Science.gov

Sample records for stadius rami ahola

  1. RAMIS DBMS Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J.

    1984-01-01

    Highlights of a round table discussion of end-user computing, IBM strategies, fourth generation languages, and directions for software innovation are presented as well as observations from an in-depth study of 271 organizations. The RAMIS data base management system is evaluated according to 10 defining criteria for a fourth-generation language: result-oriented programming; common language/demand level adaptability; application extension; user/machine insulation; work station environment; comprehensive software toolkit; integrating perspective on computing and data resources; end user data base capability; accessible dictionaries; and user assistance/facility coordination.

  2. The human lumbar dorsal rami.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N; Wilson, A S; Tynan, W

    1982-01-01

    The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described. PMID:7076562

  3. Study on length distribution of ramie fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extra-long length of ramie fibers and the high variation in fiber length has a negative impact on the spinning processes. In order to better study the feature of ramie fiber length, in this research, the probability density function of the mixture model applied in the characterization of cotton...

  4. Raman microprobe analysis of single ramie fiber during mercerization

    Treesearch

    Akira Isogai; Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai H. Atalla

    2003-01-01

    The Raman microprobe technique was applied to structural analysis of single ramie fibers during mercerization. Polarized laser beam was irradiated on a ramie fiber in 0-30 % NaOD/D2O with the electric vector at 0 or 90° to the fiber axis, and Raman spectra thus obtained were studied in relation to the concentration of NaOD in D2O. Conversion of -OH to -OD in ramie...

  5. Major haemorrhage in pubic rami fractures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Hong; Shivji, Faiz; Forward, Daren

    2015-03-04

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department, having fallen 6 ft from a ladder, with pain over his left hip and shoulder. He was managed according to the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol, and his primary survey showed no haemodynamic compromise. Initial radiographs showed a unilateral left superior and inferior pubic rami fracture, which was treated conservatively. Forty-eight hours post-admission, the patient became tachycardic and hypotensive and was found to have dropped his haemoglobin from 125 to 89 g/L. After resuscitation, a repeat contrast CT scan revealed an enlarging haematoma in his pelvis. This was treated with urgent angioembolisation and the patient was further stabilised in the intensive care unit. This report shows the need for a low threshold in suspecting intrapelvic bleeds in patients with pubic rami fractures, and the need for prompt treatment of such patients, either surgically or radiologically.

  6. Tensile Strength of Polyester Composites Reinforced with Thinner Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; de Pontes, Lucas Almeida; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Ferreira, Jordana; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Margem, Jean Igor

    This study evaluated the tensile properties of polyester composites reinforced with ramie fibers with thinner diameters. Specimens with different ramie fibers percentages (0,10,20 and 30%) in continuous and aligned ramie stalk fibers volume, were tensile tested at room temperature to evaluate the ultimate strength, elastic modulus and total strain. The results indicated that the tensile properties tend to improve with increasing volume fraction of ramie fibers. The role played by the fiber/matrix interaction was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N

    1976-01-01

    The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat were studied by gross dissection. The L1-6 dorsal rami form three discrete branches - lateral, intermediate and medial. The lateral branches supply the iliocostalis lumborum and become cutaneous over the back. The intermediate branches ramify in the longissimus lumborum, and are separated from the lateral branches by the lumbar intermuscular septum. The medial branches supply the multifidus and have a constant branch - the nerve to intertransversarii mediales. The L7 dorsal ramus forms only medial and intermediate branches. The S1 and S2 dorsal rami form three branches, the middle of which form the ascending sacral trunk and accessory ascending sacral trunk. The ascending sacral trunk is derived from S1 and S2, the accessory ascending sacral trunk from S2. Both nerves are the exclusive nerve supply of lumbococcygeus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010794

  8. Enhancing the growth and yield of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) by ramie biomass waste in liquid form and gibberellic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, C.; Nuraini, A.; Wulandari, A. P.; Kadapi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the most important sources of natural fibre, a sustainable biomass. The growth and yield of ramie are affected by mineral nutrients. In the present study, we usedfertilizers from waste of ramie biomass in liquid form (liquid organic fertilizer, LOF) and the other treatment is by gibberellic acid (GA3). This study was to obtain the effect of treatments on enhance the growth and yield of ramie. Hence, we measure the character that related to the important parameter for biomass product of ramie. Such plant height, stem diameter, dry plant weight, and ramie fresh stem weight of ramie clone Pujon 13. This research was conducted from January 2016 to March 2016 at Research Field Ciparanje, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java with an altitude of about ± 750 m above sea level. The type of Soil in this area is Inceptisolsoil order and thetype of rainfall according to Schmidt and Fergusson Classification is C type. The experiment used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of eight treatments (GA and LOF) and four replications. The concentration of GA from 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm and for concentration of LOF is 40 mlL-1. We suggested the treatment of GA 150 ppm with 40 mlL-1 LOF was the best treatment on enhancing plant height and stem fresh weight of ramie clone Pujon 13.

  9. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Devi, Dipali; Kalita, Dhaneswar; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-05-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  10. [Vascular complications after pelvic rami fracture].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lombardía, J; Paz-Aparicio, A; Hernández-Vaquero, D

    2014-01-01

    The case is presented of a 78 year-old patient who suffered a right ileo- and ischiopubic rami fracture after a casual fall. A few hours later, she presented with sudden abdominal pain and hypotension. Imaging test showed extraperitoneal hemorrhage with active bleeding and hemodynamic compromise. The progressive worsening, with anemia and hemodynamic instability, required her being sent to the reference hospital for selective embolization of the bleeding point. After embolization, the patient́s situation stabilized, and she was then able to sit down one week later. The fracture consolidated 3 months later. Although low-energy pelvic fractures by lateral compression do not usually present with complications, sometimes they require a strict control due to the potential risk of vascular injuries. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud.) in Response to Ramie Moth (Cocytodes coerulea Guenée) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liangbin; Shen, Airong; Chen, Jia; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Xue, Zhaodong

    2016-01-01

    The ramie moth Cocytodes coerulea Guenée (RM) is an economically important pest that seriously impairs the yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the ramie-pest interactions are unclear up to date. Therefore, a transcriptome profiling analysis would aid in understanding the ramie defense mechanisms against RM. In this study, we first constructed two cDNA libraries derived from RM-challenged (CH) and unchallenged (CK) ramie leaves. The subsequent sequencing of the CH and CK libraries yielded 40.2 and 62.8 million reads, respectively. Furthermore, de novo assembling of these reads generated 26,759 and 29,988 unigenes, respectively. An integrated assembly of data from these two libraries resulted in 46,533 unigenes, with an average length of 845 bp per unigene. Among these genes, 24,327 (52.28%) were functionally annotated by predicted protein function. A comparative analysis of the CK and CH transcriptome profiles revealed 1,980 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 750 were upregulated and 1,230 were downregulated. A quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 13 random selected genes confirmed the gene expression patterns that were determined by Illumina sequencing. Among the DEGs, the expression patterns of transcription factors, protease inhibitors, and antioxidant enzymes were studied. Overall, these results provide useful insights into the defense mechanism of ramie against RM. PMID:27034936

  12. Gene expression profiling of ramie roots during hydroponic induction and adaption to aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gang; Xiong, Heping; Chen, Kunmei; Chen, Jikang; Chen, Ping; Yu, Chunming; Zhu, Aiguo

    2017-12-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) is a traditionally terrestrial fiber crop. However, hydroponic technology can enhance the quantity and quality of disease free Ramie plant seedlings for field cultivation. To date, few studies have attempted to examine the hydroponic induction of ramie roots and the molecular responses of ramie roots to aquatic environment. In this study, ramie tender stems was grown in the soil or in a hydroponic water solution, and cultured in the same environmental conditions. Root samples of terrestrial ramie, and different developmental stages of hydroponic ramie (5 days, 30 days), were firstly pooled for reference transcriptome sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Gene expression levels of each samples were quantified using the BGISEQ500 platform to help understand the distribution of aquatic root development related genes at the macro level (GSE98903). Our data resources provided an opportunity to elucidate the adaptation mechanisms of ramie seedlings roots in aquatic environment.

  13. RAMI analysis and modeling for the LANSCE accelerator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) have become important issues for the high-power machines being planned for applications such as accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW), accelerator production of tritium (APT) and the next generation spallation neutron source. Beam reliability and beam availability are vitally important specifications to the present users of accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources, synchrotron light sources and medical accelerators. At Los Alamos, improved beam availability is a key goal in the planned LANSCE improvement program. Clearly, the capability to adequately model and predict the reliability and availability of complex accelerator systems will be of great value in assessing and optimizing RAMI measures in accelerator design and improvement programs. To date, no major accelerator project has developed comprehensive reliability models although the Advance Photon Source at ANL has started work on reliability analysis for selected subsystems. In this paper the authors discuss their experience in developing RAMI analysis and modeling for the LANSCE Accelerator Systems. Progress has been made in developing suitable measures and functions to characterize user risk, in logging of needed data on failure rates and repair/down times, and in developing a first-pass RAMI model for selected subsystems. Plans have been made for a more complete RAMI model. In addition, the authors discuss their experience in the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology for estimation of the reliability of active, instrumentation-based, radiation safety systems at LANSCE.

  14. [Pretreatment of ramie and kenaf stalk for bioethanol production].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fenfen; Sun, Wan; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-05-01

    Ramie and kenaf were traditional fiber crops in China, but their stalk after decorticating has not been used effectively. The stalk contains a lot of cellulose, and can therefore be used for the production of bioethanol. We studied the effects of different chemical pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility of ramie stalk and kenaf stalk. Ramie and kenaf stalks pretreated with alkali were chosen to produce ethanol using quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (Q-SSF) process. The results show that for the stalks pretreated with 4% NaOH and 0.02% anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (AQSS) as catalyzer at 170 degrees C for 1 h, the ethanol concentration could reach 51 g/L after fermentation for 168 h at 18% of solid substrate concentration. By fed-batch to 20% of solid substrate concentration, the ethanol concentration could reach 63 g/L, 77% and 79% of the cellulose conversion could get for ramie stalk and kenaf stalk, respectively. For kenaf stalk pretreated with 5.2% NaHSO3 and 0.2% H2SO4 at 170 degrees C for 1 h, the ethanol concentration and cellulose conversion could reach to 65 g/L and 72%, respectively.

  15. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-09-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers.

  16. Progress in the RAMI analysis of a conceptual LHCD system for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirizzi, F.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) concepts and techniques, that acquired great importance during the first manned space missions, have been progressively extended to industrial, scientific and consumer equipments to assure them satisfactory performances and lifetimes. In the design of experimental facilities, like tokamaks, mainly aimed at demonstrating validity and feasibility of scientific theories, RAMI analysis has been often left aside. DEMO, the future prototype fusion reactors, will be instead designed for steadily delivering electrical energy to commercial grids, so that the RAMI aspects will assume an absolute relevance since their initial design phases. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the LHCD system for the conceptual EU DEMO reactor is given in the paper.

  17. Progress in the RAMI analysis of a conceptual LHCD system for DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mirizzi, F.

    2014-02-12

    Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) concepts and techniques, that acquired great importance during the first manned space missions, have been progressively extended to industrial, scientific and consumer equipments to assure them satisfactory performances and lifetimes. In the design of experimental facilities, like tokamaks, mainly aimed at demonstrating validity and feasibility of scientific theories, RAMI analysis has been often left aside. DEMO, the future prototype fusion reactors, will be instead designed for steadily delivering electrical energy to commercial grids, so that the RAMI aspects will assume an absolute relevance since their initial design phases. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the LHCD system for the conceptual EU DEMO reactor is given in the paper.

  18. Molecular identity of ramie germplasms using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Luan, M B; Chen, B F; Zou, Z Z; Zhu, J J; Wang, X F; Xu, Y; Sun, Z M; Chen, J H

    2015-03-27

    DNA identity is highly effective and efficient for distinguishing crop varieties regardless of their phenotypic similarities. To establish DNA identity in ramie, 21 simple sequence repeat primers were amplified in 108 accessions of domestic and exotic ramie germplasms. Sixty polymorphic bands were obtained, with an average of 2.9 bands per locus and 2-8 band types per primer locus (average of 5.19 band types). The Simpson's diversity index of the 21 simple sequence repeat loci ranged from 0.158 to 0.808 with an average of 0.612. There was large difference in the specific index in the germplasm tested, from 44.082 to 218.163, with an average of 83.620. Based on allele band type, 8 primer pairs were selected for DNA fingerprinting of the 108 genotypes. The combination of the 8 primer pairs were found to be very effective for distinguishing these genotypes, indicating that they can be used in the molecular DNA identity of ramie.

  19. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P. E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P. R. J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Verstraete, M. M.; Xie, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary basis. The first phase of RAMI focused on documenting the spread among radiative transfer (RT) simulations over a small set of primarily 1-D canopies. The second phase expanded the scope to include structurally complex 3-D plant architectures with and without background topography. Here sometimes significant discrepancies were noted which effectively prevented the definition of a reliable "surrogate truth," over heterogeneous vegetation canopies, against which other RT models could then be compared. The present paper documents the outcome of the third phase of RAMI, highlighting both the significant progress that has been made in terms of model agreement since RAMI-2 and the capability of/need for RT models to accurately reproduce local estimates of radiative quantities under conditions that are reminiscent of in situ measurements. Our assessment of the self-consistency and the relative and absolute performance of 3-D Monte Carlo models in RAMI-3 supports their usage in the generation of a "surrogate truth" for all RAMI test cases. This development then leads (1) to the presentation of the "RAMI Online Model Checker" (ROMC), an open-access web-based interface to evaluate RT models automatically, and (2) to a reassessment of the role, scope, and opportunities of the RAMI project in the future.

  20. Tensile strength of ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE thermoplastic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Banowati, Lies Hadi, Bambang K. Suratman, Rochim Faza, Aulia

    2016-03-29

    Technological developments should be trooped to prevent a gap between technology and environmental sustainability, then it needs to be developed “Green technology”. In this research is making of green composites which use natural fiber ramie as reinforcement. Whereas the matrix used was HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) thermoplastic polymer which could be recycled and had a good formability and flexibility. The ramie yarns and fibers for unidirectional (0°) direction respectively were mixed with HDPE powder and processed using hot compression molding. The surface morphology was observed by SEM (Scanning Electrone Microscopy). Results showed that both tensile strength of the ramie fiber/HDPE composites increased in comparison with the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites. However, the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites have a good producibility for wider application. Analysis of the test results using the Weibull distribution as approaches to modeling the reliability of the specimens.

  1. Tensile strength of ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE thermoplastic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banowati, Lies; Hadi, Bambang K.; Suratman, Rochim; Faza, Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Technological developments should be trooped to prevent a gap between technology and environmental sustainability, then it needs to be developed "Green technology". In this research is making of green composites which use natural fiber ramie as reinforcement. Whereas the matrix used was HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) thermoplastic polymer which could be recycled and had a good formability and flexibility. The ramie yarns and fibers for unidirectional (0°) direction respectively were mixed with HDPE powder and processed using hot compression molding. The surface morphology was observed by SEM (Scanning Electrone Microscopy). Results showed that both tensile strength of the ramie fiber/HDPE composites increased in comparison with the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites. However, the ramie yarn (spinning by machine)/HDPE composites have a good producibility for wider application. Analysis of the test results using the Weibull distribution as approaches to modeling the reliability of the specimens.

  2. Identification of drought stress-responsive transcription factors in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ramie fiber extracted from stem bark is one of the most important natural fibers. Drought is a main environment stress which severely inhibits the stem growth of ramie and leads to a decrease of the fiber yield. The drought stress-regulatory mechanism of ramie is poorly understood. Result Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 4.8 and 4.7 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were respectively sequenced in the cDNA libraries derived from the drought-stressed ramie (DS) and the control ramie under well water condition (CO). The tags generated from the two libraries were aligned with ramie transcriptome to annotate their function and a total of 23,912 and 22,826 ramie genes were matched by these tags of DS and CO library, respectively. Comparison of gene expression level between CO and DS ramie based on the differences of tag frequencies appearing in the two libraries revealed that there were 1516 potential drought stress-responsive genes, in which 24 genes function as transcription factor (TF). Among these 24 TFs, the unigene19721 encoding the DELLA protein which is a key negative regulator in gibberellins (GAs) signal pathway was probably markedly up-regulated under water stress for a increase of tag abundance in DS library, which is possibly responsible for the inhibition of the growth of drought-stressed ramie. In order to validate the change of expression of these potential stress-responsive TFs under water deficit condition, the unigene19721 and another eleven potential stress-responsive TFs were chosen for further expression analysis in well-watered and drought-stressed ramie by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and the result showed that all 12 TFs were authentically involved in the response of drought stress. Conclusion In this study, twelve TFs involving in the response of drought stress were first found by Illumina tag-sequencing and qRT-PCR in ramie. The discovery of these drought stress-responsive TFs will be helpful for further understanding the

  3. Easy alignment and effective nucleation activity of ramie fibers in injection-molded poly(lactic acid) biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Liu, Chun-Yan; Chen, Chen; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ramie fiber biocomposites were fabricated, which exhibited considerable reinforcement effect comparable to the glass fiber at the same loading. The attempts were made to understand the flow-induced morphology of ramie fibers and PLA crystals in the injection-molded PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, thus revealing its relationship to biocomposite mechanical properties. The polarized optical microscopy (POM) and two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D-WAXD) were for the first time used to determine the distribution of nature fibers, which interestingly showed the ramie fibers aligned well along the flow direction over the whole thickness of injection-molded parts, instead of skin-core structure. This easy alignment of ramie fibers during the common processing was ascribed to the intrinsically high flexibility of ramie fibers and strong interfacial interaction between PLA chains and cellulose molecules of ramie fibers. Both 2D-WAXD and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements suggested that the PLA matrix in its ramie biocomposites had rather high orientation degree and crystallinity, which was attributed to effective heterogeneous nucleation induced by ramie fibers and local shearing field in the vicinity of fiber surface. Remarkable improvement of mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties was achieved for PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, without sacrifice of toughness and ductility. Addition of 30wt% ramie fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus of PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites from 65.6 and 1468 MPa for pure PLA to 91.3 and 2977 MPa, respectively. These superior mechanical properties were ascribed to easy alignment of ramie fibers, high crystallinity of PLA, and favorable interfacial adhesion as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and theoretical analysis based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variations in the number and position of human lumbar sympathetic ganglia and rami communicantes.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamagata, Masatsune; Takahashi, Yuzuru; Shimada, Yutaka; Moriya, Hideshige

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide precise anatomical and statistical information about the number and location of lumbar sympathetic ganglia and the number and length of the related rami communicantes, and to consider the neurological pathway for nociception from the low back. Three-hundred ninety-three ganglia and 719 rami communicantes from 50 human cadavers were identified by gross dissection. The number of ganglia in a single lumbar chain ranged from 2 to 6, the mean being 3.9. The mean lengths of rami connected to the 1st and 5th lumbar spinal nerves, respectively, were significantly longer and shorter than those connected to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th nerves. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia and rami communicantes were not distributed segmentally. The present results may assist in understanding the nociceptive pathway from the low back. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Combined pubic rami and sacral osteoporotic fractures: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alnaib, M; Waters, S; Shanshal, Y; Caplan, N; Jones, S; St Clair Gibson, A; Kader, D

    2012-06-01

    Pelvic osteoporotic fractures (POFs) are often associated with considerable morbidity and mortality mainly as a result of infections and cardiovascular events. Patients usually need prolonged institutionalization, rehabilitation, and follow-up, with a high rate of dependency and cost. The most common sites of POFs include the pubic rami, sacrum, ilium, and acetabulum. Combined pubic rami (PROFs) and sacral osteoporotic fractures (SOFs) have been reported, mostly in retrospective studies, describing the mechanism of injury and incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between PROFs and SOFs and to assess the effect of combined PROFs and SOFs on patients' mobility, discharge destination, and length of stay. We prospectively studied 67 patients with low-impact PROFs and/or SOFs. There were 54 (80.4%) female and 13 (19.6%) male patients, and the average age was 87.5 (range 65-96) years. All patients were assessed by the fracture liaison service. Patients had magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan when there was history of low back pain following the injury or lumbosacral tenderness on clinical examination. The mean length of stay for all patients was 45 (± 35) days. Mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant relationship was found between low back pain and a positive finding of sacral fracture. Patients with combined PROFs and SOFs showed significantly longer length of stay than those with isolated PROFs. The presence of low back pain and tenderness in patients who had low-impact pelvic injuries was highly suggestive of the presence of an associated SOF. There was a high association between sacral and PROFs. The length of stay of patients with PROFs associated with sacral osteoporotic fractures was significantly longer than that of patients with PROFs only. Therefore, we recommend considering the high association between SOFs and PROFs in planning the management and rehabilitation of patients with POFs.

  6. Identification of Ramie Genes in Response to Pratylenchus coffeae Infection Challenge by Digital Gene Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongting; Zeng, Liangbin; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Taotao; Zhu, Aiguo

    2015-09-11

    Root lesion disease, caused by Pratylenchus coffeae, seriously impairs the growth and yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The ramie defense mechanism against P. coffeae infection is poorly understood, which hinders efforts to improve resistance via breeding programs. In this study, the transcriptome of the resistant ramie cultivar Qingdaye was characterized using Illumina sequence technology. About 46.3 million clean pair end (PE) reads were generated and assembled into 40,826 unigenes with a mean length of 830 bp. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed on both the control roots (CK) and P. coffeae-challenged roots (CH), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Approximately 10.16 and 8.07 million cDNA reads in the CK and CH cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively. A total of 137 genes exhibited different transcript abundances between the two libraries. Among them, the expressions of 117 and 20 DEGs were up- and down-regulated in P. coffeae-challenged ramie, respectively. The expression patterns of 15 candidate genes determined by qRT-PCR confirmed the results of DGE analysis. Time-course expression profiles of eight defense-related genes in susceptible and resistant ramie cultivars were different after P. coffeae inoculation. The differential expression of protease inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), and transcription factors in resistant and susceptible ramie during P. coffeae infection indicated that cystatin likely plays an important role in nematode resistance.

  7. Identification of Ramie Genes in Response to Pratylenchus coffeae Infection Challenge by Digital Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongting; Zeng, Liangbin; Yan, Zhun; Liu, Touming; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Taotao; Zhu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Root lesion disease, caused by Pratylenchus coffeae, seriously impairs the growth and yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The ramie defense mechanism against P. coffeae infection is poorly understood, which hinders efforts to improve resistance via breeding programs. In this study, the transcriptome of the resistant ramie cultivar Qingdaye was characterized using Illumina sequence technology. About 46.3 million clean pair end (PE) reads were generated and assembled into 40,826 unigenes with a mean length of 830 bp. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed on both the control roots (CK) and P. coffeae-challenged roots (CH), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Approximately 10.16 and 8.07 million cDNA reads in the CK and CH cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively. A total of 137 genes exhibited different transcript abundances between the two libraries. Among them, the expressions of 117 and 20 DEGs were up- and down-regulated in P. coffeae-challenged ramie, respectively. The expression patterns of 15 candidate genes determined by qRT-PCR confirmed the results of DGE analysis. Time-course expression profiles of eight defense-related genes in susceptible and resistant ramie cultivars were different after P. coffeae inoculation. The differential expression of protease inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), and transcription factors in resistant and susceptible ramie during P. coffeae infection indicated that cystatin likely plays an important role in nematode resistance. PMID:26378527

  8. Relationship of the temporofrontal rami of the facial nerve to the fascial layers of the temporal region.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justin X; Ashton, Mark W

    2012-06-01

    Historically, dissection of the temporoparietal fascia immediately above the zygomatic arch has been avoided due to the risk of transection of the temporofrontal rami of the facial nerve. A total of 8 fresh cadaveric hemi-faces have been dissected to investigate the relationship of the temporofrontal rami of the facial nerve to the fascial layers in the temporal region. The relationship of the temporofrontal rami of the facial nerve to the fascial layers in the temporal region is variable, with some deep rami coursing below the parotid-temporal fascia and other superficial rami reaching the temporoparietal fascia before entering the lateral edge of the orbicularis oculi. Dissection of the temporoparietal fascia immediately above the zygomatic arch may place superficial branches of the temporofrontal rami at risk.

  9. Improving the thermoactivity and thermostability of pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus for ramie degumming.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaoning; Gui, Xiwu; Zhou, Cheng; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Tang, Shuang-Yan

    2015-03-01

    Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases can be potentially used for enzymatically degumming ramie in an environmentally sustainable manner and as an alternative to the currently used chemical-based ramie degumming processes. To assess its potential applications, pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 7061) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Evolutionary strategies were applied to generate efficient ramie degumming enzymes. Obtained from site-saturation mutagenesis and random mutagenesis, the best performing mutant enzyme M3 exhibited a 3.4-fold higher specific activity on substrate polygalacturonic acid, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the half-life of inactivation at 50 °C for M3 mutant extended to over 13 h. In contrast, the wild-type enzyme was completely inactivated in less than 10 min under the same conditions. An upward shift in the optimal reaction temperature of M3 mutant, to 75 °C, was observed, which was 10 °C higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic parameter data revealed that the catalysis efficiency of M3 mutant was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Ramie degumming with M3 mutant was also demonstrated to be more efficient than that with the wild-type enzyme. Collectively, our results suggest that the M3 mutant, with remarkable improvements in thermoactivity and thermostability, has potential applications for ramie degumming in the textile industry.

  10. Cloning of expansin genes in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) based on universal fast walking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Peng, Dingxiang

    2015-09-10

    Gene cloning is the first step to study the expression profiles and functions of a particular gene; considerable cloning methods have been developed. Expansin, thought to involve in the cell-wall modification events, was not cloned in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), which is one of the most important bast fiber crops with little conducted molecular research, especially on its fiber development. Studying the expansin gene family will uncover its possible relationship with ramie fiber development and other growth events. As a result, five expansin genes were cloned with full-length and their sequence information was investigated. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis was conducted, which suggested that the cloned genes belong to the α-subfamily, and these genes expressed differently during ramie fiber developmental process. In this study, we aimed to apply a strategy for cloning novel full-length genes from genomic DNA of ramie, based on using degenerate primers, touchdown polymerase chain reaction and universal fast walking protocols. By cloning five full-length expansin genes, we believe the polymerase chain reaction-based gene cloning strategy could be applied to general gene studies in ramie and other crops. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment condition on adhesion of ramie fibers to polypropylene for composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Manolache, Sorin; Qiu, Yiping; Sarmadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between hydrophilic ramie fibers and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) matrices, ramie fibers are modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with our continuous ethanol flow technique in helium environment. A central composite design of experiments with different plasma processing parameter combinations (treatment current, treatment time and ethanol flow rate) is applied to find the most influential parameter and to obtain the best modification effect. Field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the roughened surfaces of ramie fibers from the treated groups due to plasma etching effect. Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) demonstrates that the wettability of the treated fibers drastically decreases. Microbond pullout test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between treated ramie fibers and PP matrices increases significantly. Residual gas analysis (RGA) confirms the creation of ethyl groups during plasma treatment. This study shows that our continuous ethanol flow technique is effective in the plasma modification process, during which the ethanol flow rate is the most influential parameter but all parameters have simultaneous influence on plasma modification effect of ramie fibers.

  12. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) decortication waste bio-briquette business model canvas with design thinking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavi, Ghifari Rezka; Purnomo, Dwi; Bunyamin, Anas; Wulandari, Asri Peni

    2017-03-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is a plant that can produce fibers from its stem but in the production process, it still produces waste containing high lignin and cellulose. The high content of these substances can be used as bio-briquette raw material because they can produce carbon and can offer a business opportunity to establish bio-briquette industry. The purpose of this study is to obtain a ramie decortification waste bio-briquette business model because until now there is no bio-briquette has been made from ramie decortication waste as its raw material. This research uses descriptive analysis method with a design thinking approach. The result of this research shows that the business model canvas is designed based on consumer's experience when interacting with the product via customer journey tool in order to get the business model in accordance with customer expectations.

  13. [Extraction of Cd by ramie from soils as affected by applications of chelators and peat].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Ping; Zong, Liang-Gang; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Wei-Xing; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Ya-Hua

    2009-09-15

    Pot experiments were performed to study the effectiveness of chelators (EDTA, citric acid) and peat in enhancing phyremediation of heavy metal Cd by ramie. The results showed that peat increased the ramie's biomass by improving soil's physical and chemical properties, and the relative yields of peat alone, chelators(EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat were 1.23, 1.13 and 1.41 respectively. So the combination of citric acid and peat was more useful for growth of the ramie. As far as improving Cd uptake was concerned, it seemed that the combination of chelators with peat significantly promoted Cd uptake by the plant, and the percent of changeable Cd in soil were 61.6% and 58.3% . In addition, it had better bioaccumulation effects to combine with chelators and peat, of which Cd bioaccumulation coefficients were 1.33 and 1.32, compared to 1.11, 1.11 and 1.05 in application of peat, EDTA and citric acid respectively. What's more, cadmium removal rates in soil were up to 1.13% and 1.22% respectively in applications of two kinds of chleators (EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat. Therefore, it had better effects of phytoremediation to accumulate more cadmium amounts by combining with citric acid and peat because of more biomass. In conclusion, the phytoremediation by ramie can be more effective when chelators and peat were combined and added to soils.

  14. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    SciTech Connect

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  15. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  16. Recycling agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Gong, X F; Zou, H L; Liu, C Y; Chen, C L; Zeng, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we exhibit the recycling of agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal. Based on our experimental results, it is realized that Cd(2+) adsorption to ramie stalk is highly pH sensitive, indicating the adsorption is driven by surface complexation reaction. The high adsorption capacity of ramie stalk toward Cd(2+) (qm = 10.33 mg g(-1), 0.09 mol-Cd g(-1)), which corresponds to around 21.95% of active adsorption sites available of ramie stalk, is believed to be closely related to its high cellulose and lignin content. The inhomogeneous surface of ramie stalk due to the high cellulose and lignin content also accounts for the observation that the adsorption kinetic is described well by the pseudo second order kinetic model. Results from thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. All these properties demonstrate the potential of ramie stalk as a low cost bioadsorbent for the application of heavy metal removal.

  17. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heejeong; Joo, Nami

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p<0.05), appearance (p<0.01), color (p<0.01), moistness (p<0.01), and overall quality (p<0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life. PMID:24471063

  18. Conservative Management of Unilateral Fractures of the Mandibular Rami in Horses.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    To report the outcome of conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami in horses. Retrospective case series. 24 client-owned horses with unilateral mandibular fractures METHODS: Medical records (January 2000-January 2014) of horses with unilateral mandibular ramus fractures were retrieved. Only conservatively managed horses with follow-up information were included. Follow-up information on clinical outcome was retrieved from the medical records (n=11) or obtained by telephone interviews with the owners or trainers (n=13). Twenty-three horses (96%) returned to their previous or intended use and had no clinically evident masticatory or fracture healing-related problems at the time of follow-up. The owner of 1 horse (4%) reported it had tooth loosening, feed impaction, and masticatory problems. Conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami is a treatment option in horses. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Degumming of ramie fibers by alkalophilic bacteria and their polysaccharide-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Du, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-05-01

    Three strains of alkalophilic bacteria, Bacillus sp. NT-39, NT-53 and NT-76, were selected for the degumming of ramie fibers and production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. After 48 h of incubation with the strains, the loss of the gum might amount to 5.0% or more of the fibers and a number of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were secreted to the culture supernatants. The residual gum of the fibers decreased to 9.4% after 5 h of enzymatic degumming. Analysis of gum contents and enzyme activities revealed that pectate lyase and xylanase played an important role in the degradation of residual gum. Enzymatic degumming resulted in an increment of 5.4 ISO units in fiber brightness, whereas the reduction in bundle breaking tenacity of the fibers was less than 5.%. The results confirmed that degumming of ramie fibers by alkalophilic bacteria and their enzymes had substantial advantages.

  20. Development of a core collection for ramie by heuristic search based on SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Ming-Bao; Zou, Zi-Zheng; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Ying; Ma, Qing-Hua; Sun, Zhi-Min; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 2000 ramie germplasms in the National Ramie Germplasm Nursery affiliated with the Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, China. As it is difficult to perform effective conservation, management, evaluation, and utilization of redundant genetic resources, it is necessary to construct a core collection by using molecular markers. In this study, a core collection of ramie consisting of 22 germplasms was constructed from 108 accessions by heuristic search based on 21 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker combinations. The results showed that there is a poor relationship between the core collection and the geographic distribution. The number of amplification bands for the core collection was the same as that for the entire collection. Shannon's index for three of the SSR primers (14%) and Nei's index for nine of the SSR primers (19%) were lower in the core collection than in the entire collection. The true core collection had wider genetic diversity compared with the random core collection. Collectively, the core collection constructed in this study is reliable and represents the genetic diversity of all the 108 accessions. PMID:26019563

  1. Interactive effect of gibberellic acid and NPK fertilizer combinations on ramie yield and bast fibre quality.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Anwar, Sumera; Rehman, Muzammal; Khan, Shahbaz; Zafar, Sara; Liu, Lijun; Peng, Dingxiang

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the effects of different combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers and the effects of GA3 (gibberellic acid) foliar spray on the fiber quality and yield of ramie are important for maximizing the economic value of these plants. Three pot experiments were conducted using low NPK (140:70:140 kg/ha), normal NPK (280:140:280 kg/ha), and low NPK + GA3 (10 mg/L) treatments. In each experiment, following fertilizers were applied: no fertilizer (control), N, P, K, NP, NK, PK, and NPK. Ramie was harvested three times from each plant; ramie grown without fertilizers had significantly lower biomass and yield than plants grown with fertilizers. At both normal and low fertilization rates, application of NPK resulted in greater growth and yield than application of N, P, K, NP, NK, or PK. Unfertilized plants produced the thinnest fibres (22-24 µm), with lowest elongation rate (3.0-3.1%) and breaking strength (22.7-23.3 cN). Fibre yield and fibre quality were improved by application of GA3 + fertilizers. Maximum fibre yield was obtained at low NPK + GA3 treatment, resulting in 65-81% more yield than low NPK alone. GA3 with low NPK treatment significantly improved fibre diameter, fibre elongation, and breaking strength compared to both NPK alone and control treatment.

  2. Portable AOTF Raman integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Martin, M. E.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a compact, self-contained, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing. The RAMiTS consists of a frequency-stabilized diode laser for excitation, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for wavelength discrimination, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) for detection. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. Instrument control and data acquisition was coordinated by software developed in house using the C language. Evaluation of this instrument was performed by analyzing several model compounds and the high spectral resolution of this instrument was demonstrated by the discrimination of several structurally similar molecules (benzene, toluene and naphthalene) as well as m-, o-, p- isomers of xylene. The potential applications of the RAMiTS coupled with the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents will also be discussed in this paper.

  3. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue.

  4. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute.

    PubMed

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  5. Molecular characterization of Ramie mosaic virus isolates detected in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Zhang, X Y; Qian, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Virus isolates were obtained from three ramie samples (Boehmeria nivea L.) showing yellow mosaic symptoms collected in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China. Comparison of partial DNA-A fragments amplified with begomovirus universal primers PA/PB revealed that these viral isolates shared a high sequence identity. The complete DNA-A sequences of two isolates J4 and Z1 were determined to be 2736 and 2737 nts, respectively, sharing 94.7% nucleotide sequence identity with each other. Also, the DNA-B components were identified for J4 and Z1 isolates and comprised 2717 and 2719 nts, respectively, sharing 88.6% nucleotide sequence identity with each other. Furthermore, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that J4 and Z1 isolates had the highest sequence identities (93.6-94.7%) with isolates of Ramie mosaic virus (RamMV) for DNA-A. These molecular data suggested that J4 and Z1 may be two different isolates of RamMV. This is the first report about the occurrence of a bipartite begomovirus in these regions of China.

  6. Myelinated fibres in human paravertebral sympathetic chain: white rami communicantes in alcoholic and diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Appenzeller, Otto; Ogin, Gary

    1974-01-01

    White rami communicantes were studied quantitatively in patients with chronic alcoholism or diabetes mellitus. The fascicular area of interganglionic segments of the paravertebral sympathetic chain showed less variation than that previously reported for controls. Fibre densities were higher in the patients than in controls of similar age and the percentage of small fibres in alcoholics and diabetics is larger than in controls. Only 17% of fibres were larger than 5 μm in diameter in the patients, whereas, in controls, 33% of fibres were larger than 5 μm in diameter. No correlation between internodal lengths and fibre diameter was found in the patients who showed uniformly short internodes averaging only about half of internodal distances found in control subjects. The uniformly short internodes are attributed to complete degeneration followed by partial regeneration and are compatible with either Wallerian degeneration or a `dying back' phenomenon. The short internodal lengths should be reflected in slowed conduction velocities in white rami communicantes and could account for abnormalities in baroreflex activity, sweating, and in visceral dysfunction commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism or diabetes. Images PMID:4443810

  7. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s-1 under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone. PMID:26807127

  8. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s(-1) under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling and Identification of Transcription Factors in Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) in Response to PEG Treatment, Using Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    An, Xia; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu; Liao, Yiwen; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Peng, Dingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), commonly known as China grass, is a perennial bast fiber plant of the Urticaceae. In China, ramie farming, industry, and trade provide income for about five million people. Drought stress severely affects ramie stem growth and causes a dramatic decrease in ramie fiber production. There is a need to enhance ramie’s tolerance to drought stress. However, the drought stress regulatory mechanism in ramie remains unknown. Water stress imposed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a common and convenient method to evaluate plant drought tolerance. In this study, transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from ramie subjected to PEG treatment was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing, which generated 170 million raw sequence reads. Between leaves and roots subjected to 24 (L2 and R2) and 72 (L3 and R3) h of PEG treatment, 16,798 genes were differentially expressed (9281 in leaves and 8627 in roots). Among these, 25 transcription factors (TFs) from the AP2 (3), MYB (6), NAC (9), zinc finger (5), and bZIP (2) families were considered to be associated with drought stress. The identified TFs could be used to further investigate drought adaptation in ramie. PMID:25658800

  10. A method for determining reactive hydroxyl groups in natural fibers: application to ramie fiber and its modification.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Li, Xinqi; Li, Wenjun; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhou, Haiye

    2012-02-01

    The hydrophilic features of natural fibers (NFs) hinder the widespread application of natural fiber/polymer composites due to the hydroxyl groups (-OH) presented in the cellulose molecule. Detecting reactive hydroxyl groups in NFs is very important for optimizing the modification process of natural fibers. This paper proposes a simple and practical methodology to measure reactive hydroxyl groups in NFs using a isocyanate group, a method we term the isocyanate group back titration (IBT) method. Application of the IBT method to ramie fiber with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hexadecanol indicated that the measured value of reactive hydroxyl groups was about 150 mg KOH/g, which was less than the theoretical value of hydroxyl groups in the ramie fiber being tested. The FTIR analysis revealed that the TDI and hexadecanol were grafted onto the surface of the ramie fiber, leading the modified ramie fiber to be hydrophobic. Thus, the IBT method is also useful for modifying the surface properties of NFs and improving their compatibility with polymers, and finally leading to good mechanical properties of NF/polymer composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RAMI modeling of selected balance of plant systems for the proposed Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Radder, J.A.; Cramer, D.S.

    1997-06-01

    In order to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program requirements for tritium in the 2005-2007 time frame, new production capability must be made available. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Plant is being considered as an alternative to nuclear reactor production of tritium, which has been the preferred method in the past. The proposed APT plant will use a high-power proton accelerator to generate thermal neutrons that will be captured in {sup 3}He to produce tritium (3H). It is expected that the APT Plant will be built and operated at the DOE`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Discussion is focused on Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Inspectability (RAMI) modeling of recent conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual design phase, system RAMI estimates are necessary to identify the best possible system alternative and to provide a valid picture of the cost effectiveness of the proposed system for comparison with other system alternatives. RAMI estimates in the phase must necessarily be based on generic data. The objective of the RAMI analyses at the conceptual design stage is to assist the designers in achieving an optimum design which balances the reliability and maintainability requirements among the subsystems and components.

  12. RAMI modeling of plant systems for proposed tritium production and extraction facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-04-05

    The control of life-cycle cost is a primary concern during the development, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE systems and facilities. An effective tool that can be used to control these costs, beginning with the design stage, is called a reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis or, simply, RAMI for short. In 1997, RAMI technology was introduced to the Savannah River Site with applications at the conceptual design stage beginning with the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project and later extended to the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) Project. More recently it has been applied to the as-build Water Treatment Facilities designed for ground water environmental restoration. This new technology and database was applied to the assessment of balance-of-plant systems for the APT Conceptual Design Report. Initial results from the Heat Removal System Assessment revealed that the system conceptual design would cause the APT to fall short of its annual production goal. Using RAM technology to immediately assess this situation, it was demonstrated that the product loss could be gained back by upgrading the system's chiller unit capacity at a cost of less than $1.3 million. The reclaimed production is worth approximately $100 million. The RAM technology has now been extended to assess the conceptual design for the CLWR-TEF Project. More specifically, this technology and database is being used to translate high level availability goals into lower level system design requirements that will ensure the TEF meets its production goal. Results, from the limited number of system assessments performed to date, have already been used to modify the conceptual design for a remote handling system, improving its availability to the point that a redundant system, with its associated costs of installation and operation may no longer be required. RAMI results were also used to justify the elimination

  13. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J; Reiersen, Wayne T

    2011-01-01

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment

  14. Distraction Osteogenesis Correction of Mandibular Ramis Fracture Malunion in a Juvenile Mute Swan ( Cygnus olor ).

    PubMed

    Calvo Carrasco, Daniel; Dutton, Thomas A G; Shimizu, Naomi; Sabater, Mikel; Forbes, Neil A

    2016-03-01

    A juvenile mute swan (Cygnus olor) was presented with right lateral deviation of the mandible. Radiographs demonstrated a healed fracture of the right mandibular ramis, which had compromised osteogenesis. A corrective osteotomy was performed and an osteogenic distractor was inserted over the lateral aspect of the right mandible. Dental acrylic implants were fixed to the rhinotheca to correct rotational alignment. A pharyngostomy tube was placed to facilitate administration of nutrition and medication. Postoperative images confirmed correct alignment of the mandible in relation to the maxilla. Implants were removed and postoperative complications were not reported. This is the first report of an osteogenic distractor used to correct mandibular deviation in an avian species. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as a valid surgical option in juvenile or adult avian patients with pathologic bone shortening.

  15. Numerically design the injection process parameters of parts fabricated with ramie fiber reinforced green composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. P.; He, L. P.; Chen, D. C.; Lu, G.; Li, W. J.; Yuan, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The warpage deformation plays an important role on the performance of automobile interior components fabricated with natural fiber reinforced composites. The present work investigated the influence of process parameters on the warpage behavior of A pillar trim made of ramie fiber (RF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (RF/PP) via numerical simulation with orthogonal experiment method and range analysis. The results indicated that fiber addition and packing pressure were the most important factors affecting warpage. The A pillar trim can achieved the minimum warpage value as of 2.124 mm under the optimum parameters. The optimal process parameters are: 70% percent of the default value of injection pressure for the packing pressure, 20 wt% for the fiber addition, 185 °C for the melt °C for the mold temperature, 7 s for the filling time and 17 s for the packing time.

  16. Characterization and thermal inactivation kinetics of highly thermostable ramie leaf β-amylase.

    PubMed

    He, Liqin; Park, Sung-Hoon; Hai Dang, Nguyen Dang; Duong, Hoa Xo; Duong, Thi Phung Cac; Tran, Phuong Lan; Park, Jong-Tae; Ni, Li; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2017-06-01

    We characterized ramie leaf β-amylase, and determined its thermostability and kinetic parameters. The enzyme was purified 53-fold using ammonium sulfate fractionation (40-60% saturation), anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel permeation chromatography on Superdex-200. The purified enzyme was identified as β-amylase with molecular mass of 42kD. The enzyme displayed Km and kcat values for soluble potato starch of 1.1mg/mL and 7.8s(-1), respectively. The enzyme had a temperature optimum of 65°C, and its activity at 70°C was 92% of that at the optimal temperature after a 15-min incubation. Furthermore, enzyme activity was stable during treatment at 55°C for 60min but was inactivated rapidly at >75°C. This thermal behavior indicates that ramie leaf β-amylase has excellent intermediate temperature-stable enzyme properties for the baking and bio-industries. Inactivation of the enzyme followed first-order kinetics in the range of 55-80°C. The enthalpy change of thermal inactivation (ΔH(‡)), ΔG(‡), and ΔS(‡) were 237.2kJ/mol, 107.7kJ/mol, and 0.39kJ/molK at 333K, respectively. The D-value at 65°C (=110min) and the z-value (=9.4°C) are given for food processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changing perspectives on community identity and function: A remote sensing and artifactual re-analysis of Barton Ramie, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Errin Teresa

    This dissertation presents the results of the remote sensing and artifact re-analysis of the archaeological site of Barton Ramie, Belize. The site was the focus of Dr. Gordon R. Willey's innovative archaeological program in the Belize River Valley to study ancient Maya settlement, environment, and population in 1954-1956. Through the use of artifact analysis combined with the examination of high-resolution Worldview-1 imagery and a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis, I consider how the inhabitants of Barton Ramie forged community functioning and identity. I focus on the range of intra-site diversity including differential access to labor, goods, land, and the activities evidenced in households and non-domestic structures. Using a community theory framework, emphasizing the many practices that tied the community together, I underscore the variability expressed in architectural elaboration, sumptuary goods, ritual, and specialization. That variability has profound implications for understanding community diversity and economic, social, and ritual functioning. High-resolution panchromatic Worldview-1 satellite imagery successfully detected the remains of Barton Ramie settlement. Surface archaeology has been largely destroyed due to extensive agricultural activities in recent decades. GIS analysis and ground-truthing determined that mound size is the primary factor enabling detection of ancient features. The confirmation of features in an intensively plowed environment has implications including settlement, survey, and population for other disturbed environments. I argue that the Barton Ramie community developed from a complex interaction of networks and practices. These include activities at the household level, articulation between households to form sub-communities (or neighborhoods), and a larger imagined community of the Barton Ramie polity. Individual households articulated to form seven discrete sub-communities, bounded by landscape

  18. Effects of concentrations of sodium chloride on photosynthesis, antioxidative enzymes, growth and fiber yield of hybrid ramie.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengjian; Wei, Gang; Jie, Yucheng; Wang, Longchang; Zhou, Hangfei; Ran, Chunyan; Huang, Zaocun; Jia, Huijuan; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the oldest and most important fiber crops in China due to the comfortable textile of its fine fiber. Increased ramie fiber demand brings ramie cultivation to salt-affected regions. The aim of this research was to determine morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of ramie by subjecting plants to varying concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg dry soil) at vigorous growth stage for 10 and 20 days. Results indicated that salinity stress substantially inhibited the growth of hybrid ramie plants and led to remarkable decline in fiber yield. However, when grown at 2 g NaCl/kg growth and fiber yield were similar to non-saline control. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were correlated with growth and yield response. Salt treatments promoted a subsequent decrease in maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), quantum efficiency of open PSII reaction centers (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII (φPSII) while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) changed conversely. Photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) increased at 2 and 4 g NaCl/kg then decreased at 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg. Substantial decline in the PSII activity at high salinity was associated with the loss of chlorophyll contents. Moreover, marked decrease in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) was also recorded. Nonetheless, intercellular CO2 (Ci) decreased at low salt stress, subsequently increased at high salt stress while water use efficiency (WUE) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) altered in opposite direction. Substantial decrease of photosynthesis at high salinity was due to non-stomatal factors. Furthermore, salinity stress led to decrease of proteins and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.6), whereas

  19. Construction of flame retardant nanocoating on ramie fabric via layer-by-layer assembly of carbon nanotube and ammonium polyphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Yan, Hongqiang; Peng, Mao; Wang, Lili; Ding, Hongliang; Fang, Zhengping

    2013-03-01

    A new flame retardant nanocoating has been constructed by the alternate adsorption of polyelectrolyte amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT-NH2) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) onto flexible and porous ramie fabric. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the adsorbed carbon nanotube coating is a randomly oriented and overlapped network structure, which is a promising candidate for flame retardancy applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm that the APP is successfully incorporated into the multilayers sequentially. Assessment of the thermal and flammability properties for the pristine and nanocoated ramie fabrics shows that the thermal stability, flame retardancy and residual char are enhanced as the concentration of MWNT-NH2 suspension and number of deposition cycles increases. The enhancements are mostly attributed to the barrier effect of intumescent network structure, which is composed of MWNT-NH2 and the absorbed APP.

  20. Superhydrophobic and conductive properties of carbon nanotubes/polybenzoxazine nanocomposites coated ramie fabric prepared by solution-immersion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Yan, Hongqiang; Fang, Zhengping; E, Yuping; Wu, Tao; Chen, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Nanocomposites coating consisting of pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and polybenzoxazine has been constructed onto ramie fabric through solution-immersion process. The adsorbed nanocomposites coating is a hierarchical three-dimensional interpenetrating network structure, and the surface coverage and density increase substantially with increasing repeated immersing cycles. Measurements of the superhydrophobicity and conductivity for the coated ramie fabrics show that the highest water contact angle reaches 152°, the lowest water sliding angle reaches 3°, and the corresponding sheet resistance is 3410 Ω sq-1, which shows strong dependency on the number of repeated immersing cycles and concentration of MWNTs suspension. This work provides a facile pathway to design and fabricate nanocomposites coated natural cellulosic fabric for superhydrophobic and conductive applications.

  1. Construction of flame retardant nanocoating on ramie fabric via layer-by-layer assembly of carbon nanotube and ammonium polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yan, Hongqiang; Peng, Mao; Wang, Lili; Ding, Hongliang; Fang, Zhengping

    2013-04-07

    A new flame retardant nanocoating has been constructed by the alternate adsorption of polyelectrolyte amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT-NH2) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) onto flexible and porous ramie fabric. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the adsorbed carbon nanotube coating is a randomly oriented and overlapped network structure, which is a promising candidate for flame retardancy applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm that the APP is successfully incorporated into the multilayers sequentially. Assessment of the thermal and flammability properties for the pristine and nanocoated ramie fabrics shows that the thermal stability, flame retardancy and residual char are enhanced as the concentration of MWNT-NH2 suspension and number of deposition cycles increases. The enhancements are mostly attributed to the barrier effect of intumescent network structure, which is composed of MWNT-NH2 and the absorbed APP.

  2. Nitrogen removal of ramie stalk treated by acid wastewater combined with Clostridium thermocellum and the kinetic study of pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Buyun; Li, Ting; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo

    2013-02-01

    A pretreatment was developed to remove nitrogen from ramie residue and cotton stalk to eliminate potential nitrogen pollutants in biomass energy production. In the pretreatment, straw was treated with acid wastewater from bioleaching for 3 h followed by Clostridium thermocellum incubation for 2 h. Most nitrogen was removed from biomass waste and the major was that in protein. Pyrolysis process revealed most hemicellulose was removed and the kinetics fitted the first-order equation well. Apparent activation energy of ramie residue increased a little and mass loss became concentrated. Ultimate analysis and pyrolysis analysis revealed the treatment did not weaken the application value of biomass in energy production. Replacing acid wastewater with sulphuric acid, a higher nitrogen removal could be achieved; however, activation energy increased sharply.

  3. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with a Sb Accumulator Plant, Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), in an Active Sb Mining.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan; Chen, ZhiPeng; Wu, FengChang; Li, JiNing; ShangGuan, YuXian; Li, FaSheng; Zeng, Qing Ru; Hou, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have great potential for assisting heavy metal hyperaccumulators in the remediation of contaminated soils. However, little information is available about the symbiosis of AMF associated with an antimony (Sb) accumulator plant under natural conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the colonization and molecular diversity of AMF associated with the Sb accumulator ramie (Boehmeria nivea) growing in Sb-contaminated soils. Four Sb mine spoils and one adjacent reference area were selected from Xikuangshan in southern China. PCR-DGGE was used to analyze the AMF community composition in ramie roots. Morphological identification was also used to analyze the species in the rhizosphere soil of ramie. Results obtained showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis was established successfully even in the most heavily polluted sites. From the unpolluted site Ref to the highest polluted site T4, the spore numbers and AMF diversity increased at first and then decreased. Colonization increased consistently with the increasing Sb concentrations in the soil. A total of 14 species were identified by morphological analysis. From the total number of species, 4 (29%) belonged to Glomus, 2 (14%) belonged to Acaulospora, 2 (14%) belonged to Funneliformis, 1 (7%) belonged to Claroideoglomus, 1 (7%) belonged to Gigaspora, 1 (7%) belonged to Paraglomus, 1 (7%) belonging to Rhizophagus, 1 (7%) belonging to Sclervocystis, and 1 (7%) belonged to Scutellospora. Some AMF sequences were present even in the most polluted site. Morphological identification and phylogenetic analysis both revealed that most species were affiliated withGlomus, suggesting that Glomus was the dominant genus in this AMF community. This study demonstrated that ramie associated with AMF may have great potential for remediation of Sb-contaminated soils.

  4. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  5. Pyrolysis of ramie residue: kinetic study and fuel gas produced in a cyclone furnace.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Zhang, Leguan; He, Piwen; Yan, Feng; Xiao, Bo; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Yanli; Guo, Dabin

    2011-02-01

    The thermal decomposition behavior of ramie residue (RR) and the characteristics of fuel gas produced in a cyclone furnace were studied. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at heating rates of 5-20°C/min. The results showed that RR mainly decomposed between 250 and 390°C, and the apparent activation energy ranged from 200 to 258 kJ/mol. In the cyclone furnace, fast pyrolysis, partial combustion and gasification occurred almost simultaneously, and the thermal energy was supplied by partial combustion of RR powder at the hypo stoichiometric amount of air. Higher effect of equivalence ratio (ER) led to higher reaction temperature and fewer contents of tar and char, but too high ER lowered fuel gas content and degraded fuel gas quality. Over the ranges of the experimental conditions, the gas yield varied between 1.07 and 2.08 N m(3)/kg and the LHV was between 3350 and 4798 kJ/Nm(3).

  6. Structure-based engineering of a pectate lyase with improved specific activity for ramie degumming.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhanping; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhenying; Wang, Huilin; Leier, André; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2017-04-01

    Biotechnological applications of microbial pectate lyases (Pels) in plant fiber processing are promising, eco-friendly substitutes for conventional chemical degumming processes. However, to potentiate the enzymes' use for industrial applications, resolving the molecular structure to elucidate catalytic mechanisms becomes necessary. In this manuscript, we report the high resolution (1.45 Å) crystal structure of pectate lyase (pelN) from Paenibacillus sp. 0602 in apo form. Through sequence alignment and structural superposition with other members of the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 1 (PL1), we determined that pelN shares the characteristic right-handed β-helix and is structurally similar to other members of the PL1 family, while exhibiting key differences in terms of catalytic and substrate binding residues. Then, based on information from structure alignments with other PLs, we engineered a novel pelN. Our rational design yielded a pelN mutant with a temperature for enzymatic activity optimally shifted from 67.5 to 60 °C. Most importantly, this pelN mutant displayed both higher specific activity and ramie fiber degumming ability when compared with the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our rational design method shows great potential for industrial applications. Moreover, we expect the reported high-resolution crystal structure to provide a solid foundation for future rational, structure-based engineering of genetically enhanced pelNs.

  7. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing and profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianrong; Liu, Fang; Tang, Yinghong; Yuan, Youmei; Guo, Qingquan

    2014-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is a highly versatile herbaceous plant which is widely cropped in southern China. The success of this herbaceous plant relies on wide use in modern industry. Understanding the profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie is crucial for improving its industrial performance. Herein, we uncover the transcriptome profile in phloem and xylem in present study. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, 57 million high quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 87,144 unigenes with an average length of 635 bp. By sequence similarity searching for public databases, a total of 32,541 (41.77%) unigenes were annotated for their function. Among these genes, 57,873 (66.4%) and 28,678 (32.9%) unigenes were assigned to categories of Gene Ontology and Orthologous Groups database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 18,331 (21.0%) unigenes were mapped to 125 pathways. The metabolic pathways were assigned the most unigene (4,793, 26.2%). Furthermore, Pol II and Pol III subunits as well as the genes of Galactose metabolism pathway had higher expression in phloem compared to xylem. In addition, fatty acid metabolism pathway genes showed more abundant in xylem than phloem. These results suggest that high activities of RNA synthesis and Galactose metabolism pathway promises fiber synthesis in phloem. The present study is the initial exploration to uncover the fiber biosynthesis difference between phloem and xylem in ramie through the analysis of deep sequencing data.

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing and Profiling of Expressed Genes in Phloem and Xylem of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yinghong; Yuan, Youmei; Guo, Qingquan

    2014-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is a highly versatile herbaceous plant which is widely cropped in southern China. The success of this herbaceous plant relies on wide use in modern industry. Understanding the profiling of expressed genes in phloem and xylem of ramie is crucial for improving its industrial performance. Herein, we uncover the transcriptome profile in phloem and xylem in present study. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, 57 million high quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 87,144 unigenes with an average length of 635 bp. By sequence similarity searching for public databases, a total of 32,541 (41.77%) unigenes were annotated for their function. Among these genes, 57,873 (66.4%) and 28,678 (32.9%) unigenes were assigned to categories of Gene Ontology and Orthologous Groups database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 18,331 (21.0%) unigenes were mapped to 125 pathways. The metabolic pathways were assigned the most unigene (4,793, 26.2%). Furthermore, Pol II and Pol III subunits as well as the genes of Galactose metabolism pathway had higher expression in phloem compared to xylem. In addition, fatty acid metabolism pathway genes showed more abundant in xylem than phloem. These results suggest that high activities of RNA synthesis and Galactose metabolism pathway promises fiber synthesis in phloem. The present study is the initial exploration to uncover the fiber biosynthesis difference between phloem and xylem in ramie through the analysis of deep sequencing data. PMID:25354139

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing and identification of CesA gene in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ramie fiber, extracted from vegetative organ stem bast, is one of the most important natural fibers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the vegetative growth of the ramie and the formation and development of bast fiber is essential for improving the yield and quality of the ramie fiber. However, only 418 expressed tag sequences (ESTs) of ramie deposited in public databases are far from sufficient to understand the molecular mechanisms. Thus, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing is essential to generate enormous ramie transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery, especially genes such as the cellulose synthase (CesA) gene. Results Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, about 53 million sequencing reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 43,990 unigenes with an average length of 824 bp. By sequence similarity searching for known proteins, a total of 34,192 (77.7%) genes were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated unigenes, 16,050 and 13,042 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group, respectively. Searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) indicated that 19,846 unigenes were mapped to 126 KEGG pathways, and 565 genes were assigned to http://starch and sucrose metabolic pathway which was related with cellulose biosynthesis. Additionally, 51 CesA genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis were identified. Analysis of tissue-specific expression pattern of the 51 CesA genes revealed that there were 36 genes with a relatively high expression levels in the stem bark, which suggests that they are most likely responsible for the biosynthesis of bast fiber. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the ramie transcriptome and the substantial amount of transcripts obtained will accelerate the understanding of the ramie vegetative growth and development mechanism. Moreover, discovery of the 36 CesA genes with

  11. Characterization by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of Transcripts That Are Differentially Expressed in Leaves of Anthracnose-Resistant Ramie Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Xuxia, Wang; Jie, Chen; Bo, Wang; Lijun, Liu; Hui, Jiang; Diluo, Tang; Dingxiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), a cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar Huazhu no. 4. The cDNAs from Huazhu no. 4, which were infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, were used as the tester and cDNAs from uninfected Huazhu no. 4 as the driver. Sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, which were assigned to functional categories, including 14 putative cellular functions, according to categories established for Arabidopsis. These 132 genes included 35 disease resistance and stress tolerance-related genes including putative heat-shock protein 90, metallothionein, PR-1.2 protein, catalase gene, WRKY family genes, and proteinase inhibitor-like protein. Partial disease-related genes were further analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and RNA gel blot. These expressed sequence tags are the first anthracnose resistance-related expressed sequence tags reported in ramie.

  12. Investigation of the adsorption-reduction mechanisms of hexavalent chromium by ramie biochars of different pyrolytic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Yicheng; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Hu, Xi; Hu, Xinjiang; Jiang, Luhua; Ding, Yang; Liu, Shaoheng; Huang, Xixian

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between Cr(VI) adsorption mechanisms and physio-chemical properties of biochar, ramie residues were oxygen-limited pyrolyzed under temperature varying from 300 to 600°C. Batch adsorption experiments indicated that higher pyrolysis temperature limits Cr(VI) sorption in terms of capacity and affinity due to a higher aromatic structure and fewer polar functional groups in biochar. Both electrostatic (physical) and ionic (chemical) interactions were involved in the Cr(VI) removal. For low-temperature biochar, the simple physical adsorption was limited and the significant improvement in Cr(VI) sorption was attributed to abundant carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. The adsorption-reduction mechanisms could be concluded that Cr(VI) ions were electrostatically attracted by the positively charged biochar surface and reduced to Cr(III), and then the converted Cr(III) was retained or discharged into the solution. The study demonstrates ramie residues can be converted into biochar as a low-cost and effective sorbent for Cr(VI) removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The design of financial recording system in industrial bio-briquette of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) decortication waste with design thinking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianto, R.; Purnomo, D.; Prima, S.; Wulandari, A.

    2017-05-01

    The production process of ramie (boehmeria nivea) fibers generates waste which contents 5.95 to 7.83% ash; 1.88 to 2.87% silicate; 30.67 to 31.08% lignin; 33.81 to 35.99% alpha cellulose; 62.95 to 63.78% holoselulosa; 17.43 to 18.14% pentosan, which can be used as raw material of bio-briquette. Those potential can be used to generate a business opportunity, such as industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste. The purpose of this research is to create accounting information which could present an income statement that is easily applied on industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste. This research use descriptive analysis method with design with design thinking approach to gather the information through depth observation on human being as the object to achieve the purpose. The result in this research is financial recording system of industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste in a desktop application. The system is integrated with production activities according to the needs of accounting information particularly at managerial production. The existing applications creates information in the form of financial operations which can be used as a factor in decision-making.

  14. Delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma after low-energy osteoporotic pubic rami fracture in a warfarin patient: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Andrea; Regis, Dario; Bizzotto, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Acute abdominal pain may be the presenting symptom in a wide range of diseases in the elderly. Acute abdominal pain related to a delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma after a low-energy pubic rami fracture is rare and can have important consequences; to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been previously described. Case Report. We present an unusual case of an 83-year-old woman taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation, admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute abdominal pain and progressive anemia related to a delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma 72 hours after a low-energy osteoporotic pubic rami fracture. Warfarin was withheld, anticoagulation was reversed by using fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K, and concentrated red blood cells were given. Haemoglobin level gradually returned to normal with a progressive resorption of the haematoma. Conclusion. Delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma after osteoporotic pubic rami fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in the elderly. This case indicates the need for hospital admission, careful haemodynamic monitoring, and early identification of bleeding in patients with "benign" osteoporotic pubic rami fracture, especially those receiving anticoagulants, to provide an adequate management and prevent severe complications.

  15. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries.

  17. Mercury concentrations of fish, river water, and sediment in the Río Ramis-Lake Titicaca watershed, Peru.

    PubMed

    Gammons, Christopher H; Slotton, Darell G; Gerbrandt, Butch; Weight, Willis; Young, Courtney A; McNearny, Richard L; Cámac, Eugenio; Calderón, Ruben; Tapia, Henri

    2006-09-15

    This study reports the first set of data on the concentration of mercury in muscle tissue of several varieties of fish from Lake Titicaca, including the pejerrey (Basilichthyes bonariensis), the carachi (Orestias), and 2 types of indigenous catfish (Trichomycterus). Approximately 27% of the pejerrey and 75% of the carachi exceeded the US EPA fish tissue-based water quality criterion level of 0.30 microg g(-1). Mercury levels of pejerrey increased with fish size, although this relationship was less apparent for the smaller carachi. The pejerrey and carachi are important food fish for local residents. A synoptic sampling of the Río Ramis--the largest tributary to Lake Titicaca--was conducted in an attempt to determine if mercury releases from artisanal gold mining could be an important source of Hg contamination to Lake Titicaca. Although highly elevated concentrations of Hg and other heavy metals were documented in headwater streams near the mining centers of La Rinconada and Cecilia, the quantity of Hg entering Lake Titicaca that could be attributed to mining in the Ramis watershed was below the quantifiable limit in our July 2002 study. This does not diminish the localized threat to mercury exposure for the artisanal gold miners themselves, as well as their families. Further studies of mercury dynamics in Lake Titicaca are recommended, as well as in the rivers draining into the lake. It is probable that most of the downgradient transport of Hg and other trace metals from the headwater mining centers occurs as suspended sediment during seasonal periods of high-flow.

  18. Stable fracture of the pubic rami: a rare cause of life-threatening bleeding from the inferior epigastric artery managed with transcatheter embolization.

    PubMed

    Loffroy, Romaric; Yeguiayan, Jean-Michel; Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krausé, Denis

    2008-07-01

    Extraperitoneal bleeding from the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) and its branches is a rare complication of blunt pelvic trauma; however, it can result in life-threatening hemorrhage, even in cases of minimally displaced fractures of the pelvic ring. We report the case of a patient who had posttraumatic pelvic hematoma and cardiovascular collapse caused by avulsion of the right pubic branch of the IEA related to undisplaced fractures of the pubic rami. CT scanning followed by angiography showed leakage of contrast from the IEA. Transcatheter arterial embolization was performed to successfully control the hemorrhage. There have been very few previous reports of IEA injury related to stable fractures of the pubic rami successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization.

  19. Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pectate Lyase from the Alkaliphilic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain N16-5 To Improve Its Thermostability for Efficient Ramie Degumming.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Ye, Jintong; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-09-01

    Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases have potential applications in the textile industry as an alternative to chemical-based ramie degumming processes. In particular, the alkaline pectate lyase from Bacillus sp. strain N16-5 (BspPelA) has potential for enzymatic ramie degumming because of its high specific activity under extremely alkaline conditions without the requirement for additional Ca(2+). However, BspPelA displays poor thermostability and is inactive after incubation at 50°C for only 30 min. Here, directed evolution was used to improve the thermostability of BspPelA for efficient and stable degumming. After two rounds of error-prone PCR and screening of >12,000 mutants, 10 mutants with improved thermostability were obtained. Sequence analysis and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that single E124I, T178A, and S271G substitutions were responsible for improving thermostability. Structural and molecular dynamic simulation analysis indicated that the formation of a hydrophobic cluster and new H-bond networks was the key factor contributing to the improvement in thermostability with these three substitutions. The most thermostable combined mutant, EAET, exhibited a 140-fold increase in the t50 (time at which the enzyme loses 50% of its initial activity) value at 50°C, accompanied by an 84.3% decrease in activity compared with that of wild-type BspPelA, while the most advantageous combined mutant, EA, exhibited a 24-fold increase in the t50 value at 50°C, with a 23.3% increase in activity. Ramie degumming with the EA mutant was more efficient than that with wild-type BspPelA. Collectively, our results suggest that the EA mutant, exhibiting remarkable improvements in thermostability and activity, has the potential for applications in ramie degumming in the textile industry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pectate Lyase from the Alkaliphilic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain N16-5 To Improve Its Thermostability for Efficient Ramie Degumming

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng; Ye, Jintong; Xue, Yanfen

    2015-01-01

    Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases have potential applications in the textile industry as an alternative to chemical-based ramie degumming processes. In particular, the alkaline pectate lyase from Bacillus sp. strain N16-5 (BspPelA) has potential for enzymatic ramie degumming because of its high specific activity under extremely alkaline conditions without the requirement for additional Ca2+. However, BspPelA displays poor thermostability and is inactive after incubation at 50°C for only 30 min. Here, directed evolution was used to improve the thermostability of BspPelA for efficient and stable degumming. After two rounds of error-prone PCR and screening of >12,000 mutants, 10 mutants with improved thermostability were obtained. Sequence analysis and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that single E124I, T178A, and S271G substitutions were responsible for improving thermostability. Structural and molecular dynamic simulation analysis indicated that the formation of a hydrophobic cluster and new H-bond networks was the key factor contributing to the improvement in thermostability with these three substitutions. The most thermostable combined mutant, EAET, exhibited a 140-fold increase in the t50 (time at which the enzyme loses 50% of its initial activity) value at 50°C, accompanied by an 84.3% decrease in activity compared with that of wild-type BspPelA, while the most advantageous combined mutant, EA, exhibited a 24-fold increase in the t50 value at 50°C, with a 23.3% increase in activity. Ramie degumming with the EA mutant was more efficient than that with wild-type BspPelA. Collectively, our results suggest that the EA mutant, exhibiting remarkable improvements in thermostability and activity, has the potential for applications in ramie degumming in the textile industry. PMID:26070675

  1. [Cloning and expression of atp6 and atp9 genes from ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) and their relationship with cytoplasmic male sterility].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ji-Qiang; DU, Guang-Hui; Li, Jian-Yong; Liang, Xue-Ni; Liu, Fei-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The atp6 and apt9 gene fragments associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) were cloned from the mitochondrial DNA of a ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer and restorer lines using PCR and degenerated primer strategy. The primers were designed according to the reserved sequences in the encoding region of mitochondrial genes atp6 and atp9 of some dicotyledons from GenBank. These fragments did not have complete encoding region but showed the homology of 94% and 85% with atp6 and atp9 genes from the referred dicotyledons in GenBank. The complete atp6 and atp9 genes including the complete open reading frames were cloned by means of amplifying the 3' and 5'end unknown sequences of these gene fragments using DNA Walking method. The atp6 gene showed no difference among ramie male sterile line, maintainer and restorer lines at mtDNA sequence, transcription and translation control and protein level. However, compared to the maintainer and restorer lines, the atp9 gene of the male sterile line was different and deletion in several bases at the 3' end of the encoding region. An abnormally high expression of atp9 gene in the male sterile line at the budding stage and full-bloom stage was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. These results indicated that the variation in DNA sequence and/or abnormality in expression of atp9 gene in the male sterile line maybe closely related to ramie CMS.

  2. The alkaline pectate lyase PEL168 of Bacillus subtilis heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris is more stable and efficient for degumming ramie fiber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conventional degumming process of ramie with alkaline treatment at high temperature causes severe environmental pollution. Pectate lyases can be used to remove pectin from ramie in a degumming process with reduced environmental pollution and energy consumption. Pectate lyase PEL168 from Bacillus subtilis has been previously characterized and the protein structure was resolved. However, Bacillus is not a suitable host for pectate lyases during the degumming process since most Bacillus produce cellulases endogenously with a detrimental effect to the fiber. Pichia pastoris, which does not express endogenous cellulases and has high secretion capability, will be an ideal host for the expression. No previous work was reported concerning the heterologous expression of pectate lyase PEL168 in P. pastoris with an aim for industrial application in ramie bio-degumming. Results The gene pel168 was expressed in P. pastoris in this study. The recombinant protein PEL168 in P. pastoris (PEL168P) showed two bands of 48.6 kDa and 51.4 kDa on SDS-PAGE whereas the enzyme expressed in E. coli (PEL168E) was the same as predicted with a band of 46 kDa. Deglycosylation digestion suggested that PEL168P was glycosylated. The optimum reaction temperature of the two PEL168s was 50°C, and the optimum pH 9.5. After preincubation at 60°C for 20 min, PEL168E completely lost its activity, whereas PEL168P kept 26% of the residual activity. PEL168P had a specific activity of 1320 U/mg with a Km of 0.09 mg/ml and a Vmax of 18.13 μmol/min. K+, Li+, Ni2+ and Sr2+ showed little or no inhibitory effect on PEL168P activity, and Ca2+ enhanced enzyme activity by 38%. PEL168P can remove the pectin from ramie effectively in a degumming process. A 1.5 fold increase of PEL168 enzyme expression in P. pastoris was achieved by further codon optimization. Conclusions Pectate lyase PEL168 with an available protein structure can be heterologously expressed in P. pastoris. The characterized

  3. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  4. A Ramie bZIP Transcription Factor BnbZIP2 Is Involved in Drought, Salt, and Heavy Metal Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengjian; Zhou, Jinghua; Jie, Yucheng; Xing, Hucheng; Zhong, Yingli; Yu, Weilin; She, Wei; Ma, Yushen; Liu, Zehang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    bZIP transcription factors play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling. A bZIP gene BnbZIP2 (GenBank accession number: KP642148) was cloned from ramie. BnbZIP2 has a 1416 base pair open reading frame, encoding a 471 amino acid protein containing a characteristic bZIP domain and a leucine zipper. BnbZIP2 shares high sequence similarity with bZIP factors from other plants. The BnbZIP2 protein is localized to both nuclei and cytoplasm. Transcripts of BnbZIP2 were found in various tissues in ramie, with significantly higher levels in female and male flowers. Its expression was induced by drought, high salinity, and abscisic acid treatments. Analysis of the cis-elements in promoters of BnbZIP2 identified cis-acting elements involved in growth, developmental processes, and a variety of stress responses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants' overexpression of BnbZIP2 exhibited more sensitivity to drought and heavy metal Cd stress during seed germination, whereas more tolerance to high-salinity stress than the wild type during both seed germination and plant development. Thus, BnbZIP2 may act as a positive regulator in plants' response to high-salinity stress and be an important candidate gene for molecular breeding of salt-tolerant plants.

  5. Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in wild and domesticated populations of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.), a premium textile fiber producing species

    PubMed Central

    Satya, Pratik; Karan, Maya; Jana, Sourav; Mitra, Sabyasachi; Sharma, Amit; Karmakar, P.G.; Ray, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-four start codon targeted (SCoT) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure of indigenous, introduced and domesticated ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaudich.). A total of 155 genotypes from five populations were investigated for SCoT polymorphism, which produced 136 amplicons with 87.5% polymorphism. Polymorphism information content and resolving power of the SCoT markers were 0.69 and 3.22, respectively. The Indian ramie populations exhibited high SCoT polymorphism (> 50%), high genetic differentiation (GST = 0.27) and moderate gene flow (Nm = 1.34). Analysis of molecular variance identified significant differences for genetic polymorphism among the populations explaining 13.1% of the total variation. The domesticated population exhibited higher genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity compared to natural populations. Cluster analysis supported population genetic analysis and suggested close association between introduced and domesticated genotypes. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in a cross pollinated heterozygous species like Boehmeria, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and cultivar improvement. PMID:25750860

  6. Cloning, evaluation, and high-level expression of a thermo-alkaline pectate lyase from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii with potential in ramie degumming.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2017-02-09

    Alkaline pectate lyases (Pels) have potential application in bioscouring of the textile industry. In this study, a thermo-alkaline Pel (BacPelA) gene from an alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The mature BacPelA exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 70 °C and showed high cleavage capability on methylated pectins. BacPelA showed the highest specific activity of 936.2 U mg(-1) on ≥85% methylated pectin and 675.5 U mg(-1) on standard substrate polygalacturonic acid (PGA) upon evaluation of the absorbance at 235 nm (A235). The K m and k cat values for PGA were 0.54 g l(-1) and 346.5 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay, which detects the released reducing oligogalacturonic acids, was confirmed to be inaccurate and unsuitable for endo-acting pectinase activity assay because of the difference in the reducibility by DNS reagent between the standard galacturonic acid and the catalytic oligomer products. Significant ramie fiber weight loss was observed following treatment with BacPelA (24.8%) and combined enzyme-chemical method (30.9%), which indicated that the degumming efficiency of BacPelA was the highest of all alkaline and thermostable Pels reported to date. The total activity of the recombinant mature BacPelA reached 8378.2 U ml(-1) (A235) by high-cell-density cultivation in fed-batch fermentation with productivity of 239.4 U ml(-1) h(-1) using E. coli as host, which represents the highest Pel yield reported to date. Therefore, BacPelA, with promising properties for bioscouring, shows potential applications for ramie degumming in the textile industry.

  7. Arg²³⁵ is an essential catalytic residue of Bacillus pumilus DKS1 pectate lyase to degum ramie fibre.

    PubMed

    Basu, Snehasish; Roy, Arunava; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Bera, Amit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2011-02-01

    After 24 h of incubation with only purified pectate lyase isolated from Bacillus pumilus DKS1 (EF467045), the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25%. To know the catalytic residue of pectate lyase the pel gene encoding a pectate lyase from the strain Bacillus pumilus DKS1 was cloned in E. coli XL1Blue and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The pel gene was sequenced and showed 1032 bp length. After purification using CM-Sepharose the enzyme showed molecular weight of 35 kDa and maximal enzymatic activity was observed at 60°C and a pH range of 8.5-9.0. Both Ca²(+) and Mn²(+) ions were required for activity on Na-pectate salt substrates, while the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Zn²(+) and EDTA. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the DKS1 pectate lyase (EU652988) showed 90% homology to pectate lyases from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (CP000813). The 3D structure as well as the catalytic residues was predicted using EasyPred software and Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA), respectively. Site directed mutagenesis confirmed that arginine is an essential catalytic residue of DKS1 pectate lyase.

  8. An Effective Degumming Enzyme from Bacillus sp. Y1 and Synergistic Action of Hydrogen Peroxide and Protease on Enzymatic Degumming of Ramie Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fenfen; Zou, Mouyong; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic degumming, as an alternative to chemical processing, has attracted wide attention. However, to date, little information about other enzyme components with effective degumming except pectinase has been reported, and there is no report about the effect of bleaching agent (H2O2) on enzymatic degumming and combining enzymatic degumming and H2O2 bleaching process. In this study, we found that the crude enzyme of wild-type Bacillus sp. Y1 had a powerful and fast degumming ability. Its PGL activity was the highest at pH 9.6–10.0 and 60°C and stable at pH 7–10.5 and 30–50°C, having a wide scope of pH and temperature. Its PGL also had a high H2O2 tolerance, and the gum loss and brightness of fibers could be significantly improved when H2O2 was added into it for degumming. The synergistic action was also found between it and H2O2 on the degumming and bleaching of ramie fibers. All showed that it was very suitable for a joint process of enzymatic degumming and H2O2 bleaching. It also contained more proteins compared with a control pectinase, and its high protease content was further substantiated as a factor for effective degumming. Protease and pectinase also had a synergistic action on degumming. PMID:23586022

  9. Enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium by a biochar derived from ramie biomass (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) modified with β-cyclodextrin/poly(L-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luhua; Liu, Shaobo; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Guo, Yiming; Yin, Yicheng; Cai, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Lu; Tan, Xiaofei; Huang, Xixian

    2017-08-29

    This paper explored biochar modification to enhance biochar's ability to adsorb hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The ramie stem biomass was pyrolyzed and then treated by β-cyclodextrin/poly(L-glutamic acid) which contained plentiful functional groups. The pristine and modified biochar were characterized by FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, specific surface area, and zeta potential measurement. Results indicated that the β-cyclodextrin/poly(L-glutamic acid) was successfully bound to the biochar surface. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics, and adsorption/desorption of Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of CGA-biochar were significantly higher than that of the untreated biochar, and its maximum adsorption capacity could reach up to 197.21 mg/g at pH 2.0. Results also illustrated that sorption performance depended on initial solution pH; in addition, acidic condition was beneficial to the Cr(VI) uptake. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) uptake was significantly affected by the ion strength and cation species. This study demonstrated that CGA-biochar could be a potential adsorbent for Cr(VI) pollution control.

  10. Fast adsorption of Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺ by EGTA dianhydride (EGTAD) modified ramie fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhichao; Liu, Yunguo; Huang, Yuanqing; Tan, Xiaofei; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Yang, Zhongzhu

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions was investigated using a novel chelating material. The first part described the synthesis of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid dianhydride (EGTAD), mercerization treatment of ramie fiber (MRF), and the MRF was then reacted with EGTAD to prepare the new material (ERF). The obtained material was characterized by weight gain, SEM, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The results of FTIR and elemental analysis confirmed that ester bond, carboxyl and amine groups were introduced onto ERF. The adsorption capacity of metals on ERF was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, initial metal concentrations, and temperatures in the second part. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 5 min for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 159.11 and 273.78 mg g(-1) for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The molar ratio of adsorbed cation to grafted EGTA is close to 1.8:1, which confirmed that the adsorption was chemical process involving both surface chelation reaction and ion exchange. In addition, the absorbent was successfully regenerated using HCl and ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochar pyrolyzed from MgAl-layered double hydroxides pre-coated ramie biomass (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.): Characterization and application for crystal violet removal.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Liu, Shao-Bo; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Cai, Xiaoxi; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Si-Mian; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2016-12-15

    A novel biochar/MgAl-layered double hydroxides composite (CB-LDH) was prepared for the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution by pyrolyzing MgAl-LDH pre-coated ramie stem (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.). Pyrolysis played dual role for both converting biomass into biochar and calcining MgAl-LDH during the pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the CB-LDH. The results of characterization suggested that the calcined LDH was successfully synthesized and coated on biochar. The resulted CB-LDH had higher total pore volume and more functional groups than the pristine biochar. Adsorption experimental data fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The rate-controlled step was controlled by film-diffusion initially and then followed by intra-particle diffusion. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption of crystal violet was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The higher pH and temperature of the solution enhanced the adsorption performance. CB-LDH could also have excellent ability for the removal of crystal violet from the actual industrial wastewater and groundwater with high ionic strength. LDH adsorption, electrostatic attraction, pore-filling, π-π interaction and hydrogen bond might be the main mechanisms for crystal violet adsorption on CB-LDH. The results of this study indicated that CB-LDH is a sustainable and green adsorbent with high performance for crystal violet contaminated wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation.

  12. Involvement of peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors in activation of cutaneous branches of spinal dorsal rami following antidromic electrical stimulation of adjacent afferent nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; You, Hao-Jun; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wang, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Qi

    2007-04-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors in the process of signal transmission between adjacent different peripheral sensory nerves. The T9 and T10 cutaneous branches of spinal dorsal rami were dissociated and cut proximally in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. Eighty-seven single afferents from T10 nerve filaments were recorded and characterized by assessing their spontaneous activities. Following 30 s antidromic electrical stimulation (intensity: 1 mA; duration: 0.5 ms; frequency: 20 Hz) of T9 cutaneous branches, the spontaneous activities of Abeta, Adelta and C fibers of T10 nerve were significantly enhanced from 2.00+/-0.34, 2.42+/-0.33, and 2.19+/-0.32 impulses/min to 4.31+/-0.58, 5.22+/-0.55, and 5.27+/-0.69 impulses/min, respectively (n=29 for each type, P<0.05). These enhanced spontaneous discharges of T10 nerve were significantly blocked by local treatment of its receptive field with either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 or non-NMDA receptor antagonist DNQX (0.1 mM, 10 microl for each drug) (P<0.05). These results suggest that peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the activation of peripheral nerves following the antidromic stimulation of adjacent afferents from different spinal segments. We further provide the direct evidence that neurotransmitters released from adjacent peripheral nerves may also contribute to the occurrence of allodynia as well as secondary hyperalgesia during the pathological nociception.

  13. Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a non-cyst-forming parasitic nematode from the root of ramie Boehmeria nivea in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, K; Wang, H H; Ye, W; Peng, D L; Liao, J L

    2014-12-01

    Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. is described from ramie (Boehmeria nivea) based on the morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA small subunit (SSU), D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). This new species is characterized by oval females with a distinct subcrystalline layer and pronounced and protruding vulval lip, distinctly concave vulva-anus profile and a vulva-anus distance of 29.5-35.8 μm. Males possess two annuli in the lip region, a stylet 27-32.5 μm in length with round knobs sloping slightly posteriorly, lateral fields with three lines, spicules 20-28 μm long and the presence of a short cloacal tube. Second-stage juveniles possess three lip annuli, a stylet 28-31 μm in length with well-developed knobs projected anteriorly and three lines along the lateral field. The pointed tail, 52-65 μm long, possesses a mucro-like tip and a hyaline region, 24.5-35 μm long. Large phasmids with a lens-like structure are located 2-6 annuli posterior to the anus. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of the three rDNA sequences of C. sinensis n. sp. and other cystoid/cyst nematodes are analysed together with a comparison of other species within the genus Cryphodera.

  14. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Xia; Zhang, Jingyu; Dai, Lunjin; Deng, Gang; Liao, Yiwen; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Bo; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought stress) of treatment with 15% (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol)6000 (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy. PMID:27689998

  15. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

    2012-01-01

    The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8 Ug−1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1 : 1 : 0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1 : 2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24 h old inoculum, in 144 h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

  16. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cet article retracte l'article "Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)" PMID:26401219

  17. Anatomy of the human thoracolumbar Rami dorsales nervi spinalis.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Saito, Toshiyuki; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Oi, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2009-10-01

    Medial, lateral, and intermedial ramifications have been described for the dorsal branch of the human spinal nerve (R. dorsalis n. spinalis, (RDNS)). Further branching has not been described. We report a ventral approach for dissecting the nerves around the thoracolumbar vertebral column to visualise the spreading of the nerves within the dorsal muscles and towards the skin. We defined three compartments of the deep back muscles in the thoracolumbar region: (A) the origin from the (1) transverse, (2) accessory, and (3) mammillary processes in the lumbar segments, (B) from the (1) ribs, (2)transverse and, (3) articular processes in the thoracolumbar segments. Each compartment was supplied by a ramification of the RDNS. The medial muscle compartment was reached by the descending medial branch of the RDNS. The lateral iliocostal compartment was innervated by an ascending lateral branch of the RDNS, and also by the descending distal branches of an intermedial branch of RDNS. This is a long nerve of the intermedial branch of the RDNS extended to the dorsal-caudal area, where the lateral and the intermedial nerve connected. This nerve, termed as the dorsal intermedial branch of the RDNS, innervated the skin in a more caudal region. Such nerve divided the lateral and the intermediate compartments. A short intermedial branch entered the intermediate segmental compartment from the ventral side. This is a ventral intermedial branch of the RDNS. The dorsal branches were often connected by a connecting branch of the RDNS. The lateral compartment represented the Iliocostalis. The medial and intermediate compartments comprised the Longissimus, part of the Iliocostalis, and additional dorsal muscles.

  18. Excision of sympathetic ganglia and the rami communicantes with histological confirmation offers better early and late outcomes in Video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, Sridhar; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Rajesh, Pala B

    2008-01-01

    Background Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy (VATS) is an established minimally invasive procedure for thoracic sympathetic blockade in patients with hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina. Various techniques using clips, diathermy and excision are used to perform sympathectomy. We present our technique of excision of the sympathetic chain with histological proof and the analysis of the early and late outcomes. Methods We evaluated 200 procedures in 100 consecutive patients, who underwent Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy by a single surgeon in our centre between September 1996 to March 2007. All patients had maximum medical therapy prior to surgery and were divided into 3 groups based on indications, Group 1(hyperhidrosis: 48 patients), Group 2 (facial flushing: 26 patients) and Group 3(intractable angina: 26 patients). The demography and severity of symptoms for each group were analysed. The endpoints were success rate, 30 day mortality, complications and patient's satisfaction. Results 99 patients had bilateral VATS sympathectomy and 1 had unilateral sympathectomy. The conversion rate to open was 1(1%). All patients had successful removal of ganglia proven histologically with no perioperative mortality in our series. The complications included pneumothorax (5%), acute coronary syndrome (2%), transient Horner's syndrome (1%), transient paraesthesia (1%), wound infection (4%), compensatory hyperhidrosis (18%), residual flushing (3%) and wound pain (5%). There were five late deaths in the intractable angina group at a mean follow up of 36.7 months. Overall success rates of abolishing the symptoms were 96.3%, 87.5% and 95.2% for Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusion Excision of the sympathetic chain with histological confirmation during VATS sympathectomy is a safe and effective method in treating hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina with good long term results and satisfaction. PMID:18700966

  19. 75 FR 26316 - In the Matter of the Designation of Qasim al-Rimi, Also Known as Qasim Yahya Mahda `abd al-Rimi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...-Remi, Also Known as Qasim al-Rami, Also Known as Abu Harayrah, Also Known as Abu Hurayrah al-San'ai...-Raymi, also known as Qasim al-Rami, also known as Abu Harayrah, also known as Abu Hurayrah...

  20. Notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Pleet, A B; Massey, E W

    1978-12-01

    Notalgia paresthetica was described by Astwazaturow in 1934. We have seen six cases in the past year, suggesting that it is not rare. This sensory neuritis affects the posterior rami of several spinal nerves (arising from thoracic segments T2 to T6), causing pruritus, burning, and dysesthesias. Examination reveals hypesthesia. Although the cause is not known, the course seems benign. The posterior rami of these five dorsal roots traverse a 90-degree course through the multifidus spinae muscle, making them unique among the posterior rami.

  1. An Integrated Research Program for the Modeling, Analysis and Control of Aerospace Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-03

    Fabiano, Jr. - Brown University Mitchell Feigenbaum - Rockefeller University Elena Fernandez - Institudo de Desarrollo Techologico, para la Industria ...Minnesota James Sochacki - ISC, LaRamie, Wyoming Felippe de Souza - Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica Jason L. Speyer - University of Texas Eitan Tadmor

  2. An Analysis of Application Generators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    include software modules for very specialized applications, such as financial modelling or statistical analysis packages. In summary application...retrieving and processing data records. The Report Preparation System of RAMIS is designed in the form of an English-like language and lets the user retrieve...sort, calculate, and format data into tabular or graphic reports . In RAMIS the report generator and the graphics language were designed to have a

  3. A Productivity Analysis of Nonprocedural Languages.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    REPON’? a PEmtOO COVEREDf A Productivity Analysis of Nonprocedural Master’s Thesis Languages December, 1982 4PERFOMING ORO. REPORT mumeat I. AU rwn@Rjo...42 IV. ANALYSIS OF RAMIS II . . ................ 44 A. INTRODUCTICN .......................... 4 B. MATHEMATICA PRODUCTS GROUP (MPG) AND RANIS II 4...Training and Setvices. . . . o... . . . 49 C. ANALYSIS 0? INDUSTR.AL RESPONSE TO RAMIS II 50 l. I mplementaton................ 51 2. Training

  4. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  5. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  6. Aberrant innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle by the transverse cervical nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Two aberrant rami originating from the right transverse cervical nerve and innervated the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SM) were detected during routine cadaver dissection. Although SM is commonly innervated by the accessory nerve, as well as by cervical nerves, it is likely to be innervated additionally by other nerves such as hypoglossal nerve, ansa cervicalis, facial or external laryngeal nerve. Some considerations as regards the possible composition of the aberrant rami of the transverse cervical nerve detected in the current study, as well as the relevant literature is discussed.

  7. Cryptosporidium from Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    PALAWAN, REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Mare A. Laxer* Alberto K. Alcantara* Marivyl Javato-Laxer" Mene D. Cui* Renato A. Leano* Soiedad Bautista* Natividad ...Marivyl Javato-Laxer, Mere D. Cui, Renato A. Leano, Soledad Bautista, Natividad Rami To, ressie L. Gavina 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVFRED 114 DATE OF

  8. Insulating papers for thermal and electrical applications. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cotton linter, linseed, hemp, sunn hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, manila hemp, and sisal fibers as raw materials for electrical, as well as thermal insulating papers. Chemicals to improve heat and electrical resistance of these types of papers are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  11. Distribution of otic postganglionic and recurrent mandibular nerve fibres to the cavernous sinus plexus in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Ruskell, G L

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of dorsal rami of the otic ganglion was traced on one or both sides of 1 rhesus and 15 cynomolgus monkeys using interrupted serial sections. From 15 to 24 fine rami containing unmyelinated and small myelinated nerve fibres entered the cranial cavity with the mandibular nerve through the foramen ovale. Most rami contributed to a plexus positioned in the crotch of the mandibular and maxillary nerves adjacent to the trigeminal ganglion. The plexus was augmented by an accessory otic ganglion. Rami then continued dorsally on each side of or through the maxillary nerve and joined the cavernous sinus plexus. The pathway described probably gives otic parasympathetic fibres access to the cerebral arteries and may share a wider distribution in common with other nerves contributing to the cavernous sinus plexus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Figs. 13,15 Fig. 14 PMID:8376193

  12. Introduction to Relational Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    such as Russell’s "rami- tied type theory." In most other respects our notation follows that of Carnap 11] and Whitehead and Russell [8]. There is no... Carnap , R. Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applica- tions, Dover, 1958. [2] Childs, D.L. Feasibility of a set-theoretic data structure based on a

  13. Notalgia paresthetica owing to compression neuropathy: case presentation including electrodiagnostic studies.

    PubMed

    Streib, E W; Sun, S F

    1981-01-01

    A patient developed numbness over the upper part of his back, following prolonged bed rest in a supine position. Sweat test, clinical and electromyographic examination indicated neuropathies of the primary dorsal rami of the spinal nerves from T2 to T6. The literature is reviewed and anatomical considerations discussed.

  14. Localized pruritus-notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Pleet, A B

    1979-08-01

    Notalgia paresthetica, possibly an isolated sensory neuropathy involving the posterior primary rami of thoracic nerves T2 through T6, and appearing as pruritus of the back, is apt to be encountered by both dermatologists and neurologists. Two cases illustrate this disorder.

  15. Optical Properties of Nanocellulose Dispersions in Water, Dimethylformamide and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Cellulose is a carbohydrate building block obtained from many prevalent resources to include wood, hemp , ramie, cotton, and bacteria (Moon et al...Forest Products Laboratory in an aqueous dispersion (Reiner and Rudie, 2013). Softwood pulp was first treated with sulfuric acid. The acid solution was

  16. Pathologic Malgaigne fracture following pelvic irradiation. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.R.; Lachiewicz, P.F.

    1987-08-01

    A 48-year-old woman developed symptomatic superior and inferior pubic rami fractures with a concomitant subluxation of the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint three years after pelvic irradiation for a gynecologic malignancy. Pathologic pelvic fractures (PPF) caused by irradiation may be difficult to distinguish from those caused by metastatic disease. PPF produce prolonged disability.

  17. Commercial Data Base Management System for Geonames Data Base.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    inadequate operating RAPPORT Logica systems (eg., HP-3000) can also be dismissed without being RD4 Hitachi troubled by the details of their implementation...year free; 10 percent of license fee Both RAMIS I from Mathematical Products Group and anually thereaerent. RAPPORT from Logica are to be upgraded in the

  18. DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    In the context of proactive disaster risk as well as immediate situational crisis management knowledge of locational social aspects in terms of spatio-temporal population distribution dynamics is considered among the most important factors for disaster impact minimization (Aubrecht et al., 2013a). This applies to both the pre-event stage for designing appropriate preparedness measures and to acute crisis situations when an event chain actually unfolds for efficient situation-aware response. The presented DynaPop population dynamics model is developed at the interface of those interlinked crisis stages and aims at providing basic input for social impact evaluation and decision support in crisis management. The model provides the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics - thus here labeled as DynaPop-X - which can either be applied in a sense of illustrating the changing locations and numbers of affected people at different stages during an event or as ex-ante estimations of probable and maximum expected clusters of affected population (Aubrecht et al., 2013b; Freire & Aubrecht, 2012). DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation (Ahola et al., 2007; Bhaduri, 2008; Cockings et al., 2010). We will present ongoing developments particularly focusing on the implementation logic of the model using the emikat software tool, a data management system initially designed for inventorying and analysis of spatially resolved regional air pollutant emission scenarios. This study was performed in the framework of the EU CRISMA project. CRISMA is funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 284552. REFERENCES Ahola, T., Virrantaus, K., Krisp, J

  19. Conceptual design of the DEMO neutral beam injectors: main developments and R&D achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Cismondi, F.; Fantz, U.; Fassina, A.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Hopf, C.; Jenkins, I.; Sartori, E.; Tran, M. Q.; Varje, J.; Vincenzi, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of the nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, to be built after the ITER experimental reactor, are usually understood to lie somewhere between those of ITER and a ‘first of a kind’ commercial plant. Hence, in DEMO the issues related to efficiency and RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) are among the most important drivers for the design, as the cost of the electricity produced by this power plant will strongly depend on these aspects. In the framework of the EUROfusion Work Package Heating and Current Drive within the Power Plant Physics and Development activities, a conceptual design of the neutral beam injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor has been developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. In order to improve efficiency and RAMI aspects, several innovative solutions have been introduced in comparison to the ITER NBI, mainly regarding the beam source, neutralizer and vacuum pumping systems.

  20. Evaluation of the Criterion Task Set. Part 1. Appendices A and B. Univariate Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Appendices A and B - Univariate Summaries (U) 12. PERSON~i. AUTHOR(S) Schlegel, Robert E. Ph.D. and Gilliland, Kirby Ph.D. 134, TYPE OF REPORT 1b. TIMRE...AISTRAC Cosnea eEef eEeyi fy by blok fut) " This report summarites the’dtevelopment and analysis of a comprehensive standardization data base for tho USAF...190.758 CSS 4.3908T CV 15.3807 STD MEAN 0.00853542 T:MEAN=O 1019T95 PROB>ITI 0.0001 SGN RAMiE 15190.5 PROB)ISI 0.0001 NUM 0 46 O:NORfAL 0.190657 PROO>D

  1. Nematode Problems Affecting Agriculture in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Davide, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes. PMID:19290204

  2. Nematode problems affecting agriculture in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Davide, R G

    1988-04-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes.

  3. Arterial vascularization of the uropygial glands (Gl. uropygialis) in the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, S; Aslan, K; Aksoy, G; Kürtül, I

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics of the uropygial gland (Glandula uropygialis), specifically the arterial vascularization, in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca) living in Turkey. Coloured-latex-injected animals were dissected and the gland and related arteries were observed. Mostly, the fourth paired caudal segmental arteries (Aa. segmentales caudales) arising from the median caudal artery (A. mediana caudae) were specified as the uropygial gland arteries. These arteries, in turn, gave the following rami: the muscular ramus (Ramus muscularis) to the levator coccygeus and lateral caudal muscles, the lateral ramus (Ramus lateralis) to the lateral coccygeus muscle and a small ventro-lateral division of the caudal component of the gland, and the medial rami (Ramus medialis) to the dorsal surface of the gland.

  4. A New Dicynodont (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the Permian of Southern Brazil and Its Implications for Bidentalian Origins

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Alessandra D. S.; Kammerer, Christian F.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Soares, Marina B.; Ilha, Ana L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Dicynodonts were a highly successful group of herbivorous therapsids that inhabited terrestrial ecosystems from the Middle Permian through the end of the Triassic periods. Permian dicynodonts are extremely abundant in African deposits, but are comparatively poorly known from the other regions of Gondwana. Here we describe a new South American dicynodont, Rastodon procurvidens gen. et sp. nov., from the Boqueirão farm site of the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Guadalupian/Lopingian of Brazil. Diagnostic features of R. procurvidens include uniquely anteriorly-curved maxillary tusks, well-developed ridges extending from the crista oesophagea anteriorly along the pterygoid rami, strong posterior angulation of the posterior pterygoid rami, and a bulbous, well-developed retroarticular process of the articular. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that R. procurvidens is the earliest and most basal member of Bidentalia, a cosmopolitan clade that includes Permian and Triassic dicynodonts whose dentition is usually reduced to a pair of maxillary tusks. PMID:27224287

  5. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland in the fetus of Zavot-bred cattle.

    PubMed

    Aslan, K; Ozcan, S; Aksoy, G; Kurtul, I; Dursun, N

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at revealing arterial vascularization of the pineal gland of the Zavot-bred foetus. Twenty foetuses, regardless of their sex, at the age of 2-7 months were used. Coloured-latex was injected by way of both the right and left common carotid arteries. Then, dissection was performed and vessels nourishing the pineal gland were documented. The pineal gland is vascularized by a number of 2-5 central rami. A small vessel arising from each of the central rami in two foetuses (10%) was shown anastomosing with a branch of the cranial cerebral artery, which advances in cranio-caudal direction in the callosal groove. Hence, anastomoses were observed between several sub-branches of each caudal cerebral and cranial cerebellar arteries.

  6. Two new species of ochridacyclops (Kiefer, 1937) (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from Kenya and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Ko; Ito, Tomiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2005-04-01

    Two species of cyclopoid copepods, Ochridacyclops kenyaensis sp. nov. and O. nepalensis sp. nov. are described as the first records of this genus from Kenya and Nepal, respectively. Ochridacyclops kenyaensis can easily be distinguished from its congeners by having a rounded and blunt distal end of the outer terminal seta (IV) on the caudal rami, and by the inner terminal spine being about equal in length to the outer terminal spine on the endopod of leg 4. Ochridacyclops nepalensis can easily be distinguished from other members of the genus by having two spines on exopodal segment 3 of leg 1, and by the proportions of the caudal rami, which are 3.4 times longer than wide.

  7. A new species of Zosime (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Zosimeidae) from shallow subtidal habitats in Korea, with notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Guk; Jung, Tae Won; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-07-06

    Zosime destituta sp. nov. is described from shallow subtidal habitats in the southern sea of Korea. The new species is similar to Z. valida Sars, 1919, but differs from it primarily by the lack of an inner seta on the third endopodal segment of the fourth swimming leg. Based on morphological comparison of female character states, the genus Zosime can be subdivided into three provisional groups, anneae-, incrassata-, and typica-group. These groups are distinguished from each other by differences in the antennule, antennary exopod, mandibular rami, armature of swimming legs, fifth leg, and caudal rami. In addition, Zosime incrassata bathybia Bodin, 1968 is removed from its synonymy with Z. incrassata Sars, 1910 and upgraded to species level. An amended key to all known species of Zosime Boeck, 1873 is given, along with a table of all major characters. The present study is the first report of the family Zosimeidae Seifried, 2003 from Korean waters.

  8. A partial pelvis of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Kibii, Job M; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Carlson, Kristian J; Reed, Nichelle D; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2011-09-09

    The fossil record of the hominin pelvis reflects important evolutionary changes in locomotion and parturition. The partial pelves of two individuals of Australopithecus sediba were reconstructed from previously reported finds and new material. These remains share some features with australopiths, such as large biacetabular diameter, small sacral and coxal joints, and long pubic rami. The specimens also share derived features with Homo, including more vertically oriented and sigmoid-shaped iliac blades, greater robusticity of the iliac body, sinusoidal anterior iliac borders, shortened ischia, and more superiorly oriented pubic rami. These derived features appear in a species with a small adult brain size, suggesting that the birthing of larger-brained babies was not driving the evolution of the pelvis at this time.

  9. Air Power and Limited War: An Analysis of the Air Campaigns against North Vietnam as Instruments of National Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    may, hsve p&rty rmeultw from Nixon’s "uoed viii" otaer con siderations vera oL equal imsportance. Nixon cozld not approve in accord withut the...the bombers fach nIjbL (n 23 December B-5b beWp striking SAM sites. and on the 28tI they initiated rami s ap ll•, •l• s Alo e areas. Durini the IsPar

  10. Non-Military Activities in Japan and Korea for the Months of September - October 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-10-01

    the textile industry, Japan must obtain raw cotton, wool, wood pulp, flax, hemp , jute and ramie. While some small amounts of flax, hemp , jute and... Fiber 31 Rayon production in Japan is at an abnormally low stage. The greatest need is caustic soda for the manufacture of rayon from pulp. Caustic...amount in the hands of staple fiber firms. The annual requirement for contemplated production is 170,000 tons. - 64 - The present annual plant

  11. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  12. The Defense Implications of Demographic Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    contingencies to protecting southern borders from an uncontrolled influx of refugees and migrants . Partly because of the social rami- fications, large...scale immigration will not be a viable long-term solution to population decline in developed countries. The number of migrants needed to keep...14 As many observers of international trends note, the sad prospects for these individuals can make them suscep- tible to radical ideologies and

  13. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    case reduces to a at the interface between the electronic memory structure more manageable 21n lines controlling processing units and the optical system...Addressing Donald M. Chiarulli, Rami G. Melhem, and Steven P. Levitan University of Pittsburgh omm on-bus, shared-memory .dcoder can process only a single...encoded multiprocessors are the most k address,thuslimitingmemoryaccess to widely used parallel processing single location. Memory interleaving tech

  14. Woodpulp Crystal Structure and Its Effect on Nitrocellulose Physical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    25963. 10 3. A.M. Hindelah and D.J. Johnson, "Crystallinity and Crystallite Size Treatment in Cellulose I Fibres : 1. Ramie and Fortisan," Polymer , Vol...nitrocellulose from N-7 and N-5 is attributed to the presence of Cellulose 11 crystal structure in the fibre . It does not appear to affect the...13, 1972, pp 42330. 4. V.W. Tripp, "Measurement of Crystallinity," High Polymers : Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives Part IV, Vol V, 1971, Wiley

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses. PMID:27708445

  16. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-13

    involving non-traditional, high value crops such as prawns, ramie, cacao , black pepper, cattle fattening, hogs, and poultry operations. Supena...serious crisis that it had to change its major shareholders. The new shareholders included Mr Chuan Rattanarak of the Krung Si Ayuthaya Bank, and Mr...executive committee. The departure of Mr Bunchu Rotchanasathian did not end the crisis at the Siam City Bank. Instead, he became a deadly enemy who

  17. Anatomical and physiological evidence for electroreception in larval lampreys.

    PubMed

    Ronan, M

    1988-05-10

    In larval lampreys, the superficial ophthalmic, buccal, and recurrent rami of the anterior lateral line nerve project to the dorsal nucleus of the ipsilateral medulla; the posterior lateral line nerve projects to the medial nucleus bilaterally. The recurrent ramus is the largest source of afferents to the dorsal nucleus. Extracellular recordings from recurrent afferents in the trunk lateral line nerve indicate larval lampreys are sensitive to weak, low-frequency electric fields. Cathodal (outside negative) fields are excitatory; anodal fields are inhibitory.

  18. Analysis of the Ability of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and Lidocaine to Penetrate Dentin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    end of the experiments the cats were euthanitized with 10 ml satur- ated KC1 i.v. Dental pain was induced by perfusing a hyperosmotic (4 M sucrose...the induction of dental pain . Bipolar recording electrodes were placed on the sympathetic chain between the T and T connecting rami to determine if... dental pain 2 3 will evoke reflex activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents. Approximately 5 ml of the stimulating solution was introduced to the

  19. Bilateral tonsillolithiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Emel; Ural, Ahmet; Oktemer, Tuğba Koçak; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2006-09-01

    Although tonsilloliths are reported to be fairly common, florid cases casting distinct radiopaque shadows on panoramic radiographs are not often reported. This report illustrates such a case as an incidental finding in an asymptomatic 38-year-old female dental patient. Panoramic radiography revealed distinct radiopaque shadows over the ascending rami of the mandible bilaterally. These radiopacities were localized to the palatine tonsils by computerized tomographic inspection. Tonsillectomy was performed and tonsillolithiasis was confirmed by histopathologic examination.

  20. Sternocleidomastoid muscle additionally innervated by the facial nerve: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cvetko, Erika

    2015-01-01

    An aberrant nerve branch from the facial nerve, additionally to the accessory nerve and cervical rami C2 and C3, was observed innervating the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in a 75-year-old male cadaver. We consider that the anomaly occurred as the result of a fusion of the muscular compartment from the digastric and SCM muscles during development. The aberrant innervation may be the source of the misinterpretation of electromyographic findings.

  1. Fabrics for aeronautic construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, E D

    1918-01-01

    The Bureau of Standards undertook the investigation of airplane fabrics with the view of finding suitable substitutes for the linen fabrics, and it was decided that the fibers to be considered were cotton, ramie, silk, and hemp. Of these, the cotton fiber was the logical one to be given primary consideration. Report presents the suitability, tensibility and stretching properties of cotton fabric obtained by laboratory tests.

  2. Simplification and Standardization of Dot-ELISA for Human Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    OF DOT-ELISA FOR HUMAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI * Foued N. Boctor, MlchW J. Ste, Jr., James B. Pitrt, and Ramie Kaali Immunology Department, U.S. Naval...ofpositivity for the 2 techniques was diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni . Lancet ii: comparable (Table I). With the dot-ELISA, both 781-785. STERMERo, J., AND...Security Classification) Simplification and Standardization of Dot-ELISA for Human Schistosomiasis Mansoni . (UNCLASSIFIED) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Boctor

  3. Corps of Engineers Operations and Maintenance Budget Decision Support System (COMB_DSS): System Concept, Design and Prototype Evaluation. Volume 1. Main Text and Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    are treated as separate dec’sion ". Work functions are categorized according to their respective programs and finance and accounting feature cost...subtotaling, and other calcalations are required. b. Report Command (TABLE). This command signifies to RAMIS II to prepare a report. This command is used by...high-speed access, etc.) and complies with the 1995 Corps Corporate Information Architecture. Currently, the COBOL routines are being converted to

  4. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for assessment of mandibular changes after orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Bailey, L'Tanya J.; Tucker, Scott F.; Styner, Martin A.; Mol, Andre; Phillips, Ceib L.; Proffit, William R.; Turvey, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess alterations in the 3-dimensional (3D) position of the mandibular rami and condyles in patients receiving either maxillary advancement and mandibular setback or maxillary surgery only. Methods High-resolution cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken of 21 patients before and after orthognathic surgery. Ten patients with various malocclusions underwent maxillary surgery only, and 11 Class III patients received maxillary advancement and mandibular setback. Presurgery and postsurgery 3D models were registered on the surface of the cranial base. A new tool was used for graphical overlay and 3D display with color maps to visually assess the locations and to quantify positional changes in the posterior border of the mandibular rami and condyles between superimposed models. Results The average displacements in condylar position were small—0.77 mm (SD, 0.12 mm) and 0.70 mm (SD, 0.08 mm)—for 2-jaw and 1-jaw surgeries, respectively (not significant, P >.05). All 2-jaw surgery patients had backward rotational displacements of the mandibular rami (mean, 1.98 mm; SD, 1.03 mm), with a maximum surface distance change of ≥2 mm in 8 of 11 subjects. For the 1-jaw surgery, all subjects had small backward rotational displacements of the mandibular rami (mean, 0.78 mm; SD, 0.25 mm), with only 1 subject having a maximum surface distance change ≥2 mm. The difference in mean backward rotational displacement was statistically significant (P <.01). Conclusions The visualization of 3D model superimposition clearly identified the location, magnitude, and direction of mandibular displacement. The 3D imaging allowed quantification of vertical, transverse, and anteroposterior ramus displacement that accompanied mandibular, but not maxillary only, surgery. PMID:17208105

  5. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  6. The 12th Annual International Meeting on Simulation Healthcare (IMSH) 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    MArch University of Utah Salt Lake City UT USA Janet Ahlstrom Shawnee Mission Medical Center Olathe KS USA Rami Ahmed DO FACEP Austen ...Cristian Arzola MD MSc Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto ON CAN S Scott Atkinson IT EMT-P Summa Health System Austen BioInnovation Institute In Akron...Medicine New York NY USA Era Buck PhD University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Galveston TX USA Jane Buglione Yale University

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G

    2016-10-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses.

  8. Combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy using a four-arm platform: experience, technique and cautions during early procedure development.

    PubMed

    Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Rizk, Nabil P; Finley, David J; Bains, Manjit S; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Rusch, Valerie W

    2013-05-01

    This study reports an early, single-institution experience of combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) using a four-arm robotic platform, with special attention given to the pitfalls and complications during procedure development. We conducted a prospective, single-cohort, observational study of patients undergoing RAMIE at a single institution. A total of 21 patients (median age, 62 years [range, 37-83 years]) underwent RAMIE with a four-arm robotic platform (17 by Ivor Lewis and 4 by McKeown). Of the patients, 17 (81%) had a complete (R0) resection, and 16 (76%) received induction treatment, the majority (14/21 [67%]) with combined chemoradiation. The median operative time was 556 min (range, 395-807 min), which decreased to 414 min (range, 405-543 min) for the last 5 cases in the series. The median estimated blood loss was 307 cm(3) (range, 200-500 cm(3)), and the median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range, 7-70 days). The median number of lymph nodes resected was 20 (range, 10-49). Five (24%) patients were converted to open procedures. Five patients (24%) had major complications. One (5%) died of complications on postoperative Day 70, and 3 (14%) had clinically significant anastomotic leaks (Grade II or greater, by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0). Three patients (14%) in this early experience developed airway fistulas. While four-arm RAMIE may offer advantages over standard minimally invasive esophagectomy approaches, its adoption in a structured program, with critical evaluation of adverse events and subsequent adjustment of technique, is paramount to maximize patient safety, minimize complications and improve the conduct of operation early in the learning curve. Particular technical consideration should be given to prevention of airway complications.

  9. Effects of exogenous calcium and spermidine on cadmium stress moderation and metal accumulation in Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaomin; Liu, Yunguo; Huang, Danlian; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Shaobo; Tang, Hui; Zhou, Lu; Hu, Xi; Zhou, Yaoyu; Tan, Xiaofei

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a detrimental metal in the environment and it is easily taken up by plants, thus entering the food chain and posing a severe threat to human health. Phytoremediation being low cost, highly stable, and environmentally friendly has been considered as a promising green technology for Cd remediation. The addition of exogenous substances to the culture media has been recognized as an efficient strategy to improve plant phytoremediation capability. Pot trials were conducted to investigate the combined effects of exogenous calcium (Ca) and spermidine (Spd) on Cd-induced toxicity in Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. (ramie). Results showed that the application of 5-mM exogenous Ca significantly alleviated Cd toxicity in ramie by reducing Cd accumulation, depressing H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents, increasing plants dry weights and chlorophyll concentrations, as well as altering the activities of total superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. Furthermore, as a non-Cd hyperaccumulator plant, ramie hyperaccumulated Cd and suffered more severe toxic effects of Cd by the treatment of 1 mM Ca/Cd. The aggravated Cd toxicity could be compensated by the addition of exogenous Spd via the promotion of plant growth and the reduction of the oxidative stress. Overall, the combination effects of 1 mM Ca and Spd appeared to be more superior compared to other treatments in the plants under Cd stress with a higher Cd accumulation ability and the evaluated Cd stress tolerance.

  10. Schreiner organs: a new craniate chemosensory modality in hagfishes.

    PubMed

    Braun, C B

    1998-03-09

    An extensive system of sensory organs resembling taste buds was previously known in the skin of hagfishes. These sensory organs, called here Schreiner organs, are found throughout the epidermis of both Eptatretus stoutii and Myxine glutinosa. They are found also at high densities in the prenasal sinus, nasopharyngeal duct, and pharynx, and at lower densities in the oral and velar chambers. Schreiner organs are multicellular aggregates composed of acetylated tubulin-immunoreactive receptor cells and nonimmunoreactive cells. A considerable range of variation was found in Schreiner organ morphology, but discrete classes of organs could not be recognized. Schreiner organs are innervated by all sensory trigeminal rami, the glossopharyngeal/vagal nerve, and cutaneous rami of spinal nerves, but not by the facial nerve. The central projections of these rami form a continuous tract in the trigeminal sensory zone and the dorsolateral funiculus of the spinal cord. Some Schreiner organs may be represented in the nucleus of the solitary tract, but this structure is certainly not the primary recipient zone of Schreiner organ afferents. In light of these systemic differences between vertebrate taste systems and the Schreiner organ system of hagfishes, it is concluded that Schreiner organs are not homologous to taste buds. This sensory modality of hagfishes has no direct homolog in vertebrates and appears to be a specialization of hagfishes, perhaps derived from the primitive somatosensory system of the earliest craniates.

  11. Complications after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: relationship to the shape of the osteotomy line.

    PubMed

    Kawase-Koga, Y; Mori, Y; Fujii, Y; Kanno, Y; Chikazu, D; Susami, T; Takato, T

    2016-02-01

    Intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) is used widely to correct mandibular prognathism. However, several disadvantages of this procedure have been reported, such as condylar luxation and bony interference at the osteotomy site. The aim of this study was to survey the incidence of complications (condylar luxation and bony interference) based on the shape of the osteotomy line. One hundred and eighty-five rami in 118 patients with jaw deformities, which were treated with IVRO, were examined retrospectively. The shape of the osteotomy line and the postoperative complications were examined on panoramic radiographs. Osteotomy lines were classified into three types: vertical, C-shaped, and oblique. Of the 185 osteotomy sites, 98 were vertical, 37 C-shaped, and 50 oblique. Condylar luxation was found in six rami (3.2%); four had undergone vertical osteotomy and two had undergone C-shaped osteotomy. Bony interference occurred in seven rami (3.8%), all with vertical type osteotomy lines. Most complications occurred in the vertical type cases and no complications were found in oblique type cases. Condylar luxation was found mainly in unilateral IVRO cases and bony interference was found in bilateral IVRO cases. These results suggest that the oblique type of osteotomy line has the advantage of avoiding complications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Localized Sympathectomy Reduces Mechanical Hypersensitivity by Restoring Normal Immune Homeostasis in Rat Models of Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Chen, Sisi; Strong, Judith A.; Li, Ai-Ling; Lewkowich, Ian P.

    2016-01-01

    Some forms of chronic pain are maintained or enhanced by activity in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), but attempts to model this have yielded conflicting findings. The SNS has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immunity, confounding the interpretation of experiments using global sympathectomy methods. We performed a “microsympathectomy” by cutting the ipsilateral gray rami where they entered the spinal nerves near the L4 and L5 DRG. This led to profound sustained reductions in pain behaviors induced by local DRG inflammation (a rat model of low back pain) and by a peripheral paw inflammation model. Effects of microsympathectomy were evident within one day, making it unlikely that blocking sympathetic sprouting in the local DRGs or hindpaw was the sole mechanism. Prior microsympathectomy greatly reduced hyperexcitability of sensory neurons induced by local DRG inflammation observed 4 d later. Microsympathectomy reduced local inflammation and macrophage density in the affected tissues (as indicated by paw swelling and histochemical staining). Cytokine profiling in locally inflamed DRG showed increases in pro-inflammatory Type 1 cytokines and decreases in the Type 2 cytokines present at baseline, changes that were mitigated by microsympathectomy. Microsympathectomy was also effective in reducing established pain behaviors in the local DRG inflammation model. We conclude that the effect of sympathetic fibers in the L4/L5 gray rami in these models is pro-inflammatory. This raises the possibility that therapeutic interventions targeting gray rami might be useful in some chronic inflammatory pain conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sympathetic blockade is used for many pain conditions, but preclinical studies show both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. The sympathetic nervous system also has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immune tissues and cells. We examined effects of a very localized sympathectomy. By cutting the gray rami to the spinal

  13. Branches of the thoracic sympathetic trunk in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Groen, G J; Baljet, B; Boekelaar, A B; Drukker, J

    1987-01-01

    The segmental organization of the thoracic sympathetic trunk and all its ramifications was studied in 6 human fetuses (16-22 weeks) by means of the acetylcholinesterase in toto staining method. Each trunk was divided into 12 sympathetic segments. A segment is defined as that part of the sympathetic trunk which is connected via its rami communicantes with one spinal nerve, without discriminating between grey and white rami. The diameter of the rami communicantes and their direction towards the spinal nerves are variable. The number of peripheral segmental ramifications of the trunk is much larger than assumed previously. Each thoracic sympathetic segment gives off at least 4-5 nerves. Three categories of nerves are discerned: (1) large splanchnic rootlets confined to the greater, lesser and least thoracic splanchnic nerves, (2) medium-sized splanchnic nerves directed towards thoracic viscera, some of which give off branches towards costovertebral joint plexuses and, described for the first time in man, (3) small nerves which ramify extensively and form nerve plexuses in the capsule of the costovertebral joints. The majority of the ramifications is formed by the nerves of the third category. The existence of Kuntz's nerve, connecting the 2nd intercostal nerve and 1st thoracic spinal nerve, is confirmed in four specimens. The nerve plexuses of the costovertebral joints receive a segmentally organized innervation: they receive their input from the neighbouring sympathetic segment and the one cranial to it. It is concluded that the thoracic sympathetic branches in man show a complex, segmentally organized pattern and may have a considerable component of somatosensory nerve fibers. The complex relationships must be taken into account in surgical sympathectomies.

  14. The activity of barley alpha-amylase on starch granules is enhanced by fusion of a starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase.

    PubMed

    Juge, Nathalie; Nøhr, Jane; Le Gal-Coëffet, Marie-Françoise; Kramhøft, Birte; Furniss, Caroline S M; Planchot, Véronique; Archer, David B; Williamson, Gary; Svensson, Birte

    2006-02-01

    High affinity for starch granules of certain amylolytic enzymes is mediated by a separate starch binding domain (SBD). In Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA-I), a 70 amino acid O-glycosylated peptide linker connects SBD with the catalytic domain. A gene was constructed to encode barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1) fused C-terminally to this SBD via a 37 residue GA-I linker segment. AMY1-SBD was expressed in A. niger, secreted using the AMY1 signal sequence at 25 mg x L(-1) and purified in 50% yield. AMY1-SBD contained 23% carbohydrate and consisted of correctly N-terminally processed multiple forms of isoelectric points in the range 4.1-5.2. Activity and apparent affinity of AMY1-SBD (50 nM) for barley starch granules of 0.034 U x nmol(-1) and K(d) = 0.13 mg x mL(-1), respectively, were both improved with respect to the values 0.015 U x nmol(-1) and 0.67 mg x mL(-1) for rAMY1 (recombinant AMY1 produced in A. niger). AMY1-SBD showed a 2-fold increased activity for soluble starch at low (0.5%) but not at high (1%) concentration. AMY1-SBD hydrolysed amylose DP440 with an increased degree of multiple attack of 3 compared to 1.9 for rAMY1. Remarkably, at low concentration (2 nM), AMY1-SBD hydrolysed barley starch granules 15-fold faster than rAMY1, while higher amounts of AMY-SBD caused molecular overcrowding of the starch granule surface.

  15. [Vascular morphology of the bovine testis. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies].

    PubMed

    Hees, H; Kohler, T; Leiser, R; Hees, I; Lips, T

    1990-01-01

    The testicular artery of the bull-testis shows a straight course from the end of the pampiniform plexus to the caudal extremity of testis. There it branches off in Rami tunicales, which lie as stratum arteriosum superficially to the albugineal veins of testis: a multi-layered stratum venosum. Arterial Rami parenchymales centripetales run directly to the mediastinum testis, form coils and then divide in approximately 10 or more thinner Rami parenchymales centrifugales, which extend from the coils into the parenchyma of the gonad. The three-dimensional microvasculature of the bull-testis is strikingly different from that of rodents: The peritubular network of capillaries in the interstitial space is positioned in a more irregular way. Only here and there is discernible a rope-ladder-like or polygonal arrangement of capillaries. A subalbugineal plexus does not exist in the bovine testis. Parenchymal veins drain in albugineal veins and these empty in the venous networks of the pampiniform plexus. Valves are a rare finding in testicular veins. Already low perfusion-pressure easily forces the corrosion-compound to leave the capillary bed and form typical extravasations as bent shovel-like plates, thus filling the clefts of peritubular spaces. Arteries and veins are directly embedded in the parenchyma of testis, surrounded only by a relatively thin margin of perivascular connective tissue. There are no septula testis and therefore a lobular organisation of bovine testis does not exist. The angioarchitecture of the testis plays an important role in thermoregulatory and androgen-transfer mechanisms as well as in the transport of rete-fluid to the epididymis.

  16. Does anatomy of the pubic arch interfere with the maintaining of erection?

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean François; Virag, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    There are men who suffer from unsustainable erections without any identified cause of erectile dysfunction, raising the question if anatomical alterations could be involved. Since early anatomical studies, it has been proposed that to achieve full penile rigidity, the blood must be blocked inside the penis by compression of the deep dorsal vein (DDV), the main venous collector under pubic symphysis. Using a recently developed caverno computed tomography (CT) scan technique, allowing the evaluation of the venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa (CC) during erection, we have studied some anatomical conditions of this important part of the erectile phenomenon. Puboischial rami angles were measured in axial CT images and calculated strictly on the upper insertion point of the CC, using axial submillimeter slices in 37 patients divided into 3 groups depending on the results of the caverno CT scan: (i) no leak; (ii) superficial veins leaking; and (iii) drainage through the DDV and/or preprostatic plexus. In addition same angles were measured in two randomly unselected populations of men (N = 30), and women (N = 23) who underwent pelvic CT scan for various reasons, unrelated to their sexual or genital condition. The angles made by both puboischial rami were measured in patients with and without veno-occlusive dysfunction and in unselected samples of men and women. There is a significantly wider angle made by both puboischial rami in men without complete erection and without evidence of anomalous venous drainage (group 3) (72.2° ± 4.7° standard deviation [SD]), compared with both men with normal erection (group 1) (57.5 ± 5° SD) P < 0.00001, and men with incomplete erection and evidence of anomalous drainage (group 2) (57.7 ± 6° SD) P < 0.00001. If confirmed in larger samples, these results raise new questions on the mechanism and the role of these significant anatomical variations, yet unknown, in maintaining or not full rigid erections. © 2012 International

  17. Prosthetic limb sockets from plant-based composite materials.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew I; Sexton, Sandra; Schaschke, Carl J; Kinsman, Harry; McLaughlin, Brian; Boyle, Martin

    2012-06-01

    There is a considerable demand for lower limb prostheses globally due to vascular disease, war, conflict, land mines and natural disasters. Conventional composite materials used for prosthetic limb sockets include acrylic resins, glass and carbon fibres, which produce harmful gasses and dust in their manufacture. To investigate the feasibility of using a renewable plant oil-based polycarbonate-polyurethane copolymer resin and plant fibre composite, instead of conventional materials, to improve safety and accessibility of prosthetic limb manufacture. Experimental, bench research. Test pieces of the resin with a range of plant fibres (10.0% by volume) were prepared and tensile strengths were tested. Test sockets of both conventional composite materials and plant resin with plant fibres were constructed and tested to destruction. Combinations of plant resin and either banana or ramie fibres gave high tensile strengths. The conventional composite material socket and plant resin with ramie composite socket failed at a similar loading, exceeding the ISO 10328 standard. Both wall thickness and fibre-matrix adhesion played a significant role in socket strength. From this limited study we conclude that the plant resin and ramie fibre composite socket has the potential to replace the standard layup. Further mechanical and biocompatibility testing as well as a full economic analysis is required. Using readily sourced and renewable natural fibres and a low-volatile bio-resin has potential to reduce harm to those involved in the manufacture of artificial limb sockets, without compromising socket strength and benefitting clinicians working in poorer countries where safety equipment is scarce. Such composite materials will reduce environmental impact.

  18. Natural Lignocellulosic Fibers as Engineering Materials—An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lopes, Felipe Perissé Duarte; Barbosa, Anderson Paula; Bevitori, Alice Barreto; Silva, Isabela Leão Amaral Da; Costa, Lucas Lopes Da

    2011-10-01

    Recent investigations on the tensile properties of natural cellulose-based fibers revealed an increasing potential as engineering materials. This is particularly the case of very thin fibers of some species such as sisal, ramie, and curaua. However, several other commonly used fibers such as flax, jute, hemp, coir, cotton, and bamboo as well as less known bagasse, piassava, sponge gourde, and buriti display tensile properties that could qualify them as engineering materials. An overview of the strength limits attained by these fibers is presented. Based on a tensile strength vs density chart, it is shown that natural fibers stand out as a relevant class of engineering materials.

  19. Speleonectes cokei, new species of Remipedia (Crustacea: Speleonectidae) from a submerged ocean cave near Caye Chapel, Belize.

    PubMed

    Yager, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Speleonectes cokei n. sp. is the 15th species of Speleonectes to be described. It is the first remipede described from a submerged cave off the mainland of Belize. The species is the third found along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. S. cokel can be distinguished from S. tulumensis Yager, 1987 and S. fuchscockburni Neiber et al., 2012 by the number of antenna 1 segments, number of antenna 2 exopod setae, spines on maxilla 1 segment 2, and caudal rami to anal segment length.

  20. Persianorchestia, a new talitrid genus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae) from Gulf of Oman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Lowry, Jim; Hekmatara, Maryam

    2017-03-02

    A new genus and species, Persianorchestia nirvana gen. et sp. nov., is described from the south coast of Iran along the Gulf of Oman. The new genus is characterized by large eyes, gnathopod 1 posterior margin of carpus and propodus each with lobe covered in palmate setae, smooth posterior margin on dactylus of male gnathopod 2, a slender dactylus on pereopod 5, uropod 1 outer ramus without marginal robust setae and with apical spear-shaped setae on the rami of uropods 1 and 2. Persianorchestia is most similar to Pseudorchestoidea Bousfield, 1982.

  1. Development of a New Radiation Sensor for Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hauslage, Jens; Marsalek, Karel; Aeckerlein, Joachim; M, Hartmut

    The RAMIS (RAdiation Measurements In Space) experiment aims to measure cosmic radiation with energy deposition ranging from minimal ionizing protons up to relativistic iron nuclei. The radiation detector principle uses two silicon detectors, each with an active area of 0.5cm² that are arranged in a telescope configuration. The experiment will fly in 2016 on the first mission of the newly developed DLR (German Aerospace Center) Compact Satellite, which intends to provide an easy accessible platform for scientific research within DLR as well as for international partners and their experiments. As the satellite will orbit Earth at an altitude of about 600 km on a polar orbit, valuable insights are gained not only in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) component of the radiation field and in solar energetic particles (SEPs) in case of solar events. Also the trapped radiation in the horns of the electron belts around Earth can be studied in detail. Particle fluxes will be monitored and energy deposition spectra recorded from which linear energy transfer spectra will be generated. These spectra give an estimate for the quality of the radiation field. The RAMIS experiment consists of two modules, i.e. two small silicon detector telescopes, with one module being located outside on top of the satellite, while the other one is placed inside next to the primary payload of the satellite, the Eu:CROPIS experiment. Eu:CROPIS is a combined self-sustained biological life support system under Moon and Mars gravity, which uses Euglena as oxygen suppliers, biofilter for wastewater treatment and detoxification, and urine as primary fertilizer. In addition to its scientific output RAMIS will provide dosimetric monitoring for Eu:CROPIS and serve as a radiation exposure information system for the satellite bus. Furthermore the obtained data can be used for benchmarking and improvement of radiation belt models as well as of shielding models by combining the results of both modules. The RAMIS

  2. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy: at what level should you perform surgery?

    PubMed

    Weksler, Benny; Luketich, James D; Shende, Manisha R

    2008-05-01

    Several interventions are possible on the sympathetic chain and the nomenclature has been confusing. The authors propose a uniform nomenclature for each procedure, mainly, sympathectomy for resection or ablation of the ganglion, sympathicotomy for the transaction of the chain, ramicotomy for the procedure preserving the chain and ganglia and severing the rami, and finally, sympathetic block for clipping above and below the ganglia. They recommend intervention on the T2 ganglia for facial hyperhidrosis and rubor, on the T3 ganglia for palmar hyperhidrosis, and on the T3 and T4 ganglia for axillary hyperhidrosis.

  3. Locomotion of an all-terrain mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iagolnitzer, M.; Richard, F.; Samson, J. F.; Tournassoud, P.

    The authors introduce a framework and prospective solutions for intelligent locomotion, defined as the ability for a mobile robot to cross over obstacles along a path roughly determined either through teleoperation or by a navigation path-finder. Then, they present a simple but efficient control scheme derived from these concepts, taking into account ground clearance, vehicle safety, and possible occlusions in the vision field. This control scheme is applied to Rami, a four tiltable track robot equipped with force sensors, an inertial reference system, a laser-stripe range finder, and extensive real-time computing facilities based on a decentralized architecture.

  4. Enzymes in bast fibrous plant processing.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Ryszard; Batog, Jolanta; Konczewicz, Wanda; Mackiewicz-Talarczyk, Maria; Muzyczek, Malgorzata; Sedelnik, Natalia; Tanska, Bogumila

    2006-05-01

    The program COST Action 847 Textile Quality and Biotechnology (2000-2005) has given an excellent chance to review the possibilities of the research, aiming at development of the industrial application of enzymes for bast fibrous plant degumming and primary processing. The recent advancements in enzymatic processing of bast fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, ramie and alike plants) and related textiles are given. The performance of enzymes in degumming, modification of bast fibres, roving, yarn, related fabrics as well as enzymatic bonding of lignocellulosic composites is provided.

  5. Colobomatus kimi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the dwarf goatfish Upeneus parvus Poey, 1852 (Perciformes: Mullidae) in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Pereira, Aldenice N; Luque, José Luis

    2016-10-11

    A new species of copepod, Colobomatus kimi sp. nov., belonging to the cyclopoid family Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877, is proposed based on female specimens collected from the pores of the cephalic sensory system of the dwarf goatfish, Upeneus parvus Poey from the southeastern Brazilian coastal zone. The new species can be distinguished from its closest congeners by the unique combination of characters displayed by the female, including the forked caudal rami, the position of the midventral cephalic process shorter in relation to the lateral cephalic processes, and the presence of paired genital processes. The new species is the first member of Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 found to parasitize mullids of the genus Upeneus.

  6. A new notodelphyid copepod, Paranotodelphys illgi n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), parasitic in the ascidian Corynascidia herdmani Ritter in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Marchenkov, Andrey; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2003-01-01

    A new species of the Notodelphyidae belonging to Paranotodelphys Schellenberg, 1922 is described from both sexes. The new species, Paranotodelphys illgi, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of its 10-segmented female antennule, the bisetose fifth legs and the extreme elongation of the caudal rami of the female, which are more than 10 times longer than wide and 4.4 times longer than the anal somite. The male has non-geniculate antennules. The new species was collected at a depth of 508m in the North Pacific Ocean, from the ascidian Corynascidia herdmani Ritter.

  7. A new species of Enterognathus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Kota

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the endoparasitic copepod Enterognathus (Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) is described from a crinoid host in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. This is a third species of the genus and its first occurrence in the Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguished from two previously known congeners by the morphology of the body somites, caudal rami, antennae and legs. Crinoid parasites belonging to Enterognathus and the closely related genus Parenterognathus have a broad distribution from the northeastern Atlantic through the Red Sea to the West Pacific.

  8. A new species of Enterognathus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Kota

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the endoparasitic copepod Enterognathus (Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) is described from a crinoid host in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. This is a third species of the genus and its first occurrence in the Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguished from two previously known congeners by the morphology of the body somites, caudal rami, antennae and legs. Crinoid parasites belonging to Enterognathus and the closely related genus Parenterognathus have a broad distribution from the northeastern Atlantic through the Red Sea to the West Pacific. PMID:22539902

  9. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular advancement 1 year after surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Ribeiro Carvalho, Felipe; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares; Motta, Alexandre Trindade Simões da; de Oliveira Almeida, Marco Antonio; Phillips, Ceib

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This prospective observational study evaluated changes in the 3-dimensional position and remodeling of the mandibular rami, condyles, and chin at splint removal and 1 year after mandibular advancement surgery. Methods Presurgery, splint removal (4–6 weeks postsurgery), and 1-year postsurgery cone-beam computed tomography scans of 27 subjects were used. Superimposition on the cranial base was used to assess positional or remodeling changes in the anatomic regions of interest. Surface distance displacements were visually displayed and quantified by 3-dimensional color maps. A 1-sample t test was used to assess the average postsurgical changes of each region of interest. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results After antero-inferior chin displacement with surgery (mean, 6.81 ± 3.2 mm at splint removal), the average 1-year post-surgery displacement was not statistically significant (P = 0.44). Postsurgical adaptations greater than 2 mm were observed in 48% of the patients: 16% with an additional anterior-inferior displacement of the chin of 2 to 4 mm, and 4% with ≥4 mm; 20% had postero-superior movement of 2 to 4 mm, and 8% had postero-superior movement of ≥4 mm. The condyles tended to move, on average, ≤2 mm supero-posteriorly with surgery, and this small positional displacement was maintained 1 year postsurgery (right condyle, P = 0.58; left, P = 0.88). The rami exhibited outward (lateral) movements with surgery, with greater displacement of the inferior part of the rami (≥2 mm in 65% of the subjects). This torque of the ramus with surgery was stable 1 year postsurgery. Conclusions Three-dimensional assessment of skeletal changes with mandibular advancement surgery shows that nearly half of the patients have >2 mm change in chin position from splint removal to the 1-year follow-up, with approximately equal chances of anterior and posterior movement. Torque of the rami usually occurs with mandibular advancement surgery. PMID:20381760

  10. A new species of the genus Rhinoecetes Just, 1983 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Ischyroceridae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Masafumi; Ohtsuchi, Naoya; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-09-19

    A new species of ischyrocerid amphipods, Rhinoecetes spinicaudus sp. nov., is described from Nabeta Bay, southeast coast of Izu Peninsula, central Japan. This new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the presence of spinulation on the lateral margins of uropod I rami, row of small robust setae on uropod II ramus, and single robust seta on uropod III ramus. More detailed distinguishing characters from R. albomaculosus are also discussed. This is the first record of the genus Rhinoecetes from Japan. Key to all the species of Rhinoecetes is provided.

  11. FT Raman microscopy of untreated natural plant fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Webster, D.

    1997-11-01

    The application of FT-Raman microscopy to the non-destructive analysis of natural plant fibres is demonstrated with samples of flax, jute, ramie, cotton, kapok, sisal and coconut fibre. Vibrational assignments are proposed and characteristic features of each material are presented. Samples were not pre-treated chemically before analysis and were used directly from their respective storage collection; the adaptation of the Raman microscopic technique to the identification of specimens of natural fibres in archaeological burial sites is explored for its forensic potential.

  12. Poststernotomy neuralgia: a new pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Defalque, R J; Bromley, J J

    1989-07-01

    Fifty-four patients developed severe intercostal neuralgia a few weeks after sternotomy. Immediate relief afforded by parasternal nerve blocks confirmed that the pain derived from scar-entrapped neuromas of the anterior rami of the first 4-6 intercostal nerves in the upper (and mainly left) interchondral spaces after insertion of the sternal wires. Permanent relief (i.e., over 6 months) followed repeated bupivacaine blocks in 57.4% of the patients, phenol blocks in another 22.2%, and alcohol blocks in a remaining 9%. Treatment was successful in 87% of the patients.

  13. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, B.H.R.; Toda, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  14. Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) parasitic on coastal marine fishes in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-08-01

    Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917, are described from marine fishes caught in coastal waters of southwestern Japan. Peniculisa elongata n. sp., Peniculisa crassa n. sp., and Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. are distinguishable from Peniculisa furcata ( Krøyer, 1863 ), Peniculisa bellwoodi Boxshall, 1989 , and Peniculisa wilsoni Radhakrishnan, 1977 , in the lack of rami on legs 1 to 4, the lack of leg 5, and the possession of a trunk with prominent anterior shoulders. Peniculisa elongata n. sp. is separated from the remaining 2 known and 3 new congeners, Peniculisa bicaudata Shiino, 1956 , Peniculisa shiinoi Izawa, 1965 , P. crassa n. sp., Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp., and P. uchinah n. sp. by a pair of long, slender caudal processes, a compact cephalothorax, and its trunk with posteroventral lobes projecting posteriorly. Peniculisa crassa n. sp. can be discriminated from them by its pair of short, thick caudal processes, a comparatively large and thick cephalothorax in relation to its body, and its abdominal processes widest at base. Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeners by the possession of a pair of relatively long, slender, and proportionately long caudal processes, and a long abdominal process widest near the posterior end. Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp. is identified by a pair of long, divergent abdominal processes extending the tip of caudal rami, and by the location of leg 4 on the neck region.

  15. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  16. Development of the synganglion and morphology of the adult nervous system in the mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Chelicerata, Actinotrichida, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Konstantin; Laumann, Michael; Bergmann, Paavo; Heethoff, Michael; Schmelzle, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Small arthropods show a highly condensed central nervous system, which is accompanied by the loss of the ancestral metameric organization. This results in the formation of one solid mass, a synganglion. Although numerous studies investigated the morphology of Archegozetes longisetosus, the organization of the nervous system is to date unknown. Using synchrotron X-ray microtomography, we investigated the organization of the nervous system in the adult stage and the development of the synganglion over all five free-living life stages (larva, proto-, deuto-, tritonymph and adult). The general morphology of the synganglion resembles that of other studied mites (in the classic sense) and ticks, being subdivided into a sub- and supraesophageal region, and consisting of cortex and neuropil. All nerves entering the walking legs except the first consist of two rami. This split is not based on a functional division into a motor and a sensory ramus, but both rami contain motor and sensory neurites. Within the synganglion, we found structures that resemble the ancestral metameric organization of the nervous system of arthropods. The development of the synganglion of A. longisetosus shows a more or less linear increase in volume, but cortex and neuropil grow at different rates over the five life stages. Between the second and third nymphal stage, the volume of the neuropil increases at a faster rate than the cortex.

  17. Interfascial Dissection for Protection of the Nerve Branches to the Frontalis Muscles during Supraorbital Trans-Eyebrow Approach: An Anatomical Study and Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Roger Neves; Lieber, Stefan; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Maldaun, Marcos Vinícius Calfat; Gardner, Paul; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Preservation of the temporal branches of the facial nerve during anterolateral craniotomies is important. Damaging it can inflict undesirable cosmetic defects to the patient. The supraorbital trans-eyebrow approach (SOTE) is a versatile keyhole craniotomy but still has a high rate of frontalis muscle (FM) palsy. Objective Anatomical study to implement the interfascial dissection during the SOTE to preserve the nerves to the FM. Methods Slight modification of the standard technique of the SOTE was performed in 6 cadaveric specimens (12 sides). Results Distal rami to the FM were exposed. The standard "u-shape" incision of the FM can cross over the nerves. Alternatively, an "l-shape" incision was performed until the superior temporal line (STL). An interfascial dissection was performed near to the STL and the interfascial fat pad was used as a protective layer for the nerves. Conclusion Various pathologies can be addressed with the SOTE. In the majority of the cases the cosmetic results are good, but FM palsy remains a drawback of this approach. The interfascial dissection may be used in an attempt to prevent frontalis rami palsy.

  18. Interfascial Dissection for Protection of the Nerve Branches to the Frontalis Muscles during Supraorbital Trans-Eyebrow Approach: An Anatomical Study and Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Roger Neves; Lieber, Stefan; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Maldaun, Marcos Vinícius Calfat; Gardner, Paul; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preservation of the temporal branches of the facial nerve during anterolateral craniotomies is important. Damaging it can inflict undesirable cosmetic defects to the patient. The supraorbital trans-eyebrow approach (SOTE) is a versatile keyhole craniotomy but still has a high rate of frontalis muscle (FM) palsy. Objective Anatomical study to implement the interfascial dissection during the SOTE to preserve the nerves to the FM. Methods Slight modification of the standard technique of the SOTE was performed in 6 cadaveric specimens (12 sides). Results Distal rami to the FM were exposed. The standard “u—shape” incision of the FM can cross over the nerves. Alternatively, an “l-shape” incision was performed until the superior temporal line (STL). An interfascial dissection was performed near to the STL and the interfascial fat pad was used as a protective layer for the nerves. Conclusion Various pathologies can be addressed with the SOTE. In the majority of the cases the cosmetic results are good, but FM palsy remains a drawback of this approach. The interfascial dissection may be used in an attempt to prevent frontalis rami palsy. PMID:27175323

  19. [Lower costovertebral arthritis in rheumatic pelvispondylitis. Pseudourologic manifestation].

    PubMed

    Benhamou, C L; Roux, C; Benhamou-Mayoux, A; Gauvain, J B; Corlieu, P; Viala, J F; Amor, B

    1987-03-01

    Costo-vertebral and costo-transverse joints are often involved during rheumatoid pelvispondylitis. Their involvement may lead to thoracic ankylosis and decreased respiratory capabilities. These arthritis may also cause intercostal or pseudo-visceral pains. The authors report three cases of lower costo-vertebral arthritis, revealed by pseudo-urological, acute or subacute pains. The diagnosis was made on clinical findings (especially mobilization of the lower ribs) and confirmed by X-Rays (especially tomodensitometry). One of the cases presents an image of unilateral pedicle opacity secondary to costovertebral arthritis. The pseudo-urological manifestation of the pain is likely explained by the anatomical relationship between costo-vertebral joints and the sympathetic communicating rami. This close anatomical relationship was confirmed by dissection. Through the communicating rami, the costo-vertebral joints are thus in relation with the sympathetic system, which is responsible for the sensory innervation of the renal space. The pseudo-urological revelation of this arthritis should be compared to that of costal sprains.

  20. Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Antarctic deep sea—a copepod closely related to certain shallow-water species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2004-07-01

    The international scientific deep-sea cruise ANDEEP-2 (ANT XIX/4) to the Scotia Arc and the northern Weddell Sea in 2002 revealed a new species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by characteristics such as a two-segmented endopod on the fourth leg and an additional seta on the endopod of the third leg. The most striking feature is its strong, flexed, chitinous thorns on the telson. Only three species in the family have such appendages, all of them interstitial, shallow-water species. Because the new species lacks the strong abdominal muscle observed by Kunz in Kliopsyllus furcavaricatus Kunz, 1974, it cannot spread its furcal rami using the thorns on the telson as antagonists the way the shallow-water species does. The furcal-rami spreading system, which is an adaptation to interstitial living, for K. andeep sp. n. is irrelevant, because the species has been collected from muddy sediments. Therefore, the abdominal muscle might have been lost during the species' evolution.

  1. The onset and rate of myelination in six peripheral and autonomic nerves of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, K; Friede, R L

    1988-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study was carried out of the numbers of myelinated fibres in 6 nerves of the rat for 7 age groups from birth to 73 weeks. The hypoglossal nerve and the mandibular branch of the facial nerve had short and early myelination periods, essentially complete by the second week. The glossopharyngeal nerve and the sympathetic rami communicantes myelinated late and over a protracted period. Myelination of the rami communicantes continued up to 20 weeks, followed by a marked loss of fibres in the 73 week animals. Intercostal and saphenous nerves had intermediary patterns. There was evidence of subpopulations myelinating at different times. Measurements of myelin sheath thickness showed variations of relative sheath thickness with age, between nerves and for subpopulations of nerves. Late myelination corresponded to relatively thin myelin sheaths. Statistical two-stage-density cluster analysis by computer was used for analysing complex fibre populations. The developmental changes of three subpopulations of the intercostal nerve are documented. Nerves also differed in their rates of axon growth. The increment in axon calibre was small and late for sympathetic fibres. Intercostal and facial nerve fibres had rapid axon growth with different growth rates for subpopulations. PMID:3248966

  2. Production of functional human vascular endothelial growth factor(165) in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Nguyen-Duc; Kim, Nan-Sun; Giap, Do Van; Jang, Seon-Hui; Oh, Sun-Mi; Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Tae-Geum; Jang, Yong-Suk; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2014-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are secreted by tumor cells and other cells exposed to hypoxia, and play a critical role in the development and differentiation of the vascular system. In this study, we investigated the production of functional recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165) in transgenic rice cell suspension culture. Complementary DNA was synthesized from human leukemia HL60 cells and cloned into expression vectors under the control of the rice α-amylase 3D (RAmy3D) promoter. The rice seed (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) was transformed with this recombinant vector by the Agrobacterium mediated method and the integration of the target gene into the plant genome was confirmed by genomic PCR. The expression of rhVEGF165 in the rice cells was determined by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. The accumulated rhVEGF165 protein in the culture medium was 19 mg/L after 18 days of culturing in a sugar-free medium. The rhVEGF165 was purified using a heparin HP column and its biological activity was tested on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The purified rhVEGF165 significantly increased the proliferative activity of the HUVECs. Therefore, it was demonstrated that functional rhVEGF165 could be produced using transgenic rice suspension culture vector under the control of the RAmy3D promoter.

  3. Reconstruction of the penis after necrosis due to circumcision burn.

    PubMed

    Stefan, H

    1994-02-01

    Penile necrosis secondary to circumcision by an electrical scalpel in a 2 years and-2-months-old boy occurred. After healing of the electric burn only stumps of the erectile bodies and strictured urethral meatus remained. Penile shaft reconstruction by corpora mobilisation and detachment of the crura from the pubo-ischial rami was performed. This procedure gained 6 cm of a new length of the penis. To prevent readhesions to the pubo-ischial rami the penis was buried in a scrotal tunnel. Six months later the denuded shaft was resurfaced with one split-thickness skin graft and a zigzag seam on the ventral side was made. The patient voids with good stream, has spontaneous erections and nocturnal emissions. During 10 years of follow-up after the reconstruction two complications, namely a stricture of the urethra and a slight dorsal tethering of the penis caused by a scarred pubic skin were treated. The problems of reconstruction and resurfacing of the penis in childhood are discussed.

  4. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions.

  5. Penile anatomy and hypotheses of erectile function in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): muscular eversion and elastic retraction.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D A

    2013-03-01

    The intromittent organs of most amniotes contain variable-volume hydrostatic skeletons that are stored in a flexible state and inflate with fluid before or during copulation. However, the penis in male crocodilians is notable because its shaft does not seem to change either its shape or bending stiffness as blood enters its vascular spaces before copulation. Here I report that crocodilians may have evolved a mechanism for penile shaft erection that does not require inflation and detumescence. Dissections of the cloaca in sexually mature male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) show that the cross section of the proximal shaft of the alligator penis contains dense collagenous tissues that do not significantly change shape when fluid is added to the central vascular space. The large amount of collagen in the wall and central space of the alligator penis stiffen the structure so it can be simply everted for copulation and rapidly retracted at its completion. Because no muscles insert directly onto the penis, eversion and retraction must be produced indirectly. My results suggest that the contraction of paired levator cloacae muscles around the anterior end of the cloaca rotates the penis out of the cloacal opening and strains the ligamentum rami that connect the base of the penis to the ischia. When the cloacal muscles relax, the elastic recoil of the ligamentum rami can return the penis to its original position inside the cloaca. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  7. A new phyllocarid (Crustacea: Malacostraca) from the Silurian Fossil-Lagerstätte of Herefordshire, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Sutton, Mark D.; Siveter, David J.; Siveter, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    A new three-dimensionally preserved arthropod, Cinerocaris magnifica, from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, is described and assigned to the Phyllocarida (Crustacea). The description and reconstruction are based on specimens that have been serially ground, reconstructed by computer and rendered in three dimensions as coloured virtual models. Cinerocaris magnifica displayed the tagmosis characteristic of phyllocarids, with eight thoracic and seven abdominal somites, terminating in a telson with furca. The remarkable preservation of the appendages makes this the earliest completely known malacostracan crustacean. Two pairs of antennae (the first with two flagella) were followed by a mandible and first maxilla, each with a slender palp-like ramus. The second maxilla consisted of a limb stem with endites and an endopod that tapered distally. There was no exopod. The thoracopods comprised a limb stem with six or seven endites, an arrangement previously known only in entomostracans, and an endopod with about five endites. Flap-like outer rami correspond to an exopod and epipods. The pleopods bore two long slender oar-blade-like rami. Cladistic analysis places C. magnifica as a plesion within the Echinocaridina. It provides critical evidence of the limb morphology of an early malacostracan, which will be important in understanding crustacean evolution. PMID:15058388

  8. [Study on the production of beta-mannanase by Bacillus M50].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Long, J; Liao, L; Zhang, Y; Yang, J

    2000-02-01

    Bacillus sp. M50 produced beta-mannanase efficiently in the medium composed of 4% konjac powder, 1.0% (NH4)2SO4 and 0.35% Na2CO3. Fermentation of beta-mannanase by Bacillus sp. M50 has been carried out in 100 L tank. The temperature, ventitation quantity and agitation speed were 30-32 degrees C, 1:0.75 vvm and 220 r/min respectively. the fermentation cycle was 28 h and the highest beta-mannanase activity was 330 u/mL. The optimal temperature and pH for beta-mannanase reaction were 50 degrees C and 6.0 respectively. It was stable at pH 4.0-7.0 and below 50 degrees C. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Fe3+, Al3+, EDTA, Hg2+ and slightly stimulated by Ba2+, Mn2+. Treatment of ramie-fibers with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus sp. M50 showed a good degradation for hemicellulose of ramie-fibers residues.

  9. Improvements in video-endoscopic sympathicotomy for the treatment of palmar, axillary, facial, and palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, J B; Kux, P

    1998-01-01

    Video-endoscopic sympathicotomy for the treatment of palmar, axillary, facial and palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis was modified as to the type of surgical access and the level of incision in the sympathetic chain and communicating rami, depending on the clinical indications. Under general anaesthesia, using a single lumen endotracheal tube, the patient is put in lateral decubitus and pneumothorax is induced. The patient is then placed in ventral decubitus, with the head elevated, to make two punctures in the posterior axillary line, at the level of the 4th and 7th intercostal spaces, to introduce two ports of 5 and 10 mm in size, respectively. The sympathetic chain and the communicating rami are viewed and severed, according to the indications, at different levels to treat palmar, axillary, facial and palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis and combinations of the above. The operation is performed on both sides of the thorax during the same period of anaesthesia. One hundred-forty patients (280 procedures) have been operated on from 1993 to 1997 using this technique. All were operated on as outpatients. Our results are: 100% of those with facial and palmar hyperhidrosis and 96% of those with axillar hyperhidrosis were cured, and 94% with plantar hyperhidrosis were relieved from 50 to 100%, with the follow-up of between one and 47 months.

  10. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; de Rosny, Gilles

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiomètre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  11. Radiographic changes of the pelvis in Labrador and Golden Retrievers after juvenile pubic symphysiodesis: objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, S; Vezzoni, L; Vezzoni, A; Bronzo, V; Rossi, F

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) results in pelvic changes that can be identified radiographically in adult dogs. The medical records at the Clinica Veterinaria Vezzoni were searched for standard ventro-dorsal views of the pelvis of adult Labrador and Golden Retrievers that had undergone JPS or had not undergone surgery. The objective assessment of radiographs included the analysis of various pelvic measurements. Subjective evaluation of radiographs was undertaken by 18 specialists and 21 general practitioners and was based on five criteria relating to 1) the acetabular fossae, 2) the pubic symphysis, 3) the margin of the cranial pubic area, 4) the pubic rami, and 5) the obturator foramen. The radiographs of 42 Labrador Retrievers and 16 Golden Retrievers were evaluated. The most useful criteria were the radiographic measurement of the shape of the obturator foramen and two different ratios of length to width of the pubic rami; these values were significantly smaller in dogs after JPS. The pelvic canal width was the same in both groups. All objective measurements were repeatable within and between evaluators. The most reliable subjective criterion was number 4, followed by number 5 in Golden Retrievers and by 2 in Labrador Retrievers. Our objective and subjective evaluations were simple and yielded useful and repeatable results. There was no significant difference between general practitioners and specialists with regard to subjective evaluation, which indicates that these evaluation criteria can be used by small animal clinicians after minimal training.

  12. Sugar modulation of alpha-amylase genes under anoxia.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Elena; Yamaguchi, Junji; Alpi, Amedeo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to low oxygen availability is likely to be due to the interaction of several factors. Sugar availability is one of the elements required to support anaerobic metabolism. In cereal grains the availability of soluble sugars is limited, while starch is stored in large amounts. Degradation of starch under anoxia is therefore needed to avoid sugar starvation leading to rapid cell death. The striking difference in the ability to produce alpha-amylase when comparing the anoxia-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains with grains of other cereals is not easily explained. Rice is able to respond to gibberellins under anoxia, but the response is too slow to explain the rapid production of alpha-amylase enzyme. In the present work we demonstrated that alpha-amylase production during the first 2 d after imbibition is mostly due to the activity of the Ramy3D gene, encoding for the G and H isoforms of alpha-amylase. The induction of Ramy3D transcription is likely to result from a low sugar content in the grains incubated under anoxia. The ability of rice embryos to sense sugars under anoxia is reported.

  13. Three muscles in the upper costovertebral region: description and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Hassem H; Ibrahim, Ahmed F

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe three small muscles in the upper costovertebral region that have close proximity to the ventral rami of the lower cervical and upper two thoracic spinal nerves. The study was performed using both anterior and posterior approaches to the costovertebral region. Twenty-five human cadavers, 15 males and 10 females with a mean age of 50 years and with normal spines, constituted the material of the study. Dissection revealed the presence of three triangular muscles that extended from the transverse processes of the seventh cervical through second thoracic vertebrae to the upper borders of the necks of the first through third ribs, respectively. The second and third muscles are described and reported for the first time. The ventral rami of the lower cervical and upper two thoracic spinal nerves emerged through narrow gaps between the described muscles and the bodies of seventh cervical and upper two thoracic vertebrae, respectively. The lateral branch of the dorsal ramus of the corresponding spinal nerve issued posteriorly between the muscle and the articular capsule of the zygapophyseal joint. It then curved round the posterior aspect of the muscle and passed through the gap between the muscle and the levator costarum, after supplying them both. We suggest that these three muscles were suggested to share a common embryogenesis with the intertransverse muscles. In addition, this study suggests that the three muscles described herein could be one of the potential causes of thoracic outlet syndrome. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-04-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., <2 %, than the control SPAD value at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. With a continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites.

  15. Evaluation of practical schemes for correcting multiple scattering effects on gap fraction measurements by plant canopy analyzer LAI-2000/2200: implications for hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Kuusk, A.

    2016-12-01

    Correct estimates of gap fraction are essential for quantifying canopy architectural variables, such as leaf area and clumping indices, which modify land-atmosphere interactions. The plant canopy analyzer (PCA) LAI-2000/2200 has been in use for the non-destructive determination of leaf area index (LAI), and other structural attributes of vegetative canopies for over 25 years (Li-Cor, 1989). The instrument is considered the world standard for indirect LAI measurements (Li-Cor, 2014). The PCA uses the gap fraction technique for calculation of LAI and mean inclination angle of foliage. However, gap fraction measurements from optical sensors are contaminated by radiation that is scattered by plant elements and ground surfaces. Three proposed alternative schemes for correcting multiple scattering effects on gap fraction measurements by PCA are evaluated: 1) Leblanc and Chen, 2001. Agric. For. Meteorol. 110, 125-139; 2) Kobayashi et al.., 2013. Agric. For. Meteorol. 174-175, 170-183; and 3) Kuusk, 2016. Agric. For. Meteorol. 221, 242-247. Collectively these methods provide suggestions for the correction of LAI estimates from measurements under wide range of illumination conditions. The PCA measurements were taken at two different RAMI (RAdiation transfer Model Intercomparison) stands in Järvselja, Estonia. All three schemes agreed reasonably well in the sparse and homogeneous RAMI Scots pine stand; the effective LAI would be underestimated by up to 13% if the corrections are not implemented. The proposed corrections varied from 7% (method by Kobayashi et al., 2013) up to 23% (method by Leblanc and Chen, 2001) in denser and heterogeneous RAMI birch stand. The role of scattered sky radiation in the estimation of gap fraction in vegetation canopies using passive optical techniques should be clearly accounted for even in case of perfectly overcast sky. The PCA measurements are considered a reference in developing methods of the estimation of gap fraction from hemispherical

  16. Thoracic origin of a sympathetic supply to the upper limb: the ‘nerve of Kuntz’ revisited

    PubMed Central

    RAMSAROOP, L.; PARTAB, P.; SINGH, B.; SATYAPAL, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    An understanding of the origin of the sympathetic innervation of the upper limb is important in surgical sympathectomy procedures. An inconstant intrathoracic ramus which joined the 2nd intercostal nerve to the ventral ramus of the 1st thoracic nerve, proximal to the point where the latter gave a large branch to the brachial plexus, has become known as the ‘nerve of Kuntz’ (Kuntz, 1927). Subsequently a variety of sympathetic interneuronal connections down to the 5th intercostal space were reported and also described as the nerve of Kuntz. The aim of this study was to determine: (1) the incidence, location and course of the nerve of Kuntz; (2) the relationship of the nerve of Kuntz to the 2nd thoracic ganglion; (3) the variations of the nerve of Kuntz in the absence of a stellate ganglion; (4) to compare the original intrathoracic ramus with sympathetic variations at other intercostal levels; and (5) to devise an appropriate anatomical classification of the nerves of Kuntz. Bilateral microdissection of the sympathetic chain and somatic nerves of the upper 5 intercostal spaces was undertaken in 32 fetuses (gestational age, 18 wk to full term) and 18 adult cadavers. The total sample size comprised 99 sides. Sympathetic contributions to the first thoracic nerve were found in 60 of 99 sides (left 32, right 28). Of these, 46 were confined to the 1st intercostal space only. The nerve of Kuntz (the original intrathoracic ramus) of the 1st intercostal space had a demonstrable sympathetic connection in 34 cases, and an absence of macroscopic sympathetic connections in 12. In the remaining intercostal spaces, intrathoracic rami uniting intercostal nerves were not observed. Additional sympathetic contributions (exclusive of rami communicantes) were noted between ganglia, interganglionic segments and intercostal nerves as additional rami communicantes. The eponym nerve of Kuntz should be restricted to descriptions of the intrathoracic ramus of the 1st intercostal space. Any

  17. Study on structure and morphology (Boehmeria nivea) in the irregular and regular parts of the fiber after biodegumming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulandari, A. P.; Septarini, D.; Zainuddin, A.

    2017-05-01

    Ramie is a natural fiber that is very potential to be developed in Indonesia. Decorticated-fiber which has been known as china grass produce different structures irregular part but shows a long straight section in the middle. This study aims to determine differences in chemical components, morphology and microstructure of two different parties after biodegumming process. China grass has been processed to remove gum using pectinolytic fungus. The microstructure of the treated was further tested by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The FTIR study indicated that during the biodegumming process, chemical bonding of non-cellulose components most removed by the activity of pectinase from the fungus. XRD analysis reflects an increase in the crystallinity of the fiber after biodegumming. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm a reduction in the size of the fiber after biodegumming either in the irregular and regular part of the fiber after biodegumming.

  18. USAF/SCEEE Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1982). Management and Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    and testing of a nitric oxide Raman cell wavelength shifter is described. This device is used in conjunction with a Q-switched Nd:Glass laser system, to...ignment~ , i-l r-tit’? -t a nvtric oxid ,- Rami-n 1. -.,.%o-t-,lth l -i ft er ; 4o r;c iI4. m qv!;*, t t l, ai vt 1, ;gb n e ak no’.or qI r irl pmht pTIL... odifiCations can be easily made since the model has captured the essence of the problem. With the val id~ited rl.,del thle sinalybt can Lreate enough

  19. Altered load transfer in the pelvis in the presence of periprosthetic osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Munro, Jacob T; Fernandez, Justin W; Millar, James S; Walker, Cameron G; Howie, Donald W; Shim, Vickie B

    2014-11-01

    Periprosthetic osteolysis in the retroacetabular region with cancellous bone loss is a recognized phenomenon in the long-term follow-up of total hip replacement. The effects on load transfer in the presence of defects are less well known. A validated, patient-specific, 3D finite element (FE) model of the pelvis was used to assess changes in load transfer associated with periprosthetic osteolysis adjacent to a cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) component. The presence of a cancellous defect significantly increased (p < 0.05) von Mises stress in the cortical bone of the pelvis during walking and a fall onto the side. At loads consistent with single leg stance, this was still less than the predicted yield stress for cortical bone. During higher loads associated with a fall onto the side, highest stress concentrations occurred in the superior and inferior pubic rami and in the anterior column of the acetabulum with larger cancellous defects.

  20. Enhancing Production of Alkaline Polygalacturonate Lyase from Bacillus subtilis by Fed-Batch Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mouyong; Guo, Fenfen; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL, EC 4.2.2.2) is an enzyme used in many industries. We developed a fed-batch fermentation process that combines the enzymatic pretreatment of the carbon source with controlling the pH of the fermentative broth to enhance the PGL production from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3 to decrease the production cost. Maintaining the fermentation broth at pH 6.5 prior to feeding with ammonia and at pH 6.0 after feeding significantly improved PGL activity (743.5 U mL−1) compared with the control (202.5 U mL−1). The average PGL productivity reached 19.6 U mL−1 h−1 after 38 h of fermentation. The crude PGL was suitable for environmentally friendly ramie enzymatic degumming. PMID:24603713

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of position, flow and arterial distribution of cerebral blood vessels in foetuses 4 to 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Amela; Dilberović, Faruk

    2004-10-01

    We studied cerebral blood vessels in 25 fetuses of gestational age 16-36 weeks and in 10 cadavers of still-born babies by injection-corrosive method. In the early fetal life, arteries are thin with the straight flow, which is directly connected with the brain development. Progressive changes are observed in all the three cerebral arteries in 28-week old fetus, which straight flow becomes more and more tortuous. As in the 32nd week the brain develops faster and gyri and sulci are being formed, the arteries assume wavy flow and number of their rami increases. In a still-born baby, arteries are of rather bigger caliber; they branch abundantly; and due to their relatively broad cerebral sulci, it can be said that their flow is partly tortuous. Our results show evidently that position, flow and relation of cerebral arteries change concurrently with the brain development and appearance of cerebral gyri and sulci.

  2. Study of a XVIII century hand-painted Chinese wallpaper by multianalytical non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Cabaço, M. I.; Bittencourt, K.; Bruneel, Jean L.; Besnard, Marcel

    2009-06-01

    In this work, hand-painted wallpaper belonging to a private Portuguese collection was analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analyzed artwork was an extraordinary XVIII century Chinese wallpaper that depicts exotic birds and flowers, which was painted with considerable accuracy and expertise. Thorough, in situ, X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed on nearly all the wallpaper. Since the elemental content of several colors was consistent for the four papered walls, strategic micro-samples were taken and analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy to further identify the pigments used. Pigments such as yellow ochre, lead white and barium white, vermilion, carmine, azurite and malachite were identified. Optical microscopy was used to analyze the fibers in the paper support, and fibers such as kozo, ramie and hemp or linen were identified.

  3. The lumbar multifidus muscle and patterns of pain.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; John Harris, A; Mercer, Susan R

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the patterns of pain induced by injecting hypertonic saline into the lumbar multifidus muscle opposite the L5 spinous process in 15 healthy adult volunteers. All subjects experienced local pain while referred pain was reported by 13 subjects in one of two regions of the thigh; anterior (n=5) or posterior (n=8). These results confirm that the multifidus muscle may be a source of local and referred pain. Comparison of these maps with pain maps following stimulation of the L4 medial dorsal rami and L4-5 interspinous ligaments shows that pain arising from the band of multifidus innervated by the L4 dorsal ramus has a segmental distribution. In addition patterns of pain arising from multifidus clearly overlap those reported for other lumbar structures. These findings highlight the difficulty of using pain distribution to accurately identify specific lumbar structures as the source of pain.

  4. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  5. Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Chin, C H; Chew, K C

    1997-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion is a rare clinical entity. Since the first description in 1955, only 35 cases have been reported. It is often associated with pelvic fractures and may be missed in the initial clinical examination as these patients usually present with multiple injuries. We present three such cases with clinical and radiological findings. These patients were involved in road traffic accidents. Two had fractures of the sacroiliac joint with diastasis of the symphysis pubis (Tile type C 1.2) and one had fractures of the public rami (Tile type B 2.1). All three had various degrees of sensory and motor deficit of the lower limbs. Lumbar myelogram shows characteristic pseudomeningoceles in the affected lumboscral region. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides an additional non-invasive modality to diagnose this condition.

  6. An Analysis of Parameters of a Gas-Dynamic Laser Utilizing Acetylene Combustion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-25

    ramiOOMIsamuecicuk 4a3epPCU opunyJA9@0dpeWie-.ji.* W’tX cAuce. X1311W 68 (1975) M* 5. c~p. 47 171 BAKAN J., SYCZLWSKE M.: A4naliza spalania Cila wv N20...55 179 183 935 10.8 4,08 13,28 13,58 69.066093 b 6 195 173 901 10194 , 4.42 14.33 12.73 68.50 8 64 208 165 931 922 4,68 15,20 12.06 68.50. .- " 70 228... b - composition No. 2; c - Composi- tion No. 3 14 EM) // .I I ,~igure 3. Ch1"anges of tlh"e radiationL ’ ~energy of laser impulse E, tempera- -7

  7. [Severe haemorrhage secondary to an osteoporotic pelvic fracture: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Palacio, J; Albareda, J

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy osteoporotic pelvic fractures in the elderly are a very common problem. They are usually stable fractures, non-life threatening and only require conservative treatment. The pelvic bone structure is closely related to important vascular structures. The Corona Mortis, located in the retropubis, has an important anastomotic value as it serves as communication between the internal and external iliac vessels. The case is presented of an 87 year-old woman, who, after a casual fall, was diagnosed with an osteoporotic fracture of the left pubic rami associated to a lesion of the Corona Mortis, which led to a severe picture of haemodynamic instability. After angiography with supra-selective embolisation of the lesioned vessel, and the transfusion of several haemoderivatives, the patient progressed satisfactorily, and was discharged after a few days.

  8. Double free-muscle transfer to restore prehension following complete brachial plexus avulsion.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S

    1995-05-01

    Restoration of finger flexion and extension as well as elbow flexion and extension with a double free-muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is reported. The procedure combines (1) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to achieve elbow flexion and finger extension, (2) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves to restore finger flexion, (3) third and fourth intercostal motor nerve transfer to the triceps brachi to extend and stabilize the elbow, (4) nerve transfer of the supraclavicular nerve or nerve transfer of the sensory rami of the intercostal nerves to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility, and (5) glenohumeral arthrodesis. Seven of 10 patients recovered elbow function and finger flexion and extension. Five patients reported use of their hand in activities of daily living.

  9. Reconstruction of finger and elbow function after complete avulsion of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S

    1991-09-01

    Simultaneous reconstruction of elbow and finger function with free muscle and nerve transfers after complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) and its long-term results are presented. The basic procedure combined free or vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to obtain elbow and finger flexion, intercostal nerve transfer of the radial nerve to activate elbow and wrist extensors, and suture of the supraclavicular nerve or intercostal sensory rami to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility. Six patients had some or all of these procedures. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years. Elbow function was restored completely, and some finger flexion was achieved in all cases, although a dynamic splint was necessary to straighten the digits. Patients have continued to improve in grasp power and finger control. This procedure appears to be promising for the restoration of basic hand function in severely handicapped patients.

  10. Three-dimensional symmetry analysis of a direct-drive irradiation scheme for the laser megajoule facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ramis, R.; Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Brandon, V.

    2014-08-15

    The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.

  11. Atrioventricular and ventriculoatrial branches of the coronary arteries in human hearts.

    PubMed

    Tose, D; DiDio, L J; Baptista, C A; Miglino, M A

    1991-01-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculoatrial (VA) branches of the coronary arteries are vessels which supply simultaneously atrial and ventricular walls by means of recurrent rami. The terminology indicates the name of the main vessel followed by the name of the recurrent vessel both combined in an adjective. These branches establish a vascular 'suture' across the coronary sulcus in front (superficially to) or behind (deeply to) the trunks of the right coronary artery and of the left coronary artery (circumflex artery). The AV and VA branches, found in 95% of 40 human hearts, should be considered a normal characteristic of the coronary circulation and an important anatomical factor for the clinical interpretation of pathological cardiac phenomena.

  12. An unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple brown tumors and coexisting thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Y; Ince, S; Alagoz, E; Meric, C; Taslipinar, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with a complex clinical picture of primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple destructive skeletal lesions suspicious of bone metastases and concomitant multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with a metastatic central lymph node. He presented with progressively worsening right hip pain and restricted motion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lytic lesions involving predominantly the right trochanter minor and the left inferior and posterior pubic rami. Biochemical tests were consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. Neck ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy revealed a single parathyroid adenoma and a thyroid nodule, preoperative cytology of which confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma, as did the final surgical specimen. Biochemical results, regarding hyperparathyroidism, declined to normal levels and his complaints gradually decreased after surgery. Postoperative whole body bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptakes at multiple sites, but they were proved to be metabolically inactive by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal Models of Autoimmune Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Soliven, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves with their roots and rami, dorsal root ganglia neurons, the peripheral nerves, and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system. Cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune attack on the PNS results in distinct clinical syndromes, which are classified based on the tempo of illness, PNS component(s) involved, and the culprit antigen(s) identified. Insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathy have been provided by ex vivo immunologic studies, biopsy materials, electrophysiologic studies, and experimental models. This review article summarizes earlier seminal observations and highlights the recent progress in our understanding of immunopathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathies based on data from animal models. PMID:24615441

  14. The arterial blood supply for the synovial tendon sheaths of the hand.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Oscar; Lierse, Werner; de los Angeles-García, Ma; Elizondo, Rodrigo; Guzmán, Santos

    2008-01-01

    The blood supply for the synovial tendon sheaths of the hand was carefully investigated. We show that the origin of those arteries, supplying the synovial tendon-sheaths of the Mm. flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus, lies in the Canalis carpi. We also describe that the branches of the Aa. digitales palmares propriae arise independently. We emphasize that the terminal branches of the A. interossea posterior and the Rete carpi dorsalis form an arterial network on the synovial tendon sheaths of the Dorsum manus. The synovial membranes of the proximal joints of the fingers receive an ample blood supply from the Rami ascendentes of the Aa. metacarpeae palmares and the Aa. digitales palmares propriae (Aa. recurrentes).

  15. A new genus of Cletopsyllidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and new species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 from deep-sea sediment in the Gulf of Mexico, are reported and fully described and illustrated. The new genus Pentacletopsyllus (type species: P. montagni sp. n.) can be distinguished from the four known genera of the family by antennule segmentation, length ratio of first and second endopodal segments of P1, and armature pattern on P5 exopod. It also differs from its sister genera by the rostrum being bifid at the tip, third segment of the female antennule having a smooth posterior margin, the baseoendopod of P5 with biarticulate outer setophore bearing basal seta, and female caudal rami without lobate expansion. A revised key to species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 is provided. PMID:24715778

  16. Efficient production of glucose by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binzhe; Duan, Lian; Peng, Gege; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    To improve the production of glucose from cellulose, a simple and effective route was developed. This process uses a combination of a step of cellulose dissolution in aqueous NaOH/urea solution and then regeneration with water, followed by an acid hydrolysis step under microwave irradiation. The method is effective to obtain glucose from α-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, ramie fiber and absorbent cotton. Increased with the acid concentration the glucose yield from hydrogel hydrolysis increased from 0.42% to 44.6% at 160 °C for 10 min. Moreover, the ozone treatment of cellulose in NaOH/urea solution before regeneration significantly enhanced the hydrolysis efficiency with a glucose yield of 59.1%. It is believed that the chains in cellulose hydrogel are relatively free approached, making that the acids easily access the β-glycosidic bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrodynamic analysis of laser-driven cylindrical implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramis, R.

    2013-08-15

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to study laser-driven cylindrical implosions in the context of experiments (F. Perez et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 124035 (2009)) carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the framework of the HiPER project. The analysis is carried out by using the 3D version of the hydrocode MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475-505 (1988)). The influence of the main laser parameters on implosion performance and symmetry is consistently studied and compared with the results of 2D analysis. Furthermore, the effects of uncertainties in laser irradiation (pointing, focusing, power balance, and time jitter) on implosion performance (average peak density and temperature) are studied by means of statistical analysis.

  18. Oberlin transfer and partial radial to axillary nerve neurotization to repair an explosive traumatic injury to the brachial plexus in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph H; Garber, Sarah T; McCormick, Don E; Eskandari, Ramin; Walker, Marion L; Rizk, Elias; Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C

    2013-11-01

    Explosive injuries to the pediatric brachial plexus are exceedingly rare and as such are poorly characterized in the medical literature. Herein, we describe an 8-year-old who was struck in the neck by a piece of shrapnel and suffered multiple vascular injuries in addition to a suspected avulsion of the cervical 5 and 6 ventral rami. The patient had a complete upper brachial plexus palsy and failed to demonstrate any clinical improvement at 6-months follow-up. He was taken to the operating from for a partial ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve neurotization as well as a partial radial to axillary nerve neurotization. The patient's motor exam improved from a Medical Research Council scale 1 to 4+ for biceps brachii and 0 to 4 deltoid function with greater than 90° of shoulder abduction. This outcome supports complex neurotization techniques as viable treatment options for persistent motor deficits following an upper brachial plexus injury in older, non-infant age, children.

  19. A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process.

  20. Neuroanatomy of the brachial plexus: normal and variant anatomy of its formation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Vekris, Marios; Demesticha, Theano; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2010-03-01

    The brachial plexus is the complex network of nerves, extending from the neck to the axilla, which supplies motor, sensory, and sympathetic fibers to the upper extremity. Typically, it is formed by the union of the ventral primary rami of the spinal nerves, C5-C8 & T1, the so-called "roots" of the brachial plexus. By examining the neural architecture of the brachial plexus, the most constant arrangement of nerve fibers can be delineated, and the most predominate variations in the neural architecture defined. A thorough understanding of the neuroanatomy of the brachial plexus, with an appreciation of the possible anatomic variations that may occur is necessary for effective clinical practice.

  1. The basicranium of a basal prosauropod from the Euskelosaurus range zone and thoughts on the origin of dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welman, Johann

    1999-07-01

    The basicranium of a basal prosauropod from the Euskelosaurus range zone of South Africa (NMQR 3314) is characterised by a wide basal fissure between the basioccipital and the basisphenoid-basiparasphenoid. The basioccipital and the atlantal intercentrum form a large horizontal plate which extends ventral to the occipital condyle and dorsal to the much expanded medial margins of the retroarticular processes of the rami of the lower jaw. The presence of the basal fissure in the basicranium of NMQR 3314 appears to represent a transitional condition between the median eustachian systems of primitive aquatic archosauromorphs, such as Proterosuchus and phytosaurs, and that of the earliest terrestrial prosauropods. The basicranial morphology of NMQR 3314 seems to illustrate a functionally very important stage in the evolution of early dinosaurs.

  2. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  3. Pelvic, acetabular and hip fractures: What the surgeon should expect from the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Molière, S; Dosch, J-C; Bierry, G

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures when caused by trauma, either violent or in demineralized bone, generally consist of injuries in both the anterior (pubic symphysis and rami) and posterior (iliac wing, sacrum, sacroiliac joint) portions. Injury classifications are based on injury mechanism and pelvic stability, and are used to determine treatment. Acetabular fractures, associated or not to pelvic ring disruption, are classified on the basis of fracture line, into elementary fractures of the acetabular walls, columns and roof, and into complex fractures. Fractures of the proximal end of the femur occur often on demineralized bone following low-energy trauma. The fractures are categorized by anatomic location (neck, trochanter and subtrochanteric region) and degree of displacement. These variables determine the risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, which is the main complication of such fractures.

  4. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles. PMID:27386529

  5. New morphological characters useful for the taxonomy of the genus Microcyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    1998-06-01

    Traditionally, Microcyclops species have been defined according to differences in a few morphological characters of antennule segmentation, swimming legs 1 and 4, caudal rami, and mainly leg 5. Moreover, these characters have been very often referred to as variable. In five species of Microcyclops from Brazil, namely M. alius, M. anceps anceps, M. ceibaensis, M. finitimus, and M. mediasetosus, new or rarely mentioned structures were found to be useful in separating the species, such as the border ornamentation of the prosomal somites, the shape and ornamentation of the terminal spine on the endopod of leg 1, the presence and number of integumental pores on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 1, and details in the ornamentation of the middle caudal setae. Since no intraspecific variation has been observed in these features, it is proposed to consider them in future descriptions of Microcyclops species in order to have better characterized taxa.

  6. A Proteomics Sample Preparation Method for Mature, Recalcitrant Leaves of Perennial Plants

    PubMed Central

    Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants. PMID:25028960

  7. A New Species of Hyperbenthic Cyclopoid Copepod from Japan: First Record of the Genus Cyclopicina in the Indo-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Tanaka, Hayato; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-12-01

    A new species of the cyclopinid genus Cyclopicina, C. toyoshioae sp. nov., was collected from the hyperbenthic layer off northern Kyushu Island, Japan; its description is based on two adult female specimens. This is the first record of the genus from the Indo-Pacific region. The new species can be distinguished from its two known congeners in: (1) the relatively short antennules which do not reach the posterior margin of the dorsal cephalothoracic shield; (2) the shape of seminal receptacles; (3) the segmentation and armature of the cephalothoracic appendages; (4) the shape of the basal protrusion between the rami of legs 1-4; (5) the presence of three outer spines on the third exopodal segment of leg 4; and (6) the presence or absence of outer setae on the free exopodal segment of leg 5. The genus Cyclopicina shows a wide but scattered distribution in hyperbenthic layers, from the continental shelves to deep-sea basins, in the northern hemisphere.

  8. Sacroiliac joint pain as an important element of psoriatic arthritis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2013-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami.

  9. The right coronary artery is absent in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, V; Cevik-Demirkan, A; Turkmenoglu, I

    2008-04-01

    A total of 10 adult, healthy, male chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) were used to investigate the origin, course, and termination of the coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the carotid arteries following conventional anatomical applications. In all the chinchillas examined, the left coronary artery was the single coronary artery. The right coronary artery was missing. Additionally, a small vessel originating from the cranial border of the aorta was observed in one chinchilla. The left coronary artery divided into the paraconal, interventricular and left circumflex rami. The left marginis ventricular ramus arose from the paraconal interventricular ramus in eight chinchillas, and from the left circumflex ramus in two. The ventricular and septal branches of the left coronary artery ran subepicardially at the beginning mostly parallel to the muscle fibres, also surrounded by a thin adipose tissue. It was concluded that the only left coroner artery supplied blood to the heart in the chinchilla.

  10. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  11. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Sato, Noboru; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes.

  12. The Role of Direct and Visual Force Feedback in Suturing using a 7-DOF Dual-Arm Teleoperated System.

    PubMed

    Talasaz, Ali; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Patel, Rajni

    2016-10-12

    The lack of haptic feedback in roboticsassisted surgery can result in tissue damage or accidental tool-tissue hits. This paper focuses on exploring the effect of haptic feedback via direct force reflection and visual presentation of force magnitude on performance during robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) suturing. For this purpose, a haptics-enabled dual-arm master-slave teleoperation system capable of measuring tool-tissue interaction forces in all 7 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOFs) was used. Two suturing tasks, tissue puncturing and knottightening, were chosen to assess user skills when suturing on phantom tissue. Sixteen subjects participated in the trials and their performance was evaluated from various points of view: force consistency, number of accidental hits with tissue, amount of tissue damage, quality of the suture knot, and the time required to accomplish the task. According to the results, visual force feedback was not very useful during the tissue puncturing task as different users needed different amounts of force depending on the penetration of the needle into the tissue. Direct force feedback, however, was more useful for this task to apply less force and to minimize the amount of damage to the tissue. Statistical results also reveal that both visual and direct force feedback were required for effective knot tightening: direct force feedback could reduce the number of accidental hits with the tissue and also the amount of tissue damage, while visual force feedback could help to securely tighten the suture knots and maintain force consistency among different trials/users. These results provide evidence of the importance of 7-DOF force reflection when performing complex tasks in a RAMIS setting.

  13. Rice alcohol dehydrogenase 1 promotes survival and has a major impact on carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm when seeds are germinated in partially oxygenated water

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Greenway, Hank; Matsumura, Hideo; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rice (Oryza sativa) has the rare ability to germinate and elongate a coleoptile under oxygen-deficient conditions, which include both hypoxia and anoxia. It has previously been shown that ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1 (ADH1) is required for cell division and cell elongation in the coleoptile of submerged rice seedlings by means of studies using a rice ADH1-deficient mutant, reduced adh activity (rad). The aim of this study was to understand how low ADH1 in rice affects carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm, and lactate and alanine synthesis in the embryo during germination and subsequent coleoptile growth in submerged seedlings. Methods Wild-type and rad mutant rice seeds were germinated and grown under complete submergence. At 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after imbibition, the embryo and endosperm were separated and several of their metabolites were measured and compared. Key results In the rad embryo, the rate of ethanol fermentation was halved, while lactate and alanine concentrations were 2·4- and 5·7- fold higher in the mutant than in the wild type. Glucose and fructose concentrations in the embryos increased with time in the wild type, but not in the rad mutant. The rad mutant endosperm had lower amounts of the α-amylases RAMY1A and RAMY3D, resulting in less starch degradation and lower glucose concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that ADH1 is essential for sugar metabolism via glycolysis to ethanol fermentation in both the embryo and endosperm. In the endosperm, energy is presumably needed for synthesis of the amylases and for sucrose synthesis in the endosperm, as well as for sugar transport to the embryo. PMID:24431339

  14. Enhanced clinical pharmacy service targeting tools: risk-predictive algorithms.

    PubMed

    El Hajji, Feras W D; Scullin, Claire; Scott, Michael G; McElnay, James C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of using a mix of clinical pharmacy data and routine hospital admission spell data in the development of predictive algorithms. Exploration of risk factors in hospitalized patients, together with the targeting strategies devised, will enable the prioritization of clinical pharmacy services to optimize patient outcomes. Predictive algorithms were developed using a number of detailed steps using a 75% sample of integrated medicines management (IMM) patients, and validated using the remaining 25%. IMM patients receive targeted clinical pharmacy input throughout their hospital stay. The algorithms were applied to the validation sample, and predicted risk probability was generated for each patient from the coefficients. Risk threshold for the algorithms were determined by identifying the cut-off points of risk scores at which the algorithm would have the highest discriminative performance. Clinical pharmacy staffing levels were obtained from the pharmacy department staffing database. Numbers of previous emergency admissions and admission medicines together with age-adjusted co-morbidity and diuretic receipt formed a 12-month post-discharge and/or readmission risk algorithm. Age-adjusted co-morbidity proved to be the best index to predict mortality. Increased numbers of clinical pharmacy staff at ward level was correlated with a reduction in risk-adjusted mortality index (RAMI). Algorithms created were valid in predicting risk of in-hospital and post-discharge mortality and risk of hospital readmission 3, 6 and 12 months post-discharge. The provision of ward-based clinical pharmacy services is a key component to reducing RAMI and enabling the full benefits of pharmacy input to patient care to be realized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Differential analysis of muscle fatigue induced elbow and wrist tremor in controlled laparoscopic manoeuvring.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sourav; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Thondiyath, Asokan; Ramalingam, Manickam

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue induced hand tremor (FIT) is a primary limiting concern for the prolonged surgical intervention in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and robot-assisted-minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS). A thorough analysis is necessary to understand the FIT characteristics in laparoscopic tool movement. The primary aim of this study is to perform a differential analysis of the elbow and wrist tremor due to muscle fatigue in laparoscopic manoeuvring. We have introduced a joint angle based tremor analysis method, which enables us to perform a differential study of FIT characteristics at the individual joint. Experimental data was acquired from a group of subjects during static and dynamic laparoscopic movement in an imitative RAMIS master manipulation scenario. A repetitive task was performed with a total span of 1 h for observing the effect of muscle fatigue. Along with the joint angle variation, surface electromyography (sEMG) signal was also studied in the analysis. The wrist tremor is more predominant than tremor generated at the elbow, especially in highly fatigued condition. The high-frequency tremor (>4 Hz) is contributed by the wrist joint. Moreover, the variation of the wrist and elbow tremor ratio was found to be dependent upon the experience of the surgeons. In this work, we have investigated the attribution of elbow and wrist joints in FIT during laparoscopic tool manipulation. The outcomes may be useful for the design of robot-assisted surgical manipulator, and can be used for quality assessment of surgical training as well. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. OsRACK1 Is Involved in Abscisic Acid- and H2O2-Mediated Signaling to Regulate Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Li; Li, Dahong; Lv, Bing; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jingui; XuejiaoYan; Liang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is one member of the most important WD repeat–containing family of proteins found in all eukaryotes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, compared with the progress in the area of mammalian RACK1, our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of RACK1 in the regulation of plant growth and development is still in its infancy. In the present study, we investigated the roles of rice RACK1A gene (OsRACK1A) in controlling seed germination and its molecular mechanisms by generating a series of transgenic rice lines, of which OsRACK1A was either over-expressed or under-expressed. Our results showed that OsRACK1A positively regulated seed germination and negatively regulated the responses of seed germination to both exogenous ABA and H2O2. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis had no enhancing effect on germination, whereas inhibition of ABA catabolism significantly suppressed germination. ABA inhibition on seed germination was almost fully recovered by exogenous H2O2 treatment. Quantitative analyses showed that endogenous ABA levels were significantly higher and H2O2 levels significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines as compared with those in wildtype or OsRACK1A-up regulated lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of OsRbohs and amylase genes, RAmy1A and RAmy3D, were significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines. It is concluded that OsRACK1A positively regulates seed germination by controlling endogenous levels of ABA and H2O2 and their interaction. PMID:24865690

  17. New insights in the neuroanatomy of the human adult superior hypogastric plexus and hypogastric nerves.

    PubMed

    Kraima, Anne C; van Schaik, Jan; Susan, Serhat; van de Velde, Cornelius J H; Hamming, Jaap F; Lakke, Egbert A J F; DeRuiter, Marcus C

    2015-05-01

    The superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) is an autonomic plexus, located ventrally to the abdominal aorta and its bifurcation, innervating pelvic viscera. It is classically described as being composed of merely sympathetic fibres. However, post-operative complications after surgery damaging the peri-aortic retroperitoneal compartment suggest the existence of parasympathetic fibres. This immunohistochemical study describes the neuroanatomical composition of the human mature SHP. Eight pre-determined retroperitoneal localizations including the lumbar splanchnic nerves, the SHP and the HN were studied in four human cadavers. Control tissues (white rami, grey rami, vagus nerve, splanchnic nerves, sympathetic ganglia, sympathetic chain and spinal nerve) were collected to verify the results. All tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and antibodies S100, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) to identify pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibres. All tissues comprising the SHP and hypogastric nerves (HN) showed isolated expression of TH, VIP and MBP, revealing the presence of three types of fibres: postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic fibres marked by TH, unmyelinated VIP-positive fibres and myelinated preganglionic fibres marked by MBP. Analysis of control tissues confirmed that TH, VIP and MBP were well usable to interpret the neurochemical composition of the SHP and HN. The human SHP and HN contain sympathetic and most likely postganglionic parasympathetic fibres. The origin of these fibres is still to be elucidated, however surgical damage in the peri-aortic retroperitoneal compartment may cause pelvic organ dysfunction related to both parasympathetic and sympathetic denervation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term three-dimensional stability of mandibular advancement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Alexandre A.; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena S.; Phillips, Ceib; Rossouw, Paul Emile; Turvey, Timothy A.; Carvalho, Felipe de Assis R.; de Paula, Leonardo K.; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso A.; Almeida, Marco Antonio O.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the three-dimensional changes in the position of the condyles, rami, and chin from 1 to 3 years after mandibular advancement surgery. METHOD This prospective observational study used pre and postoperative CBCT scans of 27 subjects with skeletal Class II jaw relationship and normal or deep overbite. An automatic technique of cranial base superimposition was used to assess positional and/or bone remodeling changes that were visually displayed and quantified using 3D color maps. An analysis of covariance with presence of genioplasty, age at the time of surgery, and sex as explanatory variables was used to estimate and test the adjusted mean changes for each region of interest. RESULTS The chin rotated downward and backwards between the 1 and 3 years post-surgery. Changes ≥ 2mm were observed in 17% of the cases. The mandibular condyles presented displacements and/or bone remodeling ≥ 2mm on the anterior surface (21% of the cases on the left and 13% on the right side), superior surfaces (8% on both sides) and lateral poles (17% on the left and 4% on the right side). The posterior borders of the rami exhibited symmetric lateral or rotational displacements in 4% of the cases. CONCLUSION In the hierarchy of surgical stability, mandibular advancement surgery is considered one of the most stable surgical procedures However, between 1 and 3 years post-surgery approximately 20% of the patients had 2-4 mm changes in the horizontal and vertical chin position, and/or changes in condylar position and adaptive bone remodeling. PMID:23769460

  19. Computed tomographic signs of acromegaly in 68 diabetic cats with hypersomatotropism.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Christopher R; Ciasca, Taízha C; Mantis, Panagiotis; Forcada, Yaiza; Potter, Maegan; Church, David B; Niessen, Stijn J

    2014-02-01

    In order to describe the signs of acromegaly in cats, a case-control study was done based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the heads of 68 cats with hypersomatotropism and 36 control cats. All cats with a diagnosis of hypersomatotropism had diabetes mellitus, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 >1000 ng/ml and a pituitary mass. Measurements of bones and soft tissues were done by two independent observers without knowledge of the diagnosis. Pituitary masses were identified in CT images of 64 (94%) cats with hypersomatotropism. Analysis of variance found a moderate effect of gender on the size of bones and a large effect of hypersomatotropism on the size of bones and thickness of soft tissues. In cats with hypersomatotropism the frontal and parietal bones were, on average, 0.8 mm thicker (P <0.001); the distance between the zygomatic arches was, on average, 5.4 mm greater (P <0.001); and the mandibular rami were, on average, 1.1 mm thicker (P <0.001) than in control cats. The skin and subcutis dorsal to the frontal bone were, on average, 0.4 mm thicker (P = 0.001); lateral to the zygomatic arch were, on average, 0.7 mm thicker (P <0.001); and ventral to the mandibular rami were, on average, 1.1 mm thicker (P = 0.002) in cats with hypersomatotropism than in control cats. The cross-sectional area of the nasopharynx was, on average, 11.1 mm(2) smaller in cats with hypersomatotropism than in control cats (P = 0.02). Prognathia inferior and signs of temporomandibular joint malformation were both observed more frequently in cats with hypersomatotropism than in control cats (P = 0.03). Overall, differences between affected and unaffected cats were small. Recognising feline acromegaly on the basis of facial features is difficult.

  20. Combined VEGF gene transfer and erythropoietin in ovine reperfused myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Olea, Fernanda D; De Lorenzi, Andrea; Cortés, Claudia; Cuniberti, Luis; Fazzi, Lucía; Flamenco, María del Pilar; Locatelli, Paola; Cabeza Meckert, Patricia; Bercovich, Andrés; Laguens, Rubén; Crottogini, Alberto

    2013-05-10

    In reperfused acute myocardial infarction (RAMI), cardioprotective treatments may enhance myocardial salvage and hence reduce the area of necrosis. Based on studies showing that plasmid-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (pVEGF) gene transfer reduces infarct size by combining angio-arteriogenic and cardiomyogenic effects and that erythropoietin (EPO) exerts anti-apoptotic actions in animal models of AMI, we aimed to assess if their association would reduce infarct size to a larger extent than any of them individually in a large mammalian model of RAMI. Adult sheep subjected to 90-minute coronary artery occlusion received upon reperfusion intramyocardial pVEGF 3.8 mg plus intravenous EPO 1000 IU/kg (n=8), pVEGF (n=8), EPO (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Fifteen days after treatment, infarct size was smaller in the 3 treatment groups (pVEGF+EPO: 8 ± 1 %; pVEGF: 16 ± 5 %; EPO: 13 ± 4 %) compared to placebo (25 ± 7 %, p<0.001). However, in the EPO+VEGF group infarct size was significantly smaller than in the groups receiving EPO or VEGF individually (p<0.05). DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of late apoptosis, was significantly lower in sheep receiving EPO. The combined treatment, while not affecting global left ventricular performance, improved regional peri-infarct function and prevented over-time expansion of the post-infarct perfusion defect. Combined pVEGF and EPO treatment might be clinically useful to enhance the benefits of early revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Robot-assisted minimally invasive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in the upper mediastinum.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Sylvia; Weijs, Teun Johannes; Ruurda, Jelle Pieter; Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Mook, Stella; Brosens, Lodewijk Adriaan Anton; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Patients with upper third esophageal cancer or esophageal cancer with upper mediastinal paratracheal lymph node metastases are often precluded from surgery because of technical difficulties. With the aid of robotic surgery, an excellent overview and reach of the thoracic inlet can be accomplished. In this way, patients with upper mediastinal esophageal cancer are eligible for esophageal resection with curative intent. The aim of this study was to review the results of a consecutive series of patients who underwent robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) for tumors of the upper 1/3 of the esophagus or positive lymph nodes in the upper mediastinum. Between 2007-2016, 31 patients who underwent RAMIE in the UMC Utrecht for proximal esophageal cancer or proximal thoracic lymphadenopathy were identified from a prospective surgical database. Perioperative characteristics and oncologic outcomes were collected. The majority of patients had a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical tumor stage was cT3 or higher in 25 (81%) of patients. Clinically positive lymph nodes (cN1-3) were observed in 29 (94%) patients. Neoadjuvant treatment was administered in 27 (87%) patients. Median duration of the surgical procedure was 435 min (range 299-874 min). Pulmonary complications were most frequent and occurred in 13 (42%) patients. Median intensive care (ICU stay) was 1 day (range 1-65 days) and median overall postoperative hospital stay was 15 days (range 10-118 days). In hospital mortality was 10%. Causes of mortality were tracheo-neo-esophageal fistula, sepsis after abdominal wall drainage due to leakage of the jejunal fistula resulting in respiratory and kidney failure, after which refraining further treatment resulting in death, and irreversible ARDS in a patient with COPD Gold III needing extracorporeal life support. Radical resection was achieved in 30 (97%) of the patients. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 22 (range 9-57). Median time of follow up was 18

  2. Robot-assisted minimally invasive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in the upper mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Sylvia; Weijs, Teun Johannes; Ruurda, Jelle Pieter; Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Mook, Stella; Brosens, Lodewijk Adriaan Anton

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with upper third esophageal cancer or esophageal cancer with upper mediastinal paratracheal lymph node metastases are often precluded from surgery because of technical difficulties. With the aid of robotic surgery, an excellent overview and reach of the thoracic inlet can be accomplished. In this way, patients with upper mediastinal esophageal cancer are eligible for esophageal resection with curative intent. The aim of this study was to review the results of a consecutive series of patients who underwent robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) for tumors of the upper 1/3 of the esophagus or positive lymph nodes in the upper mediastinum. Methods Between 2007–2016, 31 patients who underwent RAMIE in the UMC Utrecht for proximal esophageal cancer or proximal thoracic lymphadenopathy were identified from a prospective surgical database. Perioperative characteristics and oncologic outcomes were collected. Results The majority of patients had a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical tumor stage was cT3 or higher in 25 (81%) of patients. Clinically positive lymph nodes (cN1–3) were observed in 29 (94%) patients. Neoadjuvant treatment was administered in 27 (87%) patients. Median duration of the surgical procedure was 435 min (range 299–874 min). Pulmonary complications were most frequent and occurred in 13 (42%) patients. Median intensive care (ICU stay) was 1 day (range 1–65 days) and median overall postoperative hospital stay was 15 days (range 10–118 days). In hospital mortality was 10%. Causes of mortality were tracheo-neo-esophageal fistula, sepsis after abdominal wall drainage due to leakage of the jejunal fistula resulting in respiratory and kidney failure, after which refraining further treatment resulting in death, and irreversible ARDS in a patient with COPD Gold III needing extracorporeal life support. Radical resection was achieved in 30 (97%) of the patients. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 22 (range 9–57

  3. Morphometric Study of Subpubic Angle in Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, Nafis Ahmad; Yunus, Syed Mobashir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The symphysis pubis is formed at the confluence of the pubic bones. Each pubic bone consists of a body and two rami; the superior ramus is joined with the ilium and the inferior ramus with the ischium. The two bones meet in the midline at the pubic symphysis. The two inferior rami at the lower border of pubic symphysis subtend the subpubic angle. In females the subpubic angle is more than 90° and in males it is less than 90°. Most of the previous studies on the subpubic angle have been in children or adults, therefore data on fetuses did merit. Aim The aims of the present study were to measure the subpubic angle in developing human fetuses of different gestational age, whether it is sex dependent and to compare the results with that in the adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Anatomy JN Medical College, AMU Aligarh, over a period of two years. A total of 41 fetuses immersion fixed in 10% formalin were obtained from the museum department of anatomy. For the purpose of study fetuses were divided into five groups according to gestational age. Group I comprises fetuses of 14–18weeks, group II 19–22weeks, group III 23–26weeks, group IV 27–30weeks, groupV >30weeks of gestation. Pubic symphyses were dissected, cleaned and subjected to radiological examination in the anteroposterior plane. With the help of radiographs subpubic angle was measured. Readings obtained were analysed statistically. Results Subpubic angle ranged between 58°-64° throughout intrauterine life. Maximum angle (63°- 64°) was observed in group I and V and in the rest of the groups it was less than 60°, with highly significant (p-value<0.001) increase in the last group. Statistically significant sexual dimorphism was observed in group I and II fetuses (p-value <0.001). Subpubic angle was more in females during the first half and in the terminal part of gestation. Conclusion Subpubic angle remained acute throughout the

  4. Cranial nerves of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae [Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii: Actinistia], and comparisons with other craniata.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R G; Bemis, W E

    1993-01-01

    We reconstructed the cranial nerves of a serially sectioned prenatal coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. This allowed us to correct several mistakes in the literature and to make broad phylogenetic comparisons with other craniates. The genera surveyed in our phylogenetic analysis were Eptatretus, Myxine, Petromyzon, Lampetra, Chimaera, Hydrolagus, Squalus, Mustelus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepisosteus, Amia, Neoceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Latimeria and Ambystoma. Cladistic analysis of our data shows that Latimeria shares with Ambystoma two characters of the cranial nerves. Our chief findings are: 1) Latimeria possesses an external nasal papilla and pedunculated olfactory bulbs but lacks a discrete terminal nerve. In other respects its olfactory system resembles the plesiomorphic pattern for craniates. 2) The optic nerve is plicated, a character found in many but not all gnathostomes. Latimeria retains an interdigitated partial decussation of the optic nerves, a character found in all craniates surveyed. 3) The oculomotor nerve supplies the same extrinsic eye muscles as in lampreys and gnathostomes. As in gnathostomes generally, Latimeria has a ciliary ganglion but its cells are located intracranially in the root of the oculomotor nerve, and their processes reach the eye via oculomotor and profundal rami. 4) The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle as in all craniates that have not secondarily reduced the eye and its extrinsic musculature. 5) The profundal ganglion and ramus are entirely separate from the trigeminal system, with no exchange of fibers. This character has an interesting phylogenetic distribution: in hagfishes, lampreys, lungfishes and tetrapods, the profundal and trigeminal ganglia are fused, whereas in other taxa surveyed the ganglia are separate. The principal tissues innervated by the profundal nerve are the membranous walls of the tubes of the rostral organ. 6) As in lampreys and gnathostomes, the trigeminal nerve has

  5. Structural basis for unique hierarchical cylindrites induced by ultrahigh shear gradient in single natural fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) green composites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Xie, Lan; Jiang, Xin; Hakkarainen, Minna; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2014-05-12

    A local shear flow field was feasibly generated by pulling the ramie fiber in single fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites. This was featured by an ultrahigh shear gradient with a maximum shear rate up to 1500 s(-1), a level comparable to that frequently occurring during the practical polymer processing. To distinguish shear-induced self-nucleation and ramie fiber-induced heterogeneous nucleation, the shear history was classified by pulling the fiber for 5 s (pulled sample) and pulling out the fiber during 10 s (pulled-out sample), while the static fiber-induced crystallization was carried out as the counterpart. As a result of the ultrahigh shear gradient, the combination of primary shear-induced nucleation in the central region and secondary nucleation in the outer layer assembled the unique hierarchical superstructures. By comparing the architectural configurations of interphases formed in the static, pulled, and pulled-out samples, it was shown that the hierarchical cylindrites underwent the process of self-nucleation driven by the applied shear flow, very different from the formation of fiber-induced transcrystallinity (TC) triggered by the heterogeneous nucleating sites at the static fiber surface. The twisting of transcrystallized lamellae may take place due to the spatial hindrance induced by the incredibly dense nuclei under the intense shearing flow, as observed in the synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. The influence of chain characteristics on the crystalline morphology was further explored by adding a small amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance the molecular mobility of PLA. It was of interest to find that the existence of PEG not only facilitated the growth rates of TC and cylindrites but also improved the preferential orientation of PLA chains and thus expanded the ordered regions. We unearthed lamellar units that were composed of rich fibrillar extended chain crystals (diameter of 50-80 nm). These results are of

  6. Numerical Investigations of Interactions between the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex with Vehicle Interior Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sun; Choi, Hyeong Ho; Cho, Young Nam; Park, Yong Jae; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2005-11-01

    Although biomechanical studies on the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex have been extensive, interactions between the KTH and various vehicular interior design parameters in frontal automotive crashes for newer models have not been reported in the open literature to the best of our knowledge. A 3D finite element (FE) model of a 50(th) percentile male KTH complex, which includes explicit representations of the iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic rami, sacrum, articular cartilage, femoral head, femoral neck, femoral condyles, patella, and patella tendon, has been developed to simulate injuries such as fracture of the patella, femoral neck, acetabulum, and pubic rami of the KTH complex. Model results compared favorably against regional component test data including a three-point bending test of the femur, axial loading of the isolated knee-patella, axial loading of the KTH complex, axial loading of the femoral head, and lateral loading of the isolated pelvis. The model was further integrated into a Wayne State University upper torso model and validated against data obtained from whole body sled tests. The model was validated against these experimental data over a range of impact speeds, impactor masses and boundary conditions. Using Design Of Experiment (DOE) methods based on Taguchi's approach and the developed FE model of the whole body, including the KTH complex, eight vehicular interior design parameters, namely the load limiter force, seat belt elongation, pretensioner inlet amount, knee-knee bolster distance, knee bolster angle, knee bolster stiffness, toe board angle and impact speed, each with either two or three design levels, were simulated to predict their respective effects on the potential of KTH injury in frontal impacts. Simulation results proposed best design levels for vehicular interior design parameters to reduce the injury potential of the KTH complex due to frontal automotive crashes. This study is limited by the fact that prediction of bony fracture was

  7. Morphometric Study of Subpubic Angle in Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mahboobul; Faruqi, Nafis Ahmad; Yunus, Syed Mobashir

    2016-01-01

    The symphysis pubis is formed at the confluence of the pubic bones. Each pubic bone consists of a body and two rami; the superior ramus is joined with the ilium and the inferior ramus with the ischium. The two bones meet in the midline at the pubic symphysis. The two inferior rami at the lower border of pubic symphysis subtend the subpubic angle. In females the subpubic angle is more than 90° and in males it is less than 90°. Most of the previous studies on the subpubic angle have been in children or adults, therefore data on fetuses did merit. The aims of the present study were to measure the subpubic angle in developing human fetuses of different gestational age, whether it is sex dependent and to compare the results with that in the adults. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Anatomy JN Medical College, AMU Aligarh, over a period of two years. A total of 41 fetuses immersion fixed in 10% formalin were obtained from the museum department of anatomy. For the purpose of study fetuses were divided into five groups according to gestational age. Group I comprises fetuses of 14-18weeks, group II 19-22weeks, group III 23-26weeks, group IV 27-30weeks, groupV >30weeks of gestation. Pubic symphyses were dissected, cleaned and subjected to radiological examination in the anteroposterior plane. With the help of radiographs subpubic angle was measured. Readings obtained were analysed statistically. Subpubic angle ranged between 58°-64° throughout intrauterine life. Maximum angle (63°- 64°) was observed in group I and V and in the rest of the groups it was less than 60°, with highly significant (p-value<0.001) increase in the last group. Statistically significant sexual dimorphism was observed in group I and II fetuses (p-value <0.001). Subpubic angle was more in females during the first half and in the terminal part of gestation. Subpubic angle remained acute throughout the intrauterine life, with significant widening in fetuses more than 30 weeks of

  8. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-05-27

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided.

  9. Process characterization of hCTLA4Ig production in transgenic rice cell cultures using a 3-L bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Hong-Yeol; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-11-01

    Most of the technical know-how and experience of bioreactor engineering is applicable to plant cell cultures. In this study, transgenic rice cell cultures using RAmy3D promoter were used for the production of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In process aspect, the rice cells during production phase are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic stresses, such as shear stress and bubble burst. Therefore, the effects of agitation and aeration rates on cell growth and hCTLA4Ig production were investigated in a 3-L multi-bioreactor. By increasing over 240 rpm, the detrimental effects on cell growth and hCTLA4Ig production were observed. At an aeration rate of 0.3 vvm, relative cell viability sharply decreased 2 days earlier than those of lower aeration rates. In addition, it was confirmed that the specific yields and the specific productivity at 0.3 vvm were superior to those values at 0.05 vvm. Overall, higher aeration rate showed the improved hCTLA4Ig production in combination experiment. High aeration rates in general, however, have an undesired effect as excessive aeration was found to negatively affect the quality of hCTLA4Ig. Consequently, the hydrodynamic conditions must be tightly regulated during bioreactor operation in order to enhance hCTLA4Ig productivity and quality in transgenic rice cell cultures.

  10. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  11. The nerve supply of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Edgar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The anatomical studies, basic to our understanding of lumbar spine innervation through the sinu-vertebral nerves, are reviewed. Research in the 1980s suggested that pain sensation was conducted in part via the sympathetic system. These sensory pathways have now been clarified using sophisticated experimental and histochemical techniques confirming a dual pattern. One route enters the adjacent dorsal root segmentally, whereas the other supply is non-segmental ascending through the paravertebral sympathetic chain with re-entry through the thoracolumbar white rami communicantes. Sensory nerve endings in the degenerative lumbar disc penetrate deep into the disrupted nucleus pulposus, insensitive in the normal lumbar spine. Complex as well as free nerve endings would appear to contribute to pain transmission. The nature and mechanism of discogenic pain is still speculative but there is growing evidence to support a 'visceral pain' hypothesis, unique in the muscloskeletal system. This mechanism is open to 'peripheral sensitisation' and possibly 'central sensitisation' as a potential cause of chronic back pain.

  12. Somatotopic organization of lumbar muscle-innervating neurons in the ventral horn of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuzuru; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2010-04-01

    The ventral horn of the rat spinal cord was investigated with respect to the somatotopic organization of the motor neurons that innervate the lumbar muscles. Neurotracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was applied to specific sites in lumbar muscles. Spinal cord segments at L1 through L4 levels were cut into 40-mum serial transverse sections. Labeled neurons were located in the ventromedial nucleus (VM) and lateromedial nucleus (LM) nuclei of Rexed's lamina IX. Motor neurons innervating the m. interspinales lumborum and m. multifidus were without exception present in the VM, whereas all motor neurons innervating the m. rectus abdominis were present in the LM. Forty percent of motor neurons innervating the m. quadratus lumborum were present in the VM and the other 60% were in the LM. Although most of the motor neurons innervating the m. psoas major were present in the LM, a few labeled neurons existed in the VM. These results suggest that the border zone demarcating the areas of innervation of the dorsal and ventral rami of spinal nerves crosses the m. quadratus lumborum.

  13. Redescription of Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) with the first description of the male

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, Sybille; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2010-03-01

    Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 is described from samples collected in the course of a colonisation experiment in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (2003-2005). The male of B. typica, the type-species of the genus is described for the first time. B. typica can be distinguished from its congeners by its caudal rami (1.4 times longer than wide) and by its P5 (exopod longer than wide, inner terminal seta of exopod longest, inner seta of baseoendopod longer than outer one and surface seta rigid and curved). Variability within the species is rather small as only the length of some setae is slightly different. B. cladiofera Lang, 1965, B. congenera Sars, 1920, B. minutiseta Soyer, 1973 and B. pugiochaeta Arlt, 1983 are closely related to B. typica. Some details of the morphology, such as the body ornamentation and the longer hair-like pinnules on the spines of the swimming legs, are very difficult to observe even with maximum magnification. With certainty, B. typica is distributed near the Norwegian coast (Oslo Fjord to Trondheim Fjord), the Swedish coast (Skagerak to Öresund), around Spitsbergen and around the polar islands north of Grinnelland (Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Baffin Bay). Records of B. typica from the Kara Sea (near Novaya Zemlya), near Franz Joseph Land, Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles and from deep waters of the North Sea have to be confirmed.

  14. Morphofunctional Analysis of the Quadrate of Spinosauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and the Presence of Spinosaurus and a Second Spinosaurine Taxon in the Cenomanian of North Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Christophe; Mateus, Octávio; Buffetaut, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Six quadrate bones, of which two almost certainly come from the Kem Kem beds (Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous) of south-eastern Morocco, are determined to be from juvenile and adult individuals of Spinosaurinae based on phylogenetic, geometric morphometric, and phylogenetic morphometric analyses. Their morphology indicates two morphotypes evidencing the presence of two spinosaurine taxa ascribed to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus and? Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis in the Cenomanian of North Africa, casting doubt on the accuracy of some recent skeletal reconstructions which may be based on elements from several distinct species. Morphofunctional analysis of the mandibular articulation of the quadrate has shown that the jaw mechanics was peculiar in Spinosauridae. In mature spinosaurids, the posterior parts of the two mandibular rami displaced laterally when the jaw was depressed due to a lateromedially oriented intercondylar sulcus of the quadrate. Such lateral movement of the mandibular ramus was possible due to a movable mandibular symphysis in spinosaurids, allowing the pharynx to be widened. Similar jaw mechanics also occur in some pterosaurs and living pelecanids which are both adapted to capture and swallow large prey items. Spinosauridae, which were engaged, at least partially, in a piscivorous lifestyle, were able to consume large fish and may have occasionally fed on other prey such as pterosaurs and juvenile dinosaurs. PMID:26734729

  15. MR Imaging of the Lumbosacral Plexus: A Review of Techniques and Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Ethan A; Shen, Peter Yi; Nidecker, Anna E; Runner, Gabriel; Bateni, Cyrus; Tse, Gary; Chin, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The lumbosacral plexus is a complex anatomic area that serves as the conduit of innervation and sensory information to and from the lower extremities. It is formed by the ventral rami of the lumbar and sacral spine which then combine into larger nerves serving the pelvis and lower extremities. It can be a source of severe disability and morbidity for patients when afflicted with pathology. Patients may experience motor weakness, sensory loss, and/or debilitating pain. Primary neurologic processes can affect the lumbosacral plexus in both genetic and acquired conditions and typically affect the plexus and nerves symmetrically. Additionally, its unique relationship to the pelvic musculature and viscera render it vulnerable to trauma, infection, and malignancy. Such conditions are typically proceeded by a known history of trauma or established pelvic malignancy or infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an invaluable tool for evaluation of the lumbosacral plexus due to its anatomic detail and sensitivity to pathologic changes. It can identify the cause for disability, indicate prognosis for improvement, and be a tool for delivery of interventions. Knowledge of proper MR protocols and imaging features is key for appropriate and timely diagnosis. Here we discuss the relevant anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus, appropriate imaging techniques for its evaluation, and discuss the variety of pathologies that may afflict it. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution. PMID:26154293

  17. The non-avian theropod quadrate I: standardized terminology with an overview of the anatomy and function

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ricardo; Mateus, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    The quadrate of reptiles and most other tetrapods plays an important morphofunctional role by allowing the articulation of the mandible with the cranium. In Theropoda, the morphology of the quadrate is particularly complex and varies importantly among different clades of non-avian theropods, therefore conferring a strong taxonomic potential. Inconsistencies in the notation and terminology used in discussions of the theropod quadrate anatomy have been noticed, including at least one instance when no less than eight different terms were given to the same structure. A standardized list of terms and notations for each quadrate anatomical entity is proposed here, with the goal of facilitating future descriptions of this important cranial bone. In addition, an overview of the literature on quadrate function and pneumaticity in non-avian theropods is presented, along with a discussion of the inferences that could be made from this research. Specifically, the quadrate of the large majority of non-avian theropods is akinetic but the diagonally oriented intercondylar sulcus of the mandibular articulation allowed both rami of the mandible to move laterally when opening the mouth in many of theropods. Pneumaticity of the quadrate is also present in most averostran clades and the pneumatic chamber—invaded by the quadrate diverticulum of the mandibular arch pneumatic system—was connected to one or several pneumatic foramina on the medial, lateral, posterior, anterior or ventral sides of the quadrate. PMID:26401455

  18. Lateral line system and its innervation in Tetraodontiformes with outgroup comparisons: descriptions and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2010-05-01

    The lateral line system and its innervation in ten tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa were examined. Although some homology issues remained unresolved, tetraodontiforms were characterized by having two types (at least) of superficial neuromasts (defined by the presence or absence of supporting structures) and accessory lateral lines and neuromasts (except Molidae in which "accessory" elements were absent). The preopercular line in Tetraodontiformes was not homologous with that of typical teleosts, because the line was innervated by the opercular ramule that was newly derived from the mandibular ramus, the condition being identical to that in Lophiidae. Within Tetraodontiformes, the number of neuromasts varied between 70 and 277 in the main lines and between 0 and 52 in accessory elements. Variations were also recognized in the presence or absence of the supraorbital commissure, mandibular line, otic line, postotic line, ventral trunk line, and some lateral line nerve rami, most notably the dorsal branch of the opercular ramule, being absent in Aracanidae, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, and Molidae. Morphological characteristics derived from the lateral line system and its innervation provided some support for a sister relationship of tetraodontiforms with lophiiforms.

  19. Nondestructive testing of externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting using flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    Natural fibers constitute an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers, e.g. glass and carbon, for the production of composites due to their environmental and economic advantages. The strength of natural fiber composites is on average lower compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nevertheless, natural fibers such as flax, among other bast fibers (jute, kenaf, ramie and hemp), are serious candidates for seismic retrofitting applications given that their mechanical properties are more suitable for dynamic loads. Strengthening of structures is performed by impregnating flax fiber reinforced polymers (FFRP) fabrics with epoxy resin and applying them to the component of interest, increasing in this way the load and deformation capacities of the building, while preserving its stiffness and dynamic properties. The reinforced areas are however prompt to debonding if the fabrics are not mounted properly. Nondestructive testing is therefore required to verify that the fabric is uniformly installed and that there are no air gaps or foreign materials that could instigate debonding. In this work, the use of active infrared thermography was investigated for the assessment of (1) a laboratory specimen reinforced with FFRP and containing several artificial defects; and (2) an actual FFRP retrofitted masonry wall in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of L'Aquila (Italy) that was seriously affected by the 2009 earthquake. Thermographic data was processed by advanced signal processing techniques, and post-processed by computing the watershed lines to locate suspected areas. Results coming from the academic specimen were compared to digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry images.

  20. Analysis of motor fibers in the communicating branch between the cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve to innervate trapezius in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Hitomi, Jiro

    2006-11-01

    The communicating branch between the ventral rami of cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) has been reported to also send motor fibers to supply the trapezius. However, the motor fiber type of the communicating branch and its peripheral distribution are still unclear. To determine the fiber elements within the branch and its peripheral distribution of the motor fibers in the trapezius, the anterograde tracing method was used in this study. The results show that a few a motor end plates from the communicating branch were observed on the extrafusal fibers, while in the muscle spindle the motor elements from the communicating branch were distributed to the polar portions of the intrafusal fibers. These results indicated that the motor fibers passing through the communicating branch to supply the trapezius are mainly y motor fibers, with some a motor fibers. Moreover, the a and y motor fibers from the communicating branch were observed in the clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius and the rostral part of spinotrapezius. These findings also correlate with the clinical observation indicating that even when the spinal accessory nerve is injured, the trapezius is still capable of slight movement.

  1. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-10-27

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included.

  2. Regulatory interplay of the Sub1A and CIPK15 pathways in the regulation of α-amylase production in flooded rice plants.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige, N P; Pucciariello, C; Parlanti, S; Alpi, A; Perata, P

    2011-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can successfully germinate and grow even when flooded. Rice varieties possessing the submergence 1A (Sub1A) gene display a distinct flooding-tolerant phenotype, associated with lower carbohydrate consumption and restriction of the fast-elongation phenotype typical of flooding-intolerant rice varieties. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase 15 (CIPK15) was recently indicated as a key regulator of α-amylases under oxygen deprivation, linked to both rice germination and flooding tolerance in adult plants. It is still unknown whether the Sub1A- and CIPK15-mediated pathways act as complementary processes for rice survival under O(2) deprivation. In adult plants Sub1A and CIPK15 may perhaps play an antagonistic role in terms of carbohydrate consumption, with Sub1A acting as a starch degradation repressor and CIPK15 as an activator. In this study, we analysed sugar metabolism in the stem of rice plants under water submergence by selecting cultivars with different traits associated with flooding survival. The relation between the Sub1A and the CIPK15 pathways was investigated. The results show that under O(2) deprivation, the CIPK15 pathway is repressed in the tolerant, Sub1A-containing, FR13A variety. CIPK15 is likely to play a role in the up-regulation of Ramy3D in flooding-intolerant rice varieties that display fast elongation under flooding and that do not possess Sub1A.

  3. On Kiefer’s American Eucyclops (Copepoda, Eucyclopinae): redescriptions and comments on the historical records of E. delachauxi, E. prionophorus, E. bondi and E. leptacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater copepod genus Eucyclops contains many supposedly cosmopolitan species whose taxonomic status is still under discussion; some of them represent species complexes. The problem is not exclusive to these widespread species; there are several American Eucyclops needing a taxonomic re-evaluation. Based on the examination of Friedrich Kiefer’s collection in Karlsruhe, Germany, the type specimens of four American species of Eucyclops (E. delachauxi (Kiefer, 1926), E. prionophorus Kiefer, 1931, E. bondi Kiefer, 1934, E. leptacanthus Kiefer, 1956) were re-examined and redescribed using upgraded descriptive standards. Kiefer’s translated descriptions and unpublished original drawings of these species are also presented. Characters like the ornamentation of the antennal basis, ornamentation of intercoxal sclerites of the swimming legs 1–4, length of basipodal seta of leg 1, ornamentation of caudal rami, the presence of aesthetascs and modified setae on the antennules in male, and the structure of the male sixth leg are compared herein to aid a more accurate separation of these American species. A revision of the American records of these species confirms that some are likely to refer to undescribed species. Overall, the diversity of the American Eucyclops appears to be underestimated and certainly deserves further study. PMID:24843261

  4. Functional anatomy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies. Cervical vertebrae rotate and translate in the sagittal plane, and rotate in the manner of an inverted cone, across an oblique coronal plane. The cervical zygapophysial joints are the most common source of chronic neck pain. By contrast, lumbar discs are well designed to sustain compression loads, but rely on posterior elements to limit axial rotation. Internal disc disruption is the most common basis for chronic low-back pain. Spinal muscles are arranged systematically in prevertebral and postvertebral groups. The intrinsic elements of the spine are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, and by the sinuvertebral nerves. Little modern research has been conducted into the structure of the thoracic spine, or the causes of thoracic spinal pain.

  5. Variations of Cords of Brachial Plexus and Branching Pattern of Nerves Emanating From Them.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2017-03-01

    Brachial plexus is complex network of nerves, formed by joining and splitting of ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 forming trunks, divisions, and cords. The nerves emerging from trunks and cords innervate the upper limb and to some extent pectoral region. Scanty literature describes the variations in the formation of cords and nerves emanating from them. Moreover, the variations of cords of brachial plexus and nerves emanating from them have iatrogenic implications in the upper limb and pectoral region. Hence study has been carried out. Twenty-eight upper limbs and posterior triangles from 14 cadavers fixed in formalin were dissected and rare and new variations of cords were observed. Most common variation consisted of formation of posterior cord by fusion of posterior division of upper and middle trunk and lower trunk continued as medial cord followed by originating of 2 pectoral nerves from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunk. Other variations include anterior division of upper trunk continued as lateral cord and pierced the coracobrachialis, upper and middle trunk fused to form common cord which divided into lateral and posterior cords, upper trunk gave suprascapular nerve and abnormal lateral pectoral nerve and formation of median nerve by 3 roots. These variations were analyzed for diagnostic and clinical significance making the study relevant for surgeons, radiologists in arresting failure patients and anatomists academically in medical education.

  6. Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals grafted with thermo-responsive polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Venditti, Richard A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-03-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from ramie fibers are studied as stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. The phase behavior of heptane and water systems is studied, and emulsions stabilized by CNCs are analyzed by using drop sizing (light scattering) and optical, scanning, and freeze-fracture electron microscopies. Water-continuous Pickering emulsions are produced with cellulose nanocrystals (0.05-0.5 wt%) grafted with thermo-responsive poly(NIPAM) brushes (poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs). They are observed to be stable during the time of observation of 4 months. In contrast, unmodified CNCs are unable to stabilize heptane-in-water emulsions. After emulsification, poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs are observed to form aligned, layered structures at the oil-water interface. The emulsions stabilized by poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs break after heating at a temperature above the LCST of poly(NIPAM), which is taken as indication of the temperature responsiveness of the brushes installed on the particles and thus the responsiveness of the Pickering emulsions. This phenomenon is further elucidated via rheological measurements, in which viscosities of the Pickering emulsions increase on approach of the low critical solution temperature of poly(NIPAM). The effect of temperature can be counterbalanced with the addition of salt which is explained by the reduction of electrostatic and steric interactions of poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs at the oil-water interface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  8. Classification and Identification of Plant Fibrous Material with Different Species Using near Infrared Technique—A New Way to Approach Determining Biomass Properties Accurately within Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Chengfeng; Han, Guangting; Via, Brian; Swain, Tammy; Fan, Zhaofei; Liu, Shaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Plant fibrous material is a good resource in textile and other industries. Normally, several kinds of plant fibrous materials used in one process are needed to be identified and characterized in advance. It is easy to identify them when they are in raw condition. However, most of the materials are semi products which are ground, rotted or pre-hydrolyzed. To classify these samples which include different species with high accuracy is a big challenge. In this research, both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were chosen to classify six different species of samples, including softwood, hardwood, bast, and aquatic plant. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used. The algorithm to classify different species of samples using PLS was created independently in this research. Results found that the six species can be successfully classified using SIMCA and PLS methods, and these two methods show similar results. The identification rates of kenaf, ramie and pine are 100%, and the identification rates of lotus, eucalyptus and tallow are higher than 94%. It is also found that spectra loadings can help pick up best wavenumber ranges for constructing the NIR model. Inter material distance can show how close between two species. Scores graph is helpful to choose the principal components numbers during the model construction. PMID:28105037

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of hemp bast fibres at different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Mangeot-Peter, Lauralie; Zorzan, Simone; Ghoniem, Mohammad; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2017-07-10

    Bast fibres are long extraxylary cells which mechanically support the phloem and they are divided into xylan- and gelatinous-type, depending on the composition of their secondary cell walls. The former, typical of jute/kenaf bast fibres, are characterized by the presence of xylan and a high degree of lignification, while the latter, found in tension wood, as well as flax, ramie and hemp bast fibres, have a high abundance of crystalline cellulose. During their differentiation, bast fibres undergo specific developmental stages: the cells initially elongate rapidly by intrusive growth, subsequently they cease elongation and start to thicken. The goal of the present study is to provide a transcriptomic close-up of the key events accompanying bast fibre development in textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a fibre crop of great importance. Bast fibres have been sampled from different stem regions. The developmental stages corresponding to active elongation and cell wall thickening have been studied using RNA-Seq. The results show that the fibres sampled at each stem region are characterized by a specific transcriptomic signature and that the major changes in cell wall-related processes take place at the internode containing the snap point. The data generated also identify several interesting candidates for future functional analysis.

  10. Neuropathic itch of the back: a case of notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kim, You Chan

    2014-06-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory.

  11. Stability of extraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: plate fixation versus maxillomandibular/skeletal suspension wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, K A; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to evaluate skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes in 2 groups of mandibular prognathism patients following extraoral oblique vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). One group (n = 22) received maxillomandibular fixation and skeletal suspension wires (MMF group) for a period of 8 weeks. In the other group (n = 22), the segments were rigidly fixed with plates and the patients were allowed to function immediately after surgery. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 5 occasions: immediately presurgical, immediately postsurgical, 8 weeks postsurgical, 6 months postsurgical, and 1 year postsurgical. During the first 8 weeks after surgery, the MMF group demonstrated posterior movement of the mandible, with an increase in mandibular plane angle, shortening of the rami, and dental compensations. Upon release of MMF and skeletal suspension wiring, a small anterior relapse tendency was observed, but the net setback 1 year after surgery was still greater than the actual surgical setback. In the plate fixation group, postoperative changes were mainly in the form of a small anterior relapse tendency in the range of 10% of the surgical setback. The results indicate that the use of plate fixation with VRO, while eliminating the inconvenience for the patient of several weeks of MMF and preventing the early side effects observed in the MMF group, also resulted in a more predictable surgical procedure, with excellent stability 1 year after surgery.

  12. Pretreatment by NaOH swelling and then HCl regeneration to enhance the acid hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binzhe; Peng, Gege; Duan, Lian; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-11-01

    A simple pretreatment method, NaOH swelling at a low temperature and then HCl regeneration, was developed for depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Cellulose was transformed into amorphous hydrogel during the treatment; and due to the easy diffusion of H(+) and Cl(-) ions into the cellulose hydrogel network as well as the strong ability of Cl(-) to disrupt the massive hydrogen bond, the hydrolysis rate was greatly enhanced. The method is effective for α-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, ramie fiber and absorbent cotton. Even at a high α-cellulose concentration of 50g/L, 29.1% yield of glucose was still obtained within 10min at 160°C under microwave irradiation, where up to 16.2g/L of glucose solution was given. The influence of NaOH concentration, HCl concentration, hydrolysis temperature and time on the hydrolysis rate was investigated. The structure of cellulose hydrogel was also studied to confirm the reaction mechanism.

  13. Preinguinal Splitting and Reunion of Femoral Nerve Entrapping the Fleshy Fibres of Iliacus Muscle - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ashwini, L S; Somayaji, S Nagabhooshana; Rao, Mohandas; Marpalli, Sapna

    2017-04-01

    Division of nerves close to their origin and muscular entrapments by nerves in the limbs is not very common. Femoral nerve is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus and arises from dorsal divisions of ventral rami of L2 to L4 spinal nerves. During routine cadaveric dissection for first year medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Karnataka, India, we observed a variation in the division and course of left femoral nerve in about 65-year-old male cadaver. The femoral nerve was split into two divisions above the inguinal ligament after its origin from the lumbar plexus. The lower division of the nerve passed deep to the iliopsoas muscle fibres and the upper division ran superficial to iliacus muscle deep to fascia iliaca. Both the divisions joined just above the inguinal ligament to form the trunk of the femoral nerve. Further course and distribution of the nerve was normal. The reports have shown that compression neuropathies of femoral nerve in the limbs are caused by neoplastic masses, vascular abnormalities and also by different anomalous muscles. Such neuropathies may also result from indirect compression of femoral nerve between the fibres of psoas major muscle and lateral pelvic wall. The potential clinical importance of above mentioned variations in the division of femoral nerve would emphasize the surgeons to diagnose the neuromuscular entrapments and consequent alterations of sensation in the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh.

  14. Preinguinal Splitting and Reunion of Femoral Nerve Entrapping the Fleshy Fibres of Iliacus Muscle - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Somayaji, S Nagabhooshana; Rao, Mohandas; Marpalli, Sapna

    2017-01-01

    Division of nerves close to their origin and muscular entrapments by nerves in the limbs is not very common. Femoral nerve is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus and arises from dorsal divisions of ventral rami of L2 to L4 spinal nerves. During routine cadaveric dissection for first year medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Karnataka, India, we observed a variation in the division and course of left femoral nerve in about 65-year-old male cadaver. The femoral nerve was split into two divisions above the inguinal ligament after its origin from the lumbar plexus. The lower division of the nerve passed deep to the iliopsoas muscle fibres and the upper division ran superficial to iliacus muscle deep to fascia iliaca. Both the divisions joined just above the inguinal ligament to form the trunk of the femoral nerve. Further course and distribution of the nerve was normal. The reports have shown that compression neuropathies of femoral nerve in the limbs are caused by neoplastic masses, vascular abnormalities and also by different anomalous muscles. Such neuropathies may also result from indirect compression of femoral nerve between the fibres of psoas major muscle and lateral pelvic wall. The potential clinical importance of above mentioned variations in the division of femoral nerve would emphasize the surgeons to diagnose the neuromuscular entrapments and consequent alterations of sensation in the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh. PMID:28571125

  15. Ansa cervicalis as a variant of spinal accessory nerve plexus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir Afshin; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Zarrintan, Sina; Khaki, Arash; Montazam, Hasan; Tanoomand, Asghar; Tubbs, R Shane

    2006-09-01

    The ansa cervicalis is a neural loop in the neck formed by the union of two main nerve roots, namely superior and inferior roots, derived from ventral rami of the cervical nerves. With the expanding use of the ansa cervicalis for reinnervation procedures and the fact that it is located in the vicinity of major nerves and vessels of the neck, knowledge of the topography and morphology of this loop is quite necessary in the modern era. Any variation in the course, contributing roots or branching pattern of the ansa cervicalis, potentially alters and perhaps complicates the course of the procedures involving this nerve such as neurorrhaphy, skull base surgery, neck dissection, and anterior cervical spinal approach. Here, we present an unusual case of an ansa cervicalis encountered upon routine dissection of an adult male cadaver. In this case, the inferior root of the ansa cervicalis was formed by the joining of two rootlets, one originating from spinal accessory nerve and the other from a branch of the cervical plexus to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The fibers traversing the branch of spinal accessory nerve were derived from the first segments of the cervical spinal cord. This case demonstrates a variant of the spinal accessory nerve plexus that contributed to the formation of the ansa cervicalis. Review of the literature was performed to reveal the possible clinical aspects of this anatomical variation.

  16. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Anatomical Study of the Brachial Plexus in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus).

    PubMed

    Emura, Kenji; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Terashima, Toshio

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the forelimb phylogeny of primates, anatomical analysis of the brachial plexus in platyrrhines is beneficial. In the present study, six brachial plexuses and the surrounding arteries of four common marmosets were dissected. In five specimens, the brachial plexus consisted of five ventral rami from the fifth cervical nerve (C5) to the first thoracic nerve (T1). In one specimen, the ventral ramus of the fourth cervical nerve joined with the brachial plexus. In five specimens, the upper trunk was composed of C5 and the sixth cervical nerve (C6). In one specimen, the ventral division of C6 merged with the ventral branch of the middle trunk to constitute the lateral cord. The seventh cervical nerve constituted the middle trunk, and the eighth cervical nerve and T1 formed the lower trunk in all specimens. The lateral cord gave rise to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the remaining component merged with the medial cord. The confluence of the lateral and medial cords immediately bifurcated into the median and ulnar nerves. These branching patterns of the musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves were consistent and similar to the human counterparts. In the dorsal division, the single posterior cord as observed in the human brachial plexus was not observed. The axillary artery did not pass between the medial and lateral roots of the median nerve, and the axillary artery bifurcated into the brachial artery and the superficial brachial artery. Anat Rec, 300:1299-1306, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gross anatomical study on the human myocardial bridges with special reference to the spatial relationship among coronary arteries, cardiac veins, and autonomic nerves.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuko; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kageyama, Ikuo; Aizawa, Yukio; Kumaki, Katsuji; Miki, Akinori; Terashima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries are frequently covered by cardiac muscles. This arrangement is termed a myocardial bridge. Previous studies have shown that myocardial bridges can cause myocardial ischemic diseases or cardiac arrhythmia, but the relevant pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We examined 60 hearts from Japanese cadavers macroscopically to clarify the spatial relationships among coronary arteries, cardiac veins and autonomic nerves. We found 86 myocardial bridges in 47 hearts from the 60 cadavers examined (78.3%). Next, we dissected out nine hearts with myocardial bridges in detail under the operating microscope. We found no additional branches of coronary arteries on the myocardial bridge surfaces. However, the cardiac veins, which usually accompany the coronary arteries, ran independently on the myocardial bridge surfaces in the same region. Cardiac autonomic nerves comprised two rami: one was associated with the coronary artery under the myocardial bridge and the other ran on the surface of the bridge. Such spatial relationships among the coronary arteries, cardiac veins and cardiac autonomic nerves at the myocardial bridges are quite similar to those in mouse embryo hearts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A new Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) from the late Miocene of Venezuela, the phylogeny of Caimaninae and considerations on the feeding habits of Mourasuchus.

    PubMed

    Cidade, Giovanne M; Solórzano, Andrés; Rincón, Ascanio Daniel; Riff, Douglas; Hsiou, Annie Schmaltz

    2017-01-01

    Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) is one of the most peculiar crocodyliforms due to the skull morphology consisting of a long, wide, dorsoventrally flat rostrum with long, slender mandibular rami. Despite these peculiarities, the systematics, phylogeny and feeding habits of this taxon have not been properly studied. In this paper, we describe a new species of the genus, Mourasuchus pattersoni sp. nov., from the late Miocene of the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela. The new species differs from the other Mourasuchus species in having a lateromedially wide, dorsoventrally high jugal bone and a circular incisive foramen, which both represent autapomorphies of the new taxon. Phylogenetically, M. pattersoni sp. nov. is more closely related to M. amazonensis and the specimen UFAC-1424 (formely attributed to M. nativus) than to M. arendsi or M. atopus, whilst Mourasuchus is recovered once more as a monophyletic group. Furthermore, the cladistic analysis performed in this contribution offers a new phylogenetic assessment of Caimaninae, including many taxa described recently for the group. In this study, we also discuss the crocodylian diversity of the Urumaco Formation as well as how paleoenvironment may have contributed toward its evolution. In addition, we provide a discussion of the potential feeding habits of Mourasuchus. In this contribution, Mourasuchus is regarded as a taxon that likely preferred to prey on small animals. The unusual skull morphology of this group may have evolved to cover a large area with the rostrum, allowing for a more efficient prey capture, while the prey may have consisted predominantly of large amounts of small animals.

  20. Examination of the variations of lateral femoral cutaneous nerves: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Kadriye Mine; Sargon, Fevzi Mustafa; Sen, Fikret; Oztürk, Hakan; Taşcioğlu, Beliz; Yener, Nuran; Ozozan, Vefik Omer

    2002-12-01

    The origins, courses and relations of lateral femoral cutaneous nerves (LFCNs) were examined bilaterally in 28 cadavers, and the variations were observed in two. On the right side of one cadaver, the ventral rami of the first and second lumbar spinal nerves were united and then this nerve was divided into four branches. From medial to lateral, these branches were the obturator nerve, the femoral nerve, the medially located LFCN and the laterally located LFCN. On the left side of another cadaver, there were three LFCNs. All of these nerves pierced the psoas major muscle anterolaterally. Two of these nerves, which pierced the psoas major muscle more proximally than the third, united with each other by a communicating branch anterior to the iliacus muscle. These types of variations are very important, especially in the presence of paresthesias or pain in the anterior thigh, lateral thigh and gluteal region. In these cases, surgeons must always remember the possible variations of the LFCN during surgical procedures in order to prevent injury and the occurrence of meralgia paresthetica.

  1. Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces antibodies to all four dengue serotypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Byeong-Young; Oh, Sun-Mi; Reljic, Rajko; Jang, Yong-Suk; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an emerging global health threat. DENV consists of four distinct serotypes, necessitating a tetravalent vaccine. In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL signal sequences at the C-terminus, targeting the recombinant protein to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that the fusion protein showed higher levels of expression when compared to the fusion proteins using rice amylase 3D (RAmy3D) or CTB native signal sequence only. The CTB-cEDIII fusion protein was evaluated as an oral dengue vaccine candidate in mice. Serotype specific systemic IgG antibodies and specific IgA response in feces were detected and furthermore, T cell proliferation and high frequency antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the spleen. These results suggest the possible use of plant-based dengue tetravalent vaccine targeted to the mucosal immune system for induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to DENV infection.

  2. Langmuir-Blodgett films of cellulose nanocrystals: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Youssef; Foulon, Laurence; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique; Molinari, Michaël; Douillard, Roger

    2007-12-15

    The goal of this work is the preparation of monolayers of cellulose I nanocrystals providing flat crystalline cellulose surfaces. Suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals were prepared by hydrolyzing ramie and tunicin fibers with sulfuric acid. Due to surface grafted sulfate groups, the negatively charged, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals were found to form stable layers at the air-water interface in the presence of a cationic amphiphilic molecule such as dioctadecyldimethylammonium (DODA) used in this work. These layers were formed at different cellulose-DODA weight ratios, compressed and analyzed by tensiometry, ellipsometry and Brewster angle microscopy. At low cellulose concentrations the layers are discontinuous, becoming dense and homogeneous upon reaching a critical weight ratio, which depends on the aspect ratio of the cellulose nanocrystals. After transfer onto silicon wafers, the surface composition and morphology as well as the thickness of the films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that they are monolayer films, well structured, relatively smooth and pure. These films offer a crystalline and easily reproducible model cellulose surface.

  3. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M.; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  4. A new species of Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae) from the southern hemisphere including remarks on the phylogeny of the genus and its subgenera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with taxonomy and phylogenetics of the genus Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae). Samples, collected from the southeast Atlantic on board RV "Meteor" during the cruises DIVA-1 (M48/1) and DIVA-2 (M63/2), contain specimens of Eurycletodes. Eurycletodes is characterized as a monophylum by A1 segments III + IV fused, basal seta of md palp lost, exp of md palp reduced to 1 seta or completely lost. Similarly, the subgenera Eurycletodes (Eurycletodes) and Eurycletodes (Oligocletodes) are characterized as monophyletic by the loss of the inner seta on P1 exp2 (apomorphic to E. (E.)) and the absence of the inner seta on P5 endopodal lobe (apomorphic to E. (O.)). Eurycletodes profundus is renamed as E. (O.) profundus. Eurycletodes ephippiger is the only species of the genus without subgeneric designation. Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. is described. The new species differs from described species of the genus by a larger body size, P5 endopodal lobe only slightly protruding, last segment of A1 with 2 outer setae, furcal rami elongated between setae VII and IV. The occurrence of 2 specimens of Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. at 2 sites separated by the Walvis Ridge supports the hypothesis that geographic obstacles do not prevent harpacticoid copepods from spreading in the deep sea.

  5. Topography of the pelvic autonomic nervous system and its potential impact on surgical intervention in the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Baader, B; Herrmann, M

    2003-03-01

    Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction caused by iatrogenic lesions of the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) are well known and commonly tolerated in pelvic surgery. Because the pelvic autonomic nerves are difficult to define and dissect in surgery, and their importance often ignored, we conducted a gross anatomic study of 90 adult and four fetal hemipelves. Using various non-surgical approaches, the anatomic relations and pathways of the IHP were dissected. The IHP extended from the sacrum to the genital organs at the level of the lower sacral vertebrae. It originated from three different sources: the hypogastric nerve, the sacral splanchnic nerves from the sacral sympathetic trunk (mostly the S2 ganglion), and the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which branched primarily from the third and fourth sacral ventral rami. These fibers converge to form a uniform nerve plate medial to the vascular layer and deep to the peritoneum. The posterior portion of the IHP supplied the rectum and the anterior portion of the urogenital organs; nerve fibers traveled directly from the IHP to the anterolateral wall of the rectum and to the inferolateral and posterolateral aspects of the urogenital organs. The autonomic supply from the IHP was supplemented by nerves accompanying the ureter and the arteries. An understanding of the location of the autonomic pelvic network, including important landmarks, should help prevent iatrogenic injury through the adoption of surgical techniques that reduce or prevent postoperative autonomic dysfunction.

  6. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part IV: retroperitoneal nerves.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-03-01

    We present surgicoanatomical topographic relations of nerves and plexuses in the retroperitoneal space: 1) six named parietal nerves, branches of the lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, femoral. 2) The sacral plexus is formed by the lumbosacral trunk, ventral rami of S1-S3, and part of S4; the remainder of S4 joining the coccygeal plexus. From this plexus originate the superior gluteal nerve, which passes backward through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle; the inferior gluteal nerve also courses through the greater sciatic foramen, but below the piriformis; 3) sympathetic trunks: right and left lumbar sympathetic trunks, which comprise four interconnected ganglia, and the pelvic chains; 4) greater, lesser, and least thoracic splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which pass the diaphragm and join celiac ganglia; 5) four lumbar splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which arise from lumbar sympathetic ganglia; 6) pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes), providing parasympathetic innervation to the descending colon and pelvic splanchna; and 7) autonomic (prevertebral) plexuses, formed by the vagus nerves, splanchnic nerves, and ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, aorticorenal). They include sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory (mainly pain) fibers. The autonomic plexuses comprise named parts: aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, superior hypogastric, and inferior hypogastric (hypogastric nerves).

  7. First record of harpacticoid copepods from Lake Tahoe, United States: two new species of Attheyella (Harpacticoida, Canthocamptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Benthic harpacticoids were collected for the first time at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, United States. Two species were identified as members of the genus Attheyella Brady, 1880. The genus Attheyella comprises about 150 species within six subgenera, but only twelve species have previously been reported from North American freshwater habitats. The two new species of Attheyella described here have a 3-segmented endopod on P1 and 2-segmented P2–P4 endopods, the distal segment of exopod of P2–P4 has three outer spines, and the P5 has five setae on the exopod and six setae on the baseoendopod. Attheyella (Attheyella) tahoensis sp. n. most closely resembles Attheyella (Attheyella) idahoensis (Marsh, 1903) from Idaho, Montana, and Alaska (United States) and Attheyella (Attheyella) namkungi Kim, Soh & Lee, 2005 from Gosu Cave in South Korea. They differ mainly by the number of setae on the distal endopodal segment of P2–P4. In addition, intraspecific variation has been observed on the caudal rami. Attheyella (Neomrazekiella) tessiae sp. n. is characterized by the extension of P5 baseoendopod, 2-segmented endopod of female P2–P3, and naked third seta of male P5 exopod. The two new species are likely endemic to Lake Tahoe, an isolated alpine lake within the Great Basin watershed in the western United States. PMID:25685014

  8. Visualization of Penile Suspensory Ligamentous System Based on Visible Human Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianzhuo; Wu, Yi; Tao, Ling; Yan, Yan; Pang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to use a three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology to illustrate and describe the anatomical features of the penile suspensory ligamentous system based on the Visible Human data sets and to explore the suspensory mechanism of the penis for the further improvement of the penis-lengthening surgery. Material/Methods Cross-sectional images retrieved from the first Chinese Visible Human (CVH-1), third Chinese Visible Human (CVH-3), and Visible Human Male (VHM) data sets were used to segment the suspensory ligamentous system and its adjacent structures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of this system were studied and compared with those from the Visible Human data sets. The 3D models reconstructed from the Visible Human data sets were used to provide morphological features of the penile suspensory ligamentous system and its related structures. Results The fundiform ligament was a superficial, loose, fibro-fatty tissue which originated from Scarpa’s fascia superiorly and continued to the scrotal septum inferiorly. The suspensory ligament and arcuate pubic ligament were dense fibrous connective tissues which started from the pubic symphysis and terminated by attaching to the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa. Furthermore, the arcuate pubic ligament attached to the inferior rami of the pubis laterally. Conclusions The 3D model based on Visible Human data sets can be used to clarify the anatomical features of the suspensory ligamentous system, thereby contributing to the improvement of penis-lengthening surgery. PMID:28530218

  9. Art, class and gender in Joseon dynasty Korea: representations of lower-class women by the scholar-painter Yun Duseo.

    PubMed

    Chung, Saehyang P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines several pioneering genre paintings by the important scholar painter Yun Duseo (1668-1715), with its focus on their artistic sources which have not yet been explored so far. Painted on ramie, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is one of the most intriguing examples among Yun Duseo's oeuvre, which encompasses a broad variety of themes, including genre imagery, landscapes, portraits, dragons, and horses. Even among Yun Duseo's genre paintings, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is extraordinary, as recent scholarship regards it as the earliest independent representation of lower-class women in the history of Korean art. In particular, Yun Duseo painted two women who were working ourdoors to gather spring potherbs. In a conservative Confucian society, it was extraordinary women who were working outdoors. Hence, Yun Duseo occupies a highly important place in Korean painting. Furthermore, even though Yun Duseo came from the upper-class, he often painted images of lower class people working. It is possible that Yun Duseo was familiar with the book titled "Tian gong kai wu" (Exploitation of the Works of Nature) which was published in the 17th century. By identifying the probable body of his artistic sources in the book known as "Tian gong kai wu," it will be possible to assess the innovations and limitations found in 'Women Picking Potherbs'.

  10. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  11. Complex rostral neurovascular system in a giant pliosaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffa, Davide; Sassoon, Judyth; Cuff, Andrew R.; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Benton, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    Pliosaurs were a long-lived, ubiquitous group of Mesozoic marine predators attaining large body sizes (up to 12 m). Despite much being known about their ecology and behaviour, the mechanisms they adopted for prey detection have been poorly investigated and represent a mystery to date. Complex neurovascular systems in many vertebrate rostra have evolved for prey detection. However, information on the occurrence of such systems in fossil taxa is extremely limited because of poor preservation potential. The neurovascular complex from the snout of an exceptionally well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic, c. 170 Myr ago) of Weymouth Bay (Dorset, UK) is described here for the first time. Using computed tomography (CT) scans, the extensive bifurcating neurovascular channels could be traced through the rostrum to both the teeth and the foramina on the dorsal and lateral surface of the snout. The structures on the surface of the skull and the high concentrations of peripheral rami suggest that this could be a sensory system, perhaps similar to crocodile pressure receptors or shark electroreceptors.

  12. A new family of poecilostomatoid copepods (Strepidae fam. nov.) associated with the sun coral, Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Dai, Chang-Feng

    2016-10-11

    Both sexes of Strepus elongatus gen. et sp. nov. are described based on specimens obtained from the coral host, Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829, collected from shallow water reefs in Taiwan. The new species belongs to a new family of the copepod order Poecilostomatoida and displays the following morphological characteristics: (1) poecilostome type of well developed piercing mandibles, (2) absence of an oral cone, (3) highly transformed body, (4) 4-segmented antennules, (5) 2-segmented maxilliped, (6) caudal rami with only two setae, and (7) complete loss of legs 1-5 in the female, but legs 1-2 being represented by a free segment bearing two terminal setae in the male. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis based on 18S ribosomal RNA sequence data showed that S. elongatus clustered with a Sabelliphilus-Anchimolgus clade (Sabelliphilidae + Xarifiidae + Rhynchomolgidae + Anchimolgidae), and that the average genetic distance between S. elongatus gen. et sp. nov. and representatives of the six most closely related families (0.064) was higher than the average distances among those families (0.028). Therefore, based on both morphological and molecular data, a new family Strepidae fam. nov. is proposed to accommodate its only known species, S. elongatus gen. et sp. nov.

  13. Genetic and morphological description of Eucalanus spinifer T. Scott, 1894 (Calanoida: Eucalanidae), a circumglobal sister species of the copepod E. hyalinus s.s. (Claus, 1866)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, Erica; Bradford-Grieve, Janet

    2005-04-01

    A distinct genetic form of the eucalanid calanoid copepod Eucalanus hyalinus s.l. was identified in subtropical and temperate waters of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. Results from mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and nuclear (ITS2) genetic markers suggest that the two E. hyalinus forms are reproductively isolated. Eucalanus spinifer T. Scott is taken out of synonymy with E. hyalinus and is applied to the smaller of the two genetic forms, increasing the number of species in the genus Eucalanus to a total of six. Adult females of the sister species E. hyalinus s.s. and E. spinifer can be distinguished morphologically by the shape of the anterior portion of the head in lateral and ventral views, asymmetry in the length of antennule segments 22 and 23, length ratios of 22/5 and 23/5 of the longer of the antennules, the length of the caudal rami, and total body size, as measured by total length or prosome length. We illustrate and describe both adult females and males of E. spinifer, and discuss aspects of sexual dimorphism. The sister species are sympatric throughout much of their circumglobal biogeographic distributions, but appear to have centers of abundance in slightly different water mass types.

  14. The ovarian and uterine arteries in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Cevik-Demirkan, A; Ozdemir, V; Demirkan, I

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe arteries supplying the ovaries and uterus in the chinchilla. Five healthy adult female chinchillas were used. In order to reveal the arterial network by dissecting under a stereoscopic microscope, latex coloured with red ink was injected through the common carotid artery. The ovaries of the chinchilla are supplied by the arteriae ovaricae which formed end-to-end anastomoses with the cranial termination of the arteria uterina. Soon after leaving the aorta abdominalis, the arteriae ovaricae extended 2-3 mm caudolaterally, then released 1 branch and extended caudally and bifurcated into 2 further branches. One of these supplied branches to fat tissue. The other branch coursed caudally and anastomosed with the arteria circumflexa ilium profunda and dispersed into fat tissue. The arteria ovarica further subdivided into 2 rami ovaricae. The origins of the uterine arteries were exclusively from the left arteria iliaca externa. The arteria uterina gave a branch to the arteria umbilicalis and consecutive branches which supplied to the ureter, urinary bladder and cranial aspects of the vagina. It also gave rise to 2-3 branches to the cervix and further supplied 10-12 meandering branches to the uterine horns. The arteria uterina gave rise to many tortuous arteries to the uterus and provided 2 further branches to the ovary.

  15. New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz, and Etot. We shall describe these relations and an efficient solver successively implemented in some of our codes. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, Radiation dependent ionization model for laser-created plasmas, Ph. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993).[0pt] [2] M. Busquet, D. Colombant, M. Klapisch, D. Fyfe, J. Gardner. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model, HEDP 5, 270 (2009).[0pt] [3] M.Busquet, Onset of pseudo-thermal equilibrium within configurations and super-configurations, JQSRT 99, 131 (2006)

  16. Lignin variability in plant cell walls: contribution of new models.

    PubMed

    Neutelings, Godfrey

    2011-10-01

    Lignin is a major component of certain plant cell walls. The enzymes and corresponding genes associated with the metabolic pathway leading to the production of this complex phenolic polymer have been studied for many years now and are relatively well characterized. The use of genetically modified model plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, poplar.) and mutants has contributed greatly to our current understanding of this process. The recent utilisation and/or development of a number of dedicated genomic and transcriptomic tools for other species opens new perspectives for advancing our knowledge of the biological role of this important polymer in less typical situations and/or species. In this context, studies on the formation of hypolignified G-type fibres in angiosperm tension wood, and the natural hypolignification of secondary cell walls in plant bast fibre species such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) or ramie (Boehmeria nivea) are starting to provide novel information about how plants control secondary cell wall formation. Finally, other biologically interesting species for which few molecular resources currently exist could also represent interesting future models.

  17. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclops clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclops bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclops clarkei and Halicyclops bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated. PMID:25561852

  18. A new ceratopsian dinosaur from the Javelina Formation (Maastrichtian) of West Texas and implications for chasmosaurine phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Wick, Steven L; Lehman, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    Bravoceratops polyphemus gen. et sp. nov. is a large chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the lowermost part of the Javelina Formation (early Maastrichtian) of Big Bend National Park, TX, USA. B. polyphemus has a distinctive narrow snout, a long fenestrate frill, and a fan-shaped median parietal bar with a midline epiparietal on its posterior margin, as well as a symmetrical depression on its dorsal surface at the nexus of the parietal rami. This depression is interpreted to be the attachment point for a second midline epiparietal. This parietal morphology is distinct from that exhibited by Anchiceratops or Pentaceratops. The posterior midline epiparietal in B. polyphemus and its bifurcated quadratojugal-squamosal joint are features shared with the most derived chasmosaurines, Torosaurus and Triceratops. The combination of primitive and derived traits exhibited by B. polyphemus, and its stratigraphic position, is compatible with the gradual transition from basal, to intermediate, to derived chasmosaurines observed throughout the western interior of North America, and with phylogenetic analysis, which suggests that Bravoceratops may be closely related to Coahuilaceratops.

  19. The Macroanatomy of the Sacral Plexus and Its Nerves in Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo).

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Y; Demiraslan, Y; Aslan, K; Coban, A

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the formation of the sacral plexus in the Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and the nerves originating from this plexus. Five EEOs, three of them were male and two were female, were provided from Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Kafkas University and used as materials. Following the euthanizing of the animals, abdominal cavity was opened. The nerves of plexus sacrales were dissected and photographed. It was detected that the sacral plexus was formed by the ventral ramus of five synsacral nerves. Moreover, it was determined that the roots of the sacral plexus formed three trunks: the truncus cranialis, the truncus medius and the truncus caudalis in fossa renalis. The availability of the n. ischiofemoralis and the availability of n. parafibularis were detected in the EEOs. Five branches were specified as having segregated from the sacral plexus: the n. cutaneus femoralis caudalis, the mutual root of n. fibularis with n. tibialis (n. ischiadicus), the rami musculares, the n. coxalis caudalis and the ramus muscularis. It was observed that the sacral plexus was linked to the lumbar plexus by the n. furcalis, to the pudendus plexus via the n. bigeminus. Consequently, the anatomic structure of the EEO's sacral plexus, the participating synsacral nerves to plexus and the innervation areas of these nerves were revealed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Postembryonic development of hard jaws (trophi) in a species belonging to the Brachionus plicatilis complex (Rotifera, Monogononta): a morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Fontaneto, Diego; Melone, Giulio

    2006-04-01

    The presence of hard jaws (trophi), with species-specific shape and size, is a taxonomic feature of Rotifera, a group of microscopic metazoans. Since trophi are used to discriminate among species, it is important to know whether these structures change in taxonomically important ways during postembryonic development. Using both SEM and optical images, we analyzed more than 100 individuals of a single clonal lineage of a monogonont rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, in order to describe body and trophi development after hatching. Body size, expressed as lorica width and length, was isometrically related to age of the animals only during preadult stages. Trophi size, expressed as length of the different parts, was unrelated to either age or body size. Therefore, trophi elements do not grow after hatching in B. plicatilis. Despite the dimensional invariance with age, some differences in trophi size among individuals of the same clone were recorded. No difference in left-right asymmetry of the trophi was shown; the asymmetric elements of the trophi named rami consistently had the right ramus longer than the left. This constancy is in contrast to the reported trophi asymmetries in bdelloid rotifers, in which left-right asymmetries are not constant within clonal lineages. In conclusion, we suggest that also trophi size, constant within the analyzed clone, may be used as an additional taxonomic feature to help in the discrimination of taxa within the B. plicatilis complex of cryptic species. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Effects of alpha stopping power modelling on the ignition threshold in a directly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, Benoit; Cayzac, Witold; Ramis, Rafael; Singleton, Robert L.

    2017-05-01

    The alpha-particle energy deposition mechanism modifies the ignition conditions of the thermonuclear Deuterium-Tritium fusion reactions, and constitutes a key issue in achieving high gain in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been performed with the code Multi-IFE [R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Comput. Phys. Commun. 203, 226 (2016)] to simulate the implosion of a capsule directly irradiated by a laser beam. The diffusion approximation for the alpha energy deposition has been used to optimize three laser profiles corresponding to different implosion velocities. A Monte-Carlo package has been included in Multi-IFE to calculate the alpha energy transport, and in this case the energy deposition uses both the LP [C.K. Li, R.D. Petrasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3059 (1993)] and the BPS [L.S. Brown, D.L. Preston, R.L. Singleton Jr., Phys. Rep. 410, 237 (2005)] stopping power models. Homothetic transformations that maintain a constant implosion velocity have been used to map out the transition region between marginally-igniting and high-gain configurations. The results provided by the two models have been compared and it is found that - close to the ignition threshold - in order to produce the same fusion energy, the calculations performed with the BPS model require about 10% more invested energy with respect to the LP model.

  2. Operating Experiences from Existing Fusion Facilities in View of ITER Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    T. Pinna; L. Cadwallader

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this ongoing activity is to develop a fusion specific component failure rate database useful to quantify probabilistic safety assessment, support traditional safety analysis, quantify reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) analyses, and support any other uses where field experience can provide feedback to fusion facility design and operation. The activity supported by European, American, and Japanese programs is established in the context of the International Energy Agency Agreement on the Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power (IEA ESE). The data collection began in 1989. At first, it was to "harvest" already-published data from high-technology industries that can be readily applied to fusion components. Several years later, attention was also directed to collecting and analyzing operating experience data from existing tokamaks and other fusion experiments. For some fusion facilities, the investigations on causes and effects of failures of components and systems have also interested worker exposures and radiological releases induced by maintenance activities on failed components.

  3. Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Raffray, A. R.; Kurtz, R. J.; Morley, N. B.; Reiersen, W. T.; Sharpe, P.; Willms, S.

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Finally, here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  4. Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Meier; A. R. Raffray; R. J. Kurtz; N. B. Morley; W. T. Reiersen; Phil Sharpe; S. Willms

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  5. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  6. Two new species of the genus Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida: Monstrillidae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Dongsung; Chang, Cheon Young

    2016-10-11

    Monstrilloid copepods of the genus Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921 are recorded from Korea, as well as from the northwestern Pacific, for the first time. Specimens were obtained using a light trap set overnight at piers or seawalls in small harbors. Males of two new species were found and are described herein with remarks on their affinities and detailed drawings and SEM photographs of their morphological features. Monstrillopsis longilobata sp. nov. is allied to M. chathamensis Suárez-Morales & Morales-Ramírez, 2009 and M. sarsi Isaac, 1974 in having the character combination of a long, claw-like apical spinous process on the male antennule and elongate genital lappets. It differs from them in having conspicuous transverse striations on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax and extremely long male genital lappets, which extend far beyond the anterior margins of the caudal rami. Monstrillopsis coreensis sp. nov. also has a claw-like apical spinous process of the male antennule and conspicuous transverse striations on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax, but it differs from M. longilobata in having a much longer and stronger apical spine of the antennule and a relatively shorter and undulating genital apparatus.

  7. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclopsclarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclopsbowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclopsgaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclopsclarkei and Halicyclopsbowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclopsgaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated.

  8. Sabelliphilidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) associated with the tube anemone Pachycerianthus maua (Carlgren) and the horseshoe worm Phoronis australis Haswell off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Huys, Rony

    2012-09-01

    Examination of washings of the ceriantharian Pachycerianthus maua (Carlgren) and its phoronid symbiont Phoronis australis Haswell in New Caledonian waters revealed two species of symbiotic copepods belonging to the family Sabelliphilidae (Cyclopoida). Phoronicola spinulatus Boxshall & Humes, 1988, the only other copepod known to be associated with a phoronid and originally described from Hong Kong, was found on both the lophophore of Phoronis australis and the tentacular crown of Pachycerianthus maua. Both sexes of Phoronicola spinulatus are redescribed based on the New Caledonian material and re-examination of the type-material revealed some observational errors in the original description. Myxomolgus hoi n. sp. was exclusively found on the ceriantharian host and appears most closely related to its only known Pacific congener, M. invulgus Kim, 2001, in lacking the strong spines on antennulary segments 1-2, the presence of closely set, fine teeth along the convex margin of the mandibular blade, and the absence of a proximal bulbous protrusion along the inner margin of leg 5 exopod. Differences between both species are found in the rostrum, antennule, antenna, maxillule, leg 4, caudal rami and body size. The relatively low number of specimens of P. spinulatus recovered from washings of the lophophores (and its presence on Pachycerianthus maua) suggests that its real host is a ceriantharian rather than a phoronid. It is conceivable that both Phoronicola spinulatus and M. hoi n. sp. live and feed on/inside the mucilaginous ceriantharian tube rather than on the lophophore or tentacular crown of their respective hosts.

  9. Cytomorphology of Recurrent Osseous Extracranial Meningioma of Right Pubic Ramus:: Report of a Case and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Aqiba; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G

    2016-07-01

    Meningiomas are well-recognized neoplasms of the central nervous system. Primary extracranial meningiomas (ECMs) are extremely rare and arise in various anatomic sites. We present a 56-year-old female with 13-year history of primary grade I meningothelial meningioma of right pubic symphysis, orthotopic heart transplant, and right total hip arthroplasty, who presented with progressive right hip pain for 3 weeks. Primary intracranial, intraspinal and other tumors were excluded. Imaging revealed a destructive lytic lesion at right superior and inferior pubic rami and body, associated with extensive bone destruction and soft tissue mass. Touch imprint (TI) cytology of computed tomography (CT)-guided core biopsy from the right pubic ramus (PRA) lesion showed a spindle cell neoplasm, with classical syncytial, lobular, and whorling cellular arrangement, composed of spindle, oval or round nuclei with occasional pseudoinclusions, consistent with known history of osseous meningioma. Tumor was further characterized by histopathology as grade 1 meningioma with meningothelial features. To our knowledge, primary osseous ECM arising specifically at the PRA has not been reported previously. ECM at this site may pose a diagnostic challenge for cytologists as its features may resemble other more commonly observed lesions. Accurate diagnosis requires awareness of occurrence of ECM at PRA and recognition of its characteristic cytomorphology. TI cytological features of our case are presented and previously described cytology of ECMs and diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:618-622. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chemical communication during mating of the harpacticoid Tigriopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of contact and diffusible pheromones in the reproductive biology of the harpacticoid Tigriopus japonicus was studied. When given a choice, males preferred developmentally advanced conspecific female partners over less mature or congeneric females. Males judged female attractiveness on a relative scale, based on the locally available females. The attractiveness of a female copepodid was reduced with non-fatal proteolytic treatment, but only if normal females were also present. To sample the available females, males repeatedly grabbed the caudal rami and terminal urosome segment of potential partners before committing themselves to guarding one female. Males occasionally dropped their copepodid partners. Releases increased in frequency in water conditioned from virgin adult females and adult males, decreased in mated-female conditioned water and were unaffected by copepodids or their treated water. The waning attractiveness of a recently mated female was tracked over 16 h. Relationships between Tigriopus japonicus adults appeared to involve both contact and diffusible pheromones. No evidence of a diffusible copepodid pheromone was uncovered.

  11. Superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models of growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. C.; Heymann, Gavin; Cornelis, Marie A.; DeClerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate a new method for superimposition of 3-dimensional (3D) models of growing subjects. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after Class III malocclusion orthopedic treatment with miniplates. Three observers independently constructed 18 3D virtual surface models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of 3 patients. Separate 3D models were constructed for soft-tissue, cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular surfaces. The anterior cranial fossa was used to register the 3D models of before and after treatment (about 1 year of follow-up). Results Three-dimensional overlays of superimposed models and 3D color-coded displacement maps allowed visual and quantitative assessment of growth and treatment changes. The range of interobserver errors for each anatomic region was 0.4 mm for the zygomatic process of maxilla, chin, condyles, posterior border of the rami, and lower border of the mandible, and 0.5 mm for the anterior maxilla soft-tissue upper lip. Conclusions Our results suggest that this method is a valid and reproducible assessment of treatment outcomes for growing subjects. This technique can be used to identify maxillary and mandibular positional changes and bone remodeling relative to the anterior cranial fossa. PMID:19577154

  12. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  13. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A.

  14. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A.

  15. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-09-22

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica.

  16. Neuropathic Itch of the Back: A Case of Notalgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica refers to an isolated mononeuropathy involving chronic localized itch or paresthesia most often at the skin of the scapula or surrounding regions. There are no specific skin manifestations except those arising from chronic scratching and rubbing. The specific etiology remains unknown; however, it has been theorized that the neuropathic itch is caused by sensory nerve entrapment involving the posterior rami of the T2 to T6 nerve root. The entrapment is due to degenerative changes in the vertebrae. We report here a particular case of notalgia paresthetica in a 55-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for tingling pain around the left inferior angle of the scapula. Pruritus was first reported seven years ago with tingling pain developing only four months ago. There were no specific skin lesions observed except for excoriation and vague hyperpigmentation. A skin biopsy revealed only epidermal thinning with pigmentary incontinence. The patient was treated with 600 mg of gabapentin daily as well as capsaicin cream. The response was deemed unsatisfactory. PMID:24966642

  17. First record of a rare transversotrematid cercaria larva (Trematoda: Digenea) from Rajasthan, India: focus on seasonal occurrence and host-specificity of diverse cercariae.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Jaroli, Vishva Jeet; Sheikh, Zulfiya

    2017-06-01

    During the survey of freshwater snail hosts and their digenean larval trematode parasites, a rare cercaria larva belonging to family Transversotrematidae and subclass Digenea (Trematoda) was recovered from the snail species Melanoides striatella tuberculata inhabiting perennial Som river of Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. More than 28 % mature specimens of these snails were found to be infected with transversotrematid cercaria larvae in the spring season. Body of this cercaria is large, bowl-shaped, biocellate, spinose, transparent and laterally extended having two pigmented eye spots, two hold fast organs extended from the junction of body and tail, large tail with two foliated furcal rami, and cyclocoel intestinal caeca. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first record of a transversotrematid larva from Rajasthan, India. Simultaneously, other forms of cercariae viz., amphistome, echinostome, monostome, gymnocephalous, furcocercous and xiphidiocercous cercariae were also recovered from fifteen species of pulmonate and operculate snails including Lymnaea acuminata f. patula, L. acuminata f. chlamys, L. acuminata f. typica, L. acuminata f. rufescens, L. luteola f. australis, L. luteola f. typica, L. luteola f. impura, Planorbis (Indoplanorbis) exustus, and Anisus (Gyraulus) convexiusculus, Faunus ater, Melania (Plotia) scabra, Thiara (Tarebia) lineata, Melanoides striatella tuberculata, Vivipara bengalensis race gigantica and V. bengalensis race mandiensis. The seasonal occurrence and host-specificity of diverse trematode cercaria larvae are also discussed besides the first record of a rare transversotrematid cercaria larva from Rajasthan, India.

  18. Two new species of the sharpshooter genus Oragua Melichar, 1926 from Southeastern Brazil (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Silva, Cristiane M F Da; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-06-30

    Two very similar new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926, O. linnavuorii sp. nov. and O. flavolineata sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Mantiqueira mountain range). The new species share the presence of a large dentiform process located posteroventrally on the male pygofer, a unique feature within the genus. They can be distinguished from each other by the paraphyses with a pair of elongate, slender asymmetrical rami in O. linnavuorii and with two pairs of short, spiniform apical processes in O. flavolineata. The male of O. linnavuorii is macropterous but the female is submacropterous and thus smaller than the former when specimens are measured from the apex of the crown to the tips of the forewings at rest. The female of O. flavolineata is not known. Male holotypes are deposited in DZRJ. A key to males of the five Oragua species recorded from Southeastern Brazil is provided [O. maculifera Young, 1977, O. discoidula (Osborn, 1926), O. triplehorni Young, 1977, O. linnavuorii, and O. flavolineata]. The superficially similar genera Oragua and Aguana Melichar, 1926 are briefly compared.

  19. Cadaveric Study of Berretini Communications in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kullar, Jagdev Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intercommunication between peripheral nerves deserves special attention in view of their clinical significance. Superficial palmar communication between the median nerve and ulnar nerve is referred to as Berrettini Anastomosis. The presence or absence of this communicating branch varies between individuals. Earlier, incidence of Berretini communication reported varied significantly (4-94%). Aim The aim of this study was to find out the frequency with which Berretini communication is found in North Indians. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers at the Government Medical College, Amritsar. The whole course of the median nerve and the ulnar nerve was exposed. Communicating rami in the hand were identified, cleaned and photographed. Results In all the six (10%) variant limbs, the communicating branch originated from lateral common palmar digital branch of ulnar nerve and joined medial common palmar digital branch of median nerve. Single communication with oblique course was seen in all the variants. Further, its ontogeny and clinical implications have been discussed in detail. Conclusion The Berretini anastomosis was seen in 10% upper limbs of the present study. Damage to the communicating branch or the severing of the branch might result in sensory loss which may be difficult to diagnose owing to the large number of variations in the origin of the communicating branch. The patterns of sensory impairment may vary depending upon the branch of median and ulnar nerve it is seen connecting. PMID:27504271

  20. Distribution and specific central projections of mechanoreceptors in the thorax and proximal leg joints of locusts. II. The external mechanoreceptors: hair plates and tactile hairs.

    PubMed

    Pflüger, H J; Bräunig, P; Hustert, R

    1981-01-01

    Tactile hairs on the locust thorax can be divided into two classes by their external morphology and their central projection pattern: Short hairs, 10--100 micrometer in length, which are assembled in distinct plates and rows, and long hairs, 100--800 micrometer in length, which are distributed all over the body and are organized in large fields or aligned along the ridges of the appendages. The sensory fibers of the first class arborize in the lateral dorsal neuropile of thoracic ganglia and then extend further into the ipsilateral half of the corresponding ganglion in three main bundles from which fine rami of fibers end in the intermediate neuropile. In all three thoracic ganglia the projection pattern of homologous hair plates is similar. The sensory fibers of the second class exclusively terminate in special median ventral neuropiles, the ventral association center (VAC) and ventralmost ventral association center (VVAC). In addition fibers from meso- and metathoracic hairs, located close to the longitudinal midline of the animal, may terminate in the contralateral VAC and with one branch project to the next anterior ganglion through the ipsilateral connective. In contrast, fibers from prothoracic hairs were not found to leave their ganglion.

  1. First record of harpacticoid copepods from Lake Tahoe, United States: two new species of Attheyella (Harpacticoida, Canthocamptidae).

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Moon, Heejin

    2015-01-01

    Benthic harpacticoids were collected for the first time at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, United States. Two species were identified as members of the genus Attheyella Brady, 1880. The genus Attheyella comprises about 150 species within six subgenera, but only twelve species have previously been reported from North American freshwater habitats. The two new species of Attheyella described here have a 3-segmented endopod on P1 and 2-segmented P2-P4 endopods, the distal segment of exopod of P2-P4 has three outer spines, and the P5 has five setae on the exopod and six setae on the baseoendopod. Attheyella (Attheyella) tahoensissp. n. most closely resembles Attheyella (Attheyella) idahoensis (Marsh, 1903) from Idaho, Montana, and Alaska (United States) and Attheyella (Attheyella) namkungi Kim, Soh & Lee, 2005 from Gosu Cave in South Korea. They differ mainly by the number of setae on the distal endopodal segment of P2-P4. In addition, intraspecific variation has been observed on the caudal rami. Attheyella (Neomrazekiella) tessiaesp. n. is characterized by the extension of P5 baseoendopod, 2-segmented endopod of female P2-P3, and naked third seta of male P5 exopod. The two new species are likely endemic to Lake Tahoe, an isolated alpine lake within the Great Basin watershed in the western United States.

  2. Abstracts of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Israel Society for Neuroscience Eilat, Israel, December 3–5, 2006

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The Israel Society for Neuroscience (ISFN) was founded in 1993 by a group of Israeli leading scientists conducting research in the area of neurobiology. The primary goal of the society was to promote and disseminate the knowledge and understanding acquired by its members, and to strengthen interactions between them. Since then, the society holds its annual meeting every year in Eilat during the month of December. At these annual meetings the senior Israeli neurobiologists, their teams, and their graduate students, as well as foreign scientists and students, present their recent research findings in platform and poster presentations. The meeting also offers the opportunity for the researchers to exchange information with each other, often leading to the initiation of collaborative studies. Both the number of members of the society and of those participating in the annual meeting is constantly increasing, and it is anticipated that this year about 600 scientists will convene at the Princess Hotel in Eilat, Israel. Further information concerning the Israel Society for Neuroscience can be found at http://www.isfn.org.il. Committee: Zvi Wollberg (President) Tel Aviv University Edi Barkai University of Haifa Etti Grauer Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona Yoram Rami Grossman Ben Gurion University of the Negev Yoel Yaari Hebrew University of Jerusalem Gal Yadid Bar-Ilan University Shlomo Rotshenker (President Elect) Hebrew University of Jerusalem Ettie Grauer (Treasurer) Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona Michal Gilady (Administrator) Rishon Le Zion

  3. [Anatomical study on the facial nerve innervating the floor of the mouth in chondrichthyes. Homology of the chorda tympani].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Kobayashi, K

    1989-10-01

    This paper deals with the results of the investigation of the facial nerves of chondrichthyes in order to consider the phylogenetic origin of the Chorda tympani in human. Six species of elasmobranchs (Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Cephaloscyllium umbratile, Squalus acanthias, Dasyatis akajei, Raja kwangtungensis and Mobura diabolus) were dissected under a stereoscopic microscope for this purpose, and the following results were obtained. Ramus palatinus and R. pre-spiracularis were observed as pre-trematic branches, while R. mandibularis externus, R. mandibularis internus and R. hyoideus originating from R. hyomandibularis were observed as post-trematicus of the facial proper in chondrichtyes. The rami intermedii indicated by Tanaka and Nakao (1979) were observed only in Dasyatis akajei. The R. hyomandibularis of Squalus acanthias had cutaneous branches, and the same branches were described in Chimaera by Takahashi and Kobayashi (1988). R. pre-spiracularis and R. mandibularis internus supply the floor of mouth in Squalus acanthias. As for the other chondrichthyes, R. mandibularis internus was only the one that could be found at the floor of mouth cavity under a stereoscopic microscope. From the observations described above and from previous studies, it may be concluded that the problem of whether the Chorda tympani is homologous with whether the pre- or post-trematicus of branchial nerves seems to depend on the animal species.

  4. The Ethylene Receptor ETR2 Delays Floral Transition and Affects Starch Accumulation in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Wuriyanghan, Hada; Zhang, Bo; Cao, Wan-Hong; Ma, Biao; Lei, Gang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Wei, Wei; Wu, Hua-Jun; Chen, Li-Juan; Chen, Hao-Wei; Cao, Yang-Rong; He, Si-Jie; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development in dicotyledonous plants; however, its roles in monocotyledonous plants are poorly known. Here, we characterized a subfamily II ethylene receptor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 (ETR2), in rice (Oryza sativa). The ETR2 receptor with a diverged His kinase domain is a Ser/Thr kinase, but not a His kinase, and can phosphorylate its receiver domain. Mutation of the N box of the kinase domain abolished the kinase activity of ETR2. Overexpression of ETR2 in transgenic rice plants reduced ethylene sensitivity and delayed floral transition. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) plants exhibited early flowering and the ETR2 T-DNA insertion mutant etr2 showed enhanced ethylene sensitivity and early flowering. The effective panicles and seed-setting rate were reduced in the ETR2-overexpressing plants, while thousand-seed weight was substantially enhanced in both the ETR2-RNAi plants and the etr2 mutant compared with controls. Starch granules accumulated in the internodes of the ETR2-overexpressing plants, but not in the etr2 mutant. The GIGANTEA and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS homolog (RCN1) that cause delayed flowering were upregulated in ETR2-overexpressing plants but downregulated in the etr2 mutant. Conversely, the α-amylase gene RAmy3D was suppressed in ETR2-overexpressing plants but enhanced in the etr2 mutant. Thus, ETR2 may delay flowering and cause starch accumulation in stems by regulating downstream genes. PMID:19417056

  5. Revision of Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, including Bradiella Rullier, 1965, and Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; Buzhinskaja, Galina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, includes flabelligerids having cylindrical to club-shaped bodies, with cirriform papillae, multiarticulate chaetae in both parapodial rami, 8 branchial filaments of two types (thick and rarely lamellate, or cirriform), gonopodial lobes in chaetigers 5 or 6, or multiple gonopores along some anterior chaetigers. Bradiella Rullier, 1965, has included only the type species: Bradiella branchiata Rullier, 1965, described from Eastern Australia. The original description has been overlooked and it lacked enough details on branchial and chaetal features. Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993, with Diplocirrus nicolaji Buzhinskaja, 1994, as the type species, was introduced for a similar species from the Japan Sea. These two monotypic genera share the same morphologic features with Diplocirrus, and are herein regarded as its junior synonyms. As herein redefined, Diplocirrus includes, besides its type species, Diplocirrus glaucus (Malmgren, 1867)from Scandinavia : Diplocirrus branchiatus (Rullier, 1965), comb. n. from Queensland, Australia, Diplocirrus capensis Day, 1961 from South Africa, Diplocirrus erythroporus Gallardo, 1968 from Vietnam, Diplocirrus hirsutus (Hansen, 1882) from Arctic and subarctic regions, Diplocirrus incognitus Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from South Africa, Diplocirrus kudenovi sp. n. from off Western Mexico, Diplocirrus longisetosus (von Marenzeller, 1890) restricted to the Bering Sea, Diplocirrus micans Fauchald, 1972 from deep water off Oregon and Western Mexico, Diplocirrus nicolaji (Buzhinskaja, 1994), comb. n. from the Japan Sea, Diplocirrus normani (McIntosh, 1908), comb. n. from Scandinavia, Diplocirrus octobranchus (Hartman, 1965), comb. n. from off New England, and Diplocirrus stopbowitzi Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from the Irish Sea. PMID:21852920

  6. First descriptions of copepodid stages, sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variability of Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Argestidae), including the description of a new species with broad abyssal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mesocletodes Sars, 1909a encompasses 37 species to date. Initial evidence on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism has been verified for 77 specimens of Mesocletodes elmari sp. n. from various deep-sea regions, and ontogenetic development has been traced for the first time. Apomorphies are a strong spinule-like pinna on the mx seta that is fused to the basis, P2–P4 exp3 proximal outer seta lost, P1–P4 enp2 extremely elongated, furcal rami elongated, female body of prickly appearance, female P2–P4 enp2 proximal inner seta lost. Intraspecific variability involves spinulation, ornamentation and size of the body and setation and spinulation of pereiopods. Sexually dimorphic modifications of adult females include prickly appearance of the body, P1 enp exceeds exp in length, P1 coxa externally broadened, seta of basis arising from prominent protrusion, hyaline frills of body somites ornate. Sexual dimorphism in adult males is expressed in smaller body size, haplocer A1, 2 inner setae on P2–P4 enp2 and on P5 exp, P5 basendopodal lobe with 2 setae. Some modifications allow sexing of copepodid stages. The female A1 is fully developed in CV, the male A1 undergoes extensive modifications at the last molt. P1–P4 are fully developed in CV. Mesocletodes faroerensis and Mesocletodes thielei lack apomorphies of Mesocletodes and are excluded. PMID:21594073

  7. A new ceratopsian dinosaur from the Javelina Formation (Maastrichtian) of West Texas and implications for chasmosaurine phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Steven L.; Lehman, Thomas M.

    2013-07-01

    Bravoceratops polyphemus gen. et sp. nov. is a large chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the lowermost part of the Javelina Formation (early Maastrichtian) of Big Bend National Park, TX, USA. B. polyphemus has a distinctive narrow snout, a long fenestrate frill, and a fan-shaped median parietal bar with a midline epiparietal on its posterior margin, as well as a symmetrical depression on its dorsal surface at the nexus of the parietal rami. This depression is interpreted to be the attachment point for a second midline epiparietal. This parietal morphology is distinct from that exhibited by Anchiceratops or Pentaceratops. The posterior midline epiparietal in B. polyphemus and its bifurcated quadratojugal-squamosal joint are features shared with the most derived chasmosaurines, Torosaurus and Triceratops. The combination of primitive and derived traits exhibited by B. polyphemus, and its stratigraphic position, is compatible with the gradual transition from basal, to intermediate, to derived chasmosaurines observed throughout the western interior of North America, and with phylogenetic analysis, which suggests that Bravoceratops may be closely related to Coahuilaceratops.

  8. A new genus and species of Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from a tropical coral reef, SE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Winfield, I

    2014-05-09

    Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, is described on specimens collected from the Sisal Coral Reef System, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. The new genus is most morphologically similar to the genus Paracyproidea, but can be distinguished by the article 2 of antenna 2 peduncle, the peduncle of the uropods and length of rami, and telson. Also, the new genus can be distinguished from the rest 18 genera of the family Cyproideidae by the following characteristics: 3-articulate mandible palp, mandible molar big and triturative; palp on maxilla 2 uniarticulate; article 2 of pereopods 3-7 rectilinear, and urosomites 1-3 not elongated. Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, represents the second known genus and third species of cyproideid amphipods documented from the Inter-American Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), and the 19th genus and 44th species of the world cyproideid fauna. The more significant morphological characters and the geographical distribution of the 19 known genera of cyproideid amphipods are also pointed out.

  9. A simple technique for repositioning of the mandible by a surgical guide prepared using a three-dimensional model after segmental mandibulectomy.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Akinori; Kojima, Taku; Yoshizawa, Michiko; Mikami, Toshihiko; Kanemaru, Shohei; Niimi, Kanae; Oda, Yohei; Kato, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Tadaharu

    2017-12-01

    Mandibular reconstruction is performed after segmental mandibulectomy, and precise repositioning of the condylar head in the temporomandibular fossa is essential for maintaining preoperative occlusion. In cases without involvement of soft tissue around the mandibular bone, the autopolymer resin in a soft state is pressed against the lower border of the mandible and buccal and lingual sides of the 3D model on the excised side. After hardening, it is shaved with a carbide bar to make the proximal and distal parts parallel to the resected surface in order to determine the direction of mandibular resection. On the other hand, in cases that require resection of soft tissue around the mandible such as cases of a malignant tumor, right and left mandibular rami of the 3D model are connected with the autopolymer resin to keep the preoperative position between proximal and distal segments before surgical simulation. The device is made to fit the lower border of the anterior mandible and the posterior border of the mandibular ramus. The device has a U-shaped handle so that adaptation of the device will not interfere with the soft tissue to be removed and has holes to be fixed on the mandible with screws. We successfully performed the planned accurate segmental mandibulectomy and the precise repositioning of the condylar head by the device. The present technique and device that we developed proved to be simple and useful for restoring the preoperative condylar head positioning in the temporomandibular fossa and the precise resection of the mandible.

  10. Investigation on Suitability of Natural Fibre as Replacement Material for Table Tennis Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, A. M. T.; Fahrul Hassan, M.; Ismail, A. E.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Haq, R. H. Abdul; Rahman, M. N. A.; Yunos, M. Z.; Amin, M. H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of suitability natural fibre as replacement material for table tennis blade, due to low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally. Nowadays, natural fibre are one of the materials often used in replaced the main material on manufacturing sector, such as automotive, and construction. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the suitability natural fiber materials to replace wood as a structure on table tennis blade. The mechanical properties of the different natural fibre material were examined, and correlated with characteristic of table tennis blade. The natural fibre selected for the study are kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus), jute, hemp, sisal (Agave Sisalana) and ramie. A further comparison was made with the corresponding properties of each type of natural fiber using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). TRIZ has been used to determine the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade. The results showed the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade using natural fibre is kenaf natural fibre. The selected on suitability natural fibre used as main structure on table tennis blade are based on the characteristics need for good performance of table tennis blade, such as energy absorption, lightweight, strength and hardness. Therefore, it shows an opportunity for replacing existing materials with a higher strength, lower cost alternative that is environmentally friendly.

  11. Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: Revisiting an old question.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Irene; Leroy, François; Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Galaburda, Albert M; Ramus, Franck

    2014-12-01

    Among the various asymmetrical structures of the human brain, the planum temporale, an anatomical region associated with a variety of auditory and language-related processes, has received particular attention. While its surface area has been shown to be greater in the left hemisphere compared to the right in about two-thirds of the general population, altered patterns of asymmetry were revealed by post mortem analyses in individuals with developmental dyslexia. These findings have been inconsistently replicated in magnetic resonance imaging studies of this disorder. In this report, we attempt to resolve past inconsistencies by analyzing the T1-weighted MR images of 81 children (mean age: 11 years, sd: 17 months), including 46 control (25 boys) and 35 dyslexic children (20 boys). We manually outlined Heschl's gyri, the planum temporale and the posterior rami of the Sylvian fissure on participants' brain images, using the same anatomical criteria as in post mortem studies. Results revealed an altered pattern of asymmetry of the planum temporale surface area in dyslexic boys only, with a greater proportion of rightward asymmetrical cases among dyslexic boys compared to control boys. Additionally, analyses of cortical thickness showed no asymmetry differences between groups for any of the regions of interest. Finally, a greater number of Heschl's gyrus full duplications emerged for the right hemisphere of dyslexic boys compared to controls. The present findings confirm and extend early post mortem observations. They also stress the importance of taking gender into account in studies of developmental dyslexia.

  12. Difficult paediatric intubation when fibreoptic laryngoscopy fails.

    PubMed

    Ng, Agnes; Vas, Lakshmi; Goel, Sunita

    2002-11-01

    We report an unusual problem with fibreoptic bronchoscopy in an 8-year-old girl with Negar syndrome. She had a history of difficult airway since birth, and had undergone mandibular distraction for severe obstructive sleep apnoea when she was aged 2 years. Nagar syndrome is a Treacher-Collins like syndrome with normal intelligence, conductive bone deafness and problems with articulation. The patients have malar hypoplasia with down slanting palpebral fissures, high nasal bridge, micrognathia, absence of lower eyelashes, low set posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, atresia of external ear canal, cleft palate, hypoplasia of thumb, with or without radius, and limited elbow extension. Protracted attempts with a fibreoptic bronchoscope failed to visualize the glottis, and this was only possible when the tube was guided to the larynx by blind nasal intubation. Apparently, the healing of the wounds for the mandibular distraction in the mandibular space on the inside of the rami of the mandible had caused differential fibrosis on either side of the hyoid, leading to a triplane distortion of the larynx with a left shift, clockwise rotation to a 2-8 o'clock direction and a slight tilt towards the left pharyngeal wall. The large epiglottis overlying this had precluded a view of the larynx. Finally, the older technique of breathguided intubation facilitated fibreoptic bronchoscopy to achieve tracheal intubation.

  13. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A review of the Taeniacanthus balistae species group (Crustacea: Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    The Taeniacanthus balistae species group is characterized by two displaced elements on an outwardly curved and elongated terminal exopodal segment of leg 4. Members of this group parasitize tetraodontiform fishes. The group is reviewed herein based on both new material collected from tetraodontiform fishes and re-examination of voucher specimens housed at the Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. Five species are considered valid in this group, including two new species described here, Taeniacanthus dojirii sp. nov. from diodontid hosts collected from the Indo-West Pacific and Taeniacanthus ryukyuensis sp. nov. from balistid hosts collected from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Taeniacanthus dojirii sp. nov. differs from other members of the group by having in the female stout spines on the terminal endopodal segment of legs 2 to 4 and on the exopod of leg 5, as well as highly reduced setae on the last two exopodal segments of leg 4. Taeniacanthus ryukyuensis sp. nov. differs from other members of the group by having in the female 16-18 incomplete rows of spinules on the anal somite, minute teeth on the straight terminal claw of the maxilliped and well-developed spinulated flanges on the rami of legs 2 to 4. Supplemental morphological observations, as well as new host and locality records for Taenicanthus balistae (Claus, 1864) and Taeniacanthus similis Dojiri & Cressey, 1987, are also provided.

  15. Ultrastructure of the feather follicle in relation to the formation of the rachis in pennaceous feathers.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2010-06-01

    The present ultrastructural study on follicle of regenerating feathers of four different avian species focuses on the formation and cytology of the rachis. Epithelial cells within the bottom part of the follicle (the collar) are contacted from mesenchymal cells of the dermal papilla. The most basal part of the collar is formed by a circular epithelium containing germinal cells, while in the upper ramogenic part of the collar barb ridges are generated. Epithelial cells rest upon a basement membrane that is stretched in actively forming barb ridges among which anchored mesenchymal cells send thin elongation. This observation suggests that an intense exchange of molecules with the epithelium occurs. The process of formation of the rachis occurs by fusion of barb ridges with the nonsegmented, dorsal or anterior part of the collar. The latter becomes the rachidial ridge, the upper part of the collar where barbs form the branches of the pennaceous feather. The rachis grows and matures into an external cortical part, containing compact corneous material (feather keratin, as confirmed by immunocytochemistry), and a vacuolated medulla with a process similar to that occurring in rami of single barbs. The extension of the medulla and cortex varies along the rachis in different species. In general a thin cortex is formed in those sections of the rachis where barbs are absent, and the feather keratin positive layer increases in the basal part of the feather, the calamus.

  16. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  17. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis.

  18. Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the myocardial lacunae of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus (Carangidae) in the Gulf of Mexico; with a comment on the interrelationships and functional morphology of intertrabecular aporocotylids.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. infects the myocardial lacunae of the ventricle and atrium of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. It differs from other aporocotylid genera by the combination of having a body 10-30× longer than wide, a posterolateral body protuberance, lateral spine rows, an aspinous anterior sucker comprising a slightly muscular rim circumscribing the mouth, asymmetrical posterior ceca 14-20× length of the anterior ceca and lacking diverticula or secondary rami, tens of testes distributing in a cobblestone-like field anterior and posterior to the distal ends of the posterior ceca, an oviducal seminal receptacle comprising the distal portion of the oviduct, and a post-cecal ovary plus by lacking rosethorn-shaped spines, a pharynx, and a Laurer's canal. The new species appears host specific to Florida pompano because no conspecific infection was detected in 134 carangids of 8 species in 4 genera captured nearby the type locality. Psettarium sebastodorum Holmes, 1971 is transferred to the new genus, as Littorellicola sebastodorum (Holmes, 1971) n. comb., because it and the new species differ from species of Psettarium by the combination of having multiple testes plus 8 other features detailed herein. This report brings the number of nominal Gulf of Mexico aporocotylids to 12 species of 8 genera, represents only the second record of an aporocotylid from a carangid there, and supports the notion that elongated, "thread-like" aporocotylids with lateral spine rows are seemingly well-adapted for infecting myocardial lacunae or embedding in the myocardium of their definitive fish hosts.

  19. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  20. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  1. In vitro bone strain distributions in a sample of primate pelves.

    PubMed

    Lewton, Kristi L

    2015-05-01

    The pelvis is a critical link in the hindlimb locomotor system and has a central role in resisting loads associated with locomotion, but our understanding of its structural biomechanics is quite limited. Empirical data on how the pelvis responds to the loads it encounters are important for understanding pelvic adaptation to locomotion, and for testing hypotheses regarding how the pelvis is adapted to its mechanical demands. This paper presents in vitro strain gauge data on a sample of monkey and ape cadaveric specimens (Macaca, Papio, Ateles, Hylobates), and assesses strain magnitudes and distributions through the bones of the pelvis: the ilium, ischium and pubis. Pelves were individually mounted in a materials testing system, loads were applied across three hindlimb angular positions, and strains were recorded from 18 locations on the pelvic girdle. Peak principal strains range from 2000 to 3000 με, similar to peak strains recorded from other mammals in vivo. Although previous work has suggested that the bones of the pelvis may act as bent beams, this study suggests that there are likely additional loading regimes superimposed on bending. Specifically, these data suggest that the ilium is loaded in axial compression and torsion, the ischium in torsion, the pubic rami in mediolateral bending, and the pubic symphysis is loaded in a combination of compression and torsion. Compressive strains dominate the pelves of all species representatives. Shear strains change with limb position; hip flexion at 45° induces smaller shear strains than mid-stance (90°) or hip extension (105°). The pelvic girdle is a complex structure that does not lend itself easily to modeling, but finite element analyses may prove useful to generate and refine hypotheses of pelvic biomechanics.

  2. Development of colour-producing β-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs

    PubMed Central

    Prum, Richard O.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-01-01

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of β-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of β-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin β-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary β-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of β-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary β-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow

  3. Kinematics of the quadrate bone during feeding in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Megan M; Metzger, Keith A; Baier, David B; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2011-06-15

    Avian cranial kinesis, in which mobility of the quadrate, pterygoid and palatine bones contribute to upper bill elevation, is believed to occur in all extant birds. The most widely accepted model for upper bill elevation is that the quadrate rotates rostrally and medially towards the pterygoid, transferring force to the mobile pterygoid-palatine complex, which pushes on the upper bill. Until now, however, it has not been possible to test this hypothesis in vivo because quadrate motions are rapid, three-dimensionally complex and not visible externally. Here we use a new in vivo X-ray motion analysis technique, X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), to create precise (±0.06 mm) 3-D animations of the quadrate, braincase, upper bill and mandible of three mallard ducks, Anas platyrhynchos. We defined a joint coordinate system (JCS) for the quadrato-squamosal joint with the axes aligned to the anatomical planes of the skull. In this coordinate system, the quadrate's 3-D rotations produce an elliptical path of pterygoid process motion, with medial and rostrodorsal then lateral and rostrodorsal motion as the upper bill elevates. As the upper bill depresses, the pterygoid process continues along the ellipsoidal path, with lateral and caudoventral then medial and caudoventral motion. We also found that the mandibular rami bow outwards (streptognathy) during mandibular depression, which may cause the lateral component of quadrate rotation that we observed. Relative to the JCS aligned with the anatomical planes of the skull, a second JCS aligned with quadrato-squamosal joint anatomy did not produce a simpler description of quadrate kinematics.

  4. Percutaneous radiofrequency facet joint denervation with monitoring of compound muscle action potential of the multifidus muscle group for treating chronic low back pain: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective review. The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of facet joints by monitoring compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the multifidus muscle group as an objective index of treatment efficacy. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of the medial branches of the dorsal rami of the lumbar nerves is a widely accepted treatment for chronic lumbar intervertebral joint pain. However, its success rate has varied in different studies because an objective method for evaluating the facet joint denervation is lacking. Fifty-five patients (age range, 19-76 y; mean age, 55 y) with low back pain persisting for ≥3 months, in whom facet block and/or block of the medial branch of the dorsal ramus were only temporarily effective, were included. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system for back pain was used for clinical assessment. JOA scores were measured before treatment and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months afterward. The improvement rate was calculated with ≥40% improvement rate defined as successful, and the success rate was subsequently evaluated. The patient success rate was 75% (41/55) at 1 week, 71% (39/55) at 3 months, 60% (33/55) at 6 months, and 51% (28/55) at 12 months after treatment. Two cases had minor postoperative complications, which were localized burning pain lasting <1 week at the site of electrode insertion. Our results suggest that percutaneous radiofrequency facet joint denervation with CMAPs monitoring is a safe, long-lasting, and effective treatment for chronic facet joint pain. CMAP monitoring may be useful as an objective index for facet denervation.

  5. Thermocoagulation of the Medial Branch of the Dorsal Branch of the Lumbal Spinal Nerve: Flouroscopy Versus CT.

    PubMed

    Feigl, G C; Dreu, M; Kastner, M; Rosmarin, W; Ulz, H; Kniesel, B; Likar, R

    2017-01-01

    For radiofrequency neurotomy of the medial branch of the lumbar dorsal rami, physicians use techniques guided either by fluoroscopy or computerized tomography (CT), and advocate for their respective techniques. Crucial to the choice of technique is how well each can capture the target nerve. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to assess in cadavers the accuracy of fluoroscopic-guided and CT-guided techniques. In10 cadavers preserved with Thiel's method, electrodes with 10mm active tips were placed in supine position on the right using a fluoroscopic-guided technique, and on the left using a CT-guided technique. Using a special dissection approach, the relationship between the target nerve and the tip of the electrode was revealed. The displacement between electrode and the nerve, and the extent to which the electrode was parallel to the nerve, were measured with callipers. Under fluoroscopy guidance, electrodes were placed accurately beside the nerve, and were parallel to it for 9 ±1.9 mm. In only two cases did the electrode pass too deeply. Under CT guidance, electrodes often failed to reach the nerve, but when they did they were parallel to it for only 3.2 ± 3.2 mm. In seven cases, the electrode passed too deeply beyond the target nerve. The fluoroscopy-guided technique can be relied upon to achieve optimal placement of electrodes on the lumbar medial branches. The CT-guided technique fails to do so, and should not be used in practice until a modified version has been developed and validated.

  6. Surgical anatomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Van Anh T; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the distal pathway of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) from gross anatomical and histological studies of cadaver specimens. We performed dissections on 14 intact adult cadaver vulva specimens using 2× loupe magnification and microscopy. The DNC was identified by gross dissection and confirmed histologically by staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome (MT), and S100 antibody. The DNC pathway and its branches were followed from the pubic rami to the glans clitoris. The DNC travels inferior to the inferior pubic ramus along the superior/posterior edge of the clitoral crus. At the angle of the clitoral body, inferior to the pubic symphysis, the DNC enters the deep component of the suspensory ligament, which attaches to the clitoral body and to the pubic symphysis. The dorsal nerves, at the angle of the clitoral body, travel along the dorsal aspect of the clitoral body at the 11 and 1 o'clock positions. At the base of the clitoral body, the DNC is suspended superiorly away from the tunica. Distally along the clitoral body, the DNC descends and runs along the tunica and enters the glans. Within the glans, the terminal fibers are widely dispersed, and numerous receptors populate the supporting tissue of the glans beneath the epithelium. The detailed description of the distal course of the nerve presented here has not been previously described in adult humans and is pertinent for surgical procedures involving the clitoris. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. In vitro bone strain distributions in a sample of primate pelves

    PubMed Central

    Lewton, Kristi L

    2015-01-01

    The pelvis is a critical link in the hindlimb locomotor system and has a central role in resisting loads associated with locomotion, but our understanding of its structural biomechanics is quite limited. Empirical data on how the pelvis responds to the loads it encounters are important for understanding pelvic adaptation to locomotion, and for testing hypotheses regarding how the pelvis is adapted to its mechanical demands. This paper presents in vitro strain gauge data on a sample of monkey and ape cadaveric specimens (Macaca, Papio, Ateles, Hylobates), and assesses strain magnitudes and distributions through the bones of the pelvis: the ilium, ischium and pubis. Pelves were individually mounted in a materials testing system, loads were applied across three hindlimb angular positions, and strains were recorded from 18 locations on the pelvic girdle. Peak principal strains range from 2000 to 3000 με, similar to peak strains recorded from other mammals in vivo. Although previous work has suggested that the bones of the pelvis may act as bent beams, this study suggests that there are likely additional loading regimes superimposed on bending. Specifically, these data suggest that the ilium is loaded in axial compression and torsion, the ischium in torsion, the pubic rami in mediolateral bending, and the pubic symphysis is loaded in a combination of compression and torsion. Compressive strains dominate the pelves of all species representatives. Shear strains change with limb position; hip flexion at 45 ° induces smaller shear strains than mid-stance (90 °) or hip extension (105 °). The pelvic girdle is a complex structure that does not lend itself easily to modeling, but finite element analyses may prove useful to generate and refine hypotheses of pelvic biomechanics. PMID:25846322

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a pectate lyase from Paenibacillus sp. 0602 in recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biotechnological applications of microbial pectate lyases (Pels) in plant fiber processing are considered as environmentally friendly. As such, they become promising substitutes for conventional chemical degumming process. Since applications of Pels in various fields are widening, it is necessary to explore new pectolytic microorganisms and enzymes for efficient and effective usage. Here, we describe the cloning, expression, characterization and application of the recombinant Pel protein from a pectolytic bacterium of the genus Paenibacillus in Escherichia coli. Results A Pel gene (pelN) was cloned using degenerate PCR and inverse PCR from the chromosomal DNA of Paenibacillus sp. 0602. The open reading frame of pelN encodes a 30 amino acid signal peptide and a 445 amino acid mature protein belonging to the polysaccharide lyase family 1. The maximum Pel activity produced by E. coli in shake flasks reached 2,467.4 U mL−1, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 2,060 U mg−1 on polygalacturonic acid (PGA). The maximum activity was observed in a buffer with 5 mM Ca2+ at pH 9.8 and 65°C. PelN displays a half-life of around 9 h and 42 h at 50°C and 45°C, respectively. The biochemical treatment achieved the maximal reduction of percentage weight (30.5%) of the ramie bast fiber. Conclusions This work represents the first study that describes the extracellular expression of a Pel gene from Paenibacillus species in E. coli. The high yield of the extracellular overexpression, relevant thermostability and efficient degumming using combined treatments indicate its strong potential for large-scale industrial production. PMID:24612647

  9. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in

  10. Double muscle transfer for upper extremity reconstruction following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Kuwata, N; Muramatsu, K; Hottori, Y; Kawai, S

    1999-11-01

    Recent interest in reconstruction of the upper limb following brachial plexus injuries has focused on the restoration of prehension following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The authors use free muscle transfers for reconstruction of the upper limb to resolve the difficult problems in complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. This article describes the authors' updated technique--the double free muscle procedure. Reconstruction of prehension to achieve independent voluntary finger and elbow flexion and extension by the use of double free muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is presented. The procedure involves transferring the first free muscle, neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve for elbow flexion and finger extension, a second free muscle transfer reinnervated by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves for finger flexion, and neurotization of the triceps brachii via its motor nerve by the third and fourth intercostal motor nerves to extend and stabilize the elbow. Restoration of hand sensibility is obtained via the suturing of sensory rami from the intercostal nerves to the median nerve. Secondary reconstruction, including arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb and glenohumeral joint, and tenolysis of the transferred muscle and distal tendons, improve the functional outcome. Based on the long-term result, selection of the patient, donor muscle, and donor motor nerve were indicated. Most patients were able to achieve prehensile functions such as holding a can and lifting a heavy box. This double free muscle transfer has provided prehension for patients with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and has given them new hope to be able to use their otherwise useless limbs.

  11. Analysis of pelvic fracture pattern and overall orthopaedic injury burden in children sustaining pelvic fractures based on skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Shaath, M. K.; Koury, K. L.; Gibson, P. D.; Lelkes, V. M.; Hwang, J. S.; Ippolito, J. A.; Adams, M. R.; Sirkin, M. S.; Reilly, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to review pelvic fractures and concomitant orthopaedic injuries in children who have a patent triradiate cartilage (TRO) compared with children whose triradiate cartilage has closed (TRC). We hypothesise that these injuries will differ, leading to correlated alterations in management. Patients and Methods Using a database, we retrospectively reviewed patients aged below 18 years with pelvic fractures presenting to our Level 1 trauma center. Radiographs and CT scans were reviewed to identify orthopaedic injuries and categorise pelvic injuries using the modified Torode classification between the two groups. Results A total of 178 patients met inclusion criteria (60 TRO and 118 TRC). Mean age ± SD for TRO and TRC groups were 8 ± 4 years and 16 ± 2 years, respectively. TRO patients were more likely to present as a pedestrian struck by a vehicle (odds ratio (OR) 6.0; p < 0.001) and less likely to present after a motor vehicle collision (OR 0.2; p < 0.001). TRO patients were more likely to sustain rami fractures (OR 2.1; p = 0.020) and Torode IIIA injuries (OR 3.6; p < 0.001). They were less likely to sustain acetabular fractures (OR 0.5; p = 0.042), sacral fractures (OR 0.4; p = 0.009), hip dislocations (p = 0.002) and Torode IV injuries (OR 0.4; p = 0.004). TRO patients were less likely to be treated operatively for their pelvic (OR 0.3; p = 0.013) and orthopaedic injuries (OR 0.4; p = 0.006). Conclusion We suggest that patients with open triradiate cartilage are unique. Their pelvic injuries may be treated more conservatively as they have a greater potential for periosteal healing and bone remodelling. Patients with closed triradiate cartilage should be treated similarly to adults, as they share a similar mechanism of injury and need for operative fixation. PMID:28828063

  12. Analysis of pelvic fracture pattern and overall orthopaedic injury burden in children sustaining pelvic fractures based on skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Shaath, M K; Koury, K L; Gibson, P D; Lelkes, V M; Hwang, J S; Ippolito, J A; Adams, M R; Sirkin, M S; Reilly, M C

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review pelvic fractures and concomitant orthopaedic injuries in children who have a patent triradiate cartilage (TRO) compared with children whose triradiate cartilage has closed (TRC). We hypothesise that these injuries will differ, leading to correlated alterations in management. Using a database, we retrospectively reviewed patients aged below 18 years with pelvic fractures presenting to our Level 1 trauma center. Radiographs and CT scans were reviewed to identify orthopaedic injuries and categorise pelvic injuries using the modified Torode classification between the two groups. A total of 178 patients met inclusion criteria (60 TRO and 118 TRC). Mean age ± SD for TRO and TRC groups were 8 ± 4 years and 16 ± 2 years, respectively. TRO patients were more likely to present as a pedestrian struck by a vehicle (odds ratio (OR) 6.0; p < 0.001) and less likely to present after a motor vehicle collision (OR 0.2; p < 0.001). TRO patients were more likely to sustain rami fractures (OR 2.1; p = 0.020) and Torode IIIA injuries (OR 3.6; p < 0.001). They were less likely to sustain acetabular fractures (OR 0.5; p = 0.042), sacral fractures (OR 0.4; p = 0.009), hip dislocations (p = 0.002) and Torode IV injuries (OR 0.4; p = 0.004). TRO patients were less likely to be treated operatively for their pelvic (OR 0.3; p = 0.013) and orthopaedic injuries (OR 0.4; p = 0.006). We suggest that patients with open triradiate cartilage are unique. Their pelvic injuries may be treated more conservatively as they have a greater potential for periosteal healing and bone remodelling. Patients with closed triradiate cartilage should be treated similarly to adults, as they share a similar mechanism of injury and need for operative fixation.

  13. Extension of virtual flux decomposition model to the case of two vegetation layers: FDM-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Abdelaziz

    2012-04-01

    As an approximation, the forest could be assumed a discrete media composed of three main components: trees, understory vegetation and soil background. To describe the reflectance of such a canopy in the optical wavelength domain, it is necessary to develop a radiative transfer model which considers two vegetation layers (understory and trees). In this article, we propose a new model, FDM-2, an extension of the flux decomposition model (FDM), to take into account such a canopy architecture. Like FDM, FDM-2 models the diffuse flux anisotropy and takes into account the hot spot effect as well as conserves energy. The hot spot which corresponds to an increase of the probability of photon escape after first collision close to the backscattering direction is modeled as a decrease of “the effective vegetation density” encountered by the diffuse flux (E+1) and the radiance both created by first order scattering of the direct sun radiation. Compared to the turbid case (for which our model is equivalent to SAIL++ and therefore accurately conserving energy), such a density variation redistributes energy but does not affect the budget. Energy remains well conserved in the discrete case as well. To solve the RT problem, FDM-2 separates E+1 from the high order diffuse flux. As E+1 corresponding effective density is not constant function of the altitude (when traveling along the canopy) therefore it is decomposed into sub-fluxes of constant densities. The sub-flux RT problems are linear and simply solved based on SAIL++ formalism. The global RT solution is obtained summing the contribution of the sub-fluxes. Simulation tests confirm that FDM-2 conserves energy (i.e., radiative budget closes to zero in the purist corner case with an error due to the discretization less than 0.5%). Compared to the Rayspread model (among the best 3-D models of the RAMI Exercise third phase), our model provides similar performance.

  14. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration.

    PubMed

    Maderson, Paul F A; Hillenius, Willem J; Hiller, Uwe; Dove, Carla C

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, beta- and alpha-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation long inhibited progress in understanding. This article reviews and reevaluates the available literature and provides a synthetic, comprehensive, morphological model for the regeneration of a generalized, adult contour feather. Particular attention is paid to several features that have previously been largely ignored. Some of these, such as the beta-keratogenic sheath and the alpha-keratogenic, supra-umbilical, pulp caps, are missing from mature, functional feathers sensu stricto because they are lost through preening, but these structures nevertheless play a critical role in development. A new developmental role for a tissue unique to feathers, the medullary pith of the rachis and barb rami, and especially its importance in the genesis of the superior umbilical region (SUR) that forms the transition from the spathe (rachis and vanes) to the calamus, is described. It is postulated that feathers form through an intricate interplay between cyto- and histodifferentiative processes, determined by patterning signals that emanate from the dermal core, and a suite of interacting biomechanical forces. Precisely regulated patterns of loss of intercellular adhesivity appear to be the most fundamental aspect of feather morphogenesis and regeneration: rather than a hierarchically branched structure, it appears more appropriate to conceive of feathers as a sheet of mature keratinocytes that is "full of holes.

  15. Malignant ameloblastoma metastasis to the neck--radiological and pathohistological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Mileta; Petrović, Milan; Jelovac, Drago B; Nenezić, Dragoslav U; Antunović, Marija

    2012-05-01

    Ameloblastomas are odontogenic epithelial, locally invasive tumors of slow growth and mostly of benign behavior. Their frequency is low (they account for 1% of all head and neck tumors and about 11% of tumors of dental origin). Malignant variations of ameloblastoma are malignant ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma. They constitute less than 1% of all ameloblastomas. We presented a case of malignant ameloblastoma of the mandible with neck metastasis. A patient, aged 72, presented with the following symptoms: pain in the lower jaw, swelling in the left submandibular area and difficult mouth opening. The patient was admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Center of Montenegro, two months after he had noticed the symptoms. Panoramic radiography (OPG) showed that both jaws were partially toothless with terminal stage of periodontitis of the remaining teeth. Also, OPG showed sharply limited semicircular defect in the retromolar region and along the front edge of the mandible rami. Conventional histopathologic examination of the neck masses showed malignant ameloblastoma which contained central fields of squamous differentiation. Immunoreactivity of several markers was determined using immunohistochemical analyses. After these diagnostic methods a definite histopathology diagnosis was made: Ameloblastoma metastaticum in textus fibroadiposus regio colli (typus acanthomatosus). It is not possible to distinguish conventional, ie intraosseous, ameloblastoma from malignant ameloblastoma according to histopathologic features. It is necessary to pay special attention, especially in elderly patients, and to carry out further clinical, radiological and pathohistological diagnostic procedures, such as immunohistochemical analysis. A timely and correct diagnosis and treatment of malignant ameloblastoma require a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J; Frank, Harry A; Prum, Richard O

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005)), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968). Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds.

  17. Efficiency of Cs-free materials for negative ion production in H2 and D2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, R.; Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    High power negative ion sources use caesium to reduce the work function of the converter surface which significantly increases the negative ion yield. Caesium, however, is a very reactive alkali-metal and shows complex redistribution dynamics in consequence of plasma-surface-interaction. Thus, maintaining a stable and homogenous low work function surface is a demanding task, which is not easily compatible with the RAMI issues (reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability) for a future DEMO fusion reactor. Hence, Cs-free alternative materials for efficient negative ion formation are desirable. At the laboratory experiment HOMER materials which are referred to as promising are investigated under identical and ion source relevant parameters: the refractory metals Ta and W, non-doped and boron-doped diamond as well as materials with inherent low work function (lanthanum-doped molybdenum, MoLa and lanthanum hexaboride, LaB6). The results are compared to the effect of in-situ caesiation, which at HOMER leads to a maximal increase of the negative ion density by a factor of 2.5. Among the examined samples low work function materials are most efficient. In particular, MoLa leads to an increase of almost 50 % compared to pure volume formation. The difference to a caesiated surface can be attributed to the still higher work function of MoLa, which is expected to be slightly below 3 eV. Using deuterium instead of hydrogen leads to increased atomic and positive ion densities, while comparable negative ion densities are achieved. In contrast to the low work function materials, bulk samples of the refractory metals as well as carbon based materials have no enhancing effect on H-, where the latter materials furthermore show severe erosion due to the hydrogen plasma.

  18. Investigations on Cs-free alternatives for negative ion formation in a low pressure hydrogen discharge at ion source relevant parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurutz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-07-01

    Caesium (Cs) is applied in high power negative hydrogen ion sources to reduce a converter surface’s work function and thus enabling an efficient negative ion surface formation. Inherent drawbacks with the usage of this reactive alkali metal motivate the search for Cs-free alternative materials for neutral beam injection systems in fusion research. In view of a future DEMOnstration power plant, a suitable material should provide a high negative ion formation efficiency and comply with the RAMI issues of the system: reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability. Promising candidates, like low work function materials (molybdenum doped with lanthanum (MoLa) and LaB6), as well as different non-doped and boron-doped diamond samples were investigated in this context at identical and ion source relevant parameters at the laboratory experiment HOMER. Negative ion densities were measured above the samples by means of laser photodetachment and compared with two reference cases: pure negative ion volume formation with negative ion densities of about 1× {10}15 {{{m}}}-3 and the effect of H- surface production using an in situ caesiated stainless steel sample which yields 2.5 times higher densities. Compared to pure volume production, none of the diamond samples did exhibit a measurable increase in H- densities, while showing clear indications of plasma-induced erosion. In contrast, both MoLa and LaB6 produced systematically higher densities (MoLa: ×1.60 LaB6: ×1.43). The difference to caesiation can be attributed to the higher work functions of MoLa and LaB6 which are expected to be about 3 eV for both compared to 2.1 eV of a caesiated surface.

  19. Preheating ablation effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Don, Wai-Sun; Li, Y. J.

    2010-12-15

    The two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) with and without thermal conduction is investigated by numerical simulation in the weakly nonlinear regime. A preheat model {kappa}(T)={kappa}{sub SH}[1+f(T)] is introduced for the thermal conduction [W. H. Ye, W. Y. Zhang, and X. T. He, Phys. Rev. E 65, 057401 (2002)], where {kappa}{sub SH} is the Spitzer-Haerm electron thermal conductivity coefficient and f(T) models the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablation front. The preheating ablation effects on the RTI are studied by comparing the RTI with and without thermal conduction with identical density profile relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is found that the ablation effects strongly influence the mode coupling process, especially with short perturbation wavelength. Overall, the ablation effects stabilize the RTI. First, the linear growth rate is reduced, especially for short perturbation wavelengths and a cutoff wavelength is observed in simulations. Second, the second harmonic generation is reduced for short perturbation wavelengths. Third, the third-order negative feedback to the fundamental mode is strengthened, which plays a stabilization role. Finally, on the contrary, the ablation effects increase the generation of the third harmonic when the perturbation wavelengths are long. Our simulation results indicate that, in the weakly nonlinear regime, the ablation effects are weakened as the perturbation wavelength is increased. Numerical results obtained are in general agreement with the recent weakly nonlinear theories as proposed in [J. Sanz, J. Ramirez, R. Ramis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195002 (2002); J. Garnier, P.-A. Raviart, C. Cherfils-Clerouin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185003 (2003)].

  20. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture.

  1. Robotic selective postganglionic thoracic sympathectomy for the treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Coveliers, Hans; Meyer, Mark; Gharagozloo, Farid; Wisselink, Willem; Rauwerda, Jan; Margolis, Marc; Tempesta, Barbara; Strother, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The surgical management of hyperhidrosis is controversial. Robotic surgical systems with their high-definition magnified 3-dimensional view and increased maneuverability in a confined space may facilitate the technique of selective sympathectomy (ramicotomy). We present a case series of patients undergoing selective postganglionic thoracic sympathectomy using robotic technology. This study is a case series analysis of patients who underwent selective postganglionic thoracic sympathectomy from July 2006 to November 2011. The operation was performed on a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) platform. The robot was used for pleural dissection and division of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers and the communicating rami. The success of sympathectomy was assessed by intraoperative temperature measurement of the ipsilateral upper extremity, patient interviews, and scoring of the symptomatic nature of hyperhidrosis based on the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale. There were 110 sympathectomies performed in 55 patients (25 men, 30 women). Simultaneous bilateral sympathectomy was performed in all patients. Median age was 28 years (range, 16 to 65 years). There was no conversion to thoracotomy. Complications were minor and were seen in 5 of 55 patients (9%). There were no deaths. Median hospital stay was 1 day (range, 1 to 4 days). Of the 55 patients, 53 (96%) had sustained relief of their hyperhidrosis at a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 3 to 36 months), and compensatory sweating was seen in 4 patients (7.2%). Robotic thoracoscopic selective sympathectomy is an effective, feasible, and safe procedure with excellent relief of hyperhidrosis and low rates of compensatory sweating and complications. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion using hohlraum radiation generated by heavy-ion clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, N.A.; Lutz, K.; Geb, O.; Maruhn, J.A.; Deutsch, C.; Hoffmann, D.H.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of employing heavy-ion cluster beams to generate thermal radiation that can be used to drive inertial fusion capsules. The low charge-to-mass ratio of a cluster may allow the driver beam to be focused to a very small spot size with a radius of the order of 100 {mu}m, while the low energy per nucleon (of the order of 10 keV) may lead to a very short range of the driver particles in the converter material. This would result in high specific power deposition that may lead to a very high conversion efficiency. The problem of cluster stopping in cold matter, as well as in hot dense plasmas has been thoroughly investigated. The conversion efficiency of cluster ions using a low-density gold converter has also been calculated over a wide range of parameters including converter density, converter geometry, and specific power deposition. These calculations have been carried out using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code that includes a multigroup radiation transport scheme [Ramis {ital et al.}, Comput. Phys. Commun. {bold 49}, 475 (1988)]. The problem of symmetrization of this radiation field in a hohlraum with solid gold walls has also been thoroughly investigated using a three-dimensional view factor code. The characteristics of the radiation field obtained by this study are used as input to capsule implosion calculations that are done with a three-temperature radiation-hydrodynamic computer code MEDUSA-KAT [Tahir {ital et al.}, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 60}, 898 (1986)]. A reactor-size capsule which contains 5 mg deuterium{endash}tritium (DT) fuel is used in these calculations. The problem of using a fuel mixture with a substantially reduced tritium content has also been discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Topography and flooding of coastal ecosystems on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Implications for sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Torre; Ely, Craig R.

    2001-01-01

    We measured surface elevations, stage of annual peak flooding, and sedimentation along 10 toposequences across coastal ecosystems on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta in western Alaska during 1994-1998 to assess some of the physical processes affecting ecosystem distribution. An ecotype was assigned to each of 566 points, and differences in elevations among 24 ecotypes were analyzed within individual toposequences and across the 40 x 40-km study area. Elevations of vegetated ecotypes along the longest toposequence rose only ~1 m over a distance of 7.5 km, and mean elevations of most ecotype across the study area were within 0.5 m of mean higher-high water (1.47 m). During 1994 to 1998, monitoring of annual peak stage using crest gauges revealed flooding from the highest fall storm surge reached 2.58 m (1.11 m above mean higher-high tide). In each year, only the highest surface was unaffected by flooding. Mean annual sedimentation rates for the various ecotypes were 8.0 ram/y on tidal flats, 1.4 to 3.8 mm/y on the active floodplain, 0.1-0.2 mm/y on the inactive floodplain, and 0 mm/ on the abandoned floodplain. If sea levels in the Bering Sea rise ~0.5 m by 2100, as predicted by some on a global basis, large portions of the coastal margin of the delta could be regularly inundated by water during high tides, and even the highest ecotypes could be affected by storm surges. Predicting the extent of future inundation is difficult, however, because of the changes in the ground-surface elevation through sedimentation, organic matter accumulation, and permafrost development.

  4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. WE-E-18A-10: Comparison of Patient Dose and Vessel Visibility Between Antiscatter Grid Removal and Lower Angiographic Radiation Dose Settings for Pediatric Imaging: A Preclinical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, K; Nachabe, R; Racadio, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To define an alternative to antiscatter grid (ASG) removal in angiographic systems which achieves similar patient dose reduction as ASG removal without degrading image quality during pediatric imaging. Methods: This study was approved by the local institution animal care and use committee (IACUC). Six different digital subtraction angiography settings were evaluated that altered the mAs, (100, 70, 50, 35, 25, 17.5% of reference mAs) with and without ASG. Three pigs of 5, 15, and 20 kg (9, 15, and 17 cm abdominal thickness; smaller than a newborn, average 3 yr old, and average 10 year old human abdomen respectively) were imaged using the six dose settings with and without ASG. Image quality was defined as the order of vessel branch that is visible relative to the injected vessel. Five interventional radiologists evaluated all images. Image quality and patient dose were statistically compared using analysis of variance and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis to define the preferred dose level and use of ASG for a minimum visibility of 2nd or 3rd order branches of vessel visibility. Results: ASG grid removal reduces dose by 26% with reduced image quality. Only with the ASG present can 3rd order branches be visualized; 100% mAs is required for 9 cm pig while 70% mAs is adequate for the larger pigs. 2nd order branches can be visualized with ASG at 17.5% mAs for all three pig sizes. Without the ASG, 50%, 35% and 35% mAs is required for smallest to largest pig. Conclusion: Removing ASG reduces patient dose and image quality. Image quality can be improved with the ASG present while further reducing patient dose if an optimized radiographic technique is used. Rami Nachabe is an employee of Philips Health Care; Keith Strauss is a paid consultant of Philips Health Care.

  6. First Record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from Wild Boars in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related. PMID:24039287

  7. Homology of the enigmatic nuchal bone reveals novel reorganization of the shoulder girdle in the evolution of the turtle shell.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Bever, Gabe S; Joyce, Walter G; de Queiroz, Kevin; Abzhanov, Arhat; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2013-01-01

    The turtle shell represents a unique modification of the ancestral tetrapod body plan. The homologies of its approximately 50 bones have been the subject of debate for more than 200 years. Although most of those homologies are now firmly established, the evolutionary origin of the dorsal median nuchal bone of the carapace remains unresolved. We propose a novel hypothesis in which the nuchal is derived from the paired, laterally positioned cleithra-dorsal elements of the ancestral tetrapod pectoral girdle that are otherwise retained among extant tetrapods only in frogs. This hypothesis is supported by origin of the nuchal as paired, mesenchymal condensations likely derived from the neural crest followed by a unique two-stage pattern of ossification. Further support is drawn from the establishment of the nuchal as part of a highly conserved "muscle scaffold" wherein the cleithrum (and its evolutionary derivatives) serves as the origin of the Musculus trapezius. Identification of the nuchal as fused cleithra is congruent with its general spatial relationships to other elements of the shoulder girdle in the adult morphology of extant turtles, and it is further supported by patterns of connectivity and transformations documented by critical fossils from the turtle stem group. The cleithral derivation of the nuchal implies an anatomical reorganization of the pectoral girdle in which the dermal portion of the girdle was transformed from a continuous lateral-ventral arc into separate dorsal and ventral components. This transformation involved the reduction and eventual loss of the scapular rami of the clavicles along with the dorsal and superficial migration of the cleithra, which then fused with one another and became incorporated into the carapace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Horse hooves and bird feathers: Two model systems for studying the structure and development of highly adapted integumentary accessory organs--the role of the dermo-epidermal interface for the micro-architecture of complex epidermal structures.

    PubMed

    Bragulla, Hermann; Hirschberg, Ruth M

    2003-08-15

    Accessory organs of the integument are locally modified parts of the potentially feather-bearing skin in birds (e.g., the rhamphotheca, claws, or scales), and of the potentially hairy skin in mammals (e.g., the rhinarium, nails, claws, or hooves). These special parts of the integument are characterised by a modified structure of their epidermal, dermal and subcutaneous layers. The developmental processes of these various integumentary structures in birds and mammals show both similarities and differences. For example, the development of the specialised epidermal structures of both feathers and the hoof capsule is influenced by the local three-dimensional configuration of the dermis. However, in feathers, in contrast to hooves, the arrangement of the corneous cells is only partially a direct result of the particular arrangement and shape of the dermal surface of the papillary body. Whereas the diameter of the feather papilla, as well as the number, length, and width of dermal ridges on the surface of the feather papilla influence the three-dimensional architecture of the feather rami, there is no apparent direct correlation between the dermo-epidermal interface and the development of the highly ordered architecture of the radii and hamuli in the feather vane. In order to elucidate this morphogenic problem and the problem of locally different processes of keratinisation and cornification, the structure and development of feathers in birds are compared to those of the hoof capsule in horses. The equine hoof is the most complex mammalian integumentary structure, which is determined directly by the dermal surface of the papillary body. Perspectives for further research on the development of modified integumentary structures, such as the role of the dermal microangioarchitecture and the selective adhesion and various differentiation pathways of epidermal cells, are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    V, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

  10. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  11. A new marine cyclopoid copepod of the genus Neocyclops (Cyclopidae, Halicyclopinae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Chang, Cheon Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new cyclopoid species of the genus Neocyclops Gurney, 1927 is described. Type specimens were collected from a beach on south-western coast of the Korean Peninsula by rinsing intertidal coarse sandy sediments. Neocyclops hoonsooi sp. n. is most characteristic in showing the conspicuous chitinized transverse ridges originating from the medial margins of the coxae of all swimming legs. The new species is most similar to Neocyclops vicinus, described from the Brazilian coast, and Neocyclops petkovskii, from Australia. All three species share a large body size (more than 750 µm long), the presence of an exopodal seta on the antenna, two setae on the mandibular palp, the same seta/spine armature on the third endopodal segment of leg 3 (3 setae + 3 spines), and the fairly long inner distal spine on the third endopodal segment of the female leg 4. However, Neocyclops hoonsooi sp. n. differs from both species by the much shorter caudal rami (less than 1.7 times as long as wide) and the shorter dorsal caudal seta VII. Furthermore, Neocyclops hoonsooi is clearly distinguished from Neocyclops vicinus by the 10-segmented antennule (vs 12 segments in Neocyclops vicinus), and from Neocyclops petkovskii by the elongate inner distal spine on leg 5 exopod and the 3-segmented leg 5 in male (vs 4-segmented in Neocyclops petkovskii). A tabular comparison of characters separating Neocyclops hoonsooi from its closest allies and a key to Neocyclops species from the Indo-Pacific Ocean are provided. This is the first record of the genus Neocyclops from the northern Pacific. PMID:26448716

  12. Unusual Clinical Presentations of Cervical or Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Jae; Ko, Myeong Jin; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Chung, Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with cervical (CDRS) or lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome (LDRS) are characterized by neck or low back pain with referred pain to upper or lower extremities. However, we experienced some CDRS or LDRS patients with unusual motor or bladder symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed literatures on the unusual symptoms identified in patients with CDRS or LDRS. Methods This study included patients with unusual symptoms and no disorders of spine and central nervous system, a total of 206 CDRS/LDRS patients over the past 3 years. We diagnosed by using double diagnostic blocks for medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical or lumbar spine with 1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine for each block with an interval of more than 1 week between the blocks. Greater than 80% reduction of the symptoms, including unusual symptoms, was considered as a positive response. The patients with a positive response were treated with radiofrequencyneurotomy. Results The number of patients diagnosed with CDRS and LDRS was 86 and 120, respectively. Nine patients (10.5%) in the CDRS group had unusual symptoms, including 4 patients with motor weakness of the arm, 3 patients with tremors, and rotatory torticollis in 2 patients. Ten patients (8.3%) in the LDRS group showed unusual symptoms, including 7 patients with motor weakness of leg, 2 patients with leg tremor, and urinary incontinence in 1 patient. All the unusual symptoms combined with CDRS or LDRS were resolved after treatment. Conclusion It seems that the clinical presentationssuch as motor weakness, tremor, urinary incontinence without any other etiologic origin need to be checked for unusual symptoms of CDRS or LDRS. PMID:25110484

  13. A new Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) from the late Miocene of Venezuela, the phylogeny of Caimaninae and considerations on the feeding habits of Mourasuchus

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, Andrés; Rincón, Ascanio Daniel; Riff, Douglas; Hsiou, Annie Schmaltz

    2017-01-01

    Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) is one of the most peculiar crocodyliforms due to the skull morphology consisting of a long, wide, dorsoventrally flat rostrum with long, slender mandibular rami. Despite these peculiarities, the systematics, phylogeny and feeding habits of this taxon have not been properly studied. In this paper, we describe a new species of the genus, Mourasuchus pattersoni sp. nov., from the late Miocene of the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela. The new species differs from the other Mourasuchus species in having a lateromedially wide, dorsoventrally high jugal bone and a circular incisive foramen, which both represent autapomorphies of the new taxon. Phylogenetically, M. pattersoni sp. nov. is more closely related to M. amazonensis and the specimen UFAC-1424 (formely attributed to M. nativus) than to M. arendsi or M. atopus, whilst Mourasuchus is recovered once more as a monophyletic group. Furthermore, the cladistic analysis performed in this contribution offers a new phylogenetic assessment of Caimaninae, including many taxa described recently for the group. In this study, we also discuss the crocodylian diversity of the Urumaco Formation as well as how paleoenvironment may have contributed toward its evolution. In addition, we provide a discussion of the potential feeding habits of Mourasuchus. In this contribution, Mourasuchus is regarded as a taxon that likely preferred to prey on small animals. The unusual skull morphology of this group may have evolved to cover a large area with the rostrum, allowing for a more efficient prey capture, while the prey may have consisted predominantly of large amounts of small animals. PMID:28286712

  14. Intrapulmonary arteries respond to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kluess, H A; Stafford, J; Evanson, K W; Stone, A J; Worley, J; Wideman, R F

    2012-06-01

    This study examined factors contributing to increased vascular resistance and plexiform lesion formation in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). A diet supplemented with excess tryptophan (high-Trp diet), the precursor for serotonin, was used to accelerate the development of IPAH. Broilers fed the high-Trp diet had higher pulmonary arterial pressures than broilers fed the control diet, and plexiform lesion incidences tended to be higher (P = 0.11) in the high-Trp group than in the control group at 30 d of age. The intrapulmonary arteries were assessed for vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and for activities of key metabolic enzymes for serotonin and ATP. The pulmonary artery (defined as the first major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) and the primary pulmonary arterial rami (defined as the second major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) both exhibited vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and ATP. This is the first study to demonstrate purinergic-mediated vasoconstriction in intrapulmonary arteries from broilers. Arteriole responsiveness did not differ between broilers fed the control diet or the high-Trp diet. Therefore, the high-Trp diet enhanced the development of IPAH but did not affect the artery's sensitivity to serotonin or ATP. Monoamine oxidase activity, responsible for the breakdown of serotonin, was severely impaired in pulmonary arteries from broilers in the high-Trp group. Accordingly, serotonin may persist longer and elicit an amplified response in broilers fed the high-Trp diet.

  15. The cell bodies of origin of sympathetic and sensory axons in some skin and muscle nerves of the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, E M; Jänig, W

    1983-02-20

    Cell bodies of sensory and sympathetic axons projecting to skin and skeletal muscle of the cat hindlimb have been labeled retrogradely with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in order to study location, size, and numbers of the somata of these neurons. HRP was applied to the freshly transected axons of nerves supplying hairy skin (superficial peroneal, SP; sural, Su), hairy and hairless skin of the paw (medial plantar, MP), or skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius-soleus, GS). Serial sections of lumbosacral dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia were studied after standard histochemical processing. Additionally, the numbers of myelinated fibers in the same nerves were determined. All sensory somata and 99.4% of sympathetic cell bodies were located ipsilaterally. Sensory somata were commonly restricted to two adjacent dorsal root ganglia (usually L6-7 for SP, MP; L7-S1 for Su, GS). Although sympathetic somata were more widely distributed rostrocaudally, their maximum frequency always occurred in the segmental ganglia immediately rostral to the sensory outflows, i.e., corresponding to rami communicantes grisei. Dimensions of sympathetic somata varied little between populations projecting to different tissues and were unimodally distributed. The size distributions of sensory somata were characterized by a peak between 10 and 20 microns radius, similar to sympathetic somata, and a varying smaller number of cells ranging up to 60 microns radius. Each nerve had a characteristic distribution profile of afferent somata. A population of very small cells was only present in GS, while the largest sensory somata in GS and MP were bigger than those in SP and Su. Numerical analysis of the data disclosed the characteristic composition of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in each nerve studied.

  16. Variability of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Predmostí near Prerov (Czech Republic): craniometric comparison with recent human standards.

    PubMed

    Velemínská, J; Brůzek, J; Velemínský, P; Bigoni, L; Sefcáková, A; Katina, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the largest skeletal series of the Upper Palaeolithic period from Predmostí was destroyed during the Second World War, but the study of this material continues up to the present. The discovery of Matiegka's original photographic documentation on glass plates [Velemínská et al., 2004. The use of recently re-discovered glass plate photo-documentation of those human fossil finds from Predmostí u Prerova destroyed during World War II. J. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist. Ser. 173, 129-132] gives an opportunity to perform a new and detailed craniometric analysis of five adult skulls in their lateral projection. The craniometric data were analysed using specialised Craniometrics software, and the analysis included morphological and dimensional comparisons with current Central European norms. The aim of the study was not only to monitor the skull shape as a whole, but predominantly, to evaluate the size and shape of various parts of the splanchnocranium. The Upper Palaeolithic skulls are significantly longer, and male skulls are also higher than the current norms. The crania of anatomically modern humans are characterised by two general structural features: mid-lower facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. The height of the face of the Palaeolithic skulls corresponds to that of the current Central European population. The face has a markedly longer mandibular body (3-4 SD), while female mandibular rami are shorter. The skulls are further characterised by a smaller gonial angle, the increased steepness of the mandibular ramus, and the greater angle of the chin. These changes in the size and shape associated with anterior rotation of the face produce a strong protrusion of both jaws, but the sagittal inter-maxillary relationships remain unchanged. The observed facial morphology is similar to the Czech Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Dolní Vestonice. This study confirms the main diachronic changes between skulls of Upper Palaeolithic and present-day human populations.

  17. Supplemental S1 fixation for type C pelvic ring injuries: biomechanical study of a long iliosacral versus a transsacral screw.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooria; Moed, Berton R; Bledsoe, J Gary

    2015-12-01

    A single iliosacral screw placed into the S1 vertebral body has been shown to be clinically unreliable for certain type C pelvic ring injuries. Insertion of a second supplemental iliosacral screw into the S1 or S2 vertebral body has been widely used. However, clinical fixation failures have been reported using this technique, and a supplemental long iliosacral or transsacral screw has been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical effect of a supplemental S1 long iliosacral screw versus a transsacral screw in an unstable type C vertically oriented sacral fracture model. A type C pelvic ring injury was created in ten osteopenic/osteoporotic cadaver pelves by performing vertical osteotomies through zone 2 of the sacrum and the ipsilateral pubic rami. The sacrum was reduced maintaining a 2-mm fracture gap to simulate a closed-reduction model. All specimens were fixed using one 7.0-mm iliosacral screw into the S1 body. A supplemental long iliosacral screw was placed into the S1 body in five specimens. A supplemental transsacral S1 screw was placed in the other five. Each pelvis underwent 100,000 cycles at 250 N, followed by loading to failure. Vertical displacements at 25,000, 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000 cycles and failure force were recorded. Vertical displacement increased significantly (p < 0.05) within each group with each increase in the number of cycles. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in displacement or load to failure. Although intuitively a transsacral screw may seem to be better than a long iliosacral screw in conveying additional stability to an unstable sacral fracture fixation construct, we were not able to identify any biomechanical advantage of one method over the other.

  18. High-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alters thermal but not mechanical allodynia following chronic constriction injury of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Somers, D L; Clemente, F R

    1998-11-01

    To determine if daily transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can alter the thermal and mechanical allodynia that develops after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve of rats. A completely randomized experimental design was used. Four groups of rats underwent CCI surgery to the right sciatic nerve and either were not treated with TENS or received TENS starting at different times after the CCI surgery. TENS was delivered daily for 1 hour to CCI rats through self-adhesive electrodes applied to skin innervated by the right dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves L1-6. Rats of different groups received daily TENS starting immediately, 20 to 30 hours, or 3 days after the CCI surgery. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of hind paws were assessed bilaterally in all rats twice before the CCI surgery (baseline) and then 2, 7, 12, and 14 days after surgery. Thermal and mechanical allodynia were expressed as difference scores between the pain thresholds of right and left hind paws. These values were normalized to differences that existed between the two paws at baseline. Daily TENS beginning immediately after CCI surgery prevented the development of thermal allodynia at all assessment times (p < .05). Daily TENS starting 1 day after surgery reduced thermal allodynia, but only on days 2 and 14 (p < .05). Daily TENS beginning 3 days after surgery had no effect on the development of thermal allodynia. Regardless of when it was started, daily TENS did not consistently alter mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. It appears that daily TENS can prevent thermal but not mechanical allodynia in this model. However, early intervention with the treatment is critical if it is to be effective at all.

  19. Correction of rabbit model with mandibular ramus shortening by distraction osteogenesis at condylar neck.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinggong; Yang, Xuewen; Long, Xing; Li, Jian; Cai, Hengxing

    2012-04-01

    The rabbit model has been established to mimic the effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroplasty of ankylosis, and distraction at the level of the condylar neck is used to elongate the ascending ramus. The histomorphologic changes of TMJ and distraction gap were investigated. The unilateral condyles and articular discs were extirpated, and the experimental mandibular rami were shortened by 5 mm. An embedded distracter was used to restore the height of the mandibular ramus by unilateral condylar neck distraction (0.8 mm daily for 7 days). A total of 12 adult white rabbits were used, 8 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group. Of the 8 rabbits in the experimental group, 4 each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The TMJ and distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic and histologic examination. An open bite was seen in all rabbits postoperatively that had diminished at the end of distraction. The newly formed condyles radiologically showed remodeling, flattening, and sclerosis. The bony transport disc had gradually remodeled to a new condyle that was similar to the original condyle in appearance and structure. The surface of the transport disc was covered with a fibrous tissue. Moreover, the bony regeneration was perfect in the distraction gap. These results suggest that distraction osteogenesis at the condylar neck using the traditional preauricular approach of TMJ surgery, without the additional incision, can be performed concurrently with arthroplasty of TMJ ankylosis at the same region. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Forgotten Lumbocostal Ligament: Anatomical Study with Application to Thoracolumbar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, Gabrielle G; Alonso, Fernando; Chung, Beom Sun; Fisahn, Christian; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most ligaments of the human body have been well studied. However, the lumbocostal ligament has received little attention in the extant medical literature and, to our knowledge, has not undergone anatomical study. Therefore, the present study was performed to better characterize this structure’s anatomy and relationships. Methods: In the prone position, 10 adult cadavers underwent dissection of their lumbocostal ligaments. All specimens were unembalmed and had no history of surgery to the spine. The lumbocostal ligament was dissected and measurements made using calipers and a ruler. This ligament’s attachments were determined as well as its relationships to surrounding fasciae, muscle, and nerves. Results: A lumbocostal ligament was identified on all sides. The ligament was posterior to the quadratus lumborum muscle on all sides. The mean length of the ligament was 3 cm. The overall shape of the ligaments ranged from short bands to large rhomboidal sheets. Inferiorly, the lumbocostal ligament blended with the middle layer of the thoracolumbar fascia on all sides. The ligament attached to the transverse processes of L1 on 25% of sides and onto the transverse processes of L1 and L2 on 75% of sides. The ligament became taut with rib elevation and was lax with rib depression. Conclusions: The lumbocostal ligament is a constant structure of the thoracolumbar junction. Appreciation of this ligament can help localize the transverse processes of L1 and L2 and adjacent nerves, such as the regional dorsal rami as they exit near its attachment onto the lumbar transverse processes.  PMID:28090418

  1. Concordance between molecular and morphology-based phylogenies of Korean Enhydrosoma (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Cletodidae) highlights important synapomorphies and homoplasies in this genus globally.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2015-07-28

    Three new species of Enhydrosoma Boeck, 1873 are described from Korea, all found in muddy sediments in the sublittoral zone. They also all have a bifurcate rostrum, just like the type species of this genus, E. curticauda Boeck, 1872, and one recently described Korean representative, E. coreana Kim, Trebukova, Lee & Karanovic, 2014. These five species share a number of other morphological features, and mostly differ in details of integumental relief, caudal rami shape, and ornamentation of the male antennula. We aim to compare molecular and morphology-based phylogenies obtained for four Korean species of Enhydrosoma and two other members of the family Cletodidae: Geehydrosoma intermedia (Chislenko, 1978) from Korea and Russia and Stylicletodes sp. from Korea. Similar studies in other animal groups have helped to reevaluate the suitability of morphological characters for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revisions, and the genus Enhydrosoma is considered to be polyphyletic and in urgent need of revision. We use partial sequences of the mtCOI gene for our molecular phylogeny and 32 non-additive characters for our morphology-based phylogeny. High congruence between all cladograms suggests that reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in this group of harpacticoids may be straight-forward, but highlights as homoplastic some morphological characters previously considered important for defining supraspecific taxa in this family. On the other hand, some characters previously overlooked in species descriptions show a significant phylogenetic signal. Even though there is no doubt about the monophyly of the Korean Enhydrosoma, their high average pairwise maximum likelihood distances suggest only a remote relationship, and explain their sympatry and/or parapatry. Weak bootstrap support for our basal nodes in molecular phylogenies shows limitations of a single-gene approach, and probably cannot be resolved without a wider taxon and character sampling

  2. The face of Glut1-DS patients: A 3D Craniofacial Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Valentina; Bertoli, Simona; Codari, Marina; De Amicis, Ramona; De Giorgis, Valentina; Battezzati, Alberto; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-07-01

    Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) is a neurological and metabolic disorder caused by impaired transport of glucose across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Mutations on the SCL2A1 gene encoding the glucose transporter protein in the BBB cause the syndrome, which encompasses epilepsy, movement disorders, and mental delay. Such variability of symptoms presents an obstacle to early diagnosis. The patients seem to share some craniofacial features, and identification and quantification of these could help in prompt diagnosis and clinical management. We performed a three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the faces of 11 female Glut1-DS patients using a stereophotogrammetric system. Data were analyzed using both inter-landmark distances and Principal Component Analysis. Compared with data collected from age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects, common and homogenous facial features were identified among patients, which were mainly located in the mandible and the eyes. Glut1-DS patients had a more anterior chin; their mandibular body was longer but the rami were shorter, with a reduced gonial angle; they had smaller and down-slanted eyes with a reduced intercanthal distance. This study highlights the importance of morphometric analysis for defining the facial anatomical characteristics of the syndrome better, potentially helping clinicians to diagnose Glut1-DS. Improved knowledge of the facial anatomy of these patients can provide insights into their facial and cerebral embryological development, perhaps further clarifying the molecular basis of the syndrome. Clin. Anat. 30:644-652, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The neuronal organization of horizontal semicircular canalactivated inhibitory vestibulocollic neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Sakuma, A; Hiranuma, K; Uchino, H; Sasaki, S; Imagawa, M; Uchino, Y

    1991-01-01

    1. The somatic location and axonal projections of inhibitory vestibular nucleus neurons activated by the horizontal semicircular canal nerve (HCN) were studied in anesthetized cats. Cats were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride and pentobarbital sodium. 2. Intracellular recordings were obtained from 11 neck extensor motoneurons which were identified by antidromic activation from the dosal rami (DR) in the C1 segment. Stimulation of the ipsilateral (i-) HCN and the ipsilateral abducens (AB) nucleus evoked IPSPs in the motoneurons. These IPSPs were fully or partially occluded when they were evoked simultaneously. 3. Intracellular recordings were obtained from 8 AB motoneurons. Stimulation of the i-HCN and the i-C1DR motoneuron pool evoked IPSPs in the AB motoneurons. These IPSPs were also partially occluded when they were evoked simultaneously, which implied that some HCN-activated neurons inhibit both i-AB motoneurons and ipsilateral neck motoneurons. 4. Unit activity was extracellularly recorded from 30 vestibular neurons that were activated monosynaptically by i-HCN stimulation. Their axonal projections were determined by stimulating the i-AB nucleus and the i-C1DR motoneuron pool. Eight neurons were activated by both stimuli, and were termed vestibulooculo-collic (VOC) neurons. Their axonal branching was examined by means of local stimulation in and around the i-AB nucleus and the i-C1DR motoneuron pool. Eighteen neurons were antidromically activated from the i-C1DR motoneuron pool but not from the i-AB nucleus. These were termed vestibulo-collic (VC) neurons. Four neurons were activated from the i-AB nucleus but not from the ventral funiculus in the C1 segment, and were termed vestibulo-ocular (VO) neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. On some new species of Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909 from the Gulf of California: the genera Ceratonotus Sars, 1909, and Dendropsyllus Conroy-Dalton, 2003 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Samuel; Díaz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of two genera of the family Ancorabolidae, Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. and Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n., found at 1642 m and 1759 m depth, respectively, in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, are described. Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. was attributed to that genus by a series of character states of which the lack of dendroid dorsal processes on the P6-bearing somite and the presence of such processes on the first abdominal somite were definitive. This species was observed to be very close to Ceratonotus thistlei Conroy-Dalton, 2003 from the San Diego Trough, and can be separated by a number of traits of which the elongated sensilla-bearing dorsal tubercles on the second abdominal somite in the new species was definitive. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. has been placed within that genus given the presence of four geniculate setae on P1EXP2 and one seta on P1ENP2, one inner seta on P3EXP3, and lack of inner armature on P4EXP3. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. appears to be more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi Conroy-Dalton, 2003 and Dendropsyllus magellanicus (George & Schminke, 1998) on account of the spinulose nature of the basis of the maxilliped, the two-segmented P4ENP, and the fused condition of the P5 baseoendopod and exopod, and seems to be even more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi by the degree of development of the lateroventral processes of the cephalothorax. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. can be separated from its congeners by the relative length of the first antennulary segment, relative length of the caudal rami, and by the armature formula of P3ENP2. PMID:28331408

  5. The Manchester-Fothergill and the Elevate Posterior technique for the correction of a cervical elongation and large enterocele in a patient with bladder exstrophy and multiple surgeries.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M Luisa Sánchez; Sánchez, Eduardo Bataller; Hernández, Laura Hernández; Linde, Francisco Machado; Peñalver, Ana Isabel Hernández; Díaz, Aníbal Nieto

    2015-08-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with congenital bladder exstrophy, urinary incontinence since birth, and pelvic organ prolapse since the menopause at the age of 46 years. The patient (gravida 2, para 2 by cesarean sections and tubal ligation) described an extensive past surgical history that included epispadias and neourethral procedures, anti-reflux surgery using the Lich-Grégoir technique, bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy achieving continence, uterine fixation after the Doléris operation, and neovaginal reconstruction. The physical examination revealed a fourth-degree enterocele with cervical elongation (POP-Q: Aa-2, Ba-2, C + 3, D + 4, gh:5, pb:2.5, Tvl:6, Ap + 3, Bp +6). Gynecological ultrasound and uro-CT were performed to ensure that the ureterosigmoidostomy had been successful, and CT-based 3D bone reconstructions were obtained to calculate the distance between the pubic rami and the ischial spines. Based on a literature review of the management options for these patients and the specific characteristics of our patient, a decision was made to perform trachelectomy (the Manchester technique with Fothergill stitches) and a polypropylene mesh placement with sacrospinous ligament anchor (Elevate Posterior® PC, AMS). Six months after the surgery, we observed good anatomical and functional results with significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life scale score. We believed that the vaginal approach was minimally invasive with a low risk of morbidity in our patient, who had a very altered anatomy, but produced a satisfactory functional result.

  6. Swelling and dissolution of cellulose in amine oxide/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chanzy, H.; Noe, P.; Paillet, M.; Smith, P.

    1983-01-01

    The swelling behavior and the dissolution process of various cellulosic fibers, both native and regenerated, in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (MMNO), dimethylethanolamine N-oxide (DMEAO), and mixtures thereof were studied in the presence of various amounts of water. The principal tools in this investigation were optical microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The two amine oxides could either dissolve or only swell cellulose, depending on the water concentration, which was found to be of critical importance. Three domains of water concentration were found important. When only a few percent water was present, cellulose fibers, such as ramie, cotton, rayon, etc., dissolved readily without noticeable swelling in the amine oxide/water system brought above its melting point. At a relatively high water concentration (e.g., 18% w/w for MMNO), the cellulose fibers exhibited an extensive swelling (up to sevenfold increase in the fiber diameter) but no dissolution. In that case, the removal of the swelling agent showed that the initial native cellulose fibers were converted into an unoriented cellulose II structure. With still greater water content (e.g., 20% and more for MMNO or 15% for DMEAO), only partial swelling was observed, and the native cellulose fibers recovered their initial oriented cellulose I structure after removal of the swelling medium. X-ray investigations provided no evidence forthe formation of cellulose/solvent complexes in the swollen fibers. A relatively large decrease of the cellulose I (110) reflection was found in the WAXS patterns of the gels. This is interpreted as due to a preferential cleavage of the cellulose crystals along the corresponding plane when the cellulose fibers are exposed to the swelling forces of the amine oxide/water systems. 29 references, 13 figures, 1 table.

  7. Gibberellin homeostasis and plant height control by EUI and a role for gibberellin in root gravity responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhu, Yongyou; Peng, Yu; Yan, Dawei; Li, Qun; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Linyou; He, Zuhua

    2008-03-01

    The rice Eui (ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE) gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that deactivates bioactive gibberellins (GAs). In this study, we investigated controlled expression of the Eui gene and its role in plant development. We found that Eui was differentially induced by exogenous GAs and that the Eui promoter had the highest activity in the vascular bundles. The eui mutant was defective in starch granule development in root caps and Eui overexpression enhanced starch granule generation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Experiments using embryoless half-seeds revealed that RAmy1A and GAmyb were highly upregulated in eui aleurone cells in the absence of exogenous GA. In addition, the GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox2 were downregulated and GA2ox1 was upregulated in eui seedlings. These results indicate that EUI is involved in GA homeostasis, not only in the internodes at the heading stage, but also in the seedling stage, roots and seeds. Disturbing GA homeostasis affected the expression of the GA signaling genes GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1), GID2 and SLR1. Transgenic RNA interference of the Eui gene effectively increased plant height and improved heading performance. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Eui under the promoters of the rice GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2 significantly reduced plant height. These results demonstrate that a slight increase in Eui expression could dramatically change rice morphology, indicating the practical application of the Eui gene in rice molecular breeding for a high yield potential.

  8. Early results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for symptomatic dysplasia in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Stover, Michael D; Podeszwa, David A; De La Rocha, Adriana; Sucato, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) is one of the most common inherited neurologic disorders and can be associated with hip dysplasia. Little is known regarding outcomes of the PAO for patients with CMTD. Our purpose is to document the early results and complications of the PAO for hip dysplasia associated with CMTD. A two centre, retrospective clinical and radiographic review was performed. Demographic and surgical data were recorded. Pre- and postoperative lateral centre edge angle (LCEA), acetabular index (AI), ventral centre edge angle (VCEA), and Tönnis osteoarthritis grade were compared. Hips were classified according to Severin. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Western Ontario and McMasters University (WOMAC) index documented self-reported function. Nineteen hips in 14 patients underwent PAO, mean age 16.2 (range 11.2-21 years). Thirteen concomitant procedures were performed, including seven proximal femoral osteotomies. Average follow-up was 3.4 years (range 0.9-8.5). Postoperative radiographic measurements significantly improved. Complications included femoral head AVN, transient complete bilateral peroneal nerve palsy, inferior rami fractures, and heterotopic ossification (Brooker stage 3). The HHS significantly improved from a mean 49.6 preoperatively to 82.2 at final follow-up of four patients. Seven subjects reported a mean postoperative WOMAC score of 94 (range 58.3-100). Most patients presented with severe dysplasia in the second decade of life. The PAO successfully corrected the radiographic abnormalities. Complications were common. The majority of patients reported improved outcomes, although seven showed signs of radiographic progression of osteoarthritis.

  9. Reciprocal regulation of farnesoid X receptor α activity and hepatitis B virus replication in differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Radreau, Pauline; Porcherot, Marine; Ramière, Christophe; Mouzannar, Karim; Lotteau, Vincent; André, Patrice

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and bile salt metabolism seem tightly connected. HBV enters hepatocytes by binding to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), the genome of which contains 2 active farnesoid X receptor (FXR) α response elements that participate in HBV transcriptional activity. We investigated in differentiated HepaRG cells and in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) effects of FXR activation on HBV replication and of infection on the FXR pathway. In HepaRG cells, FXR agonists (6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid and GW4064), but no antagonist, and an FXR-unrelated bile salt inhibited viral mRNA, DNA, and protein production (IC50, 0.1-0.5 μM) and reduced covalently closed circular DNA pool size. These effects were independent of the NTCP inhibitor cyclosporine-A, which suggests inhibition occurred at a postentry step. Similar results were obtained in PHHs with GW4064. Infection of these cells increased expression of FXR and modified expression of FXR-regulated genes SHP, APOA1, NTCP, CYP7A1, and CYP8B1 with a more pronounced effect in PHHs than in HepaRG cells. FXR agonists reversed all but one of the HBV-induced FXR gene profile modifications. HBV replication and FXR regulation seem to be interdependent, and altered bile salt metabolism homeostasis might contribute to the persistence of HBV infection.-Radreau, P., Porcherot, M., Ramière, C., Mouzannar, K., Lotteau, V., André, P. Reciprocal regulation of farnesoid X receptor α activity and hepatitis B virus replication in differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

  10. 3D Mandibular Superimposition: Comparison of Regions of Reference for Voxel-Based Registration

    PubMed Central

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Benavides, Erika; Nguyen, Tung; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to evaluate three regions of reference (Björk, Modified Björk and mandibular Body) for mandibular registration testing them in a patients’ CBCT sample. Methods Mandibular 3D volumetric label maps were built from CBCTs taken before (T1) and after treatment (T2) in a sample of 16 growing subjects and labeled with eight landmarks. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the different regions of reference were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. Seven mandibular dimensions were measured separately for each time-point (T1 and T2) in relation to a stable reference structure (lingual cortical of symphysis), and the T2-T1 differences were calculated. These differences were compared to differences measured between the superimposed T2 (generated from different regions of reference: Björk, Modified Björk and Mandibular Body) over T1 surface models. ICC and the Bland-Altman method tested the agreement of the changes obtained by nonsuperimposition measurements from the patients’ sample, and changes between the overlapped surfaces after registration using the different regions of reference. Results The Björk region of reference (or mask) did work properly only in 2 of 16 patients. Evaluating the two other masks (Modified Björk and Mandibular body) on patients’ scans registration, the concordance and agreement of the changes obtained from superimpositions (registered T2 over T1) compared to results obtained from non superimposed T1 and T2 separately, indicated that Mandibular Body mask displayed more consistent results. Conclusions The mandibular body mask (mandible without teeth, alveolar bone, rami and condyles) is a reliable reference for 3D regional registration. PMID:27336366

  11. Mandibular ramus shape of Australopithecus sediba suggests a single variable species.

    PubMed

    Ritzman, Terrence B; Terhune, Claire E; Gunz, Philipp; Robinson, Chris A

    2016-11-01

    The fossils from Malapa cave, South Africa, attributed to Australopithecus sediba, include two partial skeletons-MH1, a subadult, and MH2, an adult. Previous research noted differences in the mandibular rami of these individuals. This study tests three hypotheses that could explain these differences. The first two state that the differences are due to ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism, respectively. The third hypothesis, which is relevant to arguments suggesting that MH1 belongs in the genus Australopithecus and MH2 in Homo, is that the differences are due to the two individuals representing more than one taxon. To test these hypotheses, we digitized two-dimensional sliding semilandmarks in samples of Gorilla, Pan, Pongo, and Homo, as well as MH1 and MH2. We document large amounts of shape variation within all extant species, which is related neither to ontogeny nor sexual dimorphism. Extant species nevertheless form clusters in shape space, albeit with some overlap. The shape differences in extant taxa between individuals in the relevant age categories are minimal, indicating that it is unlikely that ontogeny explains the differences between MH1 and MH2. Similarly, the pattern of differences between MH1 and MH2 is inconsistent with those found between males and females in the extant sample, suggesting that it is unlikely that sexual dimorphism explains these differences. While the difference between MH1 and MH2 is large relative to within-species comparisons, it does not generally fall outside of the confidence intervals for extant intraspecific variation. However, the MH1-MH2 distance also does not plot outside and below the between-species confidence intervals. Based on these results, as well as the contextual and depositional evidence, we conclude that MH1 and MH2 represent a single species and that the relatively large degree of variation in this species is due to neither ontogeny nor sexual dimorphism.

  12. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea

    PubMed Central

    LaFountain, Amy M.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Frank, Harry A.; Prum, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) [1] concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005) [2]), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968) [1]. Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds. PMID:20709013

  13. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the

  14. Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts.

    PubMed

    Lebarbé, Matthieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Fujii, Takumi; Douard, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50(th) dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries. In the second configuration, four specimens out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. Two of them presented sacroiliac joint fractures associated with pubic area injuries. The other two presented injuries at the pubic area and acetabulum only. The strain gauges signals suggested that the pubic fractures occurred before the sacroiliac joint fractures in the great majority of the cases (five cases out of seven). Conclusions - Even in the oblique impact conditions of the present study, the pubic symphysis area was observed to be the weakest zone of the pelvis and its failure the predominant cause of sacroiliac joint injuries. It was hypothesized that the failure of the pubic rami allowed the hemi-pelvis to rotate inward, and that this closing-book motion induced the failure of the sacroiliac joint.

  15. Comparison of mortality and morbidity rates among Iranian pilgrims in Hajj 2004 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Meysamie, Alipasha; Ardakani, Hosein Z; Razavi, Seyed M; Doroodi, Taher

    2006-07-01

    We compared the incidence of common diseases and accidents among Iranian pilgrims during Hajj 2004 and 2005, and determined the factors affecting the prevalence of each disease. We conducted this comparative study on 30037 Iranian pilgrims during Hajj 2004 and 75676 pilgrims during Hajj 2005, in Mecca and Medina in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this study, 23 types of common illnesses, 8 types of accidents, some important demographic variables, and some probable related factors were investigated. Two-sample tests of proportions in STATA Statistical Software version 8 was used for the data analysis. The most common diseases during the 2 journeys were respiratory diseases and the incidence of these diseases in Hajj 2005 was twice more in the year 2004. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among pilgrims in Hajj 2005 was 142 per 10,000 and it was significantly lower than in Hajj 2004 (288 per 10,000). There was no significant difference among gastrointestinal, gynecological, psychological, and other important diseases, in the 2 journeys. Among the 8 types of accidents, the incidence of head and eye injuries during Ramy (one of the components of Hajj rites) in the year 2005, was significantly lower in 2004 (22 per 10,000 against 125 per 10,000). Furthermore, the mortality rate in the year 2005 with 24 deaths per 100000, was significantly lower than the deaths in 2004 (47 per 100000). The findings of this study may guide the Hajj managers to estimate the needs of drugs, equipment, manpower, and educational needs for the pilgrims, also to identify and eliminate casual factors of diseases and accidents.

  16. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  17. An investigation on thermo-physical behaviours of some fibres readily available in the north eastern region of India by various physical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Chitralekha

    The organic complexes taken for the present investigations are the locally available natural ( Plant and Silk ) fibres which are composed of macromolecular crystall-ographic structures. The readily available synthetic Polyester fibres are also used for their thermo-physical studies so as to findout the means about the possibility of blending of these fibres with natural fibres for their textile and other industrial utilities. Detailed studies on thermal behaviours of the plant ( Ramie, Jute and Cotton ) and synthetic Polyester fibres under different conditions have been under taken by various methods such as X-ray diffraction ( XRD ), Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM ), Infrared ( IR ) Spectroscopy, Differential Thermal Analysis ( DTA ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry ( DSC ), Thermo-gravimetry ( TG ), Derivative Thermo- gravimetry (DTG), Dielectric properties and DC Conductivity Analysis. In addition to the plant fibres, the locally available silk fibres ( Muga, Eri and Pat ) are also used to study the various thermo dynamical properties. Some portions of each fibrous raw products, collected from different localities of North Eastern Region of India, have been degummed. The thermal treatments ( Such as annealing and quenching ) of some part of the fibres have been made upto the temperature quite below to their decomposition points. The crystallinity and structural behaviours of raw, degummed and thermally treated fibrous samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. The detection of functional groups and their behaviours under different thermal conditions have been made by infrared spectroscopy. The surface features have been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopic photographs. The detailed investigations on thermodynamical properties of silk, plant and synthetic fibres have been carriedout by DTA, DSC, TG and DTG techniques. The experiments have been carriedout in the temperature range from 298K to 673K. The two steps activities dehydration and

  18. Technial Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Chairpersons Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE), Ministry of Defence, Malaysia Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Members Professor Dr Li Jing, Beijing Normal University, China Professor Dr Iyyanki Muralikrishna, Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), India Professor Dr Alias Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Ismat Mohamed El Hassan, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Professor Dr George Miliaresis, Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus Professor Dr Christine Pohl, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Mahender Kotha, Goa University, India Associate Professor Dr Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy Associate Professor Dr Behara Seshadri Daya Sagar, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), India Associate Professor Sr Ranjit Singh, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Abdul Nasir Matori, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Malaysia Associate Dr Lucian Dragut, West University of Timişoara, Romania Associate Professor Dr Saied Pirasteh, Islamic Azad University, Iran Associate Professor Dr Peter Yuen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom Associate Professor Dr Lim Hwee San, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Wayan Suparta, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Tuong Thuy Vu, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Maged Mahmoud Marghany, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Rami Al-Ruzouq, University of Sharjah, UAE Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia

  19. Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), part II: the Australian and southwest Pacific fauna

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.; Austin, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian and southwest Pacific species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 80 species are recognized as valid, 13 of which are redescribed: O. atricoxa (Dodd), O. concoloripes (Dodd), O. flavipes (Kieffer), O. grandis (Dodd), O. hyalinipennis (Dodd), O. magniclava (Dodd), O. mirellus (Dodd), O. montanus (Dodd), O. nigriclava (Dodd), O. nigricoxa (Dodd), O. rugulosus (Dodd), O. shakespearei (Girault), and O. solitarius (Dodd). Oxyscelio glabriscutellum (Dodd) syn. n. is placed as a subjective junior synonym of O. rugulosus. Sixty-seven new species are described, many representing new distributional records for the genus - O. aciculae Burks, sp. n., O. anfractus Burks, sp. n., O. bellariorum Burks, sp. n., O. bicoloripedis Burks, sp. n., O. brevitas Burks, sp. n., O. catenae Burks, sp. n., O. caudarum Burks, sp. n., O. circulorum Burks, sp. n., O. clivi Burks, sp. n., O. clupei Burks, sp. n., O. conjuncti Burks, sp. n., O. contusionis Burks, sp. n., O. corrugationis Burks, sp. n., O. croci Burks, sp. n., O. cuspidis Burks, sp. n., O. densitatis Burks, sp. n., O. dissimulationis Burks, sp. n., O. divisionis Burks, sp. n., O. exiguitatis Burks, sp. n., O. fluctuum Burks, sp. n., O. foliorum Burks, sp. n., O. funis Burks, sp. n., O. gressus Burks, sp. n., O. hamorum Burks, sp. n., O. incisurae Burks, sp. n., O. lenitatis Burks, sp. n., O. leviventris Burks, sp. n., O. limbi Burks, sp. n., O. liminis Burks, sp. n., O. linguae Burks, sp. n., O. lintris Burks, sp. n., O. livens Burks, sp. n., O. mystacis Burks, sp. n., O. nasi Burks, sp. n., O. nitoris Burks, sp. n., O. obliquiatis Burks, sp. n., O. oblongiclypei Burks, sp. n., O. obturationis Burks, sp. n., O. oculi Burks, sp. n., O. palati Burks, sp. n., O. pectinis Burks, sp. n., O. pollicis Burks, sp. n., O. proceritatis Burks, sp. n., O. productionis Burks, sp. n., O. radii Burks, sp. n., O. rami Burks, sp. n., O. rupturae Burks, sp. n., O. sarcinae Burks, sp. n., O

  20. Anatomical relationship between BL23 and the posterior ramus of the L2 spinal nerve.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Kanae; Saito, Toshiyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Yakura, Tomiko; Steinke, Hanno; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The acupuncture point BL23 is located in the region of the posterior ramus of the second lumbar spinal nerve (L2) and has historically been used to treat conditions such as lower back pain, pollakiuria, erectile dysfunction, dysmenorrhoea, tinnitus, and vertigo. Some of these treatment effects have been hypothesised to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. It was recently discovered that the posterior ramus of the spinal nerve (PRSN) at L2 forms not two but three branches. To examine the relationship between the acupuncture point BL23 and the L2 PRSN in order to consider the pathways possibly affected by BL23 acupuncture. Acupuncture needles were inserted through the skin at BL23 to a depth of 3 cm a total of 13 times in eight donor cadavers (seven right-sided, six left-sided). Leaving the needle in place, ventral dissection was performed to determine the PRSN anatomy between the L1 and L3 spinal segments. In four cadavers, the relationship between the L2 spinal nerve and sympathetic branches was additionally evaluated. Following dissection, three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired using a photo scanner and 3D structural images were created using 3D computer graphics software. One additional (female) cadaver was studied without insertion of an acupuncture needle (due to significant scoliosis). The L2 PRSN was divided into medial, intermediate and lateral branches. The needle inserted at BL23 came to lie in the region of the intermediate or lateral branches in all cases. Rami communicantes were found between the L2 spinal nerve and sympathetic trunk with fibres going on to supply the superior hypogastric plexus. Our findings suggest that acupuncture needles inserted at BL23 come into close proximity with the intermediate or lateral branch of the L2 PRSN, which could result in stimulation of both the somatic and sympathetic nervous systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  1. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  2. Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) cranium through ontogeny: development of a hard prey specialist.

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Ketcham, Richard A; Rowe, Timothy

    2004-04-01

    The horn sharks (Heterodontidae: Chondrichthyes) represent one of four independent evolutions of durophagy in the cartilaginous fishes. We used high-resolution computed tomography (CT scanning) to visualize and quantify the mineralized tissue of an ontogenetic series of horn sharks. CT scanning of neonatal through adult California horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci) confirmed that this technique is effective for examining mineralized tissue in even small (<10 mm) specimens. The jaw joint is among the first areas to become mineralized and is the most heavily mineralized area in the cranium of a neonatal horn shark. The hyoid is also well mineralized, although the poorly mineralized molariform teeth indicate that the neonatal animal may be a suction feeder on softer prey. The symphysis of the jaws never mineralizes, in sharp contrast to the condition in the hard prey-crushing stingrays. Digitally reslicing the CT scans along the jaws allowed measurement of the second moment of area (Ina). Assuming that the jaws are made of the same material at all ages, Ina is an indicator of the flexural stiffness of the jaws. In all sizes of shark the lower jaws were stiffer than the upper and the stiffness increased in the area of the molariform teeth. The central region of the jaws, where the rami meet, support cuspidate grasping teeth and has the lowest Ina. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), a hard prey-crushing stingray, shows a different pattern of flexural stiffness, with the peak at the central part of the jaws where the prey is reduced between flattened tooth plates. Although the eagle ray jaws have a higher Ina than the horn shark, they are also far more heavily mineralized. When the relative amounts of mineralization are taken into account, horn sharks do better with what mineral they have than does the eagle ray. With a tight jaw joint and loose mandibular symphysis, as well as nearly opposite patterns of stiffness in the jaws, it is clear that two of the

  3. Restoration of prehension with the double free muscle technique following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. Indications and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Muramatsu, K; Hattori, Y; Otsuka, K; Tan, S H; Nanda, V; Watanabe, M

    2000-05-01

    Recent interest in reconstruction of the upper limb following brachial plexus injuries has focused on the restoration of prehension following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. Double free muscle transfer was performed in patients who had complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. After initial exploration of the brachial plexus and (if possible) repair of the fifth cervical nerve root, the first free muscle, used to restore elbow flexion and finger extension, is transferred and reinnervated by the spinal accessory nerve. The second free muscle, transferred to restore finger flexion, is reinnervated by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves. The motor branch of the triceps brachii is reinnervated by the third and fourth intercostal nerves to restore elbow extension. Hand sensibility is restored by suturing of the sensory rami of the intercostal nerves to the median nerve or the ulnar nerve component of the medial cord. Secondary reconstructive procedures, such as arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, shoulder arthrodesis, and tenolysis of the transferred muscle and the distal tendons, may be required to improve the functional outcome. The early results were evaluated in thirty-two patients who had had reconstruction with use of the double free muscle procedure. Twenty-six of these patients were followed for at least twenty-four months (mean duration, thirty-nine months) after the second free muscle transfer, and they were assessed with regard to the long-term outcome as well. Satisfactory (excellent or good) elbow flexion was restored in twenty-five (96 percent) of the twenty-six patients and satisfactory prehension (more than 30 degrees of total active motion of the fingers), in seventeen (65 percent). Fourteen patients (54 percent) could position the hand in space, negating simultaneous flexion of the elbow, while moving the fingers at least 30 degrees and could use the reconstructed hand for activities requiring the use of two hands, such

  4. Radiative Transfer Modeling Within the Vegetation Based on Virtual Flux Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, A.

    2009-04-01

    the first collision of the solar irradiance (E+1) as well as the diffuse fluxes created by E+1 scattering. Finally, to solve the radiative transfer equations, E+1 is divided into virtual sub-fluxes having simple expressions, allowing the division of the radiative transfer problem into a finite number of sub-problems easily solved based on SAIL++ formalism. The simulation tests show that the proposed model conserves the energy with good accuracy, better than AddingSD (Kallel et al., 2008). Compared to 3-D models considered on RAMI database, our model shows similar performances. Finally, compared to AddingSD, the running time is drastically reduced from about 15 minutes to 0.05 seconds.

  5. Simulating supercell thunderstorms in a convective boundary layer: Effects on storm and boundary layer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Christopher J.

    formation of so-called "feeder clouds" and anking line convection in these simulations. These findings suggest potentially important rami fications regarding both non-mesocyclone and mesocyclone tornadoes in supercell thunderstorms in an environment with active boundary layer convection.

  6. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  7. Combining node-centered parallel radiation transport and higher-order multi-material cell-centered hydrodynamics methods in three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics code TRHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-06-01

    Higher-order cell-centered multi-material hydrodynamics (HD) and parallel node-centered radiation transport (RT) schemes are combined self-consistently in three-temperature (3T) radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) code TRHD (Sijoy and Chaturvedi, 2015) developed for the simulation of intense thermal radiation or high-power laser driven RHD. For RT, a node-centered gray model implemented in a popular RHD code MULTI2D (Ramis et al., 2009) is used. This scheme, in principle, can handle RT in both optically thick and thin materials. The RT module has been parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) for parallel computation. Presently, for multi-material HD, we have used a simple and robust closure model in which common strain rates to all materials in a mixed cell is assumed. The closure model has been further generalized to allow different temperatures for the electrons and ions. In addition to this, electron and radiation temperatures are assumed to be in non-equilibrium. Therefore, the thermal relaxation between the electrons and ions and the coupling between the radiation and matter energies are required to be computed self-consistently. This has been achieved by using a node-centered symmetric-semi-implicit (SSI) integration scheme. The electron thermal conduction is calculated using a cell-centered, monotonic, non-linear finite volume scheme (NLFV) suitable for unstructured meshes. In this paper, we have described the details of the 2D, 3T, non-equilibrium, multi-material RHD code developed with a special attention to the coupling of various cell-centered and node-centered formulations along with a suite of validation test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. We also report the parallel performance of RT module. Finally, in order to demonstrate the full capability of the code implementation, we have presented the simulation of laser driven shock propagation in a layered thin foil. The simulation results are found to be in good

  8. Is curved three-dimensional ultrasound reconstruction needed to assess the warped pelvic floor plane?

    PubMed

    Youssef, A; Cavalera, M; Pacella, G; Salsi, G; Morganelli, G; Montaguti, E; Cataneo, I; Pilu, G; Rizzo, N

    2016-09-19

    Caudal distension of the female pelvic floor is common and results in perineal descent and a caudally curved levator hiatus (warping). Image reconstruction of the pelvic floor using currently available ultrasound techniques involves a linear approach (flat-plane reconstruction). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and potential usefulness of a new three-dimensional (3D) technique capable of reconstructing a curved plane of the levator hiatus. Primiparous women were recruited to undergo a 3D/four-dimensional transperineal ultrasound examination 3-6 months after delivery. Levator ani muscle warping was evaluated on Valsalva maneuver by measuring the distance between the plane extending from the pubic rami to the anorectal angle and the plane of minimal hiatal dimensions on the coronal plane. Warping distance was used to reconstruct a curved plane of the levator hiatus using the curved OmniView volume contrast imaging (VCI) technique (C-OV). Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the C-OV technique were assessed, as was intermethod agreement between the C-OV technique and the linear OmniView-VCI (L-OV) technique, for the measurement of levator hiatal area on Valsalva maneuver. Measurement of the levator hiatal area using C-OV was feasible in all 84 women recruited. The warping distance ranged from -3.5 to 9.7 mm, confirming that the 1-2-cm slice thickness traditionally used for linear reconstruction was adequate for proper assessment of levator hiatal area in our population. C-OV showed excellent intra- and interobserver reproducibility, as well as excellent agreement with the L-OV technique for measuring levator hiatal area. No systematic difference was demonstrated in any of the reproducibility studies performed. 3D reconstruction of the warped levator hiatal plane is feasible and highly reproducible. In our population, reconstruction of a curved plane to correct for levator hiatal warping did not offer any benefit over the traditionally

  9. A New Radiofrequency Ablation Procedure to Treat Sacroiliac Joint Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianguo; Chen, See Loong; Zimmerman, Nicole; Dalton, Jarrod E; LaSalle, Garret; Rosenquist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain may arise from disorders of the sacroiliac joint in up to 30% of patients. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the nerves innervating the sacroiliac joint has been shown to be a safe and efficacious strategy. We aimed to develop a new RFA technique to relieve low back pain secondary to sacroiliac joint disorders. Methodology development with validation through prospective observational non-randomized trial (PONRT). Academic multidisciplinary health care system, Ohio, USA. We devised a guide-block to facilitate accurate placement of multiple electrodes to simultaneously ablate the L5 dorsal ramus and lateral branches of the S1, S2, and S3 dorsal rami. This was achieved by bipolar radiofrequency ablation (b-RFA) to create a strip lesion from the lateral border of the base of the sacral superior articular process (L5-S1 facet joint) to the lateral border of the S3 sacral foramen. We applied this technique in 31 consecutive patients and compared the operating time, x-ray exposure time and dose, and clinical outcomes with patients (n = 62) who have been treated with the cooled radiofrequency technique. Patients' level of pain relief was reported as < 50%, 50 - 80%, and > 80% pain relief at one, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. The relationship between RFA technique and duration of pain relief was evaluated using interval-censored multivariable Cox regression. The new technique allowed reduction of operating time by more than 50%, x-ray exposure time and dose by more than 80%, and cost by more than $1,000 per case. The percent of patients who achieved > 50% pain reduction was significantly higher in the b-RFA group at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up, compared to the cooled radiofrequency group. No complications were observed in either group. Although the major confounding factors were taken into account in the analysis, use of historical controls does not balance observed and unobserved potential confounding variables between groups so that the reported

  10. Two new species of Parastenocarididae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yenumula Ranga; Totakura, Venkateswara Rao; Shaik, Shabuddin

    2016-01-14

    To date, 20 species of Parastenocarididae are known from the Indian subcontinent. This paper gives the description of two more new species from the coastal deltaic belt of the Rivers Krishna and Godavari in the Andhra Pradesh state of the southeastern Indian peninsula. They are: Parastenocaris enckelli n. sp. from a hyporheic habitat, and Dussartstenocaris bisetosa n. sp. from a farm bore. Parastenocaris enckelli belongs to the brevipes-group of the genus Parastenocaris Kessler, 1913 sensu Lang 1948 and Reid 1995, and is characterized by the following features: the male leg 4 basal complex consists of a large chitinized plate, with two digitiform hyaline structures at its proximal outer corner of the anterior surface, and one smooth, moderately strong, claw-like spine at the inner distal corner of basis; the endopod of the same leg is membranous, with bulbous proximal part having a diagonal row of three spinules, and its distal part is drawn out into smooth pointed structure; and the male leg 3 ancestral proximal segment is subproximally dilated, elongate, with ladle-shaped apophysis, which is slightly longer than the spiniform thumb. Parastenocaris enckelli is closely related to the Indian P. edakkal Totakura, Ranga Reddy & Shaik, 2014, and the Sri Lankan P. brincki Enckell, 1970. To accommodate Dussartstenocaris bisetosa in the monotypic Western Australian genus Dussartstenocaris Karanovic & Cooper, 2011, three of the original generic criteria are amended. D. bisetosa is chiefly characterized by the complex exopodal thumb on the male leg 3, the caudal ramus having only two lateral setae located slightly anterior to its midlength together with the distally inserted dorsal seta, and also the presence of a short spiniform process at the inner distal corner of leg 5 in both sexes. Dussartstenocaris bisetosa differs from D. idioxenos Karanovic & Cooper, 2011, by its shorter caudal rami, distinctly ornamented anal somite, two long modified spinules on the male leg 4

  11. Morphological identification and DNA barcoding of a new species of Parabrachiella (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) with aspects of their intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Montes, M M; Castro-Romero, R; Martorelli, S R

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed morphological description and a DNA barcoding of Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. collected from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Samborombon Bay (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This new species was compared with two Parabrachiella species parasitic on mugilids: Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino, 1956) and Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut et Ben Hassine, 1971). Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. differs from those species in the shape of posterior processes, the anal slit with two pairs of bipartite papillae, the size of cephalothorax, the trunk, the maxilla, the microhabitat on the host, and the lack of caudal rami. On the host, the new species was in the nostrils (a new site for a species of the genus Parabrachiella) and in the fins base. Some minor morphological differences were observed in relation to the locations on the host. The molecular analysis conducted based on mtDNA-COI between specimens of the new species on the fins and nostrils showed a genetic similarity of 99.8%. This percentage supports that the specimens found in nostrils and fins base could represent a single species. New studies on P. platensis n. sp., including infection of the same fish with the two forms, could bring some new information. Anyway according to the genetic information provided and the minimal morphological differences spotted we conclude that the two forms are a single specie. The differences observed are possibly influenced by the place of the host where the two forms of copepods were found, nostrils and fins. The new species was also molecularly compared to other five species of Parabrachiella including P. exilis (parasitizing mugilid from Chile), Parabrachiella anisotremis, Parabrachiella auriculata, Parabrachiella merluccii, and P. hugu (the last two sequences were taken from the GenBank). The genetic distance of 9% among P. platensis n. sp. and P. exilis, which is the close morphological related species, allow to states that these two copepods on mugilids belong

  12. Less invasive lumbopelvic fixation technique using a percutaneous pedicle screw system for unstable pelvic ring fracture in a patient with severe multiple traumas.

    PubMed

    Yano, Sei; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Nakajima, Takayuki; Takazawa, Makoto; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi; Nakajima, Arata; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Takane; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-02-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are defined as life-threatening injuries that can be treated surgically with external or internal fixation. The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with an unstable pelvic fracture accompanying multiple traumas that was successfully treated with a less invasive procedure. The patient was injured in a traffic accident and sustained a total of 20 fractures, including pelvic ring, bilateral rib, and lumbar transverse processes fractures, and multiple fractures of both upper and lower extremities. The pelvic ring fracture was unstable with fractures of the bilateral sacrum with right sacroiliac disruption, right superior and inferior pubic rami, left superior pubic ramus, and ischium. During emergency surgery, bilateral external fixation was applied to the iliac crest to stabilize the pelvic ring. Second and third surgeries were performed 11 and 18 days after the first emergency surgery, respectively, to treat the multiple fractures. At the third surgery, the pelvic ring fracture was stabilized surgically using a less invasive posterior fixation technique. In this technique, 2 iliac screws were inserted on each side following an 8-cm midline posterior incision from the S-1 to S-3 spinous process, with the subcutaneous tissue detached from the fascia of the paraspinal muscles. The S-2 spinous process was removed and 2 rods were connected to bilateral iliac screws to stabilize the bilateral ilium in a switchback fashion. A crosslink device was applied to connect the 2 rods at the base of the S-2 spinous process. Following pelvic fixation, percutaneous pedicle screws were inserted into L-4 and L-5 vertebral bodies on both sides, and connected to the cranial rod connecting the bilateral iliac screws, thus completing the lumbopelvic fixation. The postoperative course was favorable with no postoperative complications. At the 10-month follow-up, bone union had been achieved at the superior ramus of the pubis, the patient did not complain of pain, and

  13. Sulcal variability, stereological measurement and asymmetry of Broca's area on MR images

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Simon Sean; Highley, John Robin; Garcia-Finana, Marta; Sluming, Vanessa; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Roberts, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Leftward volume asymmetry of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis may exist in the human brain, frequently referred to as Broca's area, given the functional asymmetries observed in this region with regard to language expression. However, post-mortem and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have failed to consistently identify such a volumetric asymmetry. In the present study, an analysis of the asymmetry of sulco-gyral anatomy and volume of this anterior speech region was performed in combination with an analysis of the morphology and volume asymmetry of the planum temporale, located within the posterior speech region, in 50 healthy subjects using MRI. Variations in sulcal anatomy were documented according to strict classification schemes and volume estimation of the grey matter within the brain structures was performed using the Cavalieri method of stereology. Results indicated great variation in the morphology of and connectivity between the inferior frontal, inferior precentral and diagonal sulci. There were significant inter-hemispheric differences in the presence of (1) the diagonal sulcus within the pars opercularis, and (2) horizontal termination of the posterior Sylvian fissure (relative to upward oblique termination), both with an increased leftward incidence. Double parallel inferior precentral sulci and absent anterior rami of the Sylvian fissure prevented stereological measurements in five subjects. Therefore volumes were obtained from 45 subjects. There was a significant leftward volume asymmetry of the pars opercularis (P = 0.02), which was significantly related to the asymmetrical presence of the diagonal sulcus (P < 0.01). Group-wise pars opercularis volume asymmetry did not exist when a diagonal sulcus was present in both or neither hemispheres. There was no significant volume asymmetry of the pars triangularis. There was a significant leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale (P < 0.001), which was significantly associated with

  14. Review: cornification, morphogenesis and evolution of feathers.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barbule cells which are made of corneous beta-proteins and of lower amounts of intermediate filament (IF)(alpha) keratins, histidine-rich proteins, and corneous proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex. The specific protein association gives rise to a corneous material with specific biomechanic properties in barbules, rami, rachis, or calamus. During the evolution of different feather types, a large expansion of the genome coding for corneous feather beta-proteins occurred and formed 3-4-nm-thick filaments through a different mechanism from that of 8-10 nm IF keratins. In the chick, over 130 genes mainly localized in chromosomes 27 and 25 encode feather corneous beta-proteins of 10-12 kDa containing 97-105 amino acids. About 35 genes localized in chromosome 25 code for scale proteins (14-16 kDa made of 122-146 amino acids), claws and beak proteins (14-17 kDa proteins of 134-164 amino acids). Feather morphogenesis is periodically re-activated to produce replacement feathers, and multiple feather types can result from the interactions of epidermal and dermal tissues. The review shows schematic models explaining the translation of the morphogenesis of barb ridges present in the follicle into the three-dimensional shape of the main types of branched or un-branched feathers such as plumulaceous, pennaceous, filoplumes, and bristles. The temporal pattern of formation of barb ridges in different feather types and the molecular control from the dermal papilla through

  15. An Overview of Project Planning for Hot-Isostatic Pressure Treatment of High-Level Waste Calcine for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12289

    SciTech Connect

    Nenni, Joseph A.; Thompson, Theron J.

    2012-07-01

    , maintainability, and inspectability analysis were incorporated into a time and motion model to validate and verify the capability to complete treatment of the calcine within the required schedule. The Calcine Disposition Project systems engineering approach, including use of industry-proven design-for-quality tools and quantitative assessment techniques, has strengthened the project's design capability to meet its intended mission in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Use of these tools has been particularly helpful to the project in early design planning to manage variation; improve requirements and high-consequence risk management; and more effectively apply alternative, interface, failure mode, RAMI, and time and motion analyses at the earliest possible stages of design when their application is most efficient and cost effective. The project is using these tools to design and develop HIP treatment of highly radioactive calcine to produce a volume-reduced, monolithic waste form with immobilization of hazardous and radioactive constituents. (authors)

  16. Minimally invasive surgery under fluoro-navigation for anterior pelvic ring fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai-Hua; Luo, Cong-Feng; Chen, Nong; Hu, Cheng-Fang; Pan, Fu-Gen

    2016-01-01

    , including 19 in the pubic ramis and 13 in the anterior acetabular columns. The average surgical time was 23.3 min/screw. The average time of X-ray exposure was 19.1 ± 2.5 s/screw. The virtual images of fluoro-navigation were compared with real-time X-rays during and after the surgery. Compared to the final position of the screw, the average deviated distance was 3.11 mm and the average trajectory difference was 2.81°. Blood loss during the operation was minimal (22.3 ml/screw). One screw (3.1%) deviated out of the fracture site during the operation. No superficial or deep infection occurred. No patient sustained recognized neurologic, vascular, or urologic injury as a result of the percutaneous screw fixation. All fractures united at the last followup. Fluoro-navigation technique could become a safe, accurate, and fairly quick method for the treatment of anterior pelvic ring fractures. Standardization of the operative procedure and training are mandatory for the success of this procedure.

  17. Multi-wavelength characterization of carbonaceous aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabò, Dario; Caponi, Lorenzo; Chiara Bove, Maria; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Prati, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    . (2006). Black Carbon or Brown Carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 3131-3148. Bond, T., Bergstrom, R. W. (2006). Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review. Aerosol Science and Technology, 40, 27-67. Petzold, A., Schölinner, M. (2004). Multi-angle absorption photometry—a new method for the measurement of aerosol light absorption and atmospheric black carbon. Journal of Aerosol Science, 35, 421-441. Sandradewi, J., Prevot, A.H., Zidat, S., Perron, N., Rami Alfarra, M., Lanz, V., Weingartner, E., Baltensperger, U. (2008). Using Aerosol Light Absorption Measurements for the Quantitative Determination of Wood Burning and Traffic emission Contributions to Particulate Matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 3316-3323.

  18. Cells of embryonic and regenerating germinal layers within barb ridges: implication for the development, evolution and diversification of feathers.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, L

    2006-04-01

    The formation of feathers occurs by the transformation of the embryonic epidermis of feather filaments into keratinized barbules and barbs. The present ultrastructural study directly documents this transformation in chick and zebrafinch downfeathers and juvenile feathers. The transformation of the epidermis in the feather filament (downfeathers) or in the follicle (juvenile feathers) is similar. The change in cell shape of subperiderm or subsheath cells and surrounding barb vane ridge cells derives from the re-organization of the linear embryonic epithelium into barb ridges. In the latter the stratification of the outer and inner periderm, of the subperiderm/subsheath, and of the germinal layer of the embryonic epidermis is altered. While the external layers produce the sheath and barb vane ridge cells, subperiderm/subsheath cells are displaced into barbule plates that converge medially in the ramus area of the barb ridge. Cells in the barbule plates elongate into barbule and barb cortical cells by the synthesis of longitudinally oriented feather keratin bundles. In the mid-central area of the barb ridge (the ramus area) cells become polygonal and pile up. The external cells accumulate numerous keratin filaments forming cortical cells and are in contact with barbule cells. The above process also occurs in barb ridges of juvenile feathers and of adult feathers before molting. However, barb ridges produced within follicles of juveniles and adult feathers are longer than in downfeathers, and possess long rami. The incorporation of tritiated histidine in barbule and barb cortical cells has been studied by ultrastructural autoradiography. Most of the labeling is cytoplasmic or is associated with bundles of keratin but is not concentrated over keratin. This indicates that together with keratin possible histidine-rich keratin-associated proteins are produced during the elongation from subperiderm/subsheath to barbule/barb cells. Barb cortical cells merge with medullary

  19. Minimally invasive surgery under fluoro-navigation for anterior pelvic ring fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-Hua; Luo, Cong-Feng; Chen, Nong; Hu, Cheng-Fang; Pan, Fu-Gen

    2016-01-01

    screws. Results: A total of 32 screws were inserted, including 19 in the pubic ramis and 13 in the anterior acetabular columns. The average surgical time was 23.3 min/screw. The average time of X-ray exposure was 19.1 ± 2.5 s/screw. The virtual images of fluoro-navigation were compared with real-time X-rays during and after the surgery. Compared to the final position of the screw, the average deviated distance was 3.11 mm and the average trajectory difference was 2.81°. Blood loss during the operation was minimal (22.3 ml/screw). One screw (3.1%) deviated out of the fracture site during the operation. No superficial or deep infection occurred. No patient sustained recognized neurologic, vascular, or urologic injury as a result of the percutaneous screw fixation. All fractures united at the last followup. Conclusions: Fluoro-navigation technique could become a safe, accurate, and fairly quick method for the treatment of anterior pelvic ring fractures. Standardization of the operative procedure and training are mandatory for the success of this procedure. PMID:27293284

  20. Masticatory muscle architecture in a water-rat from Australasia (Murinae, Hydromys) and its implication for the evolution of carnivory in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fabre, P-H; Herrel, A; Fitriana, Y; Meslin, L; Hautier, L

    2017-09-01

    force in Hydromys than in Melomys, implying a functional shift between omnivory and carnivory. However, Melomys has an unexpected greater bite force at large gape compared with Hydromys. Compared with omnivorous Melomys, Hydromys have a very distinctive low mandible with a well-developed coronoid process, and a reduced angular process that projects posteriorly to the ascending rami. This jaw shape, along with our mechanical potential and jaw lever ratio estimates, suggests that Hydromys has a faster jaw closing at the incisor, with a higher bite force at the level of the molars. The narrowing of the Hydromys jaw explains this higher lever advantage at the molars, which constitutes a good compromise between a wide gape, a reduced anterior masseteric mass, and long fiber lengths. Lever arms of the superficial and deep masseter are less favourable to force output of the mandible in Hydromys but more favourable to speed. Compared with the small input lever arm defined between the condyle and the angular process, the relatively longer mandible of Hydromys increases the speed at the expense of the output force. This unique combination of morphological features of the masticatory apparatus possibly has permitted Hydromys to become a highly successful amphibious predator in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  1. Surface Modification of Nanocellulose Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe, Justin Orazio

    Cellulose fibers constitute an important renewable raw material that is utilized in many commercial applications in non-food, paper, textiles and composite materials. Chemical functionalization is an important approach for improving the properties of cellulose based materials. Different approaches are used to graft polymeric chains onto cellulose substrates, which can be classified by two principal routes, namely 'grafting onto' or 'grafting from' methods. Never-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or nanowhiskers produced from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers were used as substrates for surface chemical functionalization with various macromolecules. In addition, the use of cellulose nanocrystals to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers was studied. Chemical grafting with low molecular weight polycaprolactone diol onto cellulose nanocrystals was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals were confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNCs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. The CNCs were also grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NiPAAm)) brushes via surface-initiated single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SI-SETLRP) under various conditions at room temperature. The grafting process depended on the initiator and/or monomer concentrations used. No observable damage occurred to the CNCs after grafting, as determined by X-ray diffraction. Size exclusion chromatography analyses of polymer chains cleaved from the cellulose nanocrystals indicated that a higher degree of polymerization was achieved by increasing initiator or monomer loading, most likely caused by local heterogeneities yielding higher rates of polymerization. In addition, the colloidal stability and thermo

  2. Cement Augmentation in Sacroiliac Screw Fixation Offers Modest Biomechanical Advantages in a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, Georg; Dodd, Andrew E; Unno, Florence; Wong, Angus; Amiri, Shahram; Lefaivre, Kelly A; Guy, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Sacroiliac screw fixation in elderly patients with pelvic fractures is prone to failure owing to impaired bone quality. Cement augmentation has been proposed as a possible solution, because in other anatomic areas this has been shown to reduce screw loosening. However, to our knowledge, this has not been evaluated for sacroiliac screws. We investigated the potential biomechanical benefit of cement augmentation of sacroiliac screw fixation in a cadaver model of osteoporotic bone, specifically with respect to screw loosening, construct survival, and fracture-site motion. Standardized complete sacral ala fractures with intact posterior ligaments in combination with ipsilateral upper and lower pubic rami fractures were created in osteoporotic cadaver pelves and stabilized by three fixation techniques: sacroiliac (n = 5) with sacroiliac screws in S1 and S2, cemented (n = 5) with addition of cement augmentation, and transsacral (n = 5) with a single transsacral screw in S1. A cyclic loading protocol was applied with torque (1.5 Nm) and increasing axial force (250-750 N). Screw loosening, construct survival, and sacral fracture-site motion were measured by optoelectric motion tracking. A sample-size calculation revealed five samples per group to be required to achieve a power of 0.80 to detect 50% reduction in screw loosening. Screw motion in relation to the sacrum during loading with 250 N/1.5 Nm was not different among the three groups (sacroiliac: 1.2 mm, range, 0.6-1.9; cemented: 0.7 mm, range, 0.5-1.3; transsacral: 1.1 mm, range, 0.6-2.3) (p = 0.940). Screw subsidence was less in the cemented group (3.0 mm, range, 1.2-3.7) compared with the sacroiliac (5.7 mm, range, 4.7-10.4) or transsacral group (5.6 mm, range, 3.8-10.5) (p = 0.031). There was no difference with the numbers available in the median number of cycles needed until failure; this was 2921 cycles (range, 2586-5450) in the cemented group, 2570 cycles (range, 2500-5107) for the sacroiliac specimens, and

  3. Novel Lignocellulosic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresin, Maria Soledad

    2011-12-01

    Obtained by acid hydrolysis of ramie fibers, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to reinforce nanofiber webs of different polymeric matrices via electrospinning. Poly vinyl acetate (PVA) with different degrees of hydrolysis was chosen due to its biodegradability and ease of processability. Homogeneous webs of smooth, defect-free and continuous fibers were prepared presenting diameters on the nanoscale, containing from 5 to 15% wt of CNC. The webs were characterized in terms of chemical, morphological, and thermo-mechanical properties. Strong interaction between PVA matrix with CNC, mainly via hydrogen bond network was evidenced; however, it was reduced in samples with higher content of acetyl groups. Most interestingly, the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite mats increased significantly as a consequence of the reinforcing effect of CNC, via the percolation network held by hydrogen bonds and the efficient stress transfer between the reinforcing CN and the fully hydrolyzed PVA electrospun fibers. Reduction in the degree of crystallinity of CN-loaded webs was observed as a result of transnucleation effect of the nanoparticles. Due to the hydrophilicity of the matrix, the effect of different relative humidities on the morphological and thermo-mechanical properties of the electrospun was also studied. The incorporation of CNC was shown to improve the morphological stability of the webs even at high humidity levels. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the electrospun fiber webs was drastically affected by the balance between the moisture-induced plasticization and the rigidity of the reinforcing CNC. Results indicated that water absorption might have a negative effect on the stabilizing effect of CNC in the PVA matrix due to a disruption of the hydrogen bond network within the structure. Humidity- induced reduction in tensile strength of neat PVA fiber webs was shown to be significantly prevented by the presence of CNC in the webs; and a fully reversible recovery in

  4. An estimation of Central Iberian Peninsula atmospheric δ13C and water δD in the Upper Cretaceous using pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA) of a fossil conifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; De la Rosa, José M.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    /alkene series in the range C24-C29 (δD = -124.44±5.2‰). This was taken as a proxy to infer the original H isotopic signal of water in the area in the Upper Cretaceous. Poole et al. (2004) proposed that δDpalaeowarter= δDC24-C29 n-alkanes + 100 giving a value for plaeowater δD = -24.44±5.2‰. This indicates that 75 Mya our plant probably uptake deuterium enriched rain water that again points to warm growing environmental conditions. (1) Gómez, B.; Martín-Closas C.; Brale G.; Solé de Porta N.; Thévenard F.; Guignard G. Paleontology 2002 45, 997-1036. (2) Nguyen Tu, T.T.; Kvaček, J.; Uličnỷ, D.; Bocherens, H.; Mariotti, A.; Broutin, J. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2002 183, 43-70. (3) Almendros, G.; Álvarez-Ramis, C.; Polo, A. Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 1982 76, 285-302. (4) Dabin, B. Chah. ORSTOM Ser. Pedol. 1976 4, 287-297. (5) Schnitzer, M.; Khan, S.U. Humic Substances in the Environment. Marcel Dekker Inc. 1972, New York, N.Y. (6) Dorado, E.; Polo. A. An. Edafol. Agrobiol. 1976 55, 723-732. (7) Bocherens, H.; Friis, E.M.; Mariotti, A.; Pedersen, K.R. Lethaia 1993 26, 347-358. (8) Nguyen Tu, T.T.; Bocherens, H.; Mariotti, A.; Baudin, F.; Pons, D.; Broutin, J.; Derenne, S.; Largeau C. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 1999 145, 79-93. (9) Aucour, A-.M.; Gomez, B.; Sheppard, S.M.F., Thévenard, F. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2008 257, 462-473. (10) Michener, N.; Lajtha K. (Eds). Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science (2nd Ed) 2007 Blackwell Publishing. (11) Poole, I., van Bergen, P.F.; Kool, K.; Schouten , S.; Cantrill, D. J. Org. Geochem. 2004 35, 1261-1274. (12) Gerber, S.; Joos, F.; Brügger, P.; Stocker, T.F.; Mann, M.E.; Sitch, S.; Scholze, M. Clim. Dyn. 2003 20, 281-299, 2003 (13) Pedentchouk, N.; Freeman, K.H.; Harris, N.B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2006 70, 2063-2072. (14) Radke, J.; Bechtel, A.; Gaupp, R.; Püttmann, W.; Schwark, L.; Sachse D.; Gleixner, G. Geochim

  5. 32nd International Austrian Winter Symposium : Zell am See, the Netherlands. 20-23 January 2016.

    PubMed

    Langsteger, W; Rezaee, A; Loidl, W; Geinitz, H S; Fitz, F; Steinmair, M; Broinger, G; Pallwien-Prettner, L; Beheshti, M; Imamovic, L; Beheshti, M; Rendl, G; Hackl, D; Tsybrovsky, O; Steinmair, M; Emmanuel, K; Moinfar, F; Pirich, C; Langsteger, W; Bytyqi, A; Karanikas, G; Mayerhöfer, M; Koperek, O; Niederle, B; Hartenbach, M; Beyer, T; Herrmann, K; Czernin, J; Rausch, I; Rust, P; DiFranco, M D; Lassen, M; Stadlbauer, A; Mayerhöfer, M E; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Beyer, T; Binzel, K; Magnussen, R; Wei, W; Knopp, M U; Flanigan, D C; Kaeding, C; Knopp, M V; Leisser, A; Nejabat, M; Hartenbach, M; Kramer, G; Krainer, M; Hacker, M; Haug, A; Lehnert, Wencke; Schmidt, Karl; Kimiaei, Sharok; Bronzel, Marcus; Kluge, Andreas; Wright, C L; Binzel, K; Zhang, J; Wuthrick, Evan; Maniawski, Piotr; Knopp, M V; Blaickner, M; Rados, E; Huber, A; Dulovits, M; Kulkarni, H; Wiessalla, S; Schuchardt, C; Baum, R P; Knäusl, B; Georg, D; Bauer, M; Wulkersdorfer, B; Wadsak, W; Philippe, C; Haslacher, H; Zeitlinger, M; Langer, O; Bauer, M; Feldmann, M; Karch, R; Wadsak, W; Zeitlinger, M; Koepp, M J; Asselin, M-C; Pataraia, E; Langer, O; Zeilinger, M; Philippe, C; Dumanic, M; Pichler, F; Pilz, J; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Mitterhauser, M; Nics, L; Steiner, B; Hacker, M; Mitterhauser, M; Wadsak, W; Traxl, A; Wanek, Thomas; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Berger, Walter; Kuntner, Claudia; Langer, Oliver; Mairinger, S; Wanek, T; Traxl, A; Krohn, M; Stanek, J; Filip, T; Sauberer, M; Kuntner, C; Pahnke, J; Langer, O; Svatunek, D; Denk, C; Wilkovitsch, M; Wanek, T; Filip, T; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Fröhlich, J; Mikula, H; Denk, C; Svatunek, D; Wanek, T; Mairinger, S; Stanek, J; Filip, T; Fröhlich, J; Mikula, H; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Balber, T; Singer, J; Fazekas, J; Rami-Mark, C; Berroterán-Infante, N; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Wadsak, W; Hacker, M; Viernstein, H; Mitterhauser, M; Denk, C; Svatunek, D; Sohr, B; Mikula, H; Fröhlich, J; Wanek, T; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Filip, T; Pfaff, S; Philippe, C; Mitterhauser, M; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Wanek, T; Halilbasic, E; Visentin, M; Mairinger, S; Stieger, B; Kuntner, C; Trauner, M; Langer, O; Lam, P; Aistleitner, M; Eichinger, R; Artner, C; Eidherr, H; Vraka, C; Haug, A; Mitterhauser, M; Nics, L; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Kvaternik, H; Müller, R; Hausberger, D; Zink, C; Aigner, R M; Cossío, U; Asensio, M; Montes, A; Akhtar, S; Te Welscher, Y; van Nostrum, R; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Llop, J; VandeVyver, F; Barclay, T; Lippens, N; Troch, M; Hehenwarter, L; Egger, B; Holzmannhofer, J; Rodrigues-Radischat, M; Pirich, C; Pötsch, N; Rausch, I; Wilhelm, D; Weber, M; Furtner, J; Karanikas, G; Wöhrer, A; Mitterhauser, M; Hacker, M; Traub-Weidinger, T; Cassou-Mounat, T; Balogova, S; Nataf, V; Calzada, M; Huchet, V; Kerrou, K; Devaux, J-Y; Mohty, M; Garderet, L; Talbot, J-N; Stanzel, S; Pregartner, G; Schwarz, T; Bjelic-Radisic, V; Liegl-Atzwanger, B; Aigner, R; Stanzel, S; Quehenberger, F; Aigner, R M; Marković, A Koljević; Janković, Milica; Jerković, V Miler; Paskaš, M; Pupić, G; Džodić, R; Popović, D; Fornito, M C; Familiari, D; Koranda, P; Polzerová, H; Metelková, I; Henzlová, L; Formánek, R; Buriánková, E; Kamínek, M; Thomson, W H; Lewis, C; Thomson, W H; O'Brien, J; James, G; Notghi, A; Huber, H; Stelzmüller, I; Wunn, R; Mandl, M; Fellner, F; Lamprecht, B; Gabriel, M; Fornito, M C; Leonardi, G; Thomson, W H; O'Brien, J; James, G; Hudzietzová, J; Sabol, J; Fülöp, M

    2016-04-01

    Wulkersdorfer, W Wadsak, C Philippe, H Haslacher, M Zeitlinger, O LangerA12 Outcome prediction of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery from P-glycoprotein activity. Pooled analysis of (R)-[11C]-verapamil PET data from two European centresM Bauer, M Feldmann, R Karch, W Wadsak, M Zeitlinger, MJ Koepp, M-C Asselin, E Pataraia, O LangerA13 In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of [18F]FE@SNAP and derivatives for the visualization of the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1M Zeilinger, C Philippe, M Dumanic, F Pichler, J Pilz, M Hacker, W Wadsak, M MitterhauserA14 Reducing time in quality control leads to higher specific radioactivity of short-lived radiotracersL Nics, B Steiner, M Hacker, M Mitterhauser, W WadsakA15 In vitro 11C-erlotinib binding experiments in cancer cell lines with epidermal growth factor receptor mutationsA Traxl, Thomas Wanek, Kushtrim Kryeziu, Severin Mairinger, Johann Stanek, Walter Berger, Claudia Kuntner, Oliver LangerA16 7-[11C]methyl-6-bromopurine, a PET tracer to measure brain Mrp1 function: radiosynthesis and first PET evaluation in miceS Mairinger, T Wanek, A Traxl, M Krohn, J Stanek, T Filip, M Sauberer, C Kuntner, J Pahnke, O LangerA17 18F labeled azidoglucose derivatives as "click" agents for pretargeted PET imagingD Svatunek, C Denk, M Wilkovitsch, T Wanek, T Filip, C Kuntner-Hannes, J Fröhlich, H MikulaA18 Bioorthogonal tools for PET imaging: development of radiolabeled 1,2,4,5-TetrazinesC Denk, D Svatunek, T Wanek, S Mairinger, J Stanek, T Filip, J Fröhlich, H Mikula, C Kuntner-HannesA19 Preclinical evaluation of [18F]FE@SUPPY- a new PET-tracer for oncologyT Balber, J Singer, J Fazekas, C Rami-Mark, N Berroterán-Infante, E Jensen-Jarolim, W Wadsak, M Hacker, H Viernstein, M MitterhauserA20 Investigation of Small [18F]-Fluoroalkylazides for Rapid Radiolabeling and In Vivo Click ChemistryC Denk, D Svatunek, B Sohr, H Mikula, J Fröhlich, T Wanek, C Kuntner-Hannes, T FilipA21 Microfluidic 68Ga-radiolabeling of PSMA-HBED-CC using a flow

  6. The Experience and Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners in Orthopaedic Settings: A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anita; Staruchowicz, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    identified a published systematic review protocol in the JBI Library for a qualitative systematic review by Ramis looking broadly at the experience of advanced practice nurses working in acute settings. The JBI Library of Systematic Reviews also contains a systematic review examining the effectiveness of nurse practitioners in residential aged care. Whilst these publications provide valuable context to this review neither specifically examines the clinical practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Similarly a search of the Cochrane Library revealed a review on the topic of substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care. The focus of this particular intervention review was neither specific to nurse practitioners nor the acute care setting, but the topic of 'doctor substitution' complements the practice of nurse practitioners and may be a consideration in this review. Doctor substitution or care provided by a nurse other than an orthopaedic nurse practitioner is a natural comparator when examining the role and practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Given the breadth of this topic a comprehensive approach has been chosen to systematically review the evidence as it relates to orthopaedic nurse practitioner role and practice.

  7. [Relevance of nerve blocks in treating and diagnosing low back pain--is the quality decisive?].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, J

    2001-12-01

    Diagnostic nerve blocks: The popularity of neural blockade as a diagnostic tool in painful conditions, especially in the spine, is due to features like the unspecific character of spinal pain, the irrelevance of radiological findings and the purely subjective character of pain. It is said that apart from specific causes of pain and clear radicular involvement with obvious neurological deficits and corresponding findings of a prolapsed disc in MRI or CT pictures, a diagnosis of the anatomical cause of the pain can only be established if invasive tests are used [5]. These include zygapophyseal joint blocks, sacroiliacal joint blocks, disc stimulation and nerve root blocks. Under controlled conditions, it has been shown that among patients with chronic nonradicular low back pain, some 10-15% have zygapophyseal joint pain [58], some 15-20% have sacroiliacal joint pain [36, 59] and 40% have pain from internal disc disruption [60]. The diagnostic use of neural blockade rests on three premises. First, pathology causing pain is located in an exact peripheral location, and impulses from this site travel via a unique and consistent neural root. Second, injection of local aneasthetic totally abolishes sensory function of intended nerves and does not affect other nerves. Third, relief of pain after local anaesthetic block is attributable solely to block of the target afferent neural pathway. The validity of these assumptions is limited by complexities of anatomy, physiology, and psychology of pain perception and the effect of local anaesthetics on impulse conduction [28]. Facet joints: The prevalence of zygapophyseal joint pain among patients with low back pain seems to be between 15% and 40% [62], but apparently only 7% of patients have pure facet pain [8, 29]. Facet blockade is achieved either by injection of local anaesthetic into the joint space or around the medial branches of the posterior medial rami of the spinal nerves that innervate the joint. There are several

  8. Developing an efficient scheduling template of a chemotherapy treatment unit: A case study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Z; Elmekkawy, Ty; Bates, S

    2011-01-01

    , number of patients visited each day, patient flow logic, was used to build the current system model. Later, different scenarios were designed which measured the changes in the current layout and performance. Wijewickrama et al.12 developed a simulation model to evaluate appointment schedule (AS) for second time consultations and patient appointment sequence (PSEQ) in a multi---facility system. Five different appointment rule (ARULE) were considered: i) Baily; ii) 3Baily; iii) Individual (Ind); iv) two patients at a time (2AtaTime); v) Variable Interval and (V---I) rule. PSEQ is based on type of patients: Appointment patients (APs) and new patients (NPs). The different PSEQ that were studied in this study were: i) first--- come first---serve; ii) appointment patient at the beginning of the clinic (APBEG); iii) new patient at the beginning of the clinic (NPBEG); iv) assigning appointed and new patients in an alternating manner (ALTER); v) assigning a new patient after every five---appointment patients. Also patient no show (0% and 5%) and patient punctuality (PUNCT) (on---time and 10 minutes early) were also considered. The study found that ALTER---Ind. and ALTER5---Ind. performed best on 0% NOSHOW, on---time PUNCT and 5% NOSHOW, on---time PUNCT situation to reduce WT and IT per patient. As NOSHOW created slack time for waiting patients, their WT tends to reduce while IT increases due to unexpected cancellation. Earliness increases congestion whichin turn increases waiting time. Ramis et al.13 conducted a study of a Medical Imaging Center (MIC) to build a simulation model which was used to improve the patient journey through an imaging centre by reducing the wait time and making better use of the resources. The simulation model also used a Graphic User Interface (GUI) to provide the parameters of the centre, such as arrival rates, distances, processing times, resources and schedule. The simulation was used to measure the waiting time of the patients in different case