami Participants, All

    The Radiative transfer Model Intercomparison RAMI exercise was first launched in 1999 and then again in 2002 and 2005 RAMI aims at evaluating the performance of canopy reflectance models in absence of any absolute reference truth It does so by intercomparing models over a large ensemble of test cases under a variety of spectral and illumination conditions A series of criteria can be applied to select an ensemble of mutually agreeing 3-D Monte Carlo models to provide a surrogate truth against which all other models can then be compared We will present an overview of the RAMI activities and show how the results of the latest phase have lead to the development of the RAMI Online model checker ROMC This tool allows both model developers and users to evaluate the performance of their canopy reflectance models a against previous RAMI test cases whose results have already been published in the literature and b against test cases that are similar to the RAMI cases but for which no results will be known a priori As such the ROMC allows models to be debugged and or validated autonomously on a limited number of test cases RAMI-certified graphics that document a model s performance can be downloaded for future use in scientific presentations and or publications

  13. [Extraction of Cd by ramie from soils as affected by applications of chelators and peat].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Ping; Zong, Liang-Gang; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Wei-Xing; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Ya-Hua

    2009-09-15

    Pot experiments were performed to study the effectiveness of chelators (EDTA, citric acid) and peat in enhancing phyremediation of heavy metal Cd by ramie. The results showed that peat increased the ramie's biomass by improving soil's physical and chemical properties, and the relative yields of peat alone, chelators(EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat were 1.23, 1.13 and 1.41 respectively. So the combination of citric acid and peat was more useful for growth of the ramie. As far as improving Cd uptake was concerned, it seemed that the combination of chelators with peat significantly promoted Cd uptake by the plant, and the percent of changeable Cd in soil were 61.6% and 58.3% . In addition, it had better bioaccumulation effects to combine with chelators and peat, of which Cd bioaccumulation coefficients were 1.33 and 1.32, compared to 1.11, 1.11 and 1.05 in application of peat, EDTA and citric acid respectively. What's more, cadmium removal rates in soil were up to 1.13% and 1.22% respectively in applications of two kinds of chleators (EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat. Therefore, it had better effects of phytoremediation to accumulate more cadmium amounts by combining with citric acid and peat because of more biomass. In conclusion, the phytoremediation by ramie can be more effective when chelators and peat were combined and added to soils.

  14. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  15. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    SciTech Connect

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  16. Recycling agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Gong, X F; Zou, H L; Liu, C Y; Chen, C L; Zeng, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we exhibit the recycling of agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal. Based on our experimental results, it is realized that Cd(2+) adsorption to ramie stalk is highly pH sensitive, indicating the adsorption is driven by surface complexation reaction. The high adsorption capacity of ramie stalk toward Cd(2+) (qm = 10.33 mg g(-1), 0.09 mol-Cd g(-1)), which corresponds to around 21.95% of active adsorption sites available of ramie stalk, is believed to be closely related to its high cellulose and lignin content. The inhomogeneous surface of ramie stalk due to the high cellulose and lignin content also accounts for the observation that the adsorption kinetic is described well by the pseudo second order kinetic model. Results from thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. All these properties demonstrate the potential of ramie stalk as a low cost bioadsorbent for the application of heavy metal removal. PMID:26819396

  17. Recycling agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Gong, X F; Zou, H L; Liu, C Y; Chen, C L; Zeng, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we exhibit the recycling of agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal. Based on our experimental results, it is realized that Cd(2+) adsorption to ramie stalk is highly pH sensitive, indicating the adsorption is driven by surface complexation reaction. The high adsorption capacity of ramie stalk toward Cd(2+) (qm = 10.33 mg g(-1), 0.09 mol-Cd g(-1)), which corresponds to around 21.95% of active adsorption sites available of ramie stalk, is believed to be closely related to its high cellulose and lignin content. The inhomogeneous surface of ramie stalk due to the high cellulose and lignin content also accounts for the observation that the adsorption kinetic is described well by the pseudo second order kinetic model. Results from thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. All these properties demonstrate the potential of ramie stalk as a low cost bioadsorbent for the application of heavy metal removal.

  18. Pectinolytic Enzymes from Actinomycetes for the Degumming of Ramie Bast Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brühlmann, Fredi; Kim, Kwi Suk; Zimmerman, Wolfgang; Fiechter, Armin

    1994-01-01

    Actinomycetes isolated from 10 different soil and compost samples were screened for production of pectinolytic enzyme activities when grown on pectin-containing solid and liquid media. Pectinolytic enzymes, detected by using plate diffusion tests with a medium containing ramie (Boehmeria nivea) plant material as the sole carbon source, were mainly pectate lyases, but low activities of pectinesterases were also observed. Polygalacturonases and polymethylgalacturonases were not produced. Multiple forms of pectate lyases were detected in the culture supernatants of some of the strains by using the zymogram technique of isoelectric focusing gels. Xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities were always found to be associated with pectinolytic activities. None of the pectinolytic enzymes were produced in a medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. Treatment of ramie bast fibers with crude enzyme preparations from a selection of strains showed a good correlation between the pectate lyase activity applied and the degumming effect, resulting in good separation of the bast fibers. Images PMID:16349296

  19. Portable AOTF Raman integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Martin, M. E.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a compact, self-contained, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing. The RAMiTS consists of a frequency-stabilized diode laser for excitation, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for wavelength discrimination, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) for detection. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. Instrument control and data acquisition was coordinated by software developed in house using the C language. Evaluation of this instrument was performed by analyzing several model compounds and the high spectral resolution of this instrument was demonstrated by the discrimination of several structurally similar molecules (benzene, toluene and naphthalene) as well as m-, o-, p- isomers of xylene. The potential applications of the RAMiTS coupled with the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents will also be discussed in this paper.

  20. Development of a core collection for ramie by heuristic search based on SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Ming-Bao; Zou, Zi-Zheng; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Ying; Ma, Qing-Hua; Sun, Zhi-Min; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 2000 ramie germplasms in the National Ramie Germplasm Nursery affiliated with the Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, China. As it is difficult to perform effective conservation, management, evaluation, and utilization of redundant genetic resources, it is necessary to construct a core collection by using molecular markers. In this study, a core collection of ramie consisting of 22 germplasms was constructed from 108 accessions by heuristic search based on 21 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker combinations. The results showed that there is a poor relationship between the core collection and the geographic distribution. The number of amplification bands for the core collection was the same as that for the entire collection. Shannon's index for three of the SSR primers (14%) and Nei's index for nine of the SSR primers (19%) were lower in the core collection than in the entire collection. The true core collection had wider genetic diversity compared with the random core collection. Collectively, the core collection constructed in this study is reliable and represents the genetic diversity of all the 108 accessions. PMID:26019563

  1. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue. PMID:23567687

  2. Influence of absorbed moisture on surface hydrophobization of ethanol pretreated and plasma treated ramie fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Jilong; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Liwen; Moyo, Senelisile; Sun, Shiyuan; Qiu, Yiping

    2012-03-01

    The existence of moisture in the substrate material may influence the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Our previous study has found that the employment of ethanol pretreatment and plasma treatment can effectively induce hydrophobic surface modification of cellulose fiber to enhance the compatibility to polypropylene (PP) matrix, and this study aims to investigate the influence of fiber moisture regain on the treatment effect of this technique. Ramie fibers with three different moisture regains (MR) (2.5, 6.1 and 23.5%) are pretreated with ethanol followed by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the 2.5% MR group has the most significant plasma etching effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of Csbnd C and a decrease of Csbnd O bond in the plasma treated groups, and the largest raise of Csbnd C bond for the 2.5% MR group. The water contact angles of the 2.5 and 6.1% MR groups increase, whereas no significant change is showed in the 23.5% MR group. The interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) measured by microbond pull-out test are raised by 44 and 25% when moisture regains are 2.5 and 6.1%, while presented no apparent improvement at high moisture regain of 23.5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that moisture regain has negative influence on the surface hydrophobization of ramie fibers in the improvement of adhesion property to PP matrix.

  3. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute.

    PubMed

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  4. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s-1 under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone. PMID:26807127

  5. Secretome analysis of Pleurotus eryngii reveals enzymatic composition for ramie stalk degradation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunliang; Luo, Wei; Li, Zhimin; Yan, Li; Zhu, Zuohua; Wang, Jing; Hu, Zhenxiu; Peng, Yuande

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) can secrete large amount of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. In spite of several researches on the individual lignolytic enzymes, a direct deconstruction of lignocellulose by enzyme mixture is not yet possible. Identifying more high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes will lead to efficient in vitro lignocelluloses degradation. In this report, secretomic analysis was used to search for the new or interesting enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Besides, the utilization ability of P. eryngii to ramie stalk substrate was evaluated from the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in medium and six extracellular enzymes activities during different growth stages were discussed. The results showed that a high biological efficiency of 71% was obtained; cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin decomposition rates of P. eryngii were 29.2, 26.0, and 51.2%, respectively. Enzyme activity showed that carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and peroxidase activity peaks appeared at the primordial initiation stage. In addition, we profiled a global view of the secretome of P. eryngii cultivated in ramie stalk media to understand the mechanism behind lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Eighty-seven nonredundant proteins were identified and a diverse group of enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinase, ligninase, protease, peptidases, and phosphatase implicated in lignocellulose degradation were found. In conclusion, the information in this report will be helpful to better understand the lignocelluloses degradation mechanisms of P. eryngii.

  6. Ramie Leaf Extracts Suppresses Adipogenic Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and Pig Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joomin; Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of different concentrations of extracts of hot air-dried ramie leaf (HR) and freeze-dried ramie leaf (FR) in 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes. To analyze the effect on cell proliferation, cells were treated with 25 μg/mL or 100 μg/mL HR or FR extract for 2 days. Cell differentiation was evaluated by measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities and intracellular triglyceride content. Treatment with either HR or FR extracts inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. HR extract treatment inhibited the differentiation of both cell types more effectively than FR treatment. The extent of triglyceride accumulation decreased significantly in both cells following either HR or FR treatment. Furthermore, LPL activity significantly decreased after treatment with HR or FR extract. These results indicated that HR and FR extracts may inhibit proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes. Further studies are needed to explore the anti-obesity effect of HR and FR extracts. PMID:26954122

  7. Transcriptome Profiling and Identification of Transcription Factors in Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) in Response to PEG Treatment, Using Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    An, Xia; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu; Liao, Yiwen; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Peng, Dingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), commonly known as China grass, is a perennial bast fiber plant of the Urticaceae. In China, ramie farming, industry, and trade provide income for about five million people. Drought stress severely affects ramie stem growth and causes a dramatic decrease in ramie fiber production. There is a need to enhance ramie’s tolerance to drought stress. However, the drought stress regulatory mechanism in ramie remains unknown. Water stress imposed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a common and convenient method to evaluate plant drought tolerance. In this study, transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from ramie subjected to PEG treatment was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing, which generated 170 million raw sequence reads. Between leaves and roots subjected to 24 (L2 and R2) and 72 (L3 and R3) h of PEG treatment, 16,798 genes were differentially expressed (9281 in leaves and 8627 in roots). Among these, 25 transcription factors (TFs) from the AP2 (3), MYB (6), NAC (9), zinc finger (5), and bZIP (2) families were considered to be associated with drought stress. The identified TFs could be used to further investigate drought adaptation in ramie. PMID:25658800

  8. RAMI modeling of selected balance of plant systems for the proposed Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Radder, J.A.; Cramer, D.S.

    1997-06-01

    In order to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program requirements for tritium in the 2005-2007 time frame, new production capability must be made available. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Plant is being considered as an alternative to nuclear reactor production of tritium, which has been the preferred method in the past. The proposed APT plant will use a high-power proton accelerator to generate thermal neutrons that will be captured in {sup 3}He to produce tritium (3H). It is expected that the APT Plant will be built and operated at the DOE`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Discussion is focused on Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Inspectability (RAMI) modeling of recent conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual design phase, system RAMI estimates are necessary to identify the best possible system alternative and to provide a valid picture of the cost effectiveness of the proposed system for comparison with other system alternatives. RAMI estimates in the phase must necessarily be based on generic data. The objective of the RAMI analyses at the conceptual design stage is to assist the designers in achieving an optimum design which balances the reliability and maintainability requirements among the subsystems and components.

  9. RAMI4PILPS: An intercomparison of formulations for the partitioning of solar radiation in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Pinty, B.; Clerici, M.; Dai, Y.; de Kauwe, M.; De Ridder, K.; Kallel, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Lavergne, T.; Ni-Meister, W.; Olchev, A.; Quaife, T.; Wang, S.; Yang, W.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, H.

    2011-06-01

    Remotely sensed, multiannual data sets of shortwave radiative surface fluxes are now available for assimilation into land surface schemes (LSSs) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The RAMI4PILPS suite of virtual experiments assesses the accuracy and consistency of the radiative transfer formulations that provide the magnitudes of absorbed, reflected, and transmitted shortwave radiative fluxes in LSSs. RAMI4PILPS evaluates models under perfectly controlled experimental conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical for model comparison with in situ observations. More specifically, the shortwave radiation is separated into a visible and near-infrared spectral region, and the quality of the simulated radiative fluxes is evaluated by direct comparison with a 3-D Monte Carlo reference model identified during the third phase of the Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise. The RAMI4PILPS setup thus allows to focus in particular on the numerical accuracy of shortwave radiative transfer formulations and to pinpoint to areas where future model improvements should concentrate. The impact of increasing degrees of structural and spectral subgrid variability on the simulated fluxes is documented and the relevance of any thus emerging biases with respect to gross primary production estimates and shortwave radiative forcings due to snow and fire events are investigated.

  10. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J; Reiersen, Wayne T

    2011-01-01

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment

  11. Distraction Osteogenesis Correction of Mandibular Ramis Fracture Malunion in a Juvenile Mute Swan ( Cygnus olor ).

    PubMed

    Calvo Carrasco, Daniel; Dutton, Thomas A G; Shimizu, Naomi; Sabater, Mikel; Forbes, Neil A

    2016-03-01

    A juvenile mute swan (Cygnus olor) was presented with right lateral deviation of the mandible. Radiographs demonstrated a healed fracture of the right mandibular ramis, which had compromised osteogenesis. A corrective osteotomy was performed and an osteogenic distractor was inserted over the lateral aspect of the right mandible. Dental acrylic implants were fixed to the rhinotheca to correct rotational alignment. A pharyngostomy tube was placed to facilitate administration of nutrition and medication. Postoperative images confirmed correct alignment of the mandible in relation to the maxilla. Implants were removed and postoperative complications were not reported. This is the first report of an osteogenic distractor used to correct mandibular deviation in an avian species. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as a valid surgical option in juvenile or adult avian patients with pathologic bone shortening.

  12. Effects of concentrations of sodium chloride on photosynthesis, antioxidative enzymes, growth and fiber yield of hybrid ramie.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengjian; Wei, Gang; Jie, Yucheng; Wang, Longchang; Zhou, Hangfei; Ran, Chunyan; Huang, Zaocun; Jia, Huijuan; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the oldest and most important fiber crops in China due to the comfortable textile of its fine fiber. Increased ramie fiber demand brings ramie cultivation to salt-affected regions. The aim of this research was to determine morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of ramie by subjecting plants to varying concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg dry soil) at vigorous growth stage for 10 and 20 days. Results indicated that salinity stress substantially inhibited the growth of hybrid ramie plants and led to remarkable decline in fiber yield. However, when grown at 2 g NaCl/kg growth and fiber yield were similar to non-saline control. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were correlated with growth and yield response. Salt treatments promoted a subsequent decrease in maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), quantum efficiency of open PSII reaction centers (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII (φPSII) while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) changed conversely. Photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) increased at 2 and 4 g NaCl/kg then decreased at 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg. Substantial decline in the PSII activity at high salinity was associated with the loss of chlorophyll contents. Moreover, marked decrease in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) was also recorded. Nonetheless, intercellular CO2 (Ci) decreased at low salt stress, subsequently increased at high salt stress while water use efficiency (WUE) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) altered in opposite direction. Substantial decrease of photosynthesis at high salinity was due to non-stomatal factors. Furthermore, salinity stress led to decrease of proteins and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.6), whereas

  13. Changing perspectives on community identity and function: A remote sensing and artifactual re-analysis of Barton Ramie, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Errin Teresa

    This dissertation presents the results of the remote sensing and artifact re-analysis of the archaeological site of Barton Ramie, Belize. The site was the focus of Dr. Gordon R. Willey's innovative archaeological program in the Belize River Valley to study ancient Maya settlement, environment, and population in 1954-1956. Through the use of artifact analysis combined with the examination of high-resolution Worldview-1 imagery and a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis, I consider how the inhabitants of Barton Ramie forged community functioning and identity. I focus on the range of intra-site diversity including differential access to labor, goods, land, and the activities evidenced in households and non-domestic structures. Using a community theory framework, emphasizing the many practices that tied the community together, I underscore the variability expressed in architectural elaboration, sumptuary goods, ritual, and specialization. That variability has profound implications for understanding community diversity and economic, social, and ritual functioning. High-resolution panchromatic Worldview-1 satellite imagery successfully detected the remains of Barton Ramie settlement. Surface archaeology has been largely destroyed due to extensive agricultural activities in recent decades. GIS analysis and ground-truthing determined that mound size is the primary factor enabling detection of ancient features. The confirmation of features in an intensively plowed environment has implications including settlement, survey, and population for other disturbed environments. I argue that the Barton Ramie community developed from a complex interaction of networks and practices. These include activities at the household level, articulation between households to form sub-communities (or neighborhoods), and a larger imagined community of the Barton Ramie polity. Individual households articulated to form seven discrete sub-communities, bounded by landscape

  14. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with a Sb Accumulator Plant, Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), in an Active Sb Mining.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan; Chen, ZhiPeng; Wu, FengChang; Li, JiNing; ShangGuan, YuXian; Li, FaSheng; Zeng, Qing Ru; Hou, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have great potential for assisting heavy metal hyperaccumulators in the remediation of contaminated soils. However, little information is available about the symbiosis of AMF associated with an antimony (Sb) accumulator plant under natural conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the colonization and molecular diversity of AMF associated with the Sb accumulator ramie (Boehmeria nivea) growing in Sb-contaminated soils. Four Sb mine spoils and one adjacent reference area were selected from Xikuangshan in southern China. PCR-DGGE was used to analyze the AMF community composition in ramie roots. Morphological identification was also used to analyze the species in the rhizosphere soil of ramie. Results obtained showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis was established successfully even in the most heavily polluted sites. From the unpolluted site Ref to the highest polluted site T4, the spore numbers and AMF diversity increased at first and then decreased. Colonization increased consistently with the increasing Sb concentrations in the soil. A total of 14 species were identified by morphological analysis. From the total number of species, 4 (29%) belonged to Glomus, 2 (14%) belonged to Acaulospora, 2 (14%) belonged to Funneliformis, 1 (7%) belonged to Claroideoglomus, 1 (7%) belonged to Gigaspora, 1 (7%) belonged to Paraglomus, 1 (7%) belonging to Rhizophagus, 1 (7%) belonging to Sclervocystis, and 1 (7%) belonged to Scutellospora. Some AMF sequences were present even in the most polluted site. Morphological identification and phylogenetic analysis both revealed that most species were affiliated withGlomus, suggesting that Glomus was the dominant genus in this AMF community. This study demonstrated that ramie associated with AMF may have great potential for remediation of Sb-contaminated soils.

  15. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development. PMID:27019439

  16. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  17. Reconstruction of the horizontal rami of the mandible following avulsion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Holland, P S; Lendrum, J

    1978-08-01

    A 7-year-old boy was involved in a road traffic accident in October 1971, and apparently had been dragged along face downwards with resultant avulsion of the entire horizontal mandibular rami, and most of the mandibular alveolar soft tissue and teeth. Repair by metal implants was attempted but these proved unsatisfactory, and soft tissue replacement for the missing alveolus was carried out by flap raised from arm. Rib grafting was carried out on three occasions at almost yearly intervals, but each time, probably owing to vascular insufficiency, non-union (or more correctly non-replacement) occurred in the left canine region. To "import" a new blood supply, and free some of the scar tissue, a compound muscle/bone/skin flap bearing the clavicle and sternomastoid muscle was transposed to the mandibular bed. This form of grafting was used extensively in World War I to repair facial gunshot wounds, and the transposed blood supply enabled success in the pre-antibiotic period. Bony union is now satisfactory 5 years after injuries and dentures have been recently fitted; speech is normal, the child's facial contours acceptable, and mastication has been satisfactory during this period.

  18. Transcript Profiling Reveals Auxin and Cytokinin Signaling Pathways and Transcription Regulation during In Vitro Organogenesis of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing; Chen, Jie; Bao, Yaning; Liu, Lijun; Jiang, Hui; An, Xia; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Peng, Dingxiang

    2014-01-01

    In vitro organogenesis, one of the most common pathways leading to in vitro plant regeneration, is widely used in biotechnology and the fundamental study of plant biology. Although previous studies have constructed a complex regulatory network model for Arabidopsis in vitro organogenesis, no related study has been reported in ramie. To generate more complete observations of transcriptome content and dynamics during ramie in vitro organogenesis, we constructed a reference transcriptome library and ten digital gene expression (DGE) libraries for illumina sequencing. Approximately 111.34 million clean reads were obtained for transcriptome and the DGE libraries generated between 13.5 and 18.8 million clean reads. De novo assembly produced 43,222 unigenes and a total of 5,760 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were filtered. Searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database, 26 auxin related and 11 cytokinin related DEGs were selected for qRT-PCR validation of two ramie cultivars, which had high (Huazhu No. 5) or extremely low (Dazhuhuangbaima) shoot regeneration abilities. The results revealed differing regulation patterns of auxin and cytokinin in different genotypes. Here we report the first genome-wide gene expression profiling of in vitro organogenesis in ramie and provide an overview of transcription and phytohormone regulation during the process. Furthermore, the auxin and cytokinin related genes have distinct expression patterns in two ramie cultivars with high or extremely low shoot regeneration ability, which has given us a better understanding of the in vitro organogenesis mechanism. This result will provide a foundation for future phytohormone research and lead to improvements of the ramie regeneration system. PMID:25415356

  19. Transcriptome sequencing and profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianrong; Liu, Fang; Tang, Yinghong; Yuan, Youmei; Guo, Qingquan

    2014-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is a highly versatile herbaceous plant which is widely cropped in southern China. The success of this herbaceous plant relies on wide use in modern industry. Understanding the profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie is crucial for improving its industrial performance. Herein, we uncover the transcriptome profile in phloem and xylem in present study. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, 57 million high quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 87,144 unigenes with an average length of 635 bp. By sequence similarity searching for public databases, a total of 32,541 (41.77%) unigenes were annotated for their function. Among these genes, 57,873 (66.4%) and 28,678 (32.9%) unigenes were assigned to categories of Gene Ontology and Orthologous Groups database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 18,331 (21.0%) unigenes were mapped to 125 pathways. The metabolic pathways were assigned the most unigene (4,793, 26.2%). Furthermore, Pol II and Pol III subunits as well as the genes of Galactose metabolism pathway had higher expression in phloem compared to xylem. In addition, fatty acid metabolism pathway genes showed more abundant in xylem than phloem. These results suggest that high activities of RNA synthesis and Galactose metabolism pathway promises fiber synthesis in phloem. The present study is the initial exploration to uncover the fiber biosynthesis difference between phloem and xylem in ramie through the analysis of deep sequencing data.

  20. Characterization by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of Transcripts That Are Differentially Expressed in Leaves of Anthracnose-Resistant Ramie Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Xuxia, Wang; Jie, Chen; Bo, Wang; Lijun, Liu; Hui, Jiang; Diluo, Tang; Dingxiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), a cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar Huazhu no. 4. The cDNAs from Huazhu no. 4, which were infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, were used as the tester and cDNAs from uninfected Huazhu no. 4 as the driver. Sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, which were assigned to functional categories, including 14 putative cellular functions, according to categories established for Arabidopsis. These 132 genes included 35 disease resistance and stress tolerance-related genes including putative heat-shock protein 90, metallothionein, PR-1.2 protein, catalase gene, WRKY family genes, and proteinase inhibitor-like protein. Partial disease-related genes were further analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and RNA gel blot. These expressed sequence tags are the first anthracnose resistance-related expressed sequence tags reported in ramie.

  1. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

  2. Mercury concentrations of fish, river water, and sediment in the Río Ramis-Lake Titicaca watershed, Peru.

    PubMed

    Gammons, Christopher H; Slotton, Darell G; Gerbrandt, Butch; Weight, Willis; Young, Courtney A; McNearny, Richard L; Cámac, Eugenio; Calderón, Ruben; Tapia, Henri

    2006-09-15

    This study reports the first set of data on the concentration of mercury in muscle tissue of several varieties of fish from Lake Titicaca, including the pejerrey (Basilichthyes bonariensis), the carachi (Orestias), and 2 types of indigenous catfish (Trichomycterus). Approximately 27% of the pejerrey and 75% of the carachi exceeded the US EPA fish tissue-based water quality criterion level of 0.30 microg g(-1). Mercury levels of pejerrey increased with fish size, although this relationship was less apparent for the smaller carachi. The pejerrey and carachi are important food fish for local residents. A synoptic sampling of the Río Ramis--the largest tributary to Lake Titicaca--was conducted in an attempt to determine if mercury releases from artisanal gold mining could be an important source of Hg contamination to Lake Titicaca. Although highly elevated concentrations of Hg and other heavy metals were documented in headwater streams near the mining centers of La Rinconada and Cecilia, the quantity of Hg entering Lake Titicaca that could be attributed to mining in the Ramis watershed was below the quantifiable limit in our July 2002 study. This does not diminish the localized threat to mercury exposure for the artisanal gold miners themselves, as well as their families. Further studies of mercury dynamics in Lake Titicaca are recommended, as well as in the rivers draining into the lake. It is probable that most of the downgradient transport of Hg and other trace metals from the headwater mining centers occurs as suspended sediment during seasonal periods of high-flow. PMID:16271381

  3. Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pectate Lyase from the Alkaliphilic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain N16-5 To Improve Its Thermostability for Efficient Ramie Degumming

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng; Ye, Jintong; Xue, Yanfen

    2015-01-01

    Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases have potential applications in the textile industry as an alternative to chemical-based ramie degumming processes. In particular, the alkaline pectate lyase from Bacillus sp. strain N16-5 (BspPelA) has potential for enzymatic ramie degumming because of its high specific activity under extremely alkaline conditions without the requirement for additional Ca2+. However, BspPelA displays poor thermostability and is inactive after incubation at 50°C for only 30 min. Here, directed evolution was used to improve the thermostability of BspPelA for efficient and stable degumming. After two rounds of error-prone PCR and screening of >12,000 mutants, 10 mutants with improved thermostability were obtained. Sequence analysis and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that single E124I, T178A, and S271G substitutions were responsible for improving thermostability. Structural and molecular dynamic simulation analysis indicated that the formation of a hydrophobic cluster and new H-bond networks was the key factor contributing to the improvement in thermostability with these three substitutions. The most thermostable combined mutant, EAET, exhibited a 140-fold increase in the t50 (time at which the enzyme loses 50% of its initial activity) value at 50°C, accompanied by an 84.3% decrease in activity compared with that of wild-type BspPelA, while the most advantageous combined mutant, EA, exhibited a 24-fold increase in the t50 value at 50°C, with a 23.3% increase in activity. Ramie degumming with the EA mutant was more efficient than that with wild-type BspPelA. Collectively, our results suggest that the EA mutant, exhibiting remarkable improvements in thermostability and activity, has the potential for applications in ramie degumming in the textile industry. PMID:26070675

  4. Development and characterization of 1,827 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers for ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud).

    PubMed

    Liu, Touming; Zhu, Siyuan; Fu, Lili; Tang, Qingming; Yu, Yongting; Chen, Ping; Luan, Mingbao; Wang, Changbiao; Tang, Shouwei

    2013-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is one of the most important natural fiber crops, and improvement of fiber yield and quality is the main goal in efforts to breed superior cultivars. However, efforts aimed at enhancing the understanding of ramie genetics and developing more effective breeding strategies have been hampered by the shortage of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In our previous study, we had assembled de novo 43,990 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In the present study, we searched these previously assembled ESTs for SSRs and identified 1,685 ESTs (3.83%) containing 1,878 SSRs. Next, we designed 1,827 primer pairs complementary to regions flanking these SSRs, and these regions were designated as SSR markers. Among these markers, dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant types (36.4% and 36.3%, respectively), whereas tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide motifs represented <10% of the markers. The motif AG/CT was the most abundant, accounting for 28.74% of the markers. One hundred EST-SSR markers (97 SSRs located in genes encoding transcription factors and 3 SSRs in genes encoding cellulose synthases) were amplified using polymerase chain reaction for detecting 24 ramie varieties. Of these 100 markers, 98 markers were successfully amplified and 81 markers were polymorphic, with 2-6 alleles among the 24 varieties. Analysis of the genetic diversity of all 24 varieties revealed similarity coefficients that ranged from 0.51 to 0.80. The EST-SSRs developed in this study represent the first large-scale development of SSR markers for ramie. These SSR markers could be used for development of genetic and physical maps, quantitative trait loci mapping, genetic diversity studies, association mapping, and cultivar fingerprinting.

  5. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in wild and domesticated populations of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.), a premium textile fiber producing species

    PubMed Central

    Satya, Pratik; Karan, Maya; Jana, Sourav; Mitra, Sabyasachi; Sharma, Amit; Karmakar, P.G.; Ray, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-four start codon targeted (SCoT) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure of indigenous, introduced and domesticated ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.). A total of 155 genotypes from five populations were investigated for SCoT polymorphism, which produced 136 amplicons with 87.5% polymorphism. Polymorphism information content and resolving power of the SCoT markers were 0.69 and 3.22, respectively. The Indian ramie populations exhibited high SCoT polymorphism (> 50%), high genetic differentiation (GST = 0.27) and moderate gene flow (Nm = 1.34). Analysis of molecular variance identified significant differences for genetic polymorphism among the populations explaining 13.1% of the total variation. The domesticated population exhibited higher genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity compared to natural populations. Cluster analysis supported population genetic analysis and suggested close association between introduced and domesticated genotypes. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in a cross pollinated heterozygous species like Boehmeria, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and cultivar improvement. PMID:25750860

  7. Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in wild and domesticated populations of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.), a premium textile fiber producing species.

    PubMed

    Satya, Pratik; Karan, Maya; Jana, Sourav; Mitra, Sabyasachi; Sharma, Amit; Karmakar, P G; Ray, D P

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-four start codon targeted (SCoT) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure of indigenous, introduced and domesticated ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.). A total of 155 genotypes from five populations were investigated for SCoT polymorphism, which produced 136 amplicons with 87.5% polymorphism. Polymorphism information content and resolving power of the SCoT markers were 0.69 and 3.22, respectively. The Indian ramie populations exhibited high SCoT polymorphism (> 50%), high genetic differentiation (GST = 0.27) and moderate gene flow (Nm = 1.34). Analysis of molecular variance identified significant differences for genetic polymorphism among the populations explaining 13.1% of the total variation. The domesticated population exhibited higher genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity compared to natural populations. Cluster analysis supported population genetic analysis and suggested close association between introduced and domesticated genotypes. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in a cross pollinated heterozygous species like Boehmeria, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and cultivar improvement. PMID:25750860

  8. Stress fracture of the hip and pubic rami after fusion to the sacrum in an adult with scoliosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morcuende, J A; Arauz, S; Weinstein, S L

    2000-01-01

    Correction of adult scoliosis frequently involves long segmental fusions, but controversy still exists whether these fusions should include the sacrum. It has been suggested that forces associated with activities of daily living transfer the stresses to the remaining levels of the spine and to the pelvis. The case described here was a 43-year-old woman with scoliosis and chronic back pain refractory to non-surgical modalities. Radiographically, the patient had a 110 degree lumbar curve. An anterior and posterior fusion with Luque-Galveston instrumentation was performed. Six months postoperatively the patient returned with a 2-week history of right hip pain with no history of trauma. There was radiographic evidence of a displaced femoral neck fracture and pubic rami fractures. The femoral neck fracture was treated with a total hip replacement. Further surgeries were required to correct a lumbar pseudoarthrosis and hardware failure. We believe that this case provides evidence that fusion into the lumbosacral junction may distribute forces through the pelvic bones and hip resulting in stress and potential hardware complications, especially in patients at risk due to osteopenic conditions. PMID:10934629

  9. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Xia; Zhang, Jingyu; Dai, Lunjin; Deng, Gang; Liao, Yiwen; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Bo; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought stress) of treatment with 15% (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol)6000 (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy. PMID:27689998

  10. Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a non-cyst-forming parasitic nematode from the root of ramie Boehmeria nivea in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, K; Wang, H H; Ye, W; Peng, D L; Liao, J L

    2014-12-01

    Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. is described from ramie (Boehmeria nivea) based on the morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA small subunit (SSU), D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). This new species is characterized by oval females with a distinct subcrystalline layer and pronounced and protruding vulval lip, distinctly concave vulva-anus profile and a vulva-anus distance of 29.5-35.8 μm. Males possess two annuli in the lip region, a stylet 27-32.5 μm in length with round knobs sloping slightly posteriorly, lateral fields with three lines, spicules 20-28 μm long and the presence of a short cloacal tube. Second-stage juveniles possess three lip annuli, a stylet 28-31 μm in length with well-developed knobs projected anteriorly and three lines along the lateral field. The pointed tail, 52-65 μm long, possesses a mucro-like tip and a hyaline region, 24.5-35 μm long. Large phasmids with a lens-like structure are located 2-6 annuli posterior to the anus. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of the three rDNA sequences of C. sinensis n. sp. and other cystoid/cyst nematodes are analysed together with a comparison of other species within the genus Cryphodera.

  11. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

    2012-01-01

    The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8 Ug−1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1 : 1 : 0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1 : 2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24 h old inoculum, in 144 h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

  12. [Robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy. German version].

    PubMed

    van Hillegersberg, R; Seesing, M F J; Brenkman, H J F; Ruurda, J P

    2016-08-01

    Esophagolymphadenectomy is the cornerstone of multimodality treatment for resectable esophageal cancer. The preferred surgical approach is transthoracic, with a two-field lymph node dissection and gastric conduit reconstruction. A minimally invasive approach has been shown to reduce postoperative complications and increase quality of life. Robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) was developed to facilitate this complex thoracoscopic procedure. RAMIE has been shown to be safe with good oncologic results and reduced morbidity. The use of RAMIE opens new indications for curative surgery in patients with T4b tumors, high mediastinal tumors, and lymph node metastases after neoadjuvant treatment. PMID:27484825

  13. Notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pleet, A B; Massey, E W

    1978-12-01

    Notalgia paresthetica was described by Astwazaturow in 1934. We have seen six cases in the past year, suggesting that it is not rare. This sensory neuritis affects the posterior rami of several spinal nerves (arising from thoracic segments T2 to T6), causing pruritus, burning, and dysesthesias. Examination reveals hypesthesia. Although the cause is not known, the course seems benign. The posterior rami of these five dorsal roots traverse a 90-degree course through the multifidus spinae muscle, making them unique among the posterior rami. PMID:569792

  14. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  15. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  16. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  17. Insulating papers for thermal and electrical applications. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cotton linter, linseed, hemp, sunn hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, manila hemp, and sisal fibers as raw materials for electrical, as well as thermal insulating papers. Chemicals to improve heat and electrical resistance of these types of papers are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  19. Non-integrability of geodesic flow on certain algebraic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This Letter addresses an open problem recently posed by V. Kozlov: a rigorous proof of the non-integrability of the geodesic flow on the cubic surface xyz=1. We prove this is the case using the Morales-Ramis theorem and Kovacic algorithm. We also consider some consequences and extensions of this result.

  20. Non-integrability of a class of Painlevé IV equations as Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shaoyun; Li, Wenlei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we will prove the rational non-integrability of a class of Hamiltonian systems associated with Painlevé IV equation by using Morales-Ramis theory and Kovacic's algorithm, which, to some extent, also implies the non-integrability of the fourth Painlevé equation itself.

  1. Reproductive morphology of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Oliver, J H

    1976-06-01

    The male reproductive system consists of paired tests, vasa deferentia and dark-staining lateral accessory glands, single ventromedial spongy accessory gland, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory apparatus, and gonopore. The female system consists of paired rami sacculi, sacculus foemineus, ovary (lyriform and medial portions), oviduct, vagina, and paired vaginal glands. PMID:932922

  2. Variability of cadmium, lead, and zinc tolerance and accumulation among and between germplasms of the fiber crop Boehmeria nivea with different root-types.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Zhou, M; Zhou, L L; Xue, N D; Zhang, S L; Lan, C Y

    2015-09-01

    Crop germplasms substantially vary in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability plays a significant role in selecting species to use in phytoremediation projects. Here, we examined germplasm-variations in cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation in ramie (Boehmeria nivea), a fiber crop native to China, which has received little attention. In an 8-week greenhouse test, fourteen germplasms of ramie, among and within deep, middle, and shallow rooted-types, were compared for growth and metal accumulation traits. Results showed that both tolerance and accumulation traits varied across germplasms and rooted-types. The deep rooted-type germplasms produced more biomass and had higher tolerance to metals than the two others. In addition, considerable variations in metal accumulation were observed among plant organs (root, stem, and leaf), rooted-types, germplasms, and metal supply. However, the observed variations in metal tolerance and accumulation among both germplasms and rooted-types were not significant in most cases. In addition to supporting the idea of a certain degree of constitutional metal tolerance for ramie, our results also contribute to deep-rooted germplasms of ramie as a good candidate, rather than middle-/shallow- ones as a least-bad option, for the remediation of multi metal-contaminated soils. PMID:25948381

  3. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters.

  4. Localized pruritus-notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Pleet, A B

    1979-08-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, possibly an isolated sensory neuropathy involving the posterior primary rami of thoracic nerves T2 through T6, and appearing as pruritus of the back, is apt to be encountered by both dermatologists and neurologists. Two cases illustrate this disorder. PMID:464629

  5. Notalgia paresthetica owing to compression neuropathy: case presentation including electrodiagnostic studies.

    PubMed

    Streib, E W; Sun, S F

    1981-01-01

    A patient developed numbness over the upper part of his back, following prolonged bed rest in a supine position. Sweat test, clinical and electromyographic examination indicated neuropathies of the primary dorsal rami of the spinal nerves from T2 to T6. The literature is reviewed and anatomical considerations discussed. PMID:7202444

  6. A New Dicynodont (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the Permian of Southern Brazil and Its Implications for Bidentalian Origins

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Alessandra D. S.; Kammerer, Christian F.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Soares, Marina B.; Ilha, Ana L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Dicynodonts were a highly successful group of herbivorous therapsids that inhabited terrestrial ecosystems from the Middle Permian through the end of the Triassic periods. Permian dicynodonts are extremely abundant in African deposits, but are comparatively poorly known from the other regions of Gondwana. Here we describe a new South American dicynodont, Rastodon procurvidens gen. et sp. nov., from the Boqueirão farm site of the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Guadalupian/Lopingian of Brazil. Diagnostic features of R. procurvidens include uniquely anteriorly-curved maxillary tusks, well-developed ridges extending from the crista oesophagea anteriorly along the pterygoid rami, strong posterior angulation of the posterior pterygoid rami, and a bulbous, well-developed retroarticular process of the articular. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that R. procurvidens is the earliest and most basal member of Bidentalia, a cosmopolitan clade that includes Permian and Triassic dicynodonts whose dentition is usually reduced to a pair of maxillary tusks. PMID:27224287

  7. A new species of Zosime (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Zosimeidae) from shallow subtidal habitats in Korea, with notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Guk; Jung, Tae Won; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Zosime destituta sp. nov. is described from shallow subtidal habitats in the southern sea of Korea. The new species is similar to Z. valida Sars, 1919, but differs from it primarily by the lack of an inner seta on the third endopodal segment of the fourth swimming leg. Based on morphological comparison of female character states, the genus Zosime can be subdivided into three provisional groups, anneae-, incrassata-, and typica-group. These groups are distinguished from each other by differences in the antennule, antennary exopod, mandibular rami, armature of swimming legs, fifth leg, and caudal rami. In addition, Zosime incrassata bathybia Bodin, 1968 is removed from its synonymy with Z. incrassata Sars, 1910 and upgraded to species level. An amended key to all known species of Zosime Boeck, 1873 is given, along with a table of all major characters. The present study is the first report of the family Zosimeidae Seifried, 2003 from Korean waters.

  8. Arterial vascularization of the uropygial glands (Gl. uropygialis) in the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, S; Aslan, K; Aksoy, G; Kürtül, I

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics of the uropygial gland (Glandula uropygialis), specifically the arterial vascularization, in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey. Coloured-latex-injected animals were dissected and the gland and related arteries were observed. Mostly, the fourth paired caudal segmental arteries (Aa. segmentales caudales) arising from the median caudal artery (A. mediana caudae) were specified as the uropygial gland arteries. These arteries, in turn, gave the following rami: the muscular ramus (Ramus muscularis) to the levator coccygeus and lateral caudal muscles, the lateral ramus (Ramus lateralis) to the lateral coccygeus muscle and a small ventro-lateral division of the caudal component of the gland, and the medial rami (Ramus medialis) to the dorsal surface of the gland. PMID:15144283

  9. Disturbances of the symphysis pubis in rheumatoid arthritis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, So; Momohara, Shigeki; Ikari, Katsunori; Murakoshi, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Shu; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tomatsu, Taisuke

    2007-01-01

    We present two rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffering from disturbances of the symphysis pubis. Radiography revealed one with pelvic ring disruption with symphysis pubis diastasis, and the other with osteolysis at both pubic rami and disruption of the superior aspect of the symphysis pubis. Both cases had received long-term corticosteroid therapy, including pulse therapy. We recommend reducing the corticosteroid dose to prevent disturbances of the symphysis pubis especially in RA patients on long-term steroid therapy.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of an Industrially Important Bacillus sp. from Mandarmani Coastal Waters in Midnapur District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ray Chaudhuri, Shaon

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is the draft genome sequence of an amylase-, protease-, DNase-, oxidase-, gelatinase-, and catalase-producing, Gram-positive diplobacillus (Bacillus sp. SM1 strain MCC2138), which was isolated from marine coastal waters and has the ability to degum raw silk fabric as well as Ramie fiber. The genome comprises 1.76 Mb with a GC content of 34.5%. PMID:27540077

  11. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  12. Massive haemorrhage after a low‐energy pubic ramus fracture in a 71‐year‐old woman

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, D J M; Tollan, C J; Robertson, I; Rana, B S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of a patient receiving warfarin who presented with a superior pubic ramus fracture after a trivial fall at home. She developed a massive retroperitoneal haematoma as a result of vascular injury and subsequently died. This case emphasises the importance of admitting and observing patients with pubic rami fractures who are receiving antithrombotic treatment, and haemorrhage should be considered if they become haemodynamically compromised. PMID:17068268

  13. Massive haemorrhage after a low-energy pubic ramus fracture in a 71-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, D J M; Tollan, C J; Robertson, I; Rana, B; Rana, B S

    2006-10-01

    We describe a case of a patient receiving warfarin who presented with a superior pubic ramus fracture after a trivial fall at home. She developed a massive retroperitoneal haematoma as a result of vascular injury and subsequently died. This case emphasises the importance of admitting and observing patients with pubic rami fractures who are receiving antithrombotic treatment, and haemorrhage should be considered if they become haemodynamically compromised.

  14. Refractory pelvic stress fracture in a female long-distance runner.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T; Wilcox, N; Kersch, T

    1995-09-01

    Stress fractures of the pelvis are uncommon. They tend to occur in female long-distance runners. We present the case of a female jogger with amenorrhea and osteoporosis who presented with left hip and groin pain. An initial bone scan yielded normal results. Symptoms persisted and subsequent plain radiographs and a repeat bone scan revealed evidence of public rami stress fractures. She developed a delayed union that ultimately healed with an electrical bone growth stimulator. PMID:8548266

  15. [Thr arteries of the male sex organs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and their development after hatching].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Waibl, H; König, H E

    1992-06-01

    A total of 83 male Japanese quails of the following age groups were used for this study: 11, 18, 25, 32, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43 days, and 7, 9, 17 weeks after hatching. Neoprene-Latex, Tensol-Cement, and the china ink were injected via the aortic arch. In most of male Japanese quails, the testes are supplied by the A. testicularis originated from the Aorta descendens through a common trunk with the A. renalis cranialis. But in only 3 quails had this artery originated directly from the Aorta descendens on either side. In 9 quails had the A. testicularis accessoria originating independently from the Aorta descendens and running cranially or caudally in short distance to the normal A. testicularis. The arteries for the Ductus deferens were divided into 3 categories. The Rami ureterodeferentiales craniales were spread out from A. testicularis or Rami epididymales. The Rami ureterodeferentiales medii came from the A. renalis media and the A. renalis caudalis. The Rami ureterodeferentiales caudales originated from the A. caudae lateralis and A. pudenda. The Receptaculum ductus deferentis, the Corpus vasculare paracloacalis and the Phallus nonprotrudens in the Cloaca were supplied from the thick Ramus cloacalis of the A. pudenda. The Ramus bursalis of this artery supplied the Glandula proctodaealis and the Bursa cloacalis, and was also thick. The arteries to the genital organs were observed in the 11 day old male quail. The A. pudenda began developing at about 30 days after hatching when the quail's body matured. While the A. testicularis began developing at about 40 days after hatching when the male Japanese quail was full of the spermatogenic activity. PMID:1497141

  16. Protocol for concomitant temporomandibular joint custom-fitted total joint reconstruction and orthognathic surgery using computer-assisted surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Reza; Wolford, Larry M

    2015-02-01

    Combined orthognathic and total joint reconstruction cases can be predictably performed in 1 stage. Use of virtual surgical planning can eliminate a significant time requirement in preparation of concomitant orthognathic and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prostheses cases. The concomitant TMJ and orthognathic surgery-computer-assisted surgical simulation technique increases the accuracy of combined cases. In order to have flexibility in positioning of the total joint prosthesis, recontouring of the lateral aspect of the rami is advantageous.

  17. An anatomical basis for the neck-tongue syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N

    1981-01-01

    The C2 nerve roots and rami were dissected in five cadavers to explore the pathogenesis of Neck-Tongue Syndrome. The most likely cause of the simultaneous occurrence of suboccipital pain and ipsilateral numbness of the tongue is an abnormal subluxation of one lateral atlanto-axial joint with impaction of the C2 ventral ramus against the subluxated articular processes. Images PMID:7229642

  18. Fabrics for aeronautic construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, E D

    1918-01-01

    The Bureau of Standards undertook the investigation of airplane fabrics with the view of finding suitable substitutes for the linen fabrics, and it was decided that the fibers to be considered were cotton, ramie, silk, and hemp. Of these, the cotton fiber was the logical one to be given primary consideration. Report presents the suitability, tensibility and stretching properties of cotton fabric obtained by laboratory tests.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of an Industrially Important Bacillus sp. from Mandarmani Coastal Waters in Midnapur District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is the draft genome sequence of an amylase-, protease-, DNase-, oxidase-, gelatinase-, and catalase-producing, Gram-positive diplobacillus (Bacillus sp. SM1 strain MCC2138), which was isolated from marine coastal waters and has the ability to degum raw silk fabric as well as Ramie fiber. The genome comprises 1.76 Mb with a GC content of 34.5%. PMID:27540077

  20. New species of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, an ubiquitous pathogen of ants from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kobmoo, Noppol; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Wutikhun, Taksadon; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Khonsanit, Artit; Thanakitpipattana, Donnaya; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an ubiquitous pathogen of ants with hidden phylogenetic diversity associated with host specificity. In this study, we describe two new species to this species complex: Ophiocordyceps septa and Ophiocordyceps rami. Both were found on unidentified ants of the genus Camponotus (C. sp.1 and C. sp2 respectively). Ophiocordyceps septa is very similar to Ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata, Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi, and Ophiocordyceps camponoti-saundersi (found respectively on the ants Polyrhachis furcata, Camponotus leonardi, and Camponotus saundersi) but differs in the size, the shape and the septation of the ascospores, while O. rami is clearly identifiable with macro-morphological features including multiple stromata similar to Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis on Camponotus gigas. A thorough morphological examination was also provided for O. polyrhachis-furcata, O. camponoti-leonardi, and O. camponoti saundersi, showing that the first was apparently distinguishable from the others by the absence of septation of the ascospores. A combined molecular phylogeny also supports O. septa and O. rami as distinct new species.

  1. DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    In the context of proactive disaster risk as well as immediate situational crisis management knowledge of locational social aspects in terms of spatio-temporal population distribution dynamics is considered among the most important factors for disaster impact minimization (Aubrecht et al., 2013a). This applies to both the pre-event stage for designing appropriate preparedness measures and to acute crisis situations when an event chain actually unfolds for efficient situation-aware response. The presented DynaPop population dynamics model is developed at the interface of those interlinked crisis stages and aims at providing basic input for social impact evaluation and decision support in crisis management. The model provides the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics - thus here labeled as DynaPop-X - which can either be applied in a sense of illustrating the changing locations and numbers of affected people at different stages during an event or as ex-ante estimations of probable and maximum expected clusters of affected population (Aubrecht et al., 2013b; Freire & Aubrecht, 2012). DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation (Ahola et al., 2007; Bhaduri, 2008; Cockings et al., 2010). We will present ongoing developments particularly focusing on the implementation logic of the model using the emikat software tool, a data management system initially designed for inventorying and analysis of spatially resolved regional air pollutant emission scenarios. This study was performed in the framework of the EU CRISMA project. CRISMA is funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 284552. REFERENCES Ahola, T., Virrantaus, K., Krisp, J

  2. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    PubMed

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but

  3. Mandibular Nonvascularized Bone Grafts of Critical Sizes and Complex Warfare Defects With Interrami Intraoral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2015-06-01

    The reconstruction of mandibular bone grafts of critical size complex defects and posterior segments malpositioned due to modern warfare injuries is a difficult, challenging task. The condition becomes even more complex if primary reconstruction is carried out inexpertly, which leads to severe disfigurement, rami mesial superior shift, tongue prolapsed, loss of speech, etc.A new interrami intraoral Kirschner wire fixation (IRIF) technique is presented for the reconstruction of large mandibular defects by nonvascularized iliac bone grafts. Twelve symphysis, parasymphysis, and lateral mandibular avulsed or chopped off with bone loss ranging from 5 cm to "ear-to-ear" rami defects underwent nonvascularized iliac bone block graft. A direct stainless steel wire fixation was carried out between bone blocks and original bone. Indirect rigid fixations were applied using a 2-mm horseshoe-shaped K-wire IRIF technique. Two complications were reported: one due to infection and the other due to the mucosa dehiscing where 2 cm of sequestrated bone was removed. The biomechanics (stress/strain distribution and strength) along the K-wire substitute the tension on the alveolar part of the mandible, creating a zone of resistance in the rami zone. This successful bone healing between the mandibular bone and the graft may have resulted from prolonged periods of sufficient stabilization during function of the mandible and bone graft function as one mandible unit during the healing period by IRIF. This new technique is quick, cheap, easy, and well tolerated by the patient for many months without complications and has been successful in modern warfare reconstructions of mandibular bone graft large defects.

  4. A new species of Odaginiceps Fiers, 1995 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae) from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaytug, Suphan; Sak, Serdar; Alper, Alp

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Male and female of Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae), collected in the intertidal zone of Kızkalesi beach along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Mersin Province), are described. The new species is the fifth member of the genus and can easily be distinguished from the other species by the presence of four setae/spines on the second endopodal segment of P4 and by the structure of the caudal rami. Previously, representatives of the genus Odaginiceps have been reported from Gulf of Mexico, off Bermuda and Kenya. Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. is the first record of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21594127

  5. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 3. The thoracicolumbar region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1990-01-01

    The present study of the thoracicolumbar region continues an investigation of the vertebral column at 8 postovulartory weeks (the end of the embryonic period proper) by means of graphic reconstructions. The cartilaginous vertebrae have short neural processes associated with the normal spina bifida occulta present at this time. The separate cartilaginous centres that several authors believe to exist in the cervical and lumbar costal elements, but which have not been observed by the present authors, have been thought to be the forerunners of extrathoracic ribs. A distinction needs to be made, however, between such centres and ribs. Similarly, in the fetal period, ossific loci in the costal elements of CV 7 are very frequent, whereas cervical ribs in the adult are relatively rare. The neurocentral joints, and hence the boundaries between neural arches and centra, are unclear before ossification has begun and has progressed during the fetal period. The sternal bands are almost completely united and the scapula is high in position. Neural relationships aid in the determination of homologous parts within the vertebral column, but clarification of corresponding parts has not previously been possible within the embryonic period. Areas ventral to the dorsal rami are ribs in the thoracic region and costal elements in other regions. Areas underlying the dorsal rami are transverse processes in the thoracic region and minute 'true' transverse elements in the cervical and lumbar regions. Thus, the descriptive lumbar transverse processes correspond to the true transverse processes and the ribs in the thoracic region. The dorsal rami of the thoracic nerves pass between the transverse processes and the tubercles of the ribs and then divide. The ventral rami of lumbar Nerves 1 and 2 resemble the thoracic in their course, whereas those of Nerves 3-5 are similar to the sacral. The thoracic dorsal roots are sloping and, associated with the greater height of the lumbar centra, the

  6. Regular and irregular geodesics on spherical harmonic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The behavior of geodesic curves on even seemingly simple surfaces can be surprisingly complex. In this paper we use the Hamiltonian formulation of the geodesic equations to analyze their integrability properties. In particular, we examine the behavior of geodesics on surfaces defined by the spherical harmonics. Using the Morales-Ramis theorem and Kovacic algorithm we are able to prove that the geodesic equations on all surfaces defined by the sectoral harmonics are not integrable, and we use Poincaré sections to demonstrate the breakdown of regular motion.

  7. Locomotion of an all-terrain mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iagolnitzer, M.; Richard, F.; Samson, J. F.; Tournassoud, P.

    The authors introduce a framework and prospective solutions for intelligent locomotion, defined as the ability for a mobile robot to cross over obstacles along a path roughly determined either through teleoperation or by a navigation path-finder. Then, they present a simple but efficient control scheme derived from these concepts, taking into account ground clearance, vehicle safety, and possible occlusions in the vision field. This control scheme is applied to Rami, a four tiltable track robot equipped with force sensors, an inertial reference system, a laser-stripe range finder, and extensive real-time computing facilities based on a decentralized architecture.

  8. Development of a New Radiation Sensor for Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hauslage, Jens; Marsalek, Karel; Aeckerlein, Joachim; M, Hartmut

    The RAMIS (RAdiation Measurements In Space) experiment aims to measure cosmic radiation with energy deposition ranging from minimal ionizing protons up to relativistic iron nuclei. The radiation detector principle uses two silicon detectors, each with an active area of 0.5cm² that are arranged in a telescope configuration. The experiment will fly in 2016 on the first mission of the newly developed DLR (German Aerospace Center) Compact Satellite, which intends to provide an easy accessible platform for scientific research within DLR as well as for international partners and their experiments. As the satellite will orbit Earth at an altitude of about 600 km on a polar orbit, valuable insights are gained not only in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) component of the radiation field and in solar energetic particles (SEPs) in case of solar events. Also the trapped radiation in the horns of the electron belts around Earth can be studied in detail. Particle fluxes will be monitored and energy deposition spectra recorded from which linear energy transfer spectra will be generated. These spectra give an estimate for the quality of the radiation field. The RAMIS experiment consists of two modules, i.e. two small silicon detector telescopes, with one module being located outside on top of the satellite, while the other one is placed inside next to the primary payload of the satellite, the Eu:CROPIS experiment. Eu:CROPIS is a combined self-sustained biological life support system under Moon and Mars gravity, which uses Euglena as oxygen suppliers, biofilter for wastewater treatment and detoxification, and urine as primary fertilizer. In addition to its scientific output RAMIS will provide dosimetric monitoring for Eu:CROPIS and serve as a radiation exposure information system for the satellite bus. Furthermore the obtained data can be used for benchmarking and improvement of radiation belt models as well as of shielding models by combining the results of both modules. The RAMIS

  9. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular advancement 1 year after surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Ribeiro Carvalho, Felipe; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares; Motta, Alexandre Trindade Simões da; de Oliveira Almeida, Marco Antonio; Phillips, Ceib

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This prospective observational study evaluated changes in the 3-dimensional position and remodeling of the mandibular rami, condyles, and chin at splint removal and 1 year after mandibular advancement surgery. Methods Presurgery, splint removal (4–6 weeks postsurgery), and 1-year postsurgery cone-beam computed tomography scans of 27 subjects were used. Superimposition on the cranial base was used to assess positional or remodeling changes in the anatomic regions of interest. Surface distance displacements were visually displayed and quantified by 3-dimensional color maps. A 1-sample t test was used to assess the average postsurgical changes of each region of interest. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results After antero-inferior chin displacement with surgery (mean, 6.81 ± 3.2 mm at splint removal), the average 1-year post-surgery displacement was not statistically significant (P = 0.44). Postsurgical adaptations greater than 2 mm were observed in 48% of the patients: 16% with an additional anterior-inferior displacement of the chin of 2 to 4 mm, and 4% with ≥4 mm; 20% had postero-superior movement of 2 to 4 mm, and 8% had postero-superior movement of ≥4 mm. The condyles tended to move, on average, ≤2 mm supero-posteriorly with surgery, and this small positional displacement was maintained 1 year postsurgery (right condyle, P = 0.58; left, P = 0.88). The rami exhibited outward (lateral) movements with surgery, with greater displacement of the inferior part of the rami (≥2 mm in 65% of the subjects). This torque of the ramus with surgery was stable 1 year postsurgery. Conclusions Three-dimensional assessment of skeletal changes with mandibular advancement surgery shows that nearly half of the patients have >2 mm change in chin position from splint removal to the 1-year follow-up, with approximately equal chances of anterior and posterior movement. Torque of the rami usually occurs with mandibular advancement surgery. PMID:20381760

  10. A new material (single crystal sapphire screw) for internal fixation of the mandibular ramus.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, T; Fujimoto, H; Ono, T

    1987-02-01

    A new single crystal sapphire bone screw which has favourable properties such as chemical stability, mechanical strength and biocompatibility, was applied for rigid internal fixation of the sagittal split osteotomies in 86 cases since 1982. Radiographic findings supported the excellent biocompatibility of the material; there was no noticeable bone loss around the screw and the excellent bone adaptation to the threaded portion was observed. The screws can mechanically support the split mandibular rami until bone union occurs. Complications due to the screw were not encountered in follow-up periods of 0.5-3.5 years.

  11. Natural Lignocellulosic Fibers as Engineering Materials—An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lopes, Felipe Perissé Duarte; Barbosa, Anderson Paula; Bevitori, Alice Barreto; Silva, Isabela Leão Amaral Da; Costa, Lucas Lopes Da

    2011-10-01

    Recent investigations on the tensile properties of natural cellulose-based fibers revealed an increasing potential as engineering materials. This is particularly the case of very thin fibers of some species such as sisal, ramie, and curaua. However, several other commonly used fibers such as flax, jute, hemp, coir, cotton, and bamboo as well as less known bagasse, piassava, sponge gourde, and buriti display tensile properties that could qualify them as engineering materials. An overview of the strength limits attained by these fibers is presented. Based on a tensile strength vs density chart, it is shown that natural fibers stand out as a relevant class of engineering materials.

  12. Preventable hospital mortality: learning from retrospective case record review

    PubMed Central

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O; Weerasinghe, Chamindri; Brown, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of hospital deaths associated with preventable problems in care and how they can be reduced. Design A two phase before and after evaluation of a hospital mortality reduction programme. Setting A district general hospital in Warwickshire, England. Participants In Phase 1, 400 patients who died in 2009 at South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust had their case notes reviewed. In Phase 2, Trust wide measures were introduced across the whole Trust population to bring about quality improvements. Main outcome measures To reduce the crude mortality and in effect the risk adjusted mortality index (RAMI) by 45 in the three years following the start of the programme, from 145 in 2009 to 100 or less in 2012. Results In total, 34 (8.5%) patients experienced a problem in their care that contributed to death. The principal problems were lack of senior medical input (24%), poor clinical monitoring or management (24%), diagnostic errors (15%) and infections (15%). In total, 41% (14) of these were judged to have been preventable (3.5% of all deaths). Following the quality improvement programme, crude mortality fell from 1.95% (2009) to 1.56% (2012) while RAMI dropped from 145 (2009) to 87 (2012). Conclusion A quality improvement strategy based on good local evidence is effective in improving the quality of care sufficiently to reduce mortality. PMID:23323195

  13. Anatomical study of blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan; Petrovova, Eva; Flesarova, Slavka; Supuka, Peter; Supukova, Anna; Luptakova, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig. The study was carried out on 20 adult English self guinea pigs using corrosion and dissection technique. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17(©) was used as a casting medium. The origin of the ventral spinal artery from the left vertebral artery was found on average in 35% of the cases and from the right vertebral artery on average in 40% of the cases. The ventral spinal artery with origin from the anastomosis of two medial branches was found on average in 25% of the cases. The presence of ventral radicular branches of rami spinales entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 42% of the cases on the right side and in 58% of the cases on the left side. The presence of dorsal radicular branches of rami spinales that reached the spinal cord was observed in 63% of the cases on the left side and in 37% of the cases on the right side. The number of radicular branches supplying the spinal cord is greater in guinea pig than in humans.

  14. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  15. A new genus and new bromelicolous species of Cicadellini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Quintas, Victor; Carvalho, Rachel A; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Cavichiana, is described for a new species of Cicadellini, C. bromelicola, from Southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Cicadellini by the following combination of features: (1) head deltoid, strongly produced anteriorly; (2) ocelli located distinctly anterad of anterior eye angles; (3) aedeagus tubular, elongate, its apex with a conspicuous crown of spines; (4) paraphyses with both stalk and rami elongate, rami slender and each with basidorsal dentiform projection. The new species has a distinctive color pattern. The dorsum is dark brown to black with contrasting blue to white spots. The anterior half of the fore wings has a large, circular transcommissural yellow macula bordered by a blue to white border, the anterior portion of this macula covering the scutellum. Specimens of the new species were found on leaves of bromeliads in areas of restinga (sand dune vegetation) of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Other cases of association between hemipterans and bromeliads are listed and briefly discussed.

  16. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Othman, B H R; Toda, T; Kikuchi, T

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  17. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  18. Redefining the coccygeal plexus.

    PubMed

    Woon, Jason T K; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    The coccygeal plexus is variably described in anatomy texts and has rarely been studied despite the idiopathic nature of coccydynia in up to one-third of affected patients. The plexus was therefore investigated using a combination of microdissection and histology. The distal sacrum and coccyx in continuity with ischiococcygeus were removed en bloc from 16 embalmed cadavers (mean age 78 ± 10 years, 7 females) with no local disease. Ten specimens underwent microdissection of the coccygeal plexus and the remaining six were examined histologically after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and S100 immunohistochemistry to demonstrate nerve fibers. The coccygeal plexus is formed within ischiococcygeus from the ventral rami of S4, S5, and Co1 with a contribution (gray rami communicantes) from the sacral sympathetic trunk. It gives rise to anococcygeal nerves which pierce ischiococcygeus and the sacrospinous ligament to supply the subcutaneous tissue on the dorsal aspect of the coccyx. Some branches from the plexus pass medially anterior to the coccyx. The coccycgeal plexus is formed within ischiococcygeus rather than on its pelvic surface and appears to supply skin in the anococcygeal region. It probably also contributes to the innervation of ischiococcygeus, the sacrospinous ligament, coccygeal ligaments, and periosteum. It deserves to be considered as a potential pain generator that may be implicated in some patients with coccydynia.

  19. Interfascial Dissection for Protection of the Nerve Branches to the Frontalis Muscles during Supraorbital Trans-Eyebrow Approach: An Anatomical Study and Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Roger Neves; Lieber, Stefan; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Maldaun, Marcos Vinícius Calfat; Gardner, Paul; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Preservation of the temporal branches of the facial nerve during anterolateral craniotomies is important. Damaging it can inflict undesirable cosmetic defects to the patient. The supraorbital trans-eyebrow approach (SOTE) is a versatile keyhole craniotomy but still has a high rate of frontalis muscle (FM) palsy. Objective Anatomical study to implement the interfascial dissection during the SOTE to preserve the nerves to the FM. Methods Slight modification of the standard technique of the SOTE was performed in 6 cadaveric specimens (12 sides). Results Distal rami to the FM were exposed. The standard "u-shape" incision of the FM can cross over the nerves. Alternatively, an "l-shape" incision was performed until the superior temporal line (STL). An interfascial dissection was performed near to the STL and the interfascial fat pad was used as a protective layer for the nerves. Conclusion Various pathologies can be addressed with the SOTE. In the majority of the cases the cosmetic results are good, but FM palsy remains a drawback of this approach. The interfascial dissection may be used in an attempt to prevent frontalis rami palsy. PMID:27175323

  20. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions.

  1. A new genus and new bromelicolous species of Cicadellini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Quintas, Victor; Carvalho, Rachel A; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Cavichiana, is described for a new species of Cicadellini, C. bromelicola, from Southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Cicadellini by the following combination of features: (1) head deltoid, strongly produced anteriorly; (2) ocelli located distinctly anterad of anterior eye angles; (3) aedeagus tubular, elongate, its apex with a conspicuous crown of spines; (4) paraphyses with both stalk and rami elongate, rami slender and each with basidorsal dentiform projection. The new species has a distinctive color pattern. The dorsum is dark brown to black with contrasting blue to white spots. The anterior half of the fore wings has a large, circular transcommissural yellow macula bordered by a blue to white border, the anterior portion of this macula covering the scutellum. Specimens of the new species were found on leaves of bromeliads in areas of restinga (sand dune vegetation) of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Other cases of association between hemipterans and bromeliads are listed and briefly discussed. PMID:24869841

  2. A new phyllocarid (Crustacea: Malacostraca) from the Silurian Fossil-Lagerstätte of Herefordshire, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Sutton, Mark D.; Siveter, David J.; Siveter, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    A new three-dimensionally preserved arthropod, Cinerocaris magnifica, from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, is described and assigned to the Phyllocarida (Crustacea). The description and reconstruction are based on specimens that have been serially ground, reconstructed by computer and rendered in three dimensions as coloured virtual models. Cinerocaris magnifica displayed the tagmosis characteristic of phyllocarids, with eight thoracic and seven abdominal somites, terminating in a telson with furca. The remarkable preservation of the appendages makes this the earliest completely known malacostracan crustacean. Two pairs of antennae (the first with two flagella) were followed by a mandible and first maxilla, each with a slender palp-like ramus. The second maxilla consisted of a limb stem with endites and an endopod that tapered distally. There was no exopod. The thoracopods comprised a limb stem with six or seven endites, an arrangement previously known only in entomostracans, and an endopod with about five endites. Flap-like outer rami correspond to an exopod and epipods. The pleopods bore two long slender oar-blade-like rami. Cladistic analysis places C. magnifica as a plesion within the Echinocaridina. It provides critical evidence of the limb morphology of an early malacostracan, which will be important in understanding crustacean evolution. PMID:15058388

  3. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, B.H.R.; Toda, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  4. Quaternary Sedimentary and Geomorphic History of River Valleys in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru and Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigsby, C. A.; Farabaugh, R. L.; Baker, P. A.

    2002-12-01

    Lacustrine sediments have become important archives of paleoclimatic history in the tropical Andes of South America. The history of lake level of Lake Titicaca (LT) has played a central role in these reconstructions. Here we report on our ongoing studies of the late Quaternary sedimentary and geomorphic histories of two of the major tributaries to LT (the Rios Ramis and Ilave) and on our earlier studies of LT's only outlet (the Rio Desaguadero). The strata and fluvial terraces in these valleys record large-scale aggradation and downcutting events that are apparently correlative with both climate changes in the LT basin and local complex response mechanisms (changes in sediment source, topographic variability, etc.). Both the Ramis and Ilave valleys have 5 terrace tracts, ranging from less than 1 m to approximately 53 m above the river level and occurring as both paired and unpaired tracts and as cut-fill, fill-, and strath terraces. The Rio Desaguadero valley has 4, locally paired, cut-fill and fill terrace tracts that range in height from approximately 2 m to 40 m above river level. In all three valleys, the terraces are underlain by meandering- and braided-river sands and gravels and by lacustrine muds. Radiocarbon dates from the Ilave and Desaguadero valleys suggest that strata in these valleys aggraded during periods of high or rising levels of LT, high or increasing sedimentation rates in the Rio Ilave delta, high (but variable) regional precipitation, and lacustrine sedimentation in the upstream-most reaches of the Rio Desaguadero valley. These same strata were downcut during periods of low or falling levels of LT, low or rapidly decreasing sedimentation rates in the Rio Ilave delta, and lower regional precipitation and runoff. In all three valleys, aggradational periods are punctuated by equilibrium periods of soil formation, downcutting events are episodic, and the most recent events are aggradation and subsequent downcutting of a low, young fill

  5. Thoracic origin of a sympathetic supply to the upper limb: the ‘nerve of Kuntz’ revisited

    PubMed Central

    RAMSAROOP, L.; PARTAB, P.; SINGH, B.; SATYAPAL, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    An understanding of the origin of the sympathetic innervation of the upper limb is important in surgical sympathectomy procedures. An inconstant intrathoracic ramus which joined the 2nd intercostal nerve to the ventral ramus of the 1st thoracic nerve, proximal to the point where the latter gave a large branch to the brachial plexus, has become known as the ‘nerve of Kuntz’ (Kuntz, 1927). Subsequently a variety of sympathetic interneuronal connections down to the 5th intercostal space were reported and also described as the nerve of Kuntz. The aim of this study was to determine: (1) the incidence, location and course of the nerve of Kuntz; (2) the relationship of the nerve of Kuntz to the 2nd thoracic ganglion; (3) the variations of the nerve of Kuntz in the absence of a stellate ganglion; (4) to compare the original intrathoracic ramus with sympathetic variations at other intercostal levels; and (5) to devise an appropriate anatomical classification of the nerves of Kuntz. Bilateral microdissection of the sympathetic chain and somatic nerves of the upper 5 intercostal spaces was undertaken in 32 fetuses (gestational age, 18 wk to full term) and 18 adult cadavers. The total sample size comprised 99 sides. Sympathetic contributions to the first thoracic nerve were found in 60 of 99 sides (left 32, right 28). Of these, 46 were confined to the 1st intercostal space only. The nerve of Kuntz (the original intrathoracic ramus) of the 1st intercostal space had a demonstrable sympathetic connection in 34 cases, and an absence of macroscopic sympathetic connections in 12. In the remaining intercostal spaces, intrathoracic rami uniting intercostal nerves were not observed. Additional sympathetic contributions (exclusive of rami communicantes) were noted between ganglia, interganglionic segments and intercostal nerves as additional rami communicantes. The eponym nerve of Kuntz should be restricted to descriptions of the intrathoracic ramus of the 1st intercostal space. Any

  6. Electrolichas circumbalticus gen. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea: Ptilodactylidae) from Baltic amber, the first anchytarsine toed-winged beetle described from Europe.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Jäch, Manfred A

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of Ptilodactylidae, Electrolichas circumbalticus gen. et sp. nov., the first fossil representative of the subfamily Anchytarsinae, is described from Baltic amber. This Eocene beetle can be distinguished from the extant genera of Anchytarsinae by the combination of the following characters: labrum transverse, terminal segment of maxillary palps cylindrical, antennae with non-articulated rami, basal pronotal margin only very finely crenulate, lacking a median denticle, anterior margin of scutellum not excised medially, elytra not striate, tarsi not pseudotetramerous, proportional lengths: 1.5: 1.2: 1.2: 1.1: 1.5, flashy pads on apex of first tarsomere as well as on tarsomeres 2-4. A list of the extant species of Anchytarsinae is provided. Both hitherto described fossil ptilodactylid genera are briefly discussed. PMID:27395736

  7. Efficient production of glucose by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binzhe; Duan, Lian; Peng, Gege; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    To improve the production of glucose from cellulose, a simple and effective route was developed. This process uses a combination of a step of cellulose dissolution in aqueous NaOH/urea solution and then regeneration with water, followed by an acid hydrolysis step under microwave irradiation. The method is effective to obtain glucose from α-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, ramie fiber and absorbent cotton. Increased with the acid concentration the glucose yield from hydrogel hydrolysis increased from 0.42% to 44.6% at 160 °C for 10 min. Moreover, the ozone treatment of cellulose in NaOH/urea solution before regeneration significantly enhanced the hydrolysis efficiency with a glucose yield of 59.1%. It is believed that the chains in cellulose hydrogel are relatively free approached, making that the acids easily access the β-glycosidic bonds.

  8. A new genus of Cletopsyllidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and new species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 from deep-sea sediment in the Gulf of Mexico, are reported and fully described and illustrated. The new genus Pentacletopsyllus (type species: P. montagni sp. n.) can be distinguished from the four known genera of the family by antennule segmentation, length ratio of first and second endopodal segments of P1, and armature pattern on P5 exopod. It also differs from its sister genera by the rostrum being bifid at the tip, third segment of the female antennule having a smooth posterior margin, the baseoendopod of P5 with biarticulate outer setophore bearing basal seta, and female caudal rami without lobate expansion. A revised key to species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 is provided. PMID:24715778

  9. Study of a XVIII century hand-painted Chinese wallpaper by multianalytical non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Cabaço, M. I.; Bittencourt, K.; Bruneel, Jean L.; Besnard, Marcel

    2009-06-01

    In this work, hand-painted wallpaper belonging to a private Portuguese collection was analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analyzed artwork was an extraordinary XVIII century Chinese wallpaper that depicts exotic birds and flowers, which was painted with considerable accuracy and expertise. Thorough, in situ, X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed on nearly all the wallpaper. Since the elemental content of several colors was consistent for the four papered walls, strategic micro-samples were taken and analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy to further identify the pigments used. Pigments such as yellow ochre, lead white and barium white, vermilion, carmine, azurite and malachite were identified. Optical microscopy was used to analyze the fibers in the paper support, and fibers such as kozo, ramie and hemp or linen were identified.

  10. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles.

  11. Review of the fish parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from South Africa, including the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 is revised for South African waters and re-diagnosed. Ceratothoa retusa (Schioedte & Meinert, 1883) is recorded from the eastern coast, and Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. and C. famosa sp. n. are described; C. imbricata (Fabricius, 1775) and C. trigonocephala (Leach, 1818), are redescribed, revised and excluded from the South African fauna. Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. can be distinguished by the stout body shape of the female; triangular cephalon with a pointed rostrum; short uropods which do not extend past the pleotelson; large carinae on the pereopod basis; a broad pleon; and large medial lobes on female pleopods. Ceratothoa famosa sp. n. is characterised by the long rectangular body shape; pereonite 1 with a raised medial protrusion; narrow antenna with antennule article 1 expanded; uropods which reach the posterior margin of the pleotelson; narrow rami on uropods; and no appendix masculina on pleopod 2 of the male specimens. PMID:24843254

  12. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles. PMID:27386529

  13. [Severe haemorrhage secondary to an osteoporotic pelvic fracture: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Palacio, J; Albareda, J

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy osteoporotic pelvic fractures in the elderly are a very common problem. They are usually stable fractures, non-life threatening and only require conservative treatment. The pelvic bone structure is closely related to important vascular structures. The Corona Mortis, located in the retropubis, has an important anastomotic value as it serves as communication between the internal and external iliac vessels. The case is presented of an 87 year-old woman, who, after a casual fall, was diagnosed with an osteoporotic fracture of the left pubic rami associated to a lesion of the Corona Mortis, which led to a severe picture of haemodynamic instability. After angiography with supra-selective embolisation of the lesioned vessel, and the transfusion of several haemoderivatives, the patient progressed satisfactorily, and was discharged after a few days.

  14. On the integrability of Friedmann Robertson Walker models with conformally coupled massive scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, L. A. A.; Skea, J. E. F.; Stuchi, T. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we use a nonintegrability theorem by Morales and Ramis to analyse the integrability of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models with a conformally coupled massive scalar field. We answer the long-standing question of whether these models with a vanishing cosmological constant and non-self-interacting scalar field are integrable: by applying Kovacic's algorithm to the normal variational equations, we prove analytically and rigorously that these equations and, consequently, the Hamiltonians are nonintegrable. We then address the models with a self-interacting massive scalar field and cosmological constant and show that, with the exception of a set of measure zero, the models are nonintegrable. For the spatially curved cases, we prove that there are no additional integrable cases other than those identified in the previous work based on the non-rigorous Painlevé analysis. In our study of the spatially flat model, we explicitly obtain a new possibly integrable case.

  15. A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process. PMID:23263944

  16. Three-dimensional symmetry analysis of a direct-drive irradiation scheme for the laser megajoule facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ramis, R.; Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Brandon, V.

    2014-08-15

    The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.

  17. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  18. New species of Metacaligus (Caligidae, Copepoda) parasitic on the cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) of Taiwan, with a cladistic analysis of the family Caligidae.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Lin, Ching-Long

    2002-12-01

    Metacaligus latus n. sp. (Copepoda, Caligidae) is described from specimens found parasitic in the oral and gill cavities of the cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, caught from the Strait of Taiwan and landed at Dong-Shih Fishing Port in Chiayi County, Taiwan. It is close to M. uruguayensis (Thomsen, 1949), but can be distinguished from the latter by the possession of shorter caudal rami in both sexes and wider cephalothorax and genital complex in the male. Cladistic (phylogenetic) analysis of the Family Caligidae, based on 23 selected morphological characters, revealed that Metacaligus Thomsen, 1949 is distantly related to Caligus Müller, 1758. It is a valid genus and occurs in sister-group relationship with Apogonia Cressey and Cressey, 1990.

  19. Enhancing Production of Alkaline Polygalacturonate Lyase from Bacillus subtilis by Fed-Batch Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mouyong; Guo, Fenfen; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL, EC 4.2.2.2) is an enzyme used in many industries. We developed a fed-batch fermentation process that combines the enzymatic pretreatment of the carbon source with controlling the pH of the fermentative broth to enhance the PGL production from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3 to decrease the production cost. Maintaining the fermentation broth at pH 6.5 prior to feeding with ammonia and at pH 6.0 after feeding significantly improved PGL activity (743.5 U mL−1) compared with the control (202.5 U mL−1). The average PGL productivity reached 19.6 U mL−1 h−1 after 38 h of fermentation. The crude PGL was suitable for environmentally friendly ramie enzymatic degumming. PMID:24603713

  20. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles. PMID:27386529

  1. Pelvic, acetabular and hip fractures: What the surgeon should expect from the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Molière, S; Dosch, J-C; Bierry, G

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures when caused by trauma, either violent or in demineralized bone, generally consist of injuries in both the anterior (pubic symphysis and rami) and posterior (iliac wing, sacrum, sacroiliac joint) portions. Injury classifications are based on injury mechanism and pelvic stability, and are used to determine treatment. Acetabular fractures, associated or not to pelvic ring disruption, are classified on the basis of fracture line, into elementary fractures of the acetabular walls, columns and roof, and into complex fractures. Fractures of the proximal end of the femur occur often on demineralized bone following low-energy trauma. The fractures are categorized by anatomic location (neck, trochanter and subtrochanteric region) and degree of displacement. These variables determine the risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, which is the main complication of such fractures.

  2. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Sato, Noboru; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes.

  3. A marked enhancement in the production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 in submerged fermentation by using statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Satyanarayana, T

    2006-03-01

    The production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase of Bacillus pumilus was optimized in submerged fermentation using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Three fermentation variables (C:N ratio, K(2)HPO(4), and pH), which were identified to significantly affect pectinase production by Plackett-Burman design were further optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design (CCD). An over all 34- and 41-fold increase in enzyme production was achieved in shake flasks and lab fermenter by the optimization of variables using statistical approaches, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C, and selectively degraded only the noncellulosic gummy material of ramie (Boehmeria nivea) fibres causing 10.96% fibre weight loss, and therefore, the enzyme could find application in fibre processing industry. The use of the enzyme in fibre processing reduces the use of alkali, and the associated alkalinization of water bodies. PMID:15936940

  4. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Sato, Noboru; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes. PMID:25052382

  5. OsRACK1 is involved in abscisic acid- and H2O2-mediated signaling to regulate seed germination in rice (Oryza sativa, L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Li; Li, Dahong; Lv, Bing; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jingui; XuejiaoYan; Liang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is one member of the most important WD repeat-containing family of proteins found in all eukaryotes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, compared with the progress in the area of mammalian RACK1, our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of RACK1 in the regulation of plant growth and development is still in its infancy. In the present study, we investigated the roles of rice RACK1A gene (OsRACK1A) in controlling seed germination and its molecular mechanisms by generating a series of transgenic rice lines, of which OsRACK1A was either over-expressed or under-expressed. Our results showed that OsRACK1A positively regulated seed germination and negatively regulated the responses of seed germination to both exogenous ABA and H2O2. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis had no enhancing effect on germination, whereas inhibition of ABA catabolism significantly suppressed germination. ABA inhibition on seed germination was almost fully recovered by exogenous H2O2 treatment. Quantitative analyses showed that endogenous ABA levels were significantly higher and H2O2 levels significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines as compared with those in wildtype or OsRACK1A-up regulated lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of OsRbohs and amylase genes, RAmy1A and RAmy3D, were significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines. It is concluded that OsRACK1A positively regulates seed germination by controlling endogenous levels of ABA and H2O2 and their interaction.

  6. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Denervation for Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven P.; Hurley, Robert W.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Kurihara, Connie; Morlando, Benny; Dragovich, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint pain is a challenging condition accounting for approximately 20% of cases of chronic low back pain. Currently, there are no effective long-term treatment options for sacroiliac joint pain. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 28 patients with injection-diagnosed sacroiliac joint pain. Fourteen patients received L4-5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation using cooling-probe technology following a local anesthetic block, and 14 patients received the local anesthetic block followed by placebo denervation. Patients who failed to respond to placebo injections crossed over and were treated with radiofrequency denervation using conventional technology. Results One, 3 and 6-months post-procedure, 11 (79%), 9 (64%) and 8 (57%) of radiofrequency treated patients experienced ≥ 50% pain relief and significant functional improvement. In contrast, only 2 (14%) patients in the placebo group experienced significant improvement at their 1-month follow-up, and none experienced benefit 3-months post-procedure. In the crossover group (n=11), 7 (64%), 6 (55%) and 4 (36%) patients experienced improvement 1, 3 and 6-months post-procedure. One year after treatment, only 2 (14%) patients in the treatment group continued to demonstrate persistent pain relief. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that L4 and L5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation may provide intermediate-term pain relief and functional benefit in selected patients with suspected sacroiliac joint pain. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results, and determine the optimal candidates and treatment parameters for this poorly understood disorder. PMID:18648237

  7. Rice alcohol dehydrogenase 1 promotes survival and has a major impact on carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm when seeds are germinated in partially oxygenated water

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Greenway, Hank; Matsumura, Hideo; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rice (Oryza sativa) has the rare ability to germinate and elongate a coleoptile under oxygen-deficient conditions, which include both hypoxia and anoxia. It has previously been shown that ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1 (ADH1) is required for cell division and cell elongation in the coleoptile of submerged rice seedlings by means of studies using a rice ADH1-deficient mutant, reduced adh activity (rad). The aim of this study was to understand how low ADH1 in rice affects carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm, and lactate and alanine synthesis in the embryo during germination and subsequent coleoptile growth in submerged seedlings. Methods Wild-type and rad mutant rice seeds were germinated and grown under complete submergence. At 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after imbibition, the embryo and endosperm were separated and several of their metabolites were measured and compared. Key results In the rad embryo, the rate of ethanol fermentation was halved, while lactate and alanine concentrations were 2·4- and 5·7- fold higher in the mutant than in the wild type. Glucose and fructose concentrations in the embryos increased with time in the wild type, but not in the rad mutant. The rad mutant endosperm had lower amounts of the α-amylases RAMY1A and RAMY3D, resulting in less starch degradation and lower glucose concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that ADH1 is essential for sugar metabolism via glycolysis to ethanol fermentation in both the embryo and endosperm. In the endosperm, energy is presumably needed for synthesis of the amylases and for sucrose synthesis in the endosperm, as well as for sugar transport to the embryo. PMID:24431339

  8. One-year mortality after isolated pelvic fractures with posterior ring involvement in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Kadakia, Rishin J; Wegner, Adam; Richards, Justin E; Mir, Hassan R

    2013-06-01

    Previous 1-year mortality studies of pelvic fractures in elderly patients have focused on pubic rami fractures, in elderly patients with multiple injuries, or both. Baseline information on the 1-year mortality of isolated pelvic fractures in elderly patients is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 1-year mortality of elderly patients (aged 60 years or older) after isolated pelvic fractures with posterior ring involvement (Orthopaedic Trauma Association type 61-B and C). All patients aged 60 years or older treated for pelvic injuries at a single Level I trauma center over a 12-year period were retrospectively reviewed (N=1223). Exclusion criteria were associated injuries to other body systems (Abbreviated Injury Scale greater than 2), ballistic injuries, long bone fractures, concurrent acetabular fractures, and type 61-A fractures or isolated pubic rami fractures without posterior involvement. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients treated nonoperatively were significantly older compared with those treated operatively. However, the Charlson Comorbidity Index did not significantly differ between treatment groups. A significantly higher percentage of type-B fractures (83.0%) were treated nonoperatively compared with type-C fractures, which were treated operatively 88.2% of the time. Mortality rates at 3 and 6 months and 1 year postoperatively were 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.9%, respectively. These results suggest that the 1-year mortality rates of isolated pelvic fractures in elderly patients are lower than those reported previously for hip fractures and pelvic fractures with concurrent injuries. Although age was identified as a significant variable differing between patients treated operatively vs nonoperatively, comorbidities were not. PMID:23746012

  9. Long-term three-dimensional stability of mandibular advancement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Alexandre A.; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena S.; Phillips, Ceib; Rossouw, Paul Emile; Turvey, Timothy A.; Carvalho, Felipe de Assis R.; de Paula, Leonardo K.; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso A.; Almeida, Marco Antonio O.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the three-dimensional changes in the position of the condyles, rami, and chin from 1 to 3 years after mandibular advancement surgery. METHOD This prospective observational study used pre and postoperative CBCT scans of 27 subjects with skeletal Class II jaw relationship and normal or deep overbite. An automatic technique of cranial base superimposition was used to assess positional and/or bone remodeling changes that were visually displayed and quantified using 3D color maps. An analysis of covariance with presence of genioplasty, age at the time of surgery, and sex as explanatory variables was used to estimate and test the adjusted mean changes for each region of interest. RESULTS The chin rotated downward and backwards between the 1 and 3 years post-surgery. Changes ≥ 2mm were observed in 17% of the cases. The mandibular condyles presented displacements and/or bone remodeling ≥ 2mm on the anterior surface (21% of the cases on the left and 13% on the right side), superior surfaces (8% on both sides) and lateral poles (17% on the left and 4% on the right side). The posterior borders of the rami exhibited symmetric lateral or rotational displacements in 4% of the cases. CONCLUSION In the hierarchy of surgical stability, mandibular advancement surgery is considered one of the most stable surgical procedures However, between 1 and 3 years post-surgery approximately 20% of the patients had 2-4 mm changes in the horizontal and vertical chin position, and/or changes in condylar position and adaptive bone remodeling. PMID:23769460

  10. Numerical Investigations of Interactions between the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex with Vehicle Interior Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sun; Choi, Hyeong Ho; Cho, Young Nam; Park, Yong Jae; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2005-11-01

    Although biomechanical studies on the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex have been extensive, interactions between the KTH and various vehicular interior design parameters in frontal automotive crashes for newer models have not been reported in the open literature to the best of our knowledge. A 3D finite element (FE) model of a 50(th) percentile male KTH complex, which includes explicit representations of the iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic rami, sacrum, articular cartilage, femoral head, femoral neck, femoral condyles, patella, and patella tendon, has been developed to simulate injuries such as fracture of the patella, femoral neck, acetabulum, and pubic rami of the KTH complex. Model results compared favorably against regional component test data including a three-point bending test of the femur, axial loading of the isolated knee-patella, axial loading of the KTH complex, axial loading of the femoral head, and lateral loading of the isolated pelvis. The model was further integrated into a Wayne State University upper torso model and validated against data obtained from whole body sled tests. The model was validated against these experimental data over a range of impact speeds, impactor masses and boundary conditions. Using Design Of Experiment (DOE) methods based on Taguchi's approach and the developed FE model of the whole body, including the KTH complex, eight vehicular interior design parameters, namely the load limiter force, seat belt elongation, pretensioner inlet amount, knee-knee bolster distance, knee bolster angle, knee bolster stiffness, toe board angle and impact speed, each with either two or three design levels, were simulated to predict their respective effects on the potential of KTH injury in frontal impacts. Simulation results proposed best design levels for vehicular interior design parameters to reduce the injury potential of the KTH complex due to frontal automotive crashes. This study is limited by the fact that prediction of bony fracture was

  11. Cranial nerves of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae [Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii: Actinistia], and comparisons with other craniata.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R G; Bemis, W E

    1993-01-01

    We reconstructed the cranial nerves of a serially sectioned prenatal coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. This allowed us to correct several mistakes in the literature and to make broad phylogenetic comparisons with other craniates. The genera surveyed in our phylogenetic analysis were Eptatretus, Myxine, Petromyzon, Lampetra, Chimaera, Hydrolagus, Squalus, Mustelus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepisosteus, Amia, Neoceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Latimeria and Ambystoma. Cladistic analysis of our data shows that Latimeria shares with Ambystoma two characters of the cranial nerves. Our chief findings are: 1) Latimeria possesses an external nasal papilla and pedunculated olfactory bulbs but lacks a discrete terminal nerve. In other respects its olfactory system resembles the plesiomorphic pattern for craniates. 2) The optic nerve is plicated, a character found in many but not all gnathostomes. Latimeria retains an interdigitated partial decussation of the optic nerves, a character found in all craniates surveyed. 3) The oculomotor nerve supplies the same extrinsic eye muscles as in lampreys and gnathostomes. As in gnathostomes generally, Latimeria has a ciliary ganglion but its cells are located intracranially in the root of the oculomotor nerve, and their processes reach the eye via oculomotor and profundal rami. 4) The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle as in all craniates that have not secondarily reduced the eye and its extrinsic musculature. 5) The profundal ganglion and ramus are entirely separate from the trigeminal system, with no exchange of fibers. This character has an interesting phylogenetic distribution: in hagfishes, lampreys, lungfishes and tetrapods, the profundal and trigeminal ganglia are fused, whereas in other taxa surveyed the ganglia are separate. The principal tissues innervated by the profundal nerve are the membranous walls of the tubes of the rostral organ. 6) As in lampreys and gnathostomes, the trigeminal nerve has

  12. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  13. First descriptions of copepodid stages, sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variability of Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Argestidae), including the description of a new species with broad abyssal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mesocletodes Sars, 1909a encompasses 37 species to date. Initial evidence on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism has been verified for 77 specimens of Mesocletodes elmari sp. n. from various deep-sea regions, and ontogenetic development has been traced for the first time. Apomorphies are a strong spinule-like pinna on the mx seta that is fused to the basis, P2–P4 exp3 proximal outer seta lost, P1–P4 enp2 extremely elongated, furcal rami elongated, female body of prickly appearance, female P2–P4 enp2 proximal inner seta lost. Intraspecific variability involves spinulation, ornamentation and size of the body and setation and spinulation of pereiopods. Sexually dimorphic modifications of adult females include prickly appearance of the body, P1 enp exceeds exp in length, P1 coxa externally broadened, seta of basis arising from prominent protrusion, hyaline frills of body somites ornate. Sexual dimorphism in adult males is expressed in smaller body size, haplocer A1, 2 inner setae on P2–P4 enp2 and on P5 exp, P5 basendopodal lobe with 2 setae. Some modifications allow sexing of copepodid stages. The female A1 is fully developed in CV, the male A1 undergoes extensive modifications at the last molt. P1–P4 are fully developed in CV. Mesocletodes faroerensis and Mesocletodes thielei lack apomorphies of Mesocletodes and are excluded. PMID:21594073

  14. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclops clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclops bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclops clarkei and Halicyclops bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated. PMID:25561852

  15. First record of harpacticoid copepods from Lake Tahoe, United States: two new species of Attheyella (Harpacticoida, Canthocamptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Benthic harpacticoids were collected for the first time at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, United States. Two species were identified as members of the genus Attheyella Brady, 1880. The genus Attheyella comprises about 150 species within six subgenera, but only twelve species have previously been reported from North American freshwater habitats. The two new species of Attheyella described here have a 3-segmented endopod on P1 and 2-segmented P2–P4 endopods, the distal segment of exopod of P2–P4 has three outer spines, and the P5 has five setae on the exopod and six setae on the baseoendopod. Attheyella (Attheyella) tahoensis sp. n. most closely resembles Attheyella (Attheyella) idahoensis (Marsh, 1903) from Idaho, Montana, and Alaska (United States) and Attheyella (Attheyella) namkungi Kim, Soh & Lee, 2005 from Gosu Cave in South Korea. They differ mainly by the number of setae on the distal endopodal segment of P2–P4. In addition, intraspecific variation has been observed on the caudal rami. Attheyella (Neomrazekiella) tessiae sp. n. is characterized by the extension of P5 baseoendopod, 2-segmented endopod of female P2–P3, and naked third seta of male P5 exopod. The two new species are likely endemic to Lake Tahoe, an isolated alpine lake within the Great Basin watershed in the western United States. PMID:25685014

  16. A new genus and species of Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from a tropical coral reef, SE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Winfield, I

    2014-01-01

    Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, is described on specimens collected from the Sisal Coral Reef System, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. The new genus is most morphologically similar to the genus Paracyproidea, but can be distinguished by the article 2 of antenna 2 peduncle, the peduncle of the uropods and length of rami, and telson. Also, the new genus can be distinguished from the rest 18 genera of the family Cyproideidae by the following characteristics: 3-articulate mandible palp, mandible molar big and triturative; palp on maxilla 2 uniarticulate; article 2 of pereopods 3-7 rectilinear, and urosomites 1-3 not elongated. Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, represents the second known genus and third species of cyproideid amphipods documented from the Inter-American Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), and the 19th genus and 44th species of the world cyproideid fauna. The more significant morphological characters and the geographical distribution of the 19 known genera of cyproideid amphipods are also pointed out. PMID:24870454

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Carpenter, James W; Ragsdale, John; Kuroki, Kei; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia; Brinkman, Erin; Cole, Gretchen

    2009-11-01

    An 18-year-old, neutered, male Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa) was treated for chronic, intermittent nasal discharge and sneezing. The animal was diagnosed with severe periodontal disease (grade IV), an oronasal fistula, and multiple tooth root abscesses via dental examination and computed tomography of the skull. Dentistry was performed, including multiple tooth extractions, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Eighteen months later, the animal was evaluated for lethargy, anorexia, and a firm, 12 cm x 12 cm mass between the 2 rami of the mandible. Laboratory testing revealed moderate anemia, severe leukocytosis, and hyperglobulinemia. Skull radiographs indicated osteomyelitis of the mandible and soft-tissue swelling. A fine-needle aspirate and biopsy were taken, and results were consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment with piroxicam and antibiotics was initiated as needed to control signs of pain and secondary infection, respectively. Three months after diagnosis, the pig was euthanized due to cachexia and severe depression secondary to squamous cell carcinoma. On postmortem examination, the right mandibular area contained multiple, coalescing, irregular masses extending from the ramus rostrally to the mandibular canine teeth and ventrally within the intermandibular space, completely obliterating the normal anatomy. An open midshaft fracture was present on the right mandible. On histopathology, the masses were confirmed as locally invasive and destructive squamous cell carcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noted in regional lymph nodes or in any of the distant sites evaluated.

  18. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  19. Gross anatomical study on the human myocardial bridges with special reference to the spatial relationship among coronary arteries, cardiac veins, and autonomic nerves.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuko; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kageyama, Ikuo; Aizawa, Yukio; Kumaki, Katsuji; Miki, Akinori; Terashima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries are frequently covered by cardiac muscles. This arrangement is termed a myocardial bridge. Previous studies have shown that myocardial bridges can cause myocardial ischemic diseases or cardiac arrhythmia, but the relevant pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We examined 60 hearts from Japanese cadavers macroscopically to clarify the spatial relationships among coronary arteries, cardiac veins and autonomic nerves. We found 86 myocardial bridges in 47 hearts from the 60 cadavers examined (78.3%). Next, we dissected out nine hearts with myocardial bridges in detail under the operating microscope. We found no additional branches of coronary arteries on the myocardial bridge surfaces. However, the cardiac veins, which usually accompany the coronary arteries, ran independently on the myocardial bridge surfaces in the same region. Cardiac autonomic nerves comprised two rami: one was associated with the coronary artery under the myocardial bridge and the other ran on the surface of the bridge. Such spatial relationships among the coronary arteries, cardiac veins and cardiac autonomic nerves at the myocardial bridges are quite similar to those in mouse embryo hearts.

  20. Morphological patterns of the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior intermediate parietal sulcus of Jensen in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2014-12-22

    Distinct parts of the intraparietal sulcal cortex contribute to sensorimotor integration and visual spatial attentional processing. A detailed examination of the morphological relations of the different segments of the complex intraparietal sulcal region in the human brain in standard stereotaxic space, which is a prerequisite for detailed structure-to-function studies, is not available. This study examined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the related sulcus of Jensen in magnetic resonance imaging brain volumes registered in the Montreal Neurological Institute stereotaxic space. It was demonstrated that the IPS is divided into two branches: the anterior ramus and the posterior ramus of the IPS, often separated by a submerged gyral passage. The sulcus of Jensen emerges between the anterior and posterior rami of the IPS, and its ventral end is positioned between the first and second caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus. In a small number of brains, the sulcus of Jensen may merge superficially with the first caudal branch of the superior temporal sulcus. The above morphological findings are discussed in relation to previously reported functional neuroimaging findings and provide the basis for future exploration of structure-to-function relations in the posterior parietal region of individual subjects.

  1. Functional anatomy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies. Cervical vertebrae rotate and translate in the sagittal plane, and rotate in the manner of an inverted cone, across an oblique coronal plane. The cervical zygapophysial joints are the most common source of chronic neck pain. By contrast, lumbar discs are well designed to sustain compression loads, but rely on posterior elements to limit axial rotation. Internal disc disruption is the most common basis for chronic low-back pain. Spinal muscles are arranged systematically in prevertebral and postvertebral groups. The intrinsic elements of the spine are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, and by the sinuvertebral nerves. Little modern research has been conducted into the structure of the thoracic spine, or the causes of thoracic spinal pain.

  2. Purse-string morphology of external anal sphincter revealed by novel imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Valmik; Sheean, Geoff; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Sinha, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    The external anal sphincter (EAS) may be injured in 25–35% of women during the first and subsequent vaginal childbirths and is likely the most common cause of anal incontinence. Since its first description almost 300 years ago, the EAS was believed to be a circular or a “donut-shaped” structure. Using three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound imaging, MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and muscle fiber tracking, we delineated various components of the EAS and their muscle fiber directions. These novel imaging techniques suggest “purse-string” morphology, with “EAS muscles” crossing contralaterally in the perineal body to the contralateral transverse perineal (TP) and bulbospongiosus (BS) muscles, thus attaching the EAS to the pubic rami. Spin-tag MRI demonstrated purse-string action of the EAS muscle. Electromyography of TP/BS and EAS muscles revealed their simultaneous contraction and relaxation. Lidocaine injection into the TP/BS muscle significantly reduced anal canal pressure. These studies support purse-string morphology of the EAS to constrict/close the anal canal opening. Our findings have implications for the effect of episiotomy on anal closure function and the currently used surgical technique (overlapping sphincteroplasty) for EAS reconstructive surgery to treat anal incontinence. PMID:24458022

  3. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M.; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  4. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M

    2015-03-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results.

  5. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  6. Lignin variability in plant cell walls: contribution of new models.

    PubMed

    Neutelings, Godfrey

    2011-10-01

    Lignin is a major component of certain plant cell walls. The enzymes and corresponding genes associated with the metabolic pathway leading to the production of this complex phenolic polymer have been studied for many years now and are relatively well characterized. The use of genetically modified model plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, poplar.) and mutants has contributed greatly to our current understanding of this process. The recent utilisation and/or development of a number of dedicated genomic and transcriptomic tools for other species opens new perspectives for advancing our knowledge of the biological role of this important polymer in less typical situations and/or species. In this context, studies on the formation of hypolignified G-type fibres in angiosperm tension wood, and the natural hypolignification of secondary cell walls in plant bast fibre species such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) or ramie (Boehmeria nivea) are starting to provide novel information about how plants control secondary cell wall formation. Finally, other biologically interesting species for which few molecular resources currently exist could also represent interesting future models.

  7. Production and characterization of recombinant human acid α-glucosidase in transgenic rice cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Wan; Kim, Nan-Sun; Jang, Seon-Hui; Shin, Yun-Ji; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2016-05-20

    Pompe disease is a fatal genetic muscle disorder caused by a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), a glycogen-degrading lysosomal enzyme. In this study, the human GAA cDNA gene was synthesized from human placenta cells and cloned into a plant expression vector under the control of the rice α-amylase 3D (RAmy3D) promoter. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Genomic DNA PCR and Northern blot analysis were used to determine the integration and mRNA expression of the hGAA gene in the putative transgenic rice cells. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the glycosylated precursor recombinant hGAA had a molecular mass of 110kDa due to the presence of seven N-glycosylation sites. The accumulation of hGAA protein in the culture medium was approximately 37mg/L after 11 days of culturing in a sugar depletion medium. The His tagged-hGAA protein was purified using an Ni-NTA column and confirmed as the precursor form of hGAA without the signal peptide encoded by the cDNA on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The acid alpha-glucosidase activity of hGAA produced in transgenic rice cells gave results similar to those of the enzyme produced by CHO cells. PMID:27050503

  8. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part IV: retroperitoneal nerves.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-03-01

    We present surgicoanatomical topographic relations of nerves and plexuses in the retroperitoneal space: 1) six named parietal nerves, branches of the lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, femoral. 2) The sacral plexus is formed by the lumbosacral trunk, ventral rami of S1-S3, and part of S4; the remainder of S4 joining the coccygeal plexus. From this plexus originate the superior gluteal nerve, which passes backward through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle; the inferior gluteal nerve also courses through the greater sciatic foramen, but below the piriformis; 3) sympathetic trunks: right and left lumbar sympathetic trunks, which comprise four interconnected ganglia, and the pelvic chains; 4) greater, lesser, and least thoracic splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which pass the diaphragm and join celiac ganglia; 5) four lumbar splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which arise from lumbar sympathetic ganglia; 6) pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes), providing parasympathetic innervation to the descending colon and pelvic splanchna; and 7) autonomic (prevertebral) plexuses, formed by the vagus nerves, splanchnic nerves, and ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, aorticorenal). They include sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory (mainly pain) fibers. The autonomic plexuses comprise named parts: aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, superior hypogastric, and inferior hypogastric (hypogastric nerves).

  9. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF. PMID:24046061

  10. A new genus and species of Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from a tropical coral reef, SE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Winfield, I

    2014-01-01

    Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, is described on specimens collected from the Sisal Coral Reef System, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. The new genus is most morphologically similar to the genus Paracyproidea, but can be distinguished by the article 2 of antenna 2 peduncle, the peduncle of the uropods and length of rami, and telson. Also, the new genus can be distinguished from the rest 18 genera of the family Cyproideidae by the following characteristics: 3-articulate mandible palp, mandible molar big and triturative; palp on maxilla 2 uniarticulate; article 2 of pereopods 3-7 rectilinear, and urosomites 1-3 not elongated. Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, represents the second known genus and third species of cyproideid amphipods documented from the Inter-American Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), and the 19th genus and 44th species of the world cyproideid fauna. The more significant morphological characters and the geographical distribution of the 19 known genera of cyproideid amphipods are also pointed out.

  11. The non-avian theropod quadrate I: standardized terminology with an overview of the anatomy and function

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ricardo; Mateus, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    The quadrate of reptiles and most other tetrapods plays an important morphofunctional role by allowing the articulation of the mandible with the cranium. In Theropoda, the morphology of the quadrate is particularly complex and varies importantly among different clades of non-avian theropods, therefore conferring a strong taxonomic potential. Inconsistencies in the notation and terminology used in discussions of the theropod quadrate anatomy have been noticed, including at least one instance when no less than eight different terms were given to the same structure. A standardized list of terms and notations for each quadrate anatomical entity is proposed here, with the goal of facilitating future descriptions of this important cranial bone. In addition, an overview of the literature on quadrate function and pneumaticity in non-avian theropods is presented, along with a discussion of the inferences that could be made from this research. Specifically, the quadrate of the large majority of non-avian theropods is akinetic but the diagonally oriented intercondylar sulcus of the mandibular articulation allowed both rami of the mandible to move laterally when opening the mouth in many of theropods. Pneumaticity of the quadrate is also present in most averostran clades and the pneumatic chamber—invaded by the quadrate diverticulum of the mandibular arch pneumatic system—was connected to one or several pneumatic foramina on the medial, lateral, posterior, anterior or ventral sides of the quadrate. PMID:26401455

  12. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided. PMID:27395154

  13. Two new species of the sharpshooter genus Oragua Melichar, 1926 from Southeastern Brazil (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Silva, Cristiane M F Da; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Two very similar new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926, O. linnavuorii sp. nov. and O. flavolineata sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Mantiqueira mountain range). The new species share the presence of a large dentiform process located posteroventrally on the male pygofer, a unique feature within the genus. They can be distinguished from each other by the paraphyses with a pair of elongate, slender asymmetrical rami in O. linnavuorii and with two pairs of short, spiniform apical processes in O. flavolineata. The male of O. linnavuorii is macropterous but the female is submacropterous and thus smaller than the former when specimens are measured from the apex of the crown to the tips of the forewings at rest. The female of O. flavolineata is not known. Male holotypes are deposited in DZRJ. A key to males of the five Oragua species recorded from Southeastern Brazil is provided [O. maculifera Young, 1977, O. discoidula (Osborn, 1926), O. triplehorni Young, 1977, O. linnavuorii, and O. flavolineata]. The superficially similar genera Oragua and Aguana Melichar, 1926 are briefly compared. PMID:27395683

  14. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  15. Complex rostral neurovascular system in a giant pliosaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffa, Davide; Sassoon, Judyth; Cuff, Andrew R.; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Benton, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    Pliosaurs were a long-lived, ubiquitous group of Mesozoic marine predators attaining large body sizes (up to 12 m). Despite much being known about their ecology and behaviour, the mechanisms they adopted for prey detection have been poorly investigated and represent a mystery to date. Complex neurovascular systems in many vertebrate rostra have evolved for prey detection. However, information on the occurrence of such systems in fossil taxa is extremely limited because of poor preservation potential. The neurovascular complex from the snout of an exceptionally well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic, c. 170 Myr ago) of Weymouth Bay (Dorset, UK) is described here for the first time. Using computed tomography (CT) scans, the extensive bifurcating neurovascular channels could be traced through the rostrum to both the teeth and the foramina on the dorsal and lateral surface of the snout. The structures on the surface of the skull and the high concentrations of peripheral rami suggest that this could be a sensory system, perhaps similar to crocodile pressure receptors or shark electroreceptors.

  16. A new ceratopsian dinosaur from the Javelina Formation (Maastrichtian) of West Texas and implications for chasmosaurine phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Steven L.; Lehman, Thomas M.

    2013-07-01

    Bravoceratops polyphemus gen. et sp. nov. is a large chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the lowermost part of the Javelina Formation (early Maastrichtian) of Big Bend National Park, TX, USA. B. polyphemus has a distinctive narrow snout, a long fenestrate frill, and a fan-shaped median parietal bar with a midline epiparietal on its posterior margin, as well as a symmetrical depression on its dorsal surface at the nexus of the parietal rami. This depression is interpreted to be the attachment point for a second midline epiparietal. This parietal morphology is distinct from that exhibited by Anchiceratops or Pentaceratops. The posterior midline epiparietal in B. polyphemus and its bifurcated quadratojugal-squamosal joint are features shared with the most derived chasmosaurines, Torosaurus and Triceratops. The combination of primitive and derived traits exhibited by B. polyphemus, and its stratigraphic position, is compatible with the gradual transition from basal, to intermediate, to derived chasmosaurines observed throughout the western interior of North America, and with phylogenetic analysis, which suggests that Bravoceratops may be closely related to Coahuilaceratops.

  17. Revision of Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, including Bradiella Rullier, 1965, and Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae).

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Buzhinskaja, Galina

    2011-01-01

    Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, includes flabelligerids having cylindrical to club-shaped bodies, with cirriform papillae, multiarticulate chaetae in both parapodial rami, 8 branchial filaments of two types (thick and rarely lamellate, or cirriform), gonopodial lobes in chaetigers 5 or 6, or multiple gonopores along some anterior chaetigers. Bradiella Rullier, 1965, has included only the type species: Bradiella branchiata Rullier, 1965, described from Eastern Australia. The original description has been overlooked and it lacked enough details on branchial and chaetal features. Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993, with Diplocirrus nicolaji Buzhinskaja, 1994, as the type species, was introduced for a similar species from the Japan Sea. These two monotypic genera share the same morphologic features with Diplocirrus, and are herein regarded as its junior synonyms. As herein redefined, Diplocirrus includes, besides its type species, Diplocirrus glaucus (Malmgren, 1867)from Scandinavia : Diplocirrus branchiatus (Rullier, 1965), comb. n. from Queensland, Australia, Diplocirrus capensis Day, 1961 from South Africa, Diplocirrus erythroporus Gallardo, 1968 from Vietnam, Diplocirrus hirsutus (Hansen, 1882) from Arctic and subarctic regions, Diplocirrus incognitus Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from South Africa, Diplocirrus kudenovisp. n. from off Western Mexico, Diplocirrus longisetosus (von Marenzeller, 1890) restricted to the Bering Sea, Diplocirrus micans Fauchald, 1972 from deep water off Oregon and Western Mexico, Diplocirrus nicolaji (Buzhinskaja, 1994), comb. n. from the Japan Sea, Diplocirrus normani (McIntosh, 1908), comb. n. from Scandinavia, Diplocirrus octobranchus (Hartman, 1965), comb. n. from off New England, and Diplocirrus stopbowitzi Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from the Irish Sea.

  18. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-05-27

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided.

  19. Spectral reflectance patterns and seasonal dynamics of common understory types in three mature hemi-boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Pisek, Jan; Raabe, Kairi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the growing demand on more accurate prediction of biophysical properties (e.g., leaf area index) or carbon balance models based on remotely sensed data, the understory effect needs to be separated from the overstory. Reflectance models can provide possibility to model and retrieve understory reflectance over large scales, but ground truth data is needed to validate such models and algorithms. In this study, we documented the seasonal variation (April-September) and spectral changes occurring in understory layers of a typical European hemi-boreal forest. The understory composition was recorded and its spectra measured with an ASD FieldSpec Hand-Held UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer eight times at four site types during the growing period (from May to September) in 2013. The collected dataset presented within this study would be of much use to improve and validate algorithms or models for extracting spectral properties of understory from remote sensing data. It can be also further used as a valuable input in radiative transfer simulations that are used to quantify the roles of forest tree layer and understory components in forming a seasonal reflectance course of a hemi-boreal forest, and the upcoming phases of the RAdiation Model Intercomparison (RAMI) experiment.

  20. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution. PMID:26154293

  1. Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals grafted with thermo-responsive polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Venditti, Richard A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-03-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from ramie fibers are studied as stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. The phase behavior of heptane and water systems is studied, and emulsions stabilized by CNCs are analyzed by using drop sizing (light scattering) and optical, scanning, and freeze-fracture electron microscopies. Water-continuous Pickering emulsions are produced with cellulose nanocrystals (0.05-0.5 wt%) grafted with thermo-responsive poly(NIPAM) brushes (poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs). They are observed to be stable during the time of observation of 4 months. In contrast, unmodified CNCs are unable to stabilize heptane-in-water emulsions. After emulsification, poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs are observed to form aligned, layered structures at the oil-water interface. The emulsions stabilized by poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs break after heating at a temperature above the LCST of poly(NIPAM), which is taken as indication of the temperature responsiveness of the brushes installed on the particles and thus the responsiveness of the Pickering emulsions. This phenomenon is further elucidated via rheological measurements, in which viscosities of the Pickering emulsions increase on approach of the low critical solution temperature of poly(NIPAM). The effect of temperature can be counterbalanced with the addition of salt which is explained by the reduction of electrostatic and steric interactions of poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs at the oil-water interface.

  2. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

  3. Two new species of the sharpshooter genus Oragua Melichar, 1926 from Southeastern Brazil (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Silva, Cristiane M F Da; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Two very similar new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926, O. linnavuorii sp. nov. and O. flavolineata sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Mantiqueira mountain range). The new species share the presence of a large dentiform process located posteroventrally on the male pygofer, a unique feature within the genus. They can be distinguished from each other by the paraphyses with a pair of elongate, slender asymmetrical rami in O. linnavuorii and with two pairs of short, spiniform apical processes in O. flavolineata. The male of O. linnavuorii is macropterous but the female is submacropterous and thus smaller than the former when specimens are measured from the apex of the crown to the tips of the forewings at rest. The female of O. flavolineata is not known. Male holotypes are deposited in DZRJ. A key to males of the five Oragua species recorded from Southeastern Brazil is provided [O. maculifera Young, 1977, O. discoidula (Osborn, 1926), O. triplehorni Young, 1977, O. linnavuorii, and O. flavolineata]. The superficially similar genera Oragua and Aguana Melichar, 1926 are briefly compared.

  4. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-10-27

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included.

  5. Morphofunctional Analysis of the Quadrate of Spinosauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and the Presence of Spinosaurus and a Second Spinosaurine Taxon in the Cenomanian of North Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Christophe; Mateus, Octávio; Buffetaut, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Six quadrate bones, of which two almost certainly come from the Kem Kem beds (Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous) of south-eastern Morocco, are determined to be from juvenile and adult individuals of Spinosaurinae based on phylogenetic, geometric morphometric, and phylogenetic morphometric analyses. Their morphology indicates two morphotypes evidencing the presence of two spinosaurine taxa ascribed to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus and? Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis in the Cenomanian of North Africa, casting doubt on the accuracy of some recent skeletal reconstructions which may be based on elements from several distinct species. Morphofunctional analysis of the mandibular articulation of the quadrate has shown that the jaw mechanics was peculiar in Spinosauridae. In mature spinosaurids, the posterior parts of the two mandibular rami displaced laterally when the jaw was depressed due to a lateromedially oriented intercondylar sulcus of the quadrate. Such lateral movement of the mandibular ramus was possible due to a movable mandibular symphysis in spinosaurids, allowing the pharynx to be widened. Similar jaw mechanics also occur in some pterosaurs and living pelecanids which are both adapted to capture and swallow large prey items. Spinosauridae, which were engaged, at least partially, in a piscivorous lifestyle, were able to consume large fish and may have occasionally fed on other prey such as pterosaurs and juvenile dinosaurs. PMID:26734729

  6. First record of harpacticoid copepods from Lake Tahoe, United States: two new species of Attheyella (Harpacticoida, Canthocamptidae).

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Moon, Heejin

    2015-01-01

    Benthic harpacticoids were collected for the first time at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, United States. Two species were identified as members of the genus Attheyella Brady, 1880. The genus Attheyella comprises about 150 species within six subgenera, but only twelve species have previously been reported from North American freshwater habitats. The two new species of Attheyella described here have a 3-segmented endopod on P1 and 2-segmented P2-P4 endopods, the distal segment of exopod of P2-P4 has three outer spines, and the P5 has five setae on the exopod and six setae on the baseoendopod. Attheyella (Attheyella) tahoensissp. n. most closely resembles Attheyella (Attheyella) idahoensis (Marsh, 1903) from Idaho, Montana, and Alaska (United States) and Attheyella (Attheyella) namkungi Kim, Soh & Lee, 2005 from Gosu Cave in South Korea. They differ mainly by the number of setae on the distal endopodal segment of P2-P4. In addition, intraspecific variation has been observed on the caudal rami. Attheyella (Neomrazekiella) tessiaesp. n. is characterized by the extension of P5 baseoendopod, 2-segmented endopod of female P2-P3, and naked third seta of male P5 exopod. The two new species are likely endemic to Lake Tahoe, an isolated alpine lake within the Great Basin watershed in the western United States.

  7. On Kiefer’s American Eucyclops (Copepoda, Eucyclopinae): redescriptions and comments on the historical records of E. delachauxi, E. prionophorus, E. bondi and E. leptacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater copepod genus Eucyclops contains many supposedly cosmopolitan species whose taxonomic status is still under discussion; some of them represent species complexes. The problem is not exclusive to these widespread species; there are several American Eucyclops needing a taxonomic re-evaluation. Based on the examination of Friedrich Kiefer’s collection in Karlsruhe, Germany, the type specimens of four American species of Eucyclops (E. delachauxi (Kiefer, 1926), E. prionophorus Kiefer, 1931, E. bondi Kiefer, 1934, E. leptacanthus Kiefer, 1956) were re-examined and redescribed using upgraded descriptive standards. Kiefer’s translated descriptions and unpublished original drawings of these species are also presented. Characters like the ornamentation of the antennal basis, ornamentation of intercoxal sclerites of the swimming legs 1–4, length of basipodal seta of leg 1, ornamentation of caudal rami, the presence of aesthetascs and modified setae on the antennules in male, and the structure of the male sixth leg are compared herein to aid a more accurate separation of these American species. A revision of the American records of these species confirms that some are likely to refer to undescribed species. Overall, the diversity of the American Eucyclops appears to be underestimated and certainly deserves further study. PMID:24843261

  8. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  9. Nondestructive testing of externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting using flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    Natural fibers constitute an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers, e.g. glass and carbon, for the production of composites due to their environmental and economic advantages. The strength of natural fiber composites is on average lower compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nevertheless, natural fibers such as flax, among other bast fibers (jute, kenaf, ramie and hemp), are serious candidates for seismic retrofitting applications given that their mechanical properties are more suitable for dynamic loads. Strengthening of structures is performed by impregnating flax fiber reinforced polymers (FFRP) fabrics with epoxy resin and applying them to the component of interest, increasing in this way the load and deformation capacities of the building, while preserving its stiffness and dynamic properties. The reinforced areas are however prompt to debonding if the fabrics are not mounted properly. Nondestructive testing is therefore required to verify that the fabric is uniformly installed and that there are no air gaps or foreign materials that could instigate debonding. In this work, the use of active infrared thermography was investigated for the assessment of (1) a laboratory specimen reinforced with FFRP and containing several artificial defects; and (2) an actual FFRP retrofitted masonry wall in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of L'Aquila (Italy) that was seriously affected by the 2009 earthquake. Thermographic data was processed by advanced signal processing techniques, and post-processed by computing the watershed lines to locate suspected areas. Results coming from the academic specimen were compared to digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry images.

  10. Art, class and gender in Joseon dynasty Korea: representations of lower-class women by the scholar-painter Yun Duseo.

    PubMed

    Chung, Saehyang P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines several pioneering genre paintings by the important scholar painter Yun Duseo (1668-1715), with its focus on their artistic sources which have not yet been explored so far. Painted on ramie, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is one of the most intriguing examples among Yun Duseo's oeuvre, which encompasses a broad variety of themes, including genre imagery, landscapes, portraits, dragons, and horses. Even among Yun Duseo's genre paintings, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is extraordinary, as recent scholarship regards it as the earliest independent representation of lower-class women in the history of Korean art. In particular, Yun Duseo painted two women who were working ourdoors to gather spring potherbs. In a conservative Confucian society, it was extraordinary women who were working outdoors. Hence, Yun Duseo occupies a highly important place in Korean painting. Furthermore, even though Yun Duseo came from the upper-class, he often painted images of lower class people working. It is possible that Yun Duseo was familiar with the book titled "Tian gong kai wu" (Exploitation of the Works of Nature) which was published in the 17th century. By identifying the probable body of his artistic sources in the book known as "Tian gong kai wu," it will be possible to assess the innovations and limitations found in 'Women Picking Potherbs'. PMID:22171413

  11. From interfacial ring-opening polymerization to melt processing of cellulose nanowhisker-filled polylactide-based nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Anne-Lise; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Duquesne, Emmanuel; Siqueira, Gilberto; Habibi, Youssef; Dufresne, Alain; Dubois, Philippe

    2011-07-11

    In the present work, cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), extracted from ramie fibers, were incorporated in polylactide (PLA)-based composites. Prior to the blending, PLA chains were chemically grafted on the surface of CNW to enhance the compatibilization between CNW and the hydrophobic polyester matrix. Ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide was initiated from the hydroxyl groups available at the CNW surface to yield CNW-g-PLA nanohybrids. PLA-based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending to ensure a green concept of the study thereby limiting the use of organic solvents. The influence of PLA-grafted cellulose nanoparticles on the mechanical and thermal properties of the ensuing nanocomposites was deeply investigated. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical and thermal analysis (DMTA), respectively. It was clearly evidenced that the chemical grafting of CNW enhances their compatibility with the polymeric matrix and thus improves the final properties of the nanocomposites. Large modification of the crystalline properties such as the crystallization half-time was evidenced according to the nature of the PLA matrix and the content of nanofillers.

  12. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  13. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  14. Neuropathic itch of the back: a case of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kim, You Chan

    2014-06-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory. PMID:24966642

  15. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  16. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  17. Neuropathic Itch of the Back: A Case of Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory. PMID:24966642

  18. 3D navigation of endoscopic rhizotomy at the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Sprengel, Kai; Peterer, Lorenz; Mica, Ladislav; Werner, Clément M L

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the surgical technique and the preliminary results of an endoscopic denervation for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) originating from the facet joints (FJ). Endoscopic denervation of the medial branches of the dorsal rami supplying the FJ has recently been appraised as providing excellent intraoperative visualization and long term pain relief for these patients. Conventional endoscopic rhizotomy has been expanded to include a the precise localization of 3D navigation. A surgical description and the results of our first four patients treated with 3D navigated endoscopic rhizotomy (3DNER) are presented. Four patients with a mean age of 59years and a follow-up time of 2months were included. All patients reported pain reduction in the immediate postoperative period, while three patients (75%) had long lasting relief. The patient without persisting relief had previously sustained a lumbar disc prolapse and only achieved minor pain relief with preoperative FJ infiltration, compared to the significant relief that was seen in the other patients. In contrast to conventional rhizotomy, 3DNER enables the surgeon to ablate more precisely and extensively, which is especially useful if scar tissue is present from previous injuries or surgeries. When successful, this technique may provide long lasting pain relief, especially if the preoperative FJ infiltrations are followed by a substantial pain reduction. PMID:26628214

  19. Intramuscular nerve distribution pattern in the human tibialis posterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Terashima, Toshio; Miki, Akinori

    2015-03-01

    The human tibialis posterior muscle (TPM) has developed to maintain the foot arches for adopting bipedal locomotion. The insertion tendon of this muscle is U-shaped in a cross section, and the fibular part of the muscle whose muscle fibers originated from the fibula has a unique architecture. To understand the developmental history of the human TPM, distribution pattern of intramuscular nerves was investigated in ten sides of eight cadavers. Muscular branches entering the TPM could be classified into five types according to the distribution pattern in the muscle. The nerves innervating the part deeper to the insertion tendon ran transversely in the medial direction toward the tibia. Muscular branches innervating the fibular part ran medioinferiorly, and in four cases had communicating rami with the nerve innervating the other parts of this muscle. Muscular branches innervating the superficial layer whose muscle bundles originated from the tibia ran laterally toward the fibula. These results suggest that the fibular part might develop from the common primordium of the TPM, and the deeper layer of the muscle might expand laterally during the development to acquire a new attaching space on the interosseous membrane and fibula. The superficial layer might also develop laterally to acquire the additional attaching spaces on the fascia of the flexor digitorum longus muscle and flexor hallucis longus muscle, thus the insertion tendon might become U-shaped. With these measures, the TPM might be able to increase muscle volume to yield stronger power. PMID:24791909

  20. Austromesocypris bluffensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cypridoidea, Scottiinae) from subterranean aquatic habitats in Tasmania, with a key to world species of the subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Ivana; Eberhard, Stefan; Perina, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Austromesocypris bluffensis sp. n. is described and we report another species, Austromesocypris sp., both collected from subterranean aquatic habitats in Tasmania. This discovery adds a major taxonomic group to the already diverse invertebrate cave fauna of Tasmania, and is of interest because, globally, obligate subterranean aquatic species (stygobites) are poorly represented within the family Cyprididae. The genus Austromesocypris Martens, De Deckker & Rossetti, 2004 is otherwise known to comprise entirely “terrestrial or semi-terrestrial” species. The second species is not described because only juvenile specimens were collected. Both species stand apart from their congeners by the carapace shape, which is rectangular in Austromesocypris bluffensis and triangular and asymmetrical in the unnamed species. Another unique feature of the new species is the almost symmetrical uropodal rami. We also identify some broader systematic issues within the Scottiinae including the position of two New Zealand species, Scottia audax (Chapman, 1961) and Scottia insularis Chapman, 1963 in the genus, and point out their closer relationship to the Gondwana genera of Scottiinae, Austromesocypris and Mesocypris Daday, 1910, than to the Palearctic genus Scottia Brady & Norman, 1889, based on the morphology of the maxillula and mandibula. The identity of the Australian records of Scottia audax (Chapman, 1961), Austromesocypris australiensis (De Deckker, 1983) and the Boreal records of Scottia pseudobrowniana Kempf, 1971 are all considered doubtful. A key to the world species of Scottiinae is provided. PMID:22936868

  1. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  2. Cloud Property Retrieval and 3D Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud thickness and photon mean-free-path together determine the scale of "radiative smoothing" of cloud fluxes and radiances. This scale is observed as a change in the spatial spectrum of cloud radiances, and also as the "halo size" seen by off beam lidar such as THOR and WAIL. Such of beam lidar returns are now being used to retrieve cloud layer thickness and vertical scattering extinction profile. We illustrate with recent measurements taken at the Oklahoma ARM site, comparing these to the-dependent 3D simulations. These and other measurements sensitive to 3D transfer in clouds, coupled with Monte Carlo and other 3D transfer methods, are providing a better understanding of the dependence of radiation on cloud inhomogeneity, and to suggest new retrieval algorithms appropriate for inhomogeneous clouds. The international "Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes" or I3RC, program is coordinating and evaluating the variety of 3D radiative transfer methods now available, and to make them more widely available. Information is on the Web at: http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Input consists of selected cloud fields derived from data sources such as radar, microwave and satellite, and from models involved in the GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies. Output is selected radiative quantities that characterize the large-scale properties of the fields of radiative fluxes and heating. Several example cloud fields will be used to illustrate. I3RC is currently implementing an "open source" 3d code capable of solving the baseline cases. Maintenance of this effort is one of the goals of a new 3DRT Working Group under the International Radiation Commission. It is hoped that the 3DRT WG will include active participation by land and ocean modelers as well, such as 3D vegetation modelers participating in RAMI.

  3. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration.

    PubMed

    Maderson, Paul F A; Hillenius, Willem J; Hiller, Uwe; Dove, Carla C

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, beta- and alpha-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation long inhibited progress in understanding. This article reviews and reevaluates the available literature and provides a synthetic, comprehensive, morphological model for the regeneration of a generalized, adult contour feather. Particular attention is paid to several features that have previously been largely ignored. Some of these, such as the beta-keratogenic sheath and the alpha-keratogenic, supra-umbilical, pulp caps, are missing from mature, functional feathers sensu stricto because they are lost through preening, but these structures nevertheless play a critical role in development. A new developmental role for a tissue unique to feathers, the medullary pith of the rachis and barb rami, and especially its importance in the genesis of the superior umbilical region (SUR) that forms the transition from the spathe (rachis and vanes) to the calamus, is described. It is postulated that feathers form through an intricate interplay between cyto- and histodifferentiative processes, determined by patterning signals that emanate from the dermal core, and a suite of interacting biomechanical forces. Precisely regulated patterns of loss of intercellular adhesivity appear to be the most fundamental aspect of feather morphogenesis and regeneration: rather than a hierarchically branched structure, it appears more appropriate to conceive of feathers as a sheet of mature keratinocytes that is "full of holes.

  4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. PMID:23069372

  5. Fast track endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João Bosco Vieira; Kux, Peter; Castro, Carlos H V; Cruvinel, Marcos G C; Costa, José R R

    2003-12-01

    The length of hospital stay is an important factor of cost and psychological discomfort in the treatment of hyperhidrosis by endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy (ETS). Our experience enrolls 1587 patients operated on an outpatient basis in the last 10 years and seven months. This study aimed to confirm that ETS can be performed on an outpatient basis. Fifty-two consecutive patients (30 males and 22 females) were submitted to ETS under general anesthesia using a single lumen endotracheal tube, with lung collapse by intrapleural injection of CO(2). The sympathetic chain and the communicating rami were severed at different levels according to hyperhidrosis location. Patients were physical state American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2. Age varied between 13 and 55 years (27.3 +/- 10.2 years). They were monitored with ECG, SPO2, NIBP, expired CO(2), sevoflurane analyzer, and airway pressure. Normal saline (40.0 +/- 2.7 ml/kg) was infused intravenously. The drugs used were propofol, alfentanil, rocuronium, ondansetron, dexamethasone, dipyrone, cetoprofene and sevoflurane. Anesthesia and post-operative data were analyzed. Post-operative thoracic X-rays were taken in 20 patients before discharge. Anesthesia lasted 67.2 +/- 20.8 minutes, and the surgical procedure took 46.3 +/- 20.9 minutes. The patients stayed 18.0 +/- 11.0 minutes in the post-anaesthetic care unit and were discharged from hospital after 150.3 +/- 43.1 minutes. The only abnormal post-operative event observed was insignificant residual carbothorax, found in 2 (10%) of the thoracic X-rays taken. In conclusion, this study confirmed that ETS can be performed safely on an outpatient basis. PMID:14673677

  6. Preheating ablation effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Don, Wai-Sun; Li, Y. J.

    2010-12-15

    The two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) with and without thermal conduction is investigated by numerical simulation in the weakly nonlinear regime. A preheat model {kappa}(T)={kappa}{sub SH}[1+f(T)] is introduced for the thermal conduction [W. H. Ye, W. Y. Zhang, and X. T. He, Phys. Rev. E 65, 057401 (2002)], where {kappa}{sub SH} is the Spitzer-Haerm electron thermal conductivity coefficient and f(T) models the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablation front. The preheating ablation effects on the RTI are studied by comparing the RTI with and without thermal conduction with identical density profile relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is found that the ablation effects strongly influence the mode coupling process, especially with short perturbation wavelength. Overall, the ablation effects stabilize the RTI. First, the linear growth rate is reduced, especially for short perturbation wavelengths and a cutoff wavelength is observed in simulations. Second, the second harmonic generation is reduced for short perturbation wavelengths. Third, the third-order negative feedback to the fundamental mode is strengthened, which plays a stabilization role. Finally, on the contrary, the ablation effects increase the generation of the third harmonic when the perturbation wavelengths are long. Our simulation results indicate that, in the weakly nonlinear regime, the ablation effects are weakened as the perturbation wavelength is increased. Numerical results obtained are in general agreement with the recent weakly nonlinear theories as proposed in [J. Sanz, J. Ramirez, R. Ramis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195002 (2002); J. Garnier, P.-A. Raviart, C. Cherfils-Clerouin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185003 (2003)].

  7. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  8. In vitro bone strain distributions in a sample of primate pelves.

    PubMed

    Lewton, Kristi L

    2015-05-01

    The pelvis is a critical link in the hindlimb locomotor system and has a central role in resisting loads associated with locomotion, but our understanding of its structural biomechanics is quite limited. Empirical data on how the pelvis responds to the loads it encounters are important for understanding pelvic adaptation to locomotion, and for testing hypotheses regarding how the pelvis is adapted to its mechanical demands. This paper presents in vitro strain gauge data on a sample of monkey and ape cadaveric specimens (Macaca, Papio, Ateles, Hylobates), and assesses strain magnitudes and distributions through the bones of the pelvis: the ilium, ischium and pubis. Pelves were individually mounted in a materials testing system, loads were applied across three hindlimb angular positions, and strains were recorded from 18 locations on the pelvic girdle. Peak principal strains range from 2000 to 3000 με, similar to peak strains recorded from other mammals in vivo. Although previous work has suggested that the bones of the pelvis may act as bent beams, this study suggests that there are likely additional loading regimes superimposed on bending. Specifically, these data suggest that the ilium is loaded in axial compression and torsion, the ischium in torsion, the pubic rami in mediolateral bending, and the pubic symphysis is loaded in a combination of compression and torsion. Compressive strains dominate the pelves of all species representatives. Shear strains change with limb position; hip flexion at 45° induces smaller shear strains than mid-stance (90°) or hip extension (105°). The pelvic girdle is a complex structure that does not lend itself easily to modeling, but finite element analyses may prove useful to generate and refine hypotheses of pelvic biomechanics.

  9. Development of colour-producing β-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs

    PubMed Central

    Prum, Richard O.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-01-01

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of β-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of β-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin β-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary β-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of β-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary β-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow

  10. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea

    PubMed Central

    LaFountain, Amy M.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Frank, Harry A.; Prum, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) [1] concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005) [2]), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968) [1]. Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds. PMID:20709013

  11. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J; Frank, Harry A; Prum, Richard O

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005)), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968). Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds. PMID:20709013

  12. Pediatric pelvic fractures in side impact collisions.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Mari-Gowda, Shresta; Kallan, Michael J; Durbin, Dennis R; Winston, Flaura K

    2002-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanism of pelvic injury in the pediatric population, an age range over which the pelvis undergoes tremendous structural change. We hypothesize that these structural changes influence pelvic fracture injury mechanisms. A probability sample of children under age 16 years in crashes were enrolled in an on-going crash surveillance system which links insurance claims data to telephone survey and crash investigation data. 15,725 children in side impact collisions were studied. Risk of pelvic fracture in side impact collisions was estimated and factors associated with these injuries were identified. Eight cases were examined using in-depth investigation to identify the injury mechanisms. Of our study sample, 0.10% of children suffered a pelvic fracture. The typical child with a pelvic fracture was a 12-15 year old female front row occupant of a passenger car involved in a struck side collision with intrusion. Analyses of the in-depth crash investigations determined that the developmental age of the child was the most important parameter associated with the type of pelvic fracture. Children 8-11 years experienced isolated pubic rami fractures, whereas children 12-15 years experienced multiple fractures of the pelvic ring. This distinct injury pattern is directly related to the ossification during puberty of the cartilage connecting the three bones of the pelvis. A secondary influence on the injury pattern was the geometrical and stiffness incompatibilities between impact partners that resulted in vehicle deformation and rotation of the vehicle seat. In the effort to improve the side impact protection of vehicles, attention should be paid to improved structural chassis design that minimizes the dynamic deformation of the seat. PMID:17096230

  13. [Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment].

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra; Paleari, Julieta; Durán, María Nöel; Rudy, Tamara; Califano, Ines; Barbosa, Nicolas; Parera, Ignacio Casas

    2007-01-01

    A case of Frey syndrome (FS) secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during realtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm2/17 points). A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year follow-up time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors--sympathetic receptors of the skin--innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow

  14. The Effects of Thoracic Sympathotomy on Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Palmar Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong-yuan; Xu, Jin-jin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To observe the evolution of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis before and after endoscopic thoracic sympathotomy and to evaluate the effects of the surgery on the autonomic nervous system. Materials and Methods Endoscopic thoracic sympathotomy was performed on 20 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. The thoracic sympathetic chain at the level of the third to fourth rib (R3-R4) was transected, but the ganglia were left in position without removal. A slightly larger ramus, in comparison to the other rami, that arose laterally from the sympathetic chain was interrupted to achieve adequate sympathetic denervation of the upper extremity. Before and on the day after the surgery, 24-hour Holter Electrocardiograph was performed, obtaining time domain and frequency domain parameters. Results Compared with preoperative variables, there was a significant increase in the number of adjacent normal R wave to R wave (R-R) intervals that differed by more than 50 ms, as percent of the total number of normal RR intervals (pNN50); root mean square difference, the square root of the mean of the sum of squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals over the entire 24-hour recording; standard deviation of the average normal RR interval for all 5-minute segments of a 24-hour recording (SDANN) after thoracic sympathotomy. Low frequencies (LF, 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) decreased significantly. There was no statistical difference in high frequencies (HF, 0.15 to 0.40 Hz), LF/HF ratio (LF/HF), or standard deviation for all normal RR intervals for the entire 24-h recording (SDNN) before and after thoracic sympathotomy. Conclusion There was a significant improvement in HRV in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathotomy. This may be attributable to an improvement autonomic nervous system balance and parasympathetic predominance in the early postoperative stage. PMID:23074105

  15. Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the myocardial lacunae of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus (Carangidae) in the Gulf of Mexico; with a comment on the interrelationships and functional morphology of intertrabecular aporocotylids.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. infects the myocardial lacunae of the ventricle and atrium of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. It differs from other aporocotylid genera by the combination of having a body 10-30× longer than wide, a posterolateral body protuberance, lateral spine rows, an aspinous anterior sucker comprising a slightly muscular rim circumscribing the mouth, asymmetrical posterior ceca 14-20× length of the anterior ceca and lacking diverticula or secondary rami, tens of testes distributing in a cobblestone-like field anterior and posterior to the distal ends of the posterior ceca, an oviducal seminal receptacle comprising the distal portion of the oviduct, and a post-cecal ovary plus by lacking rosethorn-shaped spines, a pharynx, and a Laurer's canal. The new species appears host specific to Florida pompano because no conspecific infection was detected in 134 carangids of 8 species in 4 genera captured nearby the type locality. Psettarium sebastodorum Holmes, 1971 is transferred to the new genus, as Littorellicola sebastodorum (Holmes, 1971) n. comb., because it and the new species differ from species of Psettarium by the combination of having multiple testes plus 8 other features detailed herein. This report brings the number of nominal Gulf of Mexico aporocotylids to 12 species of 8 genera, represents only the second record of an aporocotylid from a carangid there, and supports the notion that elongated, "thread-like" aporocotylids with lateral spine rows are seemingly well-adapted for infecting myocardial lacunae or embedding in the myocardium of their definitive fish hosts.

  16. Profile of geriatric pelvic fractures presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Alost, T; Waldrop, R D

    1997-10-01

    Few studies have examined differences in mechanism, presentation, and outcome of trauma in geriatric patients. This study compared pelvic fractures and associated injuries in geriatric and nongeriatric patients. The medical charts of all patients presenting to a large urban emergency medicine teaching program with a pelvic fracture between January 1, 1987 and December 31, 1993 were retrospectively reviewed by study-blinded physicians. Data collected included mechanism and site of injury, associated injuries, disposition (admission or discharge), need for operative repair, length of hospital stay, as well as subsequent deaths and causes. The data were stratified into patients less than 65 years of age (group A) and 65 years or older (group B). Two-hundred five pelvic fractures were reviewed with 85 (41%) in group B. A significantly greater number of pelvic fractures in group B occurred by fall (86% v 25%, P < .05) and significantly less by motor vehicle accident (14% v 75%, P < .05). Site of pelvic fracture differed significantly only in the decreased number of geriatric iliac fractures (6% v 16%, P < .05). The sites of pelvic fractures for geriatric patients in descending order were multiple sites (58%), pubic rami (56%), acetabulum (19%), ischium (11%), iliac (6%), and sacroiliac (2%), and did not differ from nongeriatric patients. Geriatric patients had significantly fewer total associated injuries (40% v 61%, P < .05) although associated chest injuries were significantly more common (21% v 8%, P < .05). Death occurred in three (3%) nongeriatric and nine (11%) geriatric patients. Six geriatric deaths were caused by exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular disease. Geriatric patients underwent significantly fewer operative procedures (6% v 43%, P < .05) but there were no significant differences in the percent admitted (85%) or mean length of hospital stay (9.59 days). Despite the decreased severity of pelvic fractures, care must be taken to prevent morbidity

  17. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  18. 3D Mandibular Superimposition: Comparison of Regions of Reference for Voxel-Based Registration

    PubMed Central

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Benavides, Erika; Nguyen, Tung; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to evaluate three regions of reference (Björk, Modified Björk and mandibular Body) for mandibular registration testing them in a patients’ CBCT sample. Methods Mandibular 3D volumetric label maps were built from CBCTs taken before (T1) and after treatment (T2) in a sample of 16 growing subjects and labeled with eight landmarks. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the different regions of reference were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. Seven mandibular dimensions were measured separately for each time-point (T1 and T2) in relation to a stable reference structure (lingual cortical of symphysis), and the T2-T1 differences were calculated. These differences were compared to differences measured between the superimposed T2 (generated from different regions of reference: Björk, Modified Björk and Mandibular Body) over T1 surface models. ICC and the Bland-Altman method tested the agreement of the changes obtained by nonsuperimposition measurements from the patients’ sample, and changes between the overlapped surfaces after registration using the different regions of reference. Results The Björk region of reference (or mask) did work properly only in 2 of 16 patients. Evaluating the two other masks (Modified Björk and Mandibular body) on patients’ scans registration, the concordance and agreement of the changes obtained from superimpositions (registered T2 over T1) compared to results obtained from non superimposed T1 and T2 separately, indicated that Mandibular Body mask displayed more consistent results. Conclusions The mandibular body mask (mandible without teeth, alveolar bone, rami and condyles) is a reliable reference for 3D regional registration. PMID:27336366

  19. Fragility fractures of the pelvis: should they be fixed?

    PubMed

    Rommens, P M; Dietz, S-O; Ossendorf, C; Pairon, P; Wagner, D; Hofmann, A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging population, there is an increasing number of fragility fractures of the pelvis (FFP). They are the result of low energy trauma. The bone breaks but the ligaments remain intact. Immobilizing pain at the pubic region or at the sacrum is the main symptom. Conventional radiographs reveal pubic rami fractures, but lesions of the dorsal pelvis are hardly visible and easily overlooked. CT of the pelvis with multiplanar reconstructions show the real extension of the lesion. Most patients have a history of osteoporosis or other fragility fractures. The new classification distinguishes between four categories of different and increasing instability. FFP Type I are anterior lesions only, FFP Type II are non-displaced posterior lesions, FFP Type III are displaced unilateral posterior lesions and FFP Type IV are displaced bilateral posterior lesions. Subgroups discriminate between the localization of the dorsal instability. FFP Type I lesions are treated non-operatively. FFP Type II lesions are fixed in a percutaneous procedure when a trial of conservative treatment was not successful. FFP Type III lesions are treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). FFP Type IV lesions are treated with bilateral ORIF or with a bridging osteosynthesis. Iliosacral screw osteosynthesis is widely used, but has an elevated risk of screw loosening due to diminished bine mineral density. Transsacral bar osteosynthesis enable interfragmentary compression and does not have this danger of loosening. Bridging plate osteosynthesis is used as an additional fixation to iliosacral screw osteosynthesis. Lumbopelvic fixation is restricted to highly unstable lumbopelvic dissociations. More studies are needed to find the optimal treatment for each type of instability. Key words: pelvis, fragility fracture, diagnosis, classification, treatment.

  20. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis.

  1. On parametric Gevrey asymptotics for some nonlinear initial value Cauchy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastra, A.; Malek, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study a nonlinear initial value Cauchy problem depending upon a complex perturbation parameter ɛ with vanishing initial data at complex time t = 0 and whose coefficients depend analytically on (ɛ, t) near the origin in C2 and are bounded holomorphic on some horizontal strip in C w.r.t. the space variable. This problem is assumed to be non-Kowalevskian in time t, therefore analytic solutions at t = 0 cannot be expected in general. Nevertheless, we are able to construct a family of actual holomorphic solutions defined on a common bounded open sector with vertex at 0 in time and on the given strip above in space, when the complex parameter ɛ belongs to a suitably chosen set of open bounded sectors whose union form a covering of some neighborhood Ω of 0 in C*. These solutions are achieved by means of Laplace and Fourier inverse transforms of some common ɛ-depending function on C × R, analytic near the origin and with exponential growth on some unbounded sectors with appropriate bisecting directions in the first variable and exponential decay in the second, when the perturbation parameter belongs to Ω. Moreover, these solutions satisfy the remarkable property that the difference between any two of them is exponentially flat for some integer order w.r.t. ɛ. With the help of the classical Ramis-Sibuya theorem, we obtain the existence of a formal series (generally divergent) in ɛ which is the common Gevrey asymptotic expansion of the built up actual solutions considered above.

  2. WE-E-18A-10: Comparison of Patient Dose and Vessel Visibility Between Antiscatter Grid Removal and Lower Angiographic Radiation Dose Settings for Pediatric Imaging: A Preclinical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, K; Nachabe, R; Racadio, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To define an alternative to antiscatter grid (ASG) removal in angiographic systems which achieves similar patient dose reduction as ASG removal without degrading image quality during pediatric imaging. Methods: This study was approved by the local institution animal care and use committee (IACUC). Six different digital subtraction angiography settings were evaluated that altered the mAs, (100, 70, 50, 35, 25, 17.5% of reference mAs) with and without ASG. Three pigs of 5, 15, and 20 kg (9, 15, and 17 cm abdominal thickness; smaller than a newborn, average 3 yr old, and average 10 year old human abdomen respectively) were imaged using the six dose settings with and without ASG. Image quality was defined as the order of vessel branch that is visible relative to the injected vessel. Five interventional radiologists evaluated all images. Image quality and patient dose were statistically compared using analysis of variance and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis to define the preferred dose level and use of ASG for a minimum visibility of 2nd or 3rd order branches of vessel visibility. Results: ASG grid removal reduces dose by 26% with reduced image quality. Only with the ASG present can 3rd order branches be visualized; 100% mAs is required for 9 cm pig while 70% mAs is adequate for the larger pigs. 2nd order branches can be visualized with ASG at 17.5% mAs for all three pig sizes. Without the ASG, 50%, 35% and 35% mAs is required for smallest to largest pig. Conclusion: Removing ASG reduces patient dose and image quality. Image quality can be improved with the ASG present while further reducing patient dose if an optimized radiographic technique is used. Rami Nachabe is an employee of Philips Health Care; Keith Strauss is a paid consultant of Philips Health Care.

  3. A new marine cyclopoid copepod of the genus Neocyclops (Cyclopidae, Halicyclopinae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Chang, Cheon Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new cyclopoid species of the genus Neocyclops Gurney, 1927 is described. Type specimens were collected from a beach on south-western coast of the Korean Peninsula by rinsing intertidal coarse sandy sediments. Neocyclops hoonsooi sp. n. is most characteristic in showing the conspicuous chitinized transverse ridges originating from the medial margins of the coxae of all swimming legs. The new species is most similar to Neocyclops vicinus, described from the Brazilian coast, and Neocyclops petkovskii, from Australia. All three species share a large body size (more than 750 µm long), the presence of an exopodal seta on the antenna, two setae on the mandibular palp, the same seta/spine armature on the third endopodal segment of leg 3 (3 setae + 3 spines), and the fairly long inner distal spine on the third endopodal segment of the female leg 4. However, Neocyclops hoonsooi sp. n. differs from both species by the much shorter caudal rami (less than 1.7 times as long as wide) and the shorter dorsal caudal seta VII. Furthermore, Neocyclops hoonsooi is clearly distinguished from Neocyclops vicinus by the 10-segmented antennule (vs 12 segments in Neocyclops vicinus), and from Neocyclops petkovskii by the elongate inner distal spine on leg 5 exopod and the 3-segmented leg 5 in male (vs 4-segmented in Neocyclops petkovskii). A tabular comparison of characters separating Neocyclops hoonsooi from its closest allies and a key to Neocyclops species from the Indo-Pacific Ocean are provided. This is the first record of the genus Neocyclops from the northern Pacific. PMID:26448716

  4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism.

  5. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  6. Anatomy and physiology of a binocular system in the frog Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Gruberg, E R; Lettvin, J Y

    1980-06-23

    The locations of tectal neurons projecting to nucleus isthmi (n. isthmi) were found by iontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into n. isthmi. After retrograde transport, stained tectal somata are found to lie almost exclusively in layer 6 and below of the ipsilateral tectum. Many cells are colored throughout the extent of their dendrites into the fine rami, giving the appearance of a Golgi stain. Nucleus isthmi receives projections from the ipsilateral tectum and from no other region. Nucleus isthmi units recorded electrically respond to visual stimuli and are arranged in a topographic map of the visual field. There are two types of receptive fields, those with small centers and those with large centers. The small centers are about 3-5 degrees in diameter, similar to type 2 optic nerve fibers. Their response is to many of the same geometric features of stimulus as excite type 2 fibers. The large centers are at least 7-10 degrees in diameter and respond to many of the same features as excite types 3 and 4 optic nerve fibers. The responsiveness of small and large center n. isthmi units is very similar to the elements of the ipsilateral visual field projection onto tectum, i.e. the neuropilar units recorded in layers A and 8 of the tectum when the contralateral eye is occluded. These are in strong contrast to those of tectal cells of layer 6 and below, which have large receptive fields, show far less vivacious response, adapt extremely rapidly to repeated stimuli and are hard to describe in terms of characteristic stimuli because they are unresponsive most of the time. We suggest, therefore, that the axons of tecto-isthmic cells are quite active and that their cell bodies, located in layer 6 and below, only fire occasionally on the firing of their axons.

  7. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  8. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in

  9. Swelling and dissolution of cellulose in amine oxide/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chanzy, H.; Noe, P.; Paillet, M.; Smith, P.

    1983-01-01

    The swelling behavior and the dissolution process of various cellulosic fibers, both native and regenerated, in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (MMNO), dimethylethanolamine N-oxide (DMEAO), and mixtures thereof were studied in the presence of various amounts of water. The principal tools in this investigation were optical microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The two amine oxides could either dissolve or only swell cellulose, depending on the water concentration, which was found to be of critical importance. Three domains of water concentration were found important. When only a few percent water was present, cellulose fibers, such as ramie, cotton, rayon, etc., dissolved readily without noticeable swelling in the amine oxide/water system brought above its melting point. At a relatively high water concentration (e.g., 18% w/w for MMNO), the cellulose fibers exhibited an extensive swelling (up to sevenfold increase in the fiber diameter) but no dissolution. In that case, the removal of the swelling agent showed that the initial native cellulose fibers were converted into an unoriented cellulose II structure. With still greater water content (e.g., 20% and more for MMNO or 15% for DMEAO), only partial swelling was observed, and the native cellulose fibers recovered their initial oriented cellulose I structure after removal of the swelling medium. X-ray investigations provided no evidence forthe formation of cellulose/solvent complexes in the swollen fibers. A relatively large decrease of the cellulose I (110) reflection was found in the WAXS patterns of the gels. This is interpreted as due to a preferential cleavage of the cellulose crystals along the corresponding plane when the cellulose fibers are exposed to the swelling forces of the amine oxide/water systems. 29 references, 13 figures, 1 table.

  10. Homology of the enigmatic nuchal bone reveals novel reorganization of the shoulder girdle in the evolution of the turtle shell.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Bever, Gabe S; Joyce, Walter G; de Queiroz, Kevin; Abzhanov, Arhat; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2013-01-01

    The turtle shell represents a unique modification of the ancestral tetrapod body plan. The homologies of its approximately 50 bones have been the subject of debate for more than 200 years. Although most of those homologies are now firmly established, the evolutionary origin of the dorsal median nuchal bone of the carapace remains unresolved. We propose a novel hypothesis in which the nuchal is derived from the paired, laterally positioned cleithra-dorsal elements of the ancestral tetrapod pectoral girdle that are otherwise retained among extant tetrapods only in frogs. This hypothesis is supported by origin of the nuchal as paired, mesenchymal condensations likely derived from the neural crest followed by a unique two-stage pattern of ossification. Further support is drawn from the establishment of the nuchal as part of a highly conserved "muscle scaffold" wherein the cleithrum (and its evolutionary derivatives) serves as the origin of the Musculus trapezius. Identification of the nuchal as fused cleithra is congruent with its general spatial relationships to other elements of the shoulder girdle in the adult morphology of extant turtles, and it is further supported by patterns of connectivity and transformations documented by critical fossils from the turtle stem group. The cleithral derivation of the nuchal implies an anatomical reorganization of the pectoral girdle in which the dermal portion of the girdle was transformed from a continuous lateral-ventral arc into separate dorsal and ventral components. This transformation involved the reduction and eventual loss of the scapular rami of the clavicles along with the dorsal and superficial migration of the cleithra, which then fused with one another and became incorporated into the carapace. PMID:24074278

  11. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  12. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture. PMID:23707229

  13. The control of condylar growth: an experimental evaluation of the role of the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Whetten, L L; Johnston, L E

    1985-09-01

    The present study used 21 male albino rats to test the hypothesis that lateral pterygoid traction regulates the growth of the mandibular condyle. The condyles, the rami, and the top of each glenoid fossa were marked with metallic implants, and, following bilateral section of the condylar neck, one lateral pterygoid muscle was extirpated. On the basis of the literal details of Petrovic's cybernetic model, it was assumed that the continued forward growth of the midface and the backward translation of the glenoid fossa would combine to produce a progressive disturbance in the buccal occlusion that would, in turn, generate a reflex contraction of the remaining lateral pterygoid muscle. Initially, however, growth of the isolated condyles would have little impact on the spatial position of the rest of the mandible. As a result, the condyles on the side with the intact lateral pterygoid should grow for a time at a maximal, open-circuit rate, whereas the experimental condyle, deprived of all muscle traction, should show only a minimal "commanded" rate of growth. The serial change in the position of the condylar and ramal implants was assessed cephalometrically for 6 weeks, and between-sides differences were analyzed by randomized block analysis of variance. The presence or absence of the lateral pterygoid muscle had no significant effect on the anteroposterior position of the condylar implants and only a slight, transitory effect on their vertical position. The translation of the ramal implants, however, was greatly affected by the condylotomy. On both control and experimental sides, the mandible collapsed upward and backward until contact between the growing condyle and ramus had been achieved, whereupon a downward and forward pattern of translatory growth was re-established. Although it could not be shown that lateral pterygoid traction per se is a significant factor in the growth of isolated condyles, it was concluded that the condyle is vitally important to the

  14. Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) cranium through ontogeny: development of a hard prey specialist.

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Ketcham, Richard A; Rowe, Timothy

    2004-04-01

    The horn sharks (Heterodontidae: Chondrichthyes) represent one of four independent evolutions of durophagy in the cartilaginous fishes. We used high-resolution computed tomography (CT scanning) to visualize and quantify the mineralized tissue of an ontogenetic series of horn sharks. CT scanning of neonatal through adult California horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci) confirmed that this technique is effective for examining mineralized tissue in even small (<10 mm) specimens. The jaw joint is among the first areas to become mineralized and is the most heavily mineralized area in the cranium of a neonatal horn shark. The hyoid is also well mineralized, although the poorly mineralized molariform teeth indicate that the neonatal animal may be a suction feeder on softer prey. The symphysis of the jaws never mineralizes, in sharp contrast to the condition in the hard prey-crushing stingrays. Digitally reslicing the CT scans along the jaws allowed measurement of the second moment of area (Ina). Assuming that the jaws are made of the same material at all ages, Ina is an indicator of the flexural stiffness of the jaws. In all sizes of shark the lower jaws were stiffer than the upper and the stiffness increased in the area of the molariform teeth. The central region of the jaws, where the rami meet, support cuspidate grasping teeth and has the lowest Ina. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), a hard prey-crushing stingray, shows a different pattern of flexural stiffness, with the peak at the central part of the jaws where the prey is reduced between flattened tooth plates. Although the eagle ray jaws have a higher Ina than the horn shark, they are also far more heavily mineralized. When the relative amounts of mineralization are taken into account, horn sharks do better with what mineral they have than does the eagle ray. With a tight jaw joint and loose mandibular symphysis, as well as nearly opposite patterns of stiffness in the jaws, it is clear that two of the

  15. Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), part II: the Australian and southwest Pacific fauna

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.; Austin, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian and southwest Pacific species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 80 species are recognized as valid, 13 of which are redescribed: O. atricoxa (Dodd), O. concoloripes (Dodd), O. flavipes (Kieffer), O. grandis (Dodd), O. hyalinipennis (Dodd), O. magniclava (Dodd), O. mirellus (Dodd), O. montanus (Dodd), O. nigriclava (Dodd), O. nigricoxa (Dodd), O. rugulosus (Dodd), O. shakespearei (Girault), and O. solitarius (Dodd). Oxyscelio glabriscutellum (Dodd) syn. n. is placed as a subjective junior synonym of O. rugulosus. Sixty-seven new species are described, many representing new distributional records for the genus - O. aciculae Burks, sp. n., O. anfractus Burks, sp. n., O. bellariorum Burks, sp. n., O. bicoloripedis Burks, sp. n., O. brevitas Burks, sp. n., O. catenae Burks, sp. n., O. caudarum Burks, sp. n., O. circulorum Burks, sp. n., O. clivi Burks, sp. n., O. clupei Burks, sp. n., O. conjuncti Burks, sp. n., O. contusionis Burks, sp. n., O. corrugationis Burks, sp. n., O. croci Burks, sp. n., O. cuspidis Burks, sp. n., O. densitatis Burks, sp. n., O. dissimulationis Burks, sp. n., O. divisionis Burks, sp. n., O. exiguitatis Burks, sp. n., O. fluctuum Burks, sp. n., O. foliorum Burks, sp. n., O. funis Burks, sp. n., O. gressus Burks, sp. n., O. hamorum Burks, sp. n., O. incisurae Burks, sp. n., O. lenitatis Burks, sp. n., O. leviventris Burks, sp. n., O. limbi Burks, sp. n., O. liminis Burks, sp. n., O. linguae Burks, sp. n., O. lintris Burks, sp. n., O. livens Burks, sp. n., O. mystacis Burks, sp. n., O. nasi Burks, sp. n., O. nitoris Burks, sp. n., O. obliquiatis Burks, sp. n., O. oblongiclypei Burks, sp. n., O. obturationis Burks, sp. n., O. oculi Burks, sp. n., O. palati Burks, sp. n., O. pectinis Burks, sp. n., O. pollicis Burks, sp. n., O. proceritatis Burks, sp. n., O. productionis Burks, sp. n., O. radii Burks, sp. n., O. rami Burks, sp. n., O. rupturae Burks, sp. n., O. sarcinae Burks, sp. n., O

  16. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  17. Technial Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Chairpersons Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE), Ministry of Defence, Malaysia Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Members Professor Dr Li Jing, Beijing Normal University, China Professor Dr Iyyanki Muralikrishna, Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), India Professor Dr Alias Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Ismat Mohamed El Hassan, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Professor Dr George Miliaresis, Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus Professor Dr Christine Pohl, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Mahender Kotha, Goa University, India Associate Professor Dr Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy Associate Professor Dr Behara Seshadri Daya Sagar, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), India Associate Professor Sr Ranjit Singh, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Abdul Nasir Matori, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Malaysia Associate Dr Lucian Dragut, West University of Timişoara, Romania Associate Professor Dr Saied Pirasteh, Islamic Azad University, Iran Associate Professor Dr Peter Yuen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom Associate Professor Dr Lim Hwee San, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Wayan Suparta, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Tuong Thuy Vu, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Maged Mahmoud Marghany, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Rami Al-Ruzouq, University of Sharjah, UAE Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia

  18. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  19. Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) cranium through ontogeny: development of a hard prey specialist.

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Ketcham, Richard A; Rowe, Timothy

    2004-04-01

    The horn sharks (Heterodontidae: Chondrichthyes) represent one of four independent evolutions of durophagy in the cartilaginous fishes. We used high-resolution computed tomography (CT scanning) to visualize and quantify the mineralized tissue of an ontogenetic series of horn sharks. CT scanning of neonatal through adult California horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci) confirmed that this technique is effective for examining mineralized tissue in even small (<10 mm) specimens. The jaw joint is among the first areas to become mineralized and is the most heavily mineralized area in the cranium of a neonatal horn shark. The hyoid is also well mineralized, although the poorly mineralized molariform teeth indicate that the neonatal animal may be a suction feeder on softer prey. The symphysis of the jaws never mineralizes, in sharp contrast to the condition in the hard prey-crushing stingrays. Digitally reslicing the CT scans along the jaws allowed measurement of the second moment of area (Ina). Assuming that the jaws are made of the same material at all ages, Ina is an indicator of the flexural stiffness of the jaws. In all sizes of shark the lower jaws were stiffer than the upper and the stiffness increased in the area of the molariform teeth. The central region of the jaws, where the rami meet, support cuspidate grasping teeth and has the lowest Ina. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), a hard prey-crushing stingray, shows a different pattern of flexural stiffness, with the peak at the central part of the jaws where the prey is reduced between flattened tooth plates. Although the eagle ray jaws have a higher Ina than the horn shark, they are also far more heavily mineralized. When the relative amounts of mineralization are taken into account, horn sharks do better with what mineral they have than does the eagle ray. With a tight jaw joint and loose mandibular symphysis, as well as nearly opposite patterns of stiffness in the jaws, it is clear that two of the

  20. Combining node-centered parallel radiation transport and higher-order multi-material cell-centered hydrodynamics methods in three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics code TRHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-06-01

    Higher-order cell-centered multi-material hydrodynamics (HD) and parallel node-centered radiation transport (RT) schemes are combined self-consistently in three-temperature (3T) radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) code TRHD (Sijoy and Chaturvedi, 2015) developed for the simulation of intense thermal radiation or high-power laser driven RHD. For RT, a node-centered gray model implemented in a popular RHD code MULTI2D (Ramis et al., 2009) is used. This scheme, in principle, can handle RT in both optically thick and thin materials. The RT module has been parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) for parallel computation. Presently, for multi-material HD, we have used a simple and robust closure model in which common strain rates to all materials in a mixed cell is assumed. The closure model has been further generalized to allow different temperatures for the electrons and ions. In addition to this, electron and radiation temperatures are assumed to be in non-equilibrium. Therefore, the thermal relaxation between the electrons and ions and the coupling between the radiation and matter energies are required to be computed self-consistently. This has been achieved by using a node-centered symmetric-semi-implicit (SSI) integration scheme. The electron thermal conduction is calculated using a cell-centered, monotonic, non-linear finite volume scheme (NLFV) suitable for unstructured meshes. In this paper, we have described the details of the 2D, 3T, non-equilibrium, multi-material RHD code developed with a special attention to the coupling of various cell-centered and node-centered formulations along with a suite of validation test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. We also report the parallel performance of RT module. Finally, in order to demonstrate the full capability of the code implementation, we have presented the simulation of laser driven shock propagation in a layered thin foil. The simulation results are found to be in good

  1. Osteitis pubis in athletes. Infection, inflammation or injury?

    PubMed

    Fricker, P A; Taunton, J E; Ammann, W

    1991-10-01

    Medical records of 59 patients (9 females and 50 males), who presented to sports medicine clinics at the Australian Institute of Sport and the University of British Columbia between 1985 and 1990 and who were diagnosed as suffering osteitis pubis, were reviewed and comparison of data obtained was made with the literature. Women average 35.5 years of age (30 to 59 years) and men 30.3 years (13 to 61 years). Sports most frequently involved were running, soccer, ice hockey and tennis. Clinical presentations of osteitis pubis fell into 4 main groups. 'Mechanical' (sport-related) was the largest group (n = 48), followed by 'obstetric' (n = 5), 'inflammatory' (n = 4) and 'other' (n = 2). Period of follow-up averaged 10.3 months (1 to 20 months) in women and 17.5 months (2 to 96 months) in men. Full recovery, when documented, averaged 9.5 months in men and 7.0 months in women. Osteitis pubis recurred in 25% of these men and none of these women at follow-up. The most frequent symptoms were pubic pain and adductor pain. Men also presented with lower abdominal, hip and perineal or scrotal pain; women with hip pain. Most common signs were tenderness of the pubic symphysis and tenderness of adductor longus muscle origin. Men also revealed tenderness of one or both the superior pubic rami and evidence of decreased hip rotation (unilateral or bilateral). Evidence of pelvic malalignment and/or sacroiliac dysfunction was frequently seen in both men and women. There was poor correlation between radiographic and isotope bone scan findings and the site and duration of symptoms and signs. Femoral head ratios were estimated on 30 hips in the series and 2 were judged to be at the upper limit of normal, perhaps indicating a form of epiphysiolysis producing tilt deformity of the head of the femur. It is clear that osteitis pubis in athletes is not uncommon and that factors such as loss of rotation of hips and previous obstetric history are important in the aetiology and management of this

  2. Simulating supercell thunderstorms in a convective boundary layer: Effects on storm and boundary layer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Christopher J.

    formation of so-called "feeder clouds" and anking line convection in these simulations. These findings suggest potentially important rami fications regarding both non-mesocyclone and mesocyclone tornadoes in supercell thunderstorms in an environment with active boundary layer convection.

  3. MULTI-fs - A computer code for laser-plasma interaction in the femtosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Eidmann, K.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hüller, S.

    2012-03-01

    The code MULTI-fs is a numerical tool devoted to the study of the interaction of ultrashort sub-picosecond laser pulses with matter in the intensity range from 10 11 to 10 17 W cm -2. Hydrodynamics is solved in one-dimensional geometry together with laser energy deposition and transport by thermal conduction and radiation. In contrast to long nanosecond pulses, short pulses generate steep gradient plasmas with typical scale lengths in the order of the laser wavelength and smaller. Under these conditions, Maxwell's equations are solved explicitly to obtain the light field. Concerning laser absorption, two different models for the electron-ion collision frequency are implemented to cover the regime of warm dense matter between high-temperature plasma and solid matter and also interaction with short-wave-length (VUV) light. MULTI-fs code is based on the MULTI radiation-hydrodynamic code [R. Ramis, R. Schmalz, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Comp. Phys. Comm. 49 (1988) 475] and most of the original features for the treatment of radiation are maintained. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI-fs Catalogue identifier: AEKT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 598 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 443 771 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN Computer: PC (32 bits and 64 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 1.6 MiB Classification: 19.13, 21.2 Subprograms used: Cat Id: AECV_v1_0; Title: MULTI2D; Reference: CPC 180 (2009) 977 Nature of problem: One-dimensional interaction of intense ultrashort (sub-picosecond) and ultraintense (up to 10 17 W cm -2) laser beams with matter. Solution method: The hydrodynamic motion coupled to laser propagation and

  4. Search for a cardiac nociceptor: stimulation by bradykinin of sympathetic afferent nerve endings in the heart of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, D G; Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C; Nerdrum, T

    1980-01-01

    1. We have examined the effect of bradykinin on impulse traffic in sympathetic afferent fibres from the heart, great vessels and pleura, and have attempted to identify cardiac nociceptors that on the basis of their functional characteristics might have a role in the initiation of cardiac pain. 2. In anaesthetized cats, we recorded afferent impulses from 'single-fibre' slips of the left 2nd--5th thoracic rami communicantes and associated chain, and selected fibres arising from endings in the heart, great vessels, pericardium and pleura. We applied bradykinin solution (0 . 1--1 . 0 microgram/ml.) locally to the site of the ending; we also injected bradykinin (0 . 3--1 . 0 microgram/kg) into the left atrium. 3. Afferent endings excited by bradykinin (159 of 191 tested) were of two types. The larger group (140) were primarily mechanoreceptors with A delta of C fibres (mean conduction velocity, 7 . 5 +/- 0 . 6 m/sec). They were very sensitive to light touch. Those located in the heart, great vessels or overlying pleura had a cardiac rhythm of discharge and were stimulated by an increase in blood pressure or cardiac volume. 4. Bradykinin increased mechanoreceptor firing from 0 . 7 +/- to 5 . 0 +/- 0 . 3 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) impulses/sec. Some endings appeared to be stimulated directly by bradykinin, others sensitized by it so that they responded more vigorously to the pulsatile mechanical stimulation associated with the cardiac cycle. 5. The smaller group of eighteen endings, of which ten were in the left ventricle, were primarily chemosensitive. Most had C fibres, a few had A delta fibres (mean conduction velocity, 2 . 3 +/- 0 . 7 m/sec). They were insensitive to light touch. With one exception they never fired with a cardiac rhythm, and even large increases in aortic or left ventricular pressure had little effect on impulse frequency. 6. Chemosensitive endings were stimulated by bradykinin, impulse activity increasing from 0 . 6 to 15 . 6 +/- 1 . 3 impulses/sec and

  5. Minimally invasive surgery under fluoro-navigation for anterior pelvic ring fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-Hua; Luo, Cong-Feng; Chen, Nong; Hu, Cheng-Fang; Pan, Fu-Gen

    2016-01-01

    screws. Results: A total of 32 screws were inserted, including 19 in the pubic ramis and 13 in the anterior acetabular columns. The average surgical time was 23.3 min/screw. The average time of X-ray exposure was 19.1 ± 2.5 s/screw. The virtual images of fluoro-navigation were compared with real-time X-rays during and after the surgery. Compared to the final position of the screw, the average deviated distance was 3.11 mm and the average trajectory difference was 2.81°. Blood loss during the operation was minimal (22.3 ml/screw). One screw (3.1%) deviated out of the fracture site during the operation. No superficial or deep infection occurred. No patient sustained recognized neurologic, vascular, or urologic injury as a result of the percutaneous screw fixation. All fractures united at the last followup. Conclusions: Fluoro-navigation technique could become a safe, accurate, and fairly quick method for the treatment of anterior pelvic ring fractures. Standardization of the operative procedure and training are mandatory for the success of this procedure. PMID:27293284

  6. An Overview of Project Planning for Hot-Isostatic Pressure Treatment of High-Level Waste Calcine for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12289

    SciTech Connect

    Nenni, Joseph A.; Thompson, Theron J.

    2012-07-01

    , maintainability, and inspectability analysis were incorporated into a time and motion model to validate and verify the capability to complete treatment of the calcine within the required schedule. The Calcine Disposition Project systems engineering approach, including use of industry-proven design-for-quality tools and quantitative assessment techniques, has strengthened the project's design capability to meet its intended mission in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Use of these tools has been particularly helpful to the project in early design planning to manage variation; improve requirements and high-consequence risk management; and more effectively apply alternative, interface, failure mode, RAMI, and time and motion analyses at the earliest possible stages of design when their application is most efficient and cost effective. The project is using these tools to design and develop HIP treatment of highly radioactive calcine to produce a volume-reduced, monolithic waste form with immobilization of hazardous and radioactive constituents. (authors)

  7. Surface Modification of Nanocellulose Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe, Justin Orazio

    Cellulose fibers constitute an important renewable raw material that is utilized in many commercial applications in non-food, paper, textiles and composite materials. Chemical functionalization is an important approach for improving the properties of cellulose based materials. Different approaches are used to graft polymeric chains onto cellulose substrates, which can be classified by two principal routes, namely 'grafting onto' or 'grafting from' methods. Never-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or nanowhiskers produced from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers were used as substrates for surface chemical functionalization with various macromolecules. In addition, the use of cellulose nanocrystals to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers was studied. Chemical grafting with low molecular weight polycaprolactone diol onto cellulose nanocrystals was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals were confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNCs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. The CNCs were also grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NiPAAm)) brushes via surface-initiated single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SI-SETLRP) under various conditions at room temperature. The grafting process depended on the initiator and/or monomer concentrations used. No observable damage occurred to the CNCs after grafting, as determined by X-ray diffraction. Size exclusion chromatography analyses of polymer chains cleaved from the cellulose nanocrystals indicated that a higher degree of polymerization was achieved by increasing initiator or monomer loading, most likely caused by local heterogeneities yielding higher rates of polymerization. In addition, the colloidal stability and thermo

  8. Multi-wavelength characterization of carbonaceous aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabò, Dario; Caponi, Lorenzo; Chiara Bove, Maria; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Prati, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    . (2006). Black Carbon or Brown Carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 3131-3148. Bond, T., Bergstrom, R. W. (2006). Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review. Aerosol Science and Technology, 40, 27-67. Petzold, A., Schölinner, M. (2004). Multi-angle absorption photometry—a new method for the measurement of aerosol light absorption and atmospheric black carbon. Journal of Aerosol Science, 35, 421-441. Sandradewi, J., Prevot, A.H., Zidat, S., Perron, N., Rami Alfarra, M., Lanz, V., Weingartner, E., Baltensperger, U. (2008). Using Aerosol Light Absorption Measurements for the Quantitative Determination of Wood Burning and Traffic emission Contributions to Particulate Matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 3316-3323.

  9. Novel Lignocellulosic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresin, Maria Soledad

    2011-12-01

    Obtained by acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to reinforce nanofiber webs of different polymeric matrices via electrospinning. Poly vinyl acetate (PVA) with different degrees of hydrolysis was chosen due to its biodegradability and ease of processability. Homogeneous webs of smooth, defect-free and continuous fibers were prepared presenting diameters on the nanoscale, containing from 5 to 15% wt of CNC. The webs were characterized in terms of chemical, morphological, and thermo-mechanical properties. Strong interaction between PVA matrix with CNC, mainly via hydrogen bond network was evidenced; however, it was reduced in samples with higher content of acetyl groups. Most interestingly, the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite mats increased significantly as a consequence of the reinforcing effect of CNC, via the percolation network held by hydrogen bonds and the efficient stress transfer between the reinforcing CN and the fully hydrolyzed PVA electrospun fibers. Reduction in the degree of crystallinity of CN-loaded webs was observed as a result of transnucleation effect of the nanoparticles. Due to the hydrophilicity of the matrix, the effect of different relative humidities on the morphological and thermo-mechanical properties of the electrospun was also studied. The incorporation of CNC was shown to improve the morphological stability of the webs even at high humidity levels. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the electrospun fiber webs was drastically affected by the balance between the moisture-induced plasticization and the rigidity of the reinforcing CNC. Results indicated that water absorption might have a negative effect on the stabilizing effect of CNC in the PVA matrix due to a disruption of the hydrogen bond network within the structure. Humidity- induced reduction in tensile strength of neat PVA fiber webs was shown to be significantly prevented by the presence of CNC in the webs; and a fully reversible recovery in

  10. Surface Modification of Nanocellulose Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe, Justin Orazio

    Cellulose fibers constitute an important renewable raw material that is utilized in many commercial applications in non-food, paper, textiles and composite materials. Chemical functionalization is an important approach for improving the properties of cellulose based materials. Different approaches are used to graft polymeric chains onto cellulose substrates, which can be classified by two principal routes, namely 'grafting onto' or 'grafting from' methods. Never-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or nanowhiskers produced from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers were used as substrates for surface chemical functionalization with various macromolecules. In addition, the use of cellulose nanocrystals to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers was studied. Chemical grafting with low molecular weight polycaprolactone diol onto cellulose nanocrystals was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals were confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNCs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. The CNCs were also grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NiPAAm)) brushes via surface-initiated single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SI-SETLRP) under various conditions at room temperature. The grafting process depended on the initiator and/or monomer concentrations used. No observable damage occurred to the CNCs after grafting, as determined by X-ray diffraction. Size exclusion chromatography analyses of polymer chains cleaved from the cellulose nanocrystals indicated that a higher degree of polymerization was achieved by increasing initiator or monomer loading, most likely caused by local heterogeneities yielding higher rates of polymerization. In addition, the colloidal stability and thermo

  11. An estimation of Central Iberian Peninsula atmospheric δ13C and water δD in the Upper Cretaceous using pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA) of a fossil conifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; De la Rosa, José M.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    /alkene series in the range C24-C29 (δD = -124.44±5.2‰). This was taken as a proxy to infer the original H isotopic signal of water in the area in the Upper Cretaceous. Poole et al. (2004) proposed that δDpalaeowarter= δDC24-C29 n-alkanes + 100 giving a value for plaeowater δD = -24.44±5.2‰. This indicates that 75 Mya our plant probably uptake deuterium enriched rain water that again points to warm growing environmental conditions. (1) Gómez, B.; Martín-Closas C.; Brale G.; Solé de Porta N.; Thévenard F.; Guignard G. Paleontology 2002 45, 997-1036. (2) Nguyen Tu, T.T.; Kvaček, J.; Uličnỷ, D.; Bocherens, H.; Mariotti, A.; Broutin, J. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2002 183, 43-70. (3) Almendros, G.; Álvarez-Ramis, C.; Polo, A. Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 1982 76, 285-302. (4) Dabin, B. Chah. ORSTOM Ser. Pedol. 1976 4, 287-297. (5) Schnitzer, M.; Khan, S.U. Humic Substances in the Environment. Marcel Dekker Inc. 1972, New York, N.Y. (6) Dorado, E.; Polo. A. An. Edafol. Agrobiol. 1976 55, 723-732. (7) Bocherens, H.; Friis, E.M.; Mariotti, A.; Pedersen, K.R. Lethaia 1993 26, 347-358. (8) Nguyen Tu, T.T.; Bocherens, H.; Mariotti, A.; Baudin, F.; Pons, D.; Broutin, J.; Derenne, S.; Largeau C. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 1999 145, 79-93. (9) Aucour, A-.M.; Gomez, B.; Sheppard, S.M.F., Thévenard, F. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2008 257, 462-473. (10) Michener, N.; Lajtha K. (Eds). Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science (2nd Ed) 2007 Blackwell Publishing. (11) Poole, I., van Bergen, P.F.; Kool, K.; Schouten , S.; Cantrill, D. J. Org. Geochem. 2004 35, 1261-1274. (12) Gerber, S.; Joos, F.; Brügger, P.; Stocker, T.F.; Mann, M.E.; Sitch, S.; Scholze, M. Clim. Dyn. 2003 20, 281-299, 2003 (13) Pedentchouk, N.; Freeman, K.H.; Harris, N.B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2006 70, 2063-2072. (14) Radke, J.; Bechtel, A.; Gaupp, R.; Püttmann, W.; Schwark, L.; Sachse D.; Gleixner, G. Geochim

  12. [Relevance of nerve blocks in treating and diagnosing low back pain--is the quality decisive?].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, J

    2001-12-01

    Diagnostic nerve blocks: The popularity of neural blockade as a diagnostic tool in painful conditions, especially in the spine, is due to features like the unspecific character of spinal pain, the irrelevance of radiological findings and the purely subjective character of pain. It is said that apart from specific causes of pain and clear radicular involvement with obvious neurological deficits and corresponding findings of a prolapsed disc in MRI or CT pictures, a diagnosis of the anatomical cause of the pain can only be established if invasive tests are used [5]. These include zygapophyseal joint blocks, sacroiliacal joint blocks, disc stimulation and nerve root blocks. Under controlled conditions, it has been shown that among patients with chronic nonradicular low back pain, some 10-15% have zygapophyseal joint pain [58], some 15-20% have sacroiliacal joint pain [36, 59] and 40% have pain from internal disc disruption [60]. The diagnostic use of neural blockade rests on three premises. First, pathology causing pain is located in an exact peripheral location, and impulses from this site travel via a unique and consistent neural root. Second, injection of local aneasthetic totally abolishes sensory function of intended nerves and does not affect other nerves. Third, relief of pain after local anaesthetic block is attributable solely to block of the target afferent neural pathway. The validity of these assumptions is limited by complexities of anatomy, physiology, and psychology of pain perception and the effect of local anaesthetics on impulse conduction [28]. Facet joints: The prevalence of zygapophyseal joint pain among patients with low back pain seems to be between 15% and 40% [62], but apparently only 7% of patients have pure facet pain [8, 29]. Facet blockade is achieved either by injection of local anaesthetic into the joint space or around the medial branches of the posterior medial rami of the spinal nerves that innervate the joint. There are several